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Патент USA US2402678

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Patented June 25, 1946
1' 20,402,678 _
‘ uNi'rao STATES PATENT oFFica .
'1 VACUUM DEHYDBATION 0F CORN
' ‘Robert M. Schai'iner, Chicago, 111., assignor /to
The Gnardite Corporatlonya corporation of Illi
note
I
No'Drawing. Application'june 21, 1944,‘
Serial No. 541,468
3 Claims. (Cl. 99-2054)
.
,
l
.
.
This invention relates to the vacuum dehydra
tion of corn.
2'
of mercury absolute.
\
Corn dehydratedby conventional methods has
a tendency to darken in'color on storage 'and the
dehydrated product is frequently tough in tex
ture and poor in ?avor. It has been found that
the vacuum dehydration herein described pro
duces a greatly improved dehydrated material
.
complished by reducing the pressure to 1/2 inch
The corn
superheated
Dosing it to
in the same
‘
I
is then dried in an atmosphere of
steam at low pressure, without ex
the air. This may be done either
chamber or in another chamber to
. which the corn is transferred .without breaking
. the
vacuum.
A satisfactory apparatus and
method for handling the blanching is illustrated
, tion and the ability to reconstitute itself to a 10 in Baer application 524,177, ?led February 28,
.1944, and Heineman application 520,773, ?led
weight'at least 80% of that of the original ma
which has good ?avor and texture on rehydra
terial.
’
e
'
_
‘
Before drying, the corn is_bl_anched. The cus
tomary manner of blanching is in steam or hot
water and, while these may be employed, the.
vacuum blanching method herein described re
duces the amount of handling, eliminates contact
of the blanched corn with air, reduces the
amount of corn milk losses, and improves the
'
product.
In processing the material, the corn is husked,
washed on the cob, cut by hand or by machine,
and the kernels then loaded on screen bottom ‘
trays at densities of‘about 1.0 to 1.5 lbs. per
square foot. The trays are then placed in a
vacuum chamber and a vacuum drawn to re
duce the pressure to approximately 1/2 inch of
mercury. Steam is then admitted to the cham
ber to increase the pressure and raise the tem
perature of the corn from approximately 170° F.
to 210° F.,‘ thepressure being from. 12 inches
absolute to 28 inches absolute.
The time re
' February 2, 1944.
The bulk of the drying energy is supplied
through intense radiant heat supplied from
steam coils surrounding the product and close
to it. In the figures herein given, the coils were
2‘/4-inch external diameter pipes arranged 14
‘inch apart in horizontal banks‘jabove and below
the trays with the nearest point of the coil 3
inches above and 3 inches below the bottom of
the trays. superheated steam is supplied to the
drying chamber. In the preferred form the mate
rial to be dried is advanced continuously "through
the chamber which is maintained at approxi
mately 2% inches absolute pressure. superheat
ed steam is introduced at the beginning and end
of the chamber and is withdrawn from the middle.
The temperature of the source of radiant energy
varies during the Dl'08T"Ss oi the drying, this
being accomplished by utilizing several banks of
coils, each of which may be maintained at a con
_. stant temperature which may be diilerent from
that in the other banks.
The corn ‘is dried to, a moisture content not
and 10 minutes is quite satisfactory at 180° F. "5 higher
than 8% in a time of from '10 to 180 min
to 200° F. Slightly longer times are desirable»
utes. In a typical cycle the radiant energy
below 180° F. but it is not necessary to reduce
source is ?rst heated to 298° F. and‘the corn ex
the time at the higher ranges. For example, a _ posed to that heat for 30 minutes, followed by a
time of 15 minutes at 200‘? I". gave a good prod
20-minute exposure to a source maintained at
uct.
.
"
‘9 2w 1"., followed by a 90-minute exposure to a
After blanching, the chamber is again evac
source'maintained at 228° F. Radiant energy
uated which 0001; the product. This evacuation
source temperatures, however, have been varied
from 350° 1". to 190° F., the higher temperature
is preferably carried on to reduce the tempera
always being at the beginning of the process.
ture to the neighborhood of 60° F., this being ac
quired for blanching varies'with the temperature
9,402,071;
The rollowin'3 table gives examples or corn:
"
‘
.
'
_
[Operatingvaouumpressun?iaohu]
TeltNo.
1
2
Variety ............... ..
Processed,hrs.aiter
-
‘
a
4
a
o
1
s‘
Tendergoid
'
v
0
10
Golden cross bantam
48:...... .- 2%---" l
4
harvesting.
'
5 ..... -- 1K"... 18
-
21%.
24K.
'
-
Originalt moisture, per .. ................. .. 76.2...- 70.2 ..... .. 79.9.... 77.0.-.. 76.6.-.. 70.0...
70.0...
70.0.
Finalmoisture,percent. 7.0_._...-- 7.2..." 70....- 5.4........ 7.2....- 6.1.-..- 0.5..... 7.4..
5.5..
70.
Color ................. -- Good,bet- Fain... Good .. Fair, dark- Good... Good... Good..- ExoeLdai-k-
lxyeeeilmost
oen .
Excel. dark
ow.
er
and0
Flavor ................ __
BO. taste... Good.
Texture .............. .-
Dehydration ratio.-
d
.
Rehydration ratio .... ..
Reoonstitution..~. .... ._
_
Pretreatment (other
th
3.20 ..... -.
867...--.
Good ...... ..
am---
8.00.
2.75-.
90.8.......-..
2.58.
88.0.
B01 gas 10
None
.
None .... .- None... None... None... 0 liters
usking and
'
cutting .
y! 000
‘
'
.
perature ....... ..°F.- 185-194..-. 181_.-.. 186-”. 181-191.... 219-210- mo-..“ 200-210. 200
In
Dryingcycle:
' P M
P M P M
P M
P-steam coil[11) 50 30 60 30 60 30 .. 60 30
M, poun s/sq. )30 .20‘ 5 140 8 150
6 140
10
15
P 'M
60 30
10 20
P
60
10
in.
P M
00 30
6 150
P
55
10
5
90
140,
‘ 170
180
6 100
‘I 160
150
The dehydration ratio reierred to in the table‘
is the result obtained by dividing the raw weight
of the corn by its dehydrated weight.
The rehydration ratio in the above table refers
’
r M
60 -80
8 160
6 130
180
170
180
im
approximately 170°-210° R, reducing the pres
atmosphere of superheated steam while subject
to intense radiant energy at low absolute pres- .
sure, the temperature of the radiant energy source
being not higher than 350° 1". at the beginning of
the process for a source approximately 3 inches
40 from the corn, and not being lower than approxi
mately 190° F. at the conclusion of the drying
tion ratio divided by the dehydration ratio which
is the same thing as dividing the‘ rehydrated
weight by the raw weight.
10.
P M
50 I0
6 160
sure, and then drying the blanched corn in an
drated com for 30 minutes in water without pre
‘The reconstitution percentage is the rehydra
10
steam for about 10 minutes at a temperature of
to the result obtained by dividing the rehydration
weight by the dehydrated weight. The rehy
drated weight is‘taken after boiling the dehy
~
200.
'
5 100
170
1.06.
:05
M
30
10
.
M—minutes.......-
vious soaking.
-
10 .... -- 10.
M
30
20
vac.
' 1.00...
Machine bianch tern-
Time ....... ..!ninuies.. 10.._....-. 10..." 10
min. 5"
aHS
Inading...lbs.lsq.it...- l.00....-.. l.00.,..- 1.06.... 1.04.....-. 1.04...- 1.09.-..'1.00...- 1.06..
'
o.
.16
.
process for a source‘ similarly distant, the drying
being carried on to produce a moisture content
_ not greaterthan 8% in the corn.
‘
' Batches 8, 9 and 10 were a more mature corn 45
2. The method as set ‘forth in claim 1, in which
the corn is dried for 30 minutes while receiving
customary dried corn of ‘commerce.
proximately 298° F. and approximately 3 inches’
_ than the other batches. It will be noted that in
all cases the corn was a fresh com and not the
radiant energy from a source maintained at ap
The ’ foregoing detailed description has been
away from the corn, then for 20 minutes from a
given for cleamess of understanding only, and no go source similarly distant and maintained at ap
unnecessary limitations should be understood
proximately 2'14? F., and then for 90 minutes from
therefrom.‘
'
_
.
a source similarly distant and maintained at ap
What I claim as new and desire to- secure by
proximately 228" F.
.
Letters Patent is:
I
'
1. The method of drying fresh corn which com
prises removing the corn from the cob. spreading
on trays,_ substantially removing air therefrom.
blanching the corn in an atmosphere oisaturated
_
3. The method as set iorth in claim 1, in which
the corn is loaded in the dryer at approximately
1.0 to 1.5 lbs. per square foot.
ROBERT- M. SCI-IAFFNER.
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