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Патент USA US2402905

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June 25, 17946.
Filed Sept. 14, 1943
by 33
Bf'uce?eHaz/en Mailer
Patented June 25,
Bruce De Haven Miller, Louisville, Ky., assignor
to The Girdler Corporation, Louisville, Ky., a
corporation of Delaware
Application September 14, 1943, Serial No. 502,273
11 Claims.
( Cl. 259——6)
This invention relates to the treatment of ?uid,
plastic, or other flowable material composed of
a plurality of spaced points along the length of
one of the chambers.
two or more ingredients which are’ not miscible,
or at least not readily miscible,- or in one of which
it is desired to secure a rapid, uniform and thor
ough dispersion of one or more other ingredients.
as in making an emulsion, or where chemical
Various other novel features will be apparent
from or will be pointed out in connection with’
the following description of certain embodiments’
of the invention.
In the accompanying drawing:
reaction between di?erent ingredients i desired,
Fig. 1 is a central longitudinal section through
an apparatus embodying my invention.
but at a controlled rate.
This invention is an improvement in mixing 10
apparatus of the type in which the material be
ing processed may be continuously passed through
a chamber and simultaneously mixed, agitated,
emulsi?ed, or otherwise treated. The agitating
mechanism is or‘ the rotary type and the process—
ing may be merely that resulting from the action
Fig. 2 is a transverse section on the line 2-—2
of Fig. .1, and
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of an end portion
of a type of agitator which may be employed in
place of that shown in Fig. 1.
In the construction shown in Figs. 1 and 2,
there is provided a. processing chamber‘having
of the agitator or may also include temperature
a cylindrical peripheral wall In and end walls
I! and M, the end wall it having an outlet is
an ingredient to another ingredient or to a mix
for the processed material and the end wall H
ture of ingredients at the desired point or points 20 having an inlet M for the material to be proc
in the path of flow through the processing
essed. The material while being agitated as
hereinafter described has a substantially uni
As an important feature of the invention there
form rate of continuous bodily ?ow longitudinally
are provided a plurality of chambers in com
through the processing zone, in addition to the
munication with each other and in which the 25 annular and turbulent ?ow caused by the agi
change, or maintenance, and/or the addition of
material is treated. In the preferred embodiment
of the invention the agitator is eccentrically po
sitioned in respect to the processing chambers,
as set forth and claimed in my copending appli
tator. Thus successive portions of the material
will all remain in the chamber and be processed
for substantially the same length of time.
The inlet may be connected to a supply pump
cation Serial No. 502,272, ?led on even date here
drawing the material from a premixing tank or
in controlled ratio from separate supply pipes for
So far as certain aspects of the invention are
concerned the agitator may be of other types,
and may be concentrically rather than eccen
the different ingredients, or in some. cases the
‘end wall may be provided with a plurality of
inlets for the di?erent ingredients and through
trically positioned.
85 which such ingredients are delivered at con
As an important feature of the invention the
trolled rates and in controlled relative propor
processing chambers are disposed one inside of
tions by pumps or other forcing means. The
the other, and communication between the
outlet I3, or a conduit connected thereto, may
chambers is such that there may be a continuous
be provided with throttling or ?ow controlling
flow of the material lengthwise of the chamber 4 means whereby any desired superatmospheric
during the turbulent and circumferential ?ow in
pressure may be maintained in the processing
the chambers.
As a further important feature the dividing
wall between the chambers may be formed as a
part of the agitator, so that one chamber is
formed inside of the agitator and around a cen
tral core.
As a further feature the cylindrical wall divid
If it is desired to change the temperature of
the material as a part of the processing, or to
maintain a given temperature if the processing
involves an exothermic or endothermic reaction,
there may be provided a jacket l5 for a heat
transfer medium. The annular space between
ing the chambers may have apertures therein,
the jacket and the wall 10 may be provided with
so that material may ?ow back and forth from 50 an inlet l6 at one end and an outlet H at the
one chamber to the other during its general
opposite end. The space between the walls H3
lengthwise movement in the same direction in
and I5 and between the inlet and the outlet may
both chambers.
be provided with a helical bame which will pre
As a further feature, provision is made for
vent short circuiting of the heat transfer medium
the addition of an ingredient of the mixture at
from the inlet to the outlet and cause it to ?ow
in a helical path around the processing chamber.
.Within the main processing chamber there is
mounted an agitator having a hollow shaft 20
and an end wall 2| provided with an extension
or stub shaft 22 which may be, connected to any
shell or wall 2ll.v By this combined swirling, surg
ing and beating action, the material is thoroughly .
and uniformly mixed and emulsi?ed or otherwise
processed, and the endwise ?ow of material
through the apparatus, that is, from the inlet ll
the agitator at the desired speed. At the opposite
end the peripheral wall of the hollow shaft is
provided with a bearing section or collar 24 jour
to the outlet l3, may be at a comparatively high
speed in respect to the size of the apparatus. Be
cause of this e?'ective intermixing, an apparatus
of very much smaller size may be employed for
naled on a stationary cylindrical block or end
wall 25 which is mounted on the end wall l2 and
processing a given volume of material per hour. _
- It will be noted that when the wall 20 is rotat
suitable means, such as a pulley 23, for rotating I
preferably has a projection 26 extending-through
said end wall and rigidly clamped thereto.
ing in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 2,
the material directly above the core will be ?ow
As an important feature of the invention the
ing circumferentially of the core, but will be
peripheral wall 20, together with the end walls 2| 15 thrown out through a port 21 into the outer
chamber where the agitator is moving the mate
and 25, subdivide the interior of the apparatus
into two,processing chambers, one outside of and
rial downwardly through the lower portion of the
the other inside of the wall 20. These two cham
outer chamber. The material in the lower por
bers communicate through a series of compara
tion of the outer chamber will be moved primarily
tively large ports or slots 21 extending along sub 20 circumferentially by the impact members, but
stantially the entire length of this wall 20.. Thus
eddy currents will carry aconsiderable portion of
the two chambers are in open communication
the material through ports 21 into the inner
with each other.
chamber. Thus, there is a continuous flow in and
The peripheral wall of the hollow shaft is pro
out through the ports, a high circumferential ve
vided with a plurality of beater or impact ele 25 locity at the lower portion of the outer cham
merits which may comprise pins or projections
ber, 21 high circumferential velocity in the upper
28 extending radially therefrom. Although these
part of the inner chamber, and a turbulent flow
pins are illustrated as cylindrical, the particular
at all points, which causes a thorough intermix
shape of them is not important, except that ordi
- ing of the ingredients.
narily they are of such a character that they do 80
In some cases two materials which are to be
7 not either substantially impede or aid the end
mixed, emulsi?ed, or otherwise processed, may be
wise flow in the chambers. The impact members
preliminarily mixed and delivered together
through the inlet ll, or they may be delivered
or beater‘elements which extend into the cham
ber outside of the wall 20 may be integralwith,
separately through two spaced or closely adjacent '
or separate from those which project into the 85 inlet ports in the end wall ll. _
chamber encircled by the wall 20. The agitator
If it is desired that there be a‘ preliminary agi-'
is eccentrlcally mounted in respect to the outer
tation of one of the materials before the addition
chamber wall [0, and the beater elements are of
of a second one.,or if it be desired that two in
such length that they extend nearly to but not
gredients be thoroughly mixed before a third in
intocontact with said wall on the side toward 40 gredient is added, such second or final ingredient
which the axis of the agitator is o?set, but vthey
may be delivered through one or more passagesj
32 in the core 29. These passages may have ports
come at a substantial distance from said wall at
the opposite ‘side of the outer chamber.
33 distributed along the length thereof, so that
Inside of the hollow shaft, that is, within the
the added ingredient or ingredients may be intro
inner chamber, there is provided a stationary core 45 , duced at separate points and progressively inter
29 which may be formed integral with the end
mixed with the other materials. The ports 33
wall 25, and may be supported atlthe other end
may be provided with removable plugs 34 so that
by a pin 30 set in a recess in the center of the
the added material may be delivered only adja
end wall 2|. This core has a smooth outer sur
cent to the inlet end of the chamber, or only ad
face and preferably has a diameter equal to about 50 jacent to the opposite end, and the plugs may
one-half the diameter of the outer wall 20 of the
have passages therethrough of varying sizes, or
inner chamber.
The body of the core is _eccen-.
of such size as will cause the jets of ?uid to be
trically disposed in respect to the inner cham
projected into the .mixture, if the material sup
ber, and therefore in respect to the agitator shaft
plied through the passages 32 be under pressure.
wall 20, but is preferably substantially concentric 55 As previously noted, the impact members may '
with the outer chamber wall Ill. The impact or‘
be of various kinds, shapes or dimensions. ‘In
beater elements “extend into the inner cham
Fig. 3 the impact members are shown as two
ber, to such a distance ‘that they come closely ad
diametrically opposed rows of pins 28 similar to
jacent to but'do not actually contact with one
those shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and a pair of plates
a side of the core 29, and are spaced to a substan 60 36 provided with apertures 31, through which
-tial distance from the opposite side, as will clearly
the material may back?ow in a way analogous
appear from the drawings, The impact members , to the back?ow between adjacent pins when the
are preferably arranged in rows longitudinally
agitator is rotated at high speed.
of the agitator, and are alternately spacedwith
Having thus described my invention, what I
the ports 21. By having the core 29 concentric
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
with the outer wall Ill, and by having the wall
Patent is:
20 of the agitator eccentric in respect to both the
1. A processing apparatus comprising an outer
core and said peripheral wall, it will benoted that
chamber, a hollow cylindrical agitator mounted.
the space in the inner chamber is widest on the
for rotation about a ?xed axis eccentrically dis
side of the core Where the space outside of the 70 posed within said outer chamber and providing
wall I0 is narrowest, and‘vice versa. Thus, as
an inner chamber, said agitator having open
' the agitator is rotated, the'material is caused not
ingstherethrough connecting said inner and out
only to swirl a1 ound the agitator shell and’ around
er chambers, a plurality of beater elements carthe core inside of said shell, but is also caused
ried by and rigid with the peripheral wall of
to flow back and forth through the ports in the 76 said‘ agitator, and extending into both said'cham
bars, a stationary core eccentrically disposed
within said inner chamber and extending
throughout substantially the length thereof, and
means disposed at opposite ends of said outer
chamber adapted as entry and exit means for
processable materials.
2. A processing apparatus as de?ned in claim
1 and
which the core has a liquid supply
passage extending lengthwise thereof, and hav
ing ports communicating with the inner cham- '
3. A processing apparatus including a cham
ber having a substantially cylindrical wall, an
agitator having a cylindrical wall eccentrically
disposed in respect to said ?rst mentioned wall ‘to ' ~
iorn'l therewith an outer chamber, beater mem=
bers carried by said agitator wall, and a sta=
tionaiy core extending within said agitator and
spaced from said beater members to form with
or’ said chambers, and said agitating member
having outwardly and inwardly extending beater
elements in said chambers, and which alternately
approach and secede from said wall and said
surface during rotation of said agitator.
8. a nrocessing apparatus having a pair of
generally cylindrical substantially concentric
walls and a generally cylindrical portedrotat
able agitator eccentrically disposed between said
walls and encircling the inner wall to separate
the space between said walls into an outer and
an inner chamber communicating with each otb»
or through the ports of said agitator, said agi=
tater having outwardly and inwardly extending
beater elements in said chambers respectively,
and which alternately approach and recede irons
each oi’ said walls during rotation oi’ said agita
9. A processing apparatus having a cylindri~
said agitator wall an inner chamber, said clian - 2% cal outer wall, a core extending substantially the
bars being in communication with each other.
e. A processing apparatus including a cham
leer having a substantially cylindrical wall, an.
agitator having a cylindrical wall eccentrically
full length thereof and encircled thereby, an an~
nulai: rotatable agitator membes between said
wall and said core, encircling said core and ec
gated cylindrical wall, an annular ported agitat
and exteriorly o! the agitator well, said agita
centrically disposed in respect to both said wall
disposed in respect to said ?rst mentioned wall, 25 and said core, and forming with said wall and
said core inner and outer annular chambers,
beater members carried by said agitator wall,
said member having beater elements rigid there»
and a core extending within said agitator and
with and extending into both of said chambers,
spaced from said beater membess, said core hav=
said apparatus having an inlet and an outlet
ing a passage provided with ports along the
means at opposite ends thereof permitting the
length thereof and communicating with the space
continuous delivery of material to, through, and '
i in said agitator.
out of both of said chambers.
5. A processing apparatus including a cham
19. A psocessing apparatus having a cylindri
her having a substantially elongated cylindrical
cal outer wall, a core extending substantially
wall, and a rotatable agitator within said cham
bar and having its axis parallel to and eccen 35 the full length tbereoi’ and encircled thereby, an
annular rotatable agitator member between said,
trically disposed in respect to said wall, said
well and said core, encircling said core and eccen
agitator being hollow and having beater elements
trically disposed in respect to both said wall and
rigid therewith and extending outwardly and in
said core, and forming with said wall and said
wardly from the peripheral portion, and having
ports theretlarougli between said beater elements, 40 core inner and outer annular chambers, said
member having beater elements rigid therewith
said apparatus having an inlet at one end and
and extending into both of said chambers, and
an outlet at the opposite end for the continuous
means establishing communication between said
?ow of material into, lengthwise of, and out of
chambers, said apparatus having an inlet and
said apparatus]
6. A processing apparatus including a cham 45 an outlet means at opposite ends thereof per‘
omitting the continuous delivery of material to,
be: having a substantially elongated cylindrical
through, and out of both of said chambers.
peripheral wall, a ported rotatable agitator hav
11. ‘An apparatus for processing material flow
ing a substantially cylindrical peripheral wall
inc continuously therethrough, comprising an
within said chamber and eccentrically disposed
axially elongated processing chamber having a.
in respect to said ?rst mentioned wall, said agita so generally
cylindrical peripheral well, an axially
tor wall having outwardly and inwardly extend
elongated hollow agitator including a generally
ing beater elements rigid therewith, and a core
cylindrical wall rotatable in said chamber about
encircled by and eccentrically disposed in respect
a tilted axis extending substantially parallel with
to said agitator, said apparatus having an inlet
at one end and an outlet at the opposite end for as but eccentrically disposed in respect to said cham
her well, said agitator wall having a, plurality of
the continuous ?ow of material into,- lengthwise
ports therethrough a?ording communication be
01, and out of said apparatus.
tween the spaces located respectively interim-1y
7. A processing chamber having an‘outer elon
ing member mounted for rotation about a. ?xed oo tor also having a multiplicity of beater elements
rigid therewith and distributed lengthwise-of
axis eccentrically disposed within said outer wall
and circumterentially around the agitator wall
to form therewith an outer chamber, and a ate.‘
and projecting inwardly and outwardly respec- ’
tionary core extending throughout substantially '
tively into said spaces but free of contact with
the length of, within, and eccentricallyoisposed
in respect to said member, said- core presenting a. so said peripheral wall, and means providing an in
let and an outlet adjacent the opposite ends re
smooth peripheral surface forming with" said
spectively of said chamber for the ?ow of matemember an inner chamber, said apparatus hav
rial continuously into, lengthwise therethrough,
ing an inlet at one end and an outlet‘ at ‘the
and out of said chamber.
opposite end for the continuous ?ow of material
into, generally len8thwise of, and out of both 70
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