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Патент USA US2517614

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[email protected] 8, 1950
Filed March 29, 1947
s sheets-sheet 1
Aug. 8, 1950
3 sheets-sheet s
Filed March 29, 1947
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[email protected]„nWW
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Patented Aug. 8, 1950
Russell H. Varian, Palo Alto, Calif., assigner to
The Sperry Corporation, a corporation of Dela
Application March 29, 1947, Serial No. ’738,241
11 Claims. (Cl. ’i4-5.34)
This invention relates to a gyroscopically stabi
lized vplatform for use in ships, aeroplanes and
other movable craft. Such a platform, maintain
ing a substantially horizontal attitude in spite of
the motions of the craft which carries it, has
Figure 7 shows a second form of flexible sus
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, a frame I2 is sup
ported by anti-friction bearings 20, 2| for rota
tion round a horizontal axis in a gimbal ring I3.
It may be used as a
Said ring is similarly supported for rotation
datum from which the roll and pitch of the craft
round a horizontal axis 4I, in an outer base I4
may be measured; it may serve as an artificial
secured to the deck of the ship. This construc
horizon for measuring the zenith distance of
heavenly bodies in navigation, or as a reference
tion allows frame I2 to maintain a horizontal po~-
many useful applications.
sition in spite of roll and pitch of the ship.
base for setting the required superelevation of
In the upper part of frame I2 is mounted a
pieces of .ordnance in fire control, and for many
other purposes.
sensitive gyroscopic element I 0, preferably in the
form of a single rotor with its spin axis normally
vertical, said rotor being enclosed in the casing
24. Said casing is suspended for rotation round
A feature of the invention lies in the means
of measuring the angles of roll and pitch of the
craft, and controlling power-driven transmitters
horizontal axis 34 in gimbal I I which is suspend
ed for rotation round axis 35, 35 inside frame
I2. A second gyro I6 is mounted to spin
about a vertical axis in ball bearings 31,
to maintain their planes parallel to the primary
20 38 carried directly in frame I2. The rotors are
or master platform.
electrically maintained in high speed rotation in
A further feature of the invention resides in
the usual way, and the lower part of frame I2 is
the novel means of applying powerful servo con
of these angles so that secondary artificial hori~
zons may be operated in various parts of the ship
trol to stabilize the platform whereby advantage
preferably formed as an airtight enclosure for
is taken of the static and gyroscopic inertia of 25 gyro IB.
The sensitive gyro III and its casing 24 are
the apparatus to enhance the quickness of re
erected to hold the vertical by conventional
sponse of the servo system, Whereas such inertia
means; for instance the arrangement shown in
has hitherto been a hindrance to quick and ac
Braddon, Beach, DeLanty and Vacquier, Ser. No.
curate following.
608,140, Fig. 7 is suitable, As shown in Fig. 1 of
The invention also relates to the novel features
the present application this arrangement con
or principles of the instrumentalities described
sists of a pair of small damped pendulums 39, 40
herein, whether or not such are used for the
mounted on top of frame I2 so as to be free to
stated objects, or in the stated fields or combina
Thus while I have shown my invention as
employing a gravity reference, other geophysical
attribute properties of the »earth may be em
ployed from which my gyro -system is controlled,
such as the earth’s magnetic field-or the direction
.ofthe earth’s spin axis.
Other features and advantages of the said in
swing in vertical planes at right angles, said
planes being parallel to the gimbal axes 35, 35
35 and 34 respectively. These pendulums carry each
one set of plates of a variable capacity condenser,
the other sets of plates being fixed to frame I2.
On being energized from a suitable source of high
frequency alternating potential, said capacities
vention together with one .manner in which it 40 give a signal proportional to the angular tilt of
frame I2 with respect to the pendulum plumb
may be carried into -effect will appear from the
accompanying drawings.
Figure l is an elevation of the stabilized plat
form, partly in section,
line, and after suitable amplification and rectifi
cation said signals are applied to torque devices
causing precession of gyroscope IU about the hor
»Figure 2 is a plan view partly in section of the 45 izontal gimbal axes. The torque device con
trolled by pendulum 39 consists of a coil 8D
mounted on .gimbal ring I I which coil receives the
Figure 3 shows in section a torque motor for
rectified, amplified signal from the amplifier and
.causing `precession of the servo-gyro,
co-operates with the permanently energized
Figure 4 is a diagram in section of the optical
magnet 54 carried on frame I2 to apply a torque
picknoif device shown in outline in Figure 1,
about axis V35, 36. Similarly the signal from pen
Figure .5 .is a diagram showing the connections
dulum 40 controls the current in coil 80’ mount
of the photo-cell of Figure 4 and the amplifiers
ed .on the gyro casing 24 which co-operates with
and other apparatus associated therewith,
magnet 54’ carried by gimbal ring II to exert a
Figure 6 shows .one form of flexible suspension,
55 torque round axis 34.
stabilized platform,
It will be observed that whereas the signals
given by the pendulums 39 and 46 are governed
by tilting of the frame I2, the resulting torques
are applied to the gyro Ill.
However, as will next be described a second
light which is the image of pinhole 29 focussed
on photo-cell 26 therefore describes a small cir
cle, the radius of which is ñxed by the angle of
prism 3| while the position of the center of said
circle depends on the inclination of gyro casing
followup system is provided according to this in
24 and mirror 25 with respect to frame I2.
vention to cause the gyro i6, and with it the
Fig. 5 shows the construction of the photo
frame I2, to follow very closely all the move
electric cell and its connections to the torque
ments of gyro I9.
motors. The evacuated transparent envelope of
The control of gyro I 0 by the pendulums 39 10 the cell, indicated by the outer dotted circle 56,
and 40 is arranged to be very gentle, so that the
contains four electrodes. The circular path of
rate of precession of this gyro will be very slow.
the light spot is Shown by the inner dotted circle
With this object, gyro I9 with its casing 24, gim
5I. Two electrodes 41 and 48 are photo-sensitive
bal ring I I, and parts attached thereto, are care
cathodes in the form of wires stretched diametri
fully balanced so as to be in neutral equilibrium.
cally across the cell at right angles. A third
The suspensions at axes 35, 36 and 34 are ar
-photo-sensitive cathode 46 is in the shape of a
ranged to be substantially free from friction, by
semicircular plate. The common anode 49 is in
means hereinafter described. Since any disturb
ing forces which can act on gyro l0 are thereby
made very small, the correcting torques due to
the form of a wire ring. The four electrodes are
arranged at slightly different levels so as not to
be in contact with one another.
„ .
coils 8U and magnets 54 may also be small. Tem
porary displacement of the pendulums from the
As kthe light spot travels quickly round the
circle 5I, the D-shaped cathode 46 emits current
true vertical due to short-lived lateral accelera
tions, >will therefore produce very small devia
pulses of the same frequency as the rotation of
the prism 3|. These pulses are amplified by the
amplifier 55 and then go through amplitude lim
iter 56, which produces a flat-topped wave form,
and through a frequency iilter 51 which attenu
ates harmonics of the prism rotation frequency.
The alternating current output is then supplied
to the constant phase winding 65 which is "one
of the two windings of stator I9 of the two-phase
torque motor acting round axis 4I of the frame
I2, and as another constant phase to coil 64 of
the two windings of the rotor I8 of the vcorre
sponding motor which acts about axis 2|. The
last-named winding is fed through a 90° phase
shifting network 53 for a reason that will appear
tions of the axle of gyro I6 which >will indicate
the mean vertical as shown by the pendulums
with a high degree of accuracy.
On the other hand, the follow-up action of
gyro I6 is made prompt and powerful So that said
gyro »will faithfully hold its axle parallel to the ^
axle of gyro I 0 in spite of large disturbing torques
such as may be caused for instance by the reac
tions of the transmitting devices which form part
of the invention.
>With this object, an electromagnetic torque or
follow-up motor I8, I9, Figs. 1 and 2, is mounted
-to >act on each of the horizontal gimbal axes of
the frame I2. As shown in Fig. 3, vthe torque
motor acting round axis 20, 2I consists of a wound f'
vtwo phase stator I8 mounted on gimbal ring I3
and a squirrel cage rotor 9 íixed to the axle of
frame I2. A similar motor (Fig. 2) is provided
to act round axis 4I, the stator I9 in that case
being fixed to the base I4, and therotor fixed»
to the axle of gimbal I3. The construction of
the torque motors may be the same in both cases
The two wire cathodes 41 and 48 of the photo
cell are each traversed twice per revolution by
the spot of light, and so long as the circle 5I is
centered at the intersection ofl these two wires
eachwire will emit pulses of current at twice the
frequency of rotation of prism `3 I, and diiiering in
phase from each other by`90". These two sets of
pulses are amplified by amplifiers 52 and 5,3 re
and may be of any conventional form. .
spectively. The outputs of these amplifiers then
The torque applied by these motors causes the
pass through amplitude limiters L58 and 60 and
gyro I6 to precess, and it is important that the
through frequency filters 59 and 6 I.
control of these motors should cause such pre 50
These filters are constructed to pass only fre
cession as will bring the axle of gyro lI6 into line
quencies equal to the speed of rotation of prism
with the axle of gyro i0, but Without applying
3 I, and the double frequency voltages will be un
any disturbing forces which might cause the sen
able to pass through them to the Variable phase
sitive gyro I0 to deviate.
windings 56, 61 of the torque motors.
` With this object a suitablepick-olf or sensitive
When, however, the axle of gyro I6 is nolon'ger
controller> for the torque motors is provided. For
parallel with the axle of gyro I9 the mirror 25
this purpose, a photoelectric system is shown
will be tilted with respect to the projector 42 and
comprising a mirror 25 fixedy to .the under side
photo-cell 26 with the consequence that the
of gyro casing 24, see Fig. 4. A projector tube 42
center of the circular light path 5| will no longer
rmounted on fra-me I2 containsa light source 21 v60 coincide with the intersection of the wires 41 and
the ~light from which passes through condenser
48. Let it be supposed, for the sake of example
`lens >28 and is brought to a focus at a pinhole in
that said center moves laway from wire 41 ybut
diaphragm 29 whichY thus-becomes virtually a
remains on wire'48. ‘Then the pulses from wire
vbright point source. The light'from the pinhole
41 will no longer be equally spaced but will be
is then collimated by lens 30, passes through'the
separated'by alternate long and short intervals.
rotating prism 3l and is reflected by mirror 25
The output from amplifier 53‘wil1then contain
through a second condenser 43 and brought to a
a component at half the frequency of the pulses
focus on the 'surface of a photo-electric cell 26
but equal to the frequency of the output from
of yspecial construction to be described herein
semicircular plate 46 and displaced 90° in phase
after. The photo-cellis mounted on frame I2.
therefrom. Said component from wire 41 and
The prism 3l of small angle is rotatably mount
amplifier 53 will then be able to pass through
ed at the mouth of projector tubel 42, for rota
filter 6I and energize the variable phase wind
tion _about the optical axis of the 1ens system
ing 61 in quadrature with the fixed phase wind
therein and is rotated by synchronous electric
ing 65 ofthe torque motor. The motor thus sup
motor 32 through gears 44 and 45. 'The spot -of
plied with two-phase current will then exe‘r't'a
torque through frame l2 on `gyro rI6 »causing it
'precession, and this allows of very “tight” fol
to process and line up its axle with the axle of
‘the »gyro I0 in which state the current through
winding 61 will cease and the motor will become
It will .be observed that as the center of the
light path 5l passes from left to right across wire
lowing with substantially no lag and no tendency
to hunt.
41, the low frequency component of the signal
from said wire changes its phase by 180° and
the torque of motor 65, 61 `will >therefore reverse
as requisite to cause prec'ession in the Vrequired
Similarly, if the center of circle 5I, is displaced
to one side or the other of photo-active wire 48,
the signal from that wire will contain a half-fre
quency component which after passing through
amplifier 52 and limited 58, will also pass filter
59 and energize the Variable phase winding 66 of
the second torque motor andin co-operation with
An important consequence of this close follow
up is that there is only a very small angular
motion of gyro casing 24 round axes 34, 35 and
36 relative to frame l2. In the present invention
advantage is taken of this condition to employ
a novel form of hinge in place of bearings at
the said gimbal axes. By this means all sliding
or rolling friction is abolished and the axis of
rotation, for small angles, is deiinitely fixed so
that the balance of the gyro in the gimbals is
One 'form of this hinge is shown in Fig. Gas
applied to act between the gimbal ring Il and
gyro casing 24. In this case a stout slotted plate
B8 projects inwardly from the gimbal ring and
a corresponding plate '6G is screwed to a boss on
ñxed phase E4 will cause precession of gyro I6 in 20 the gyro casing. Plate 69 is suspended by one
’edge from plate `68 by a plurality of thin strips
the required sense to bring the center of circle
'l0 of tempered steel or similar material. The
5I back to the wire 48.
arrangement is similar to the conventional sus
Since wire 48 is parallel to the straight side of
pension for heavy pendulums of clocks, which,
plate cathode 46 the outputs of the two would
normally be in phase with one another for which 25 as is well known, oscillate through an angle of
a few degrees about an axis which is fixed at a
reason the phase-shifting network 63 is put in
circuit with coil -64 to change its phase perma
nently by substantially a right angle.
point substantially level with the middle of the
suspension spring.
In the case of apparatus to be used in moving
In this way powerful erecting torques may be
applied to gyro I6 to align it with gyro IU en 30 craft, however, it `is necessary to provide a lat
eral constraint, and this is given, in the present
tirely by the control of `mirror 25 and without
invention, by a plurality of horizontal springs 'll
any reaction on gyro IU.
spaced between springs ‘lll and connecting plates
The motor 431.’ which drives prism 3| fixes the
68 and 69 in the manner shown. The axis of
basic .frequency of the electrical follow-up cir
cuits. Said motor may conveniently consist of 35 oscillation is defined by ‘the intersection of the
two planes containing the two sets of springs.
a single phase self-starting synchronous motor
There is -then no friction except internal molecu
such as is -used .for electric clocks. The motor
lar friction of the spring material, and the free
may be supplied from »an external source of suit
dom is independent of lubrication or dirt. A
able frequency and, if the gyro rotors I0 and'IE
are driven as usual, by poly-phase electric mo 40 slight constraint is introduced by the stiffness
tors, one of the phases of the supply 4may be
of the spring material, but this is minimized by
making the springs very thin (since the stiffness
used to feed motor 32.
It will be observed that the alternating cur
rent derived -from the semicircular or D-'shaped
electrode 46 in Fig. 4 through amplifier 55 has
a frequency equal to the speed of rotation of the
prism 3l. In some cases it may be convenient
Yvaries as the cube of the thickness) and increas
ing the aggregate axial width of the springs
(which affects the stiffness. in direct proportion)
to obtain adequate cross-sectional area to sus
tain the load. Moreover, as the angle of ñexure
to make the prism driving motor 32 as a two
of the springs can be kept within a small frac
pole machine geared to run at the same speed
tion of one degree by the close following of frame
as the prism. In such a case the source of single 50 I2, the disturbance of gyro l0 due to stiffness of
phase current that >supplies motor 32 may also
, the springs can be made negligibly small.
be used to energize the fixed .phase coils 64 and l65
In Fig. 6 while the vertical springs 'lß are al
of the follow-up motor. The D shaped cathode
ways in tension the horizontal springs 'l'l may
46 of the photo-cell may then be dispensed with
be put in either tension or compression by lat
together with the amplifier 55 andlimiter 56 55 eral loads. In cases where this lack of sym
associated therewith. » In view, however, of the
elastic coupling between the electrical windings
metry is undesirable the alternative arrangement
of Figure 'I may be used. In this case the plate
of motor 32 and -the mechanical rotation of the
69 is supported from plate 68 by thin leaf springs
prism, there may be variable phase difference
1D, "ll which are equally inclined to the vertical
between the output from cathodes 41 and 48, and 60 and normally at equal tensions. Figure 7 is an end
the input to the fixed phase coils 64 and 65,
view of >said springs and it will be understood
which differences may interfere with the close
that ’the lines 'ID and Il each represent a plu
following up of the ‘gyro. For this reason the
rality of such springs interlaced as in Figure 6.
arrangement shown in Fig, 5 is to be preferred.
’The intersection at 'l2 of the planes of the two
By using considerable gain in ampliiiers 52 65 sets of springs marks the axis of relative rota
‘and '53, followed ‘by drastic amplitude limitation
tion of the two plates 68 and 69 and, for small
angles of rotation is substantially a fixed straight
a steep response curve of the torque motors will
be obtained so that a powerful torque will be 'ex
erted on very small departures from alignment.
It has been remarked herein that when the
In the usual phantom system, 'the torque of
gyro system is suspended on flexible ribbons or
springs Aas shown in Figures 6 and 7, the stiffness
the follow-up motor 'causes an acceleration of
the phantom with a tendency to hunt that is
"of the spring material introduces a restoring cou
ple tending to bring the plates Y68 and 6'9 parallel
‘very difficult to suppress. In the present'inven
to each other, and, when the plates are `not par
tion, where the phantom is controlled by 'a Agyro
scope, the torque‘motors‘produce 'a `velocity of 75 allel, this couple can not be of zero value although
i 8
it ‘may be made small by using‘thinribbons or
:What `is claimed> is:
~ leaf springs of elastic material.~ For thesmall
' I L1A gyroscopicr stabilized yplatform kfor usein
angles of ñexure contemplated by thegpresent
»invention it is possible to introduce an equaland
movable ~craft-having a base, la frame gimballed
opposite compensating couple which will nullify
'the effects of thestiiîness of the ribbons. This
on saidbase, a sensitive gyro vertical in a casing,
iiexible ribbons supporting said gyro casing, ,a
ygimbal >ring! supporting said ri-bbons, .a second
«device is shown in Figure 7 where ‘I3-‘shows a
-helical spring stretched across from plate 68 to
' set of yñex-ible ribbons supporting said gimbal ring
'in said frame, pendulum controlled torque pro
ducing means for securing 'vertically of the axle
oÍ said gyro, a second vertical axis gyro‘rotatably'
`mounted in said frame and constrained to tilt
therewith, a mirror carried by the casing 'of _said
`firstv gyro, a multi-electrode photo-sensitive lcell
plate 69 with its axis intersecting the hinge-axis
g at Y"I2, under the normal conditions in which the
-ribbons-»'II'I and 'II are free from flexure. The
4tension of spring 13' then exerts no turnîngmo
ment round axis 12.
If now lplate 69 is given a slight tiltvrelative
Vtoplate 68, the axis of spring 13 will pass to right
'orv left of intersection l2 and the tension of spring
"supported by said frame,‘torque motors controlled
through amplifiers by' said photo-cell and
adapted to apply torques round 'the'gimbal axes
'I3 will have a moment tending to increase the
oi said'iranie, a rotating prism, a light projec
vexisting tilt of plate 68. At the same time the
rribbons ‘I0 and 'II by their stiiîness will tend to
decrease said tilt of plate 68. It will therefore ,Y
be obvious that by proper adjustment of the ten
sion of the helical spring 'I3 the effect of the stiff
-tor carried by said frame and> adapted to lthrow
beam yof light through said 'prism for reiiection
by'said mirror onto said photo-cell so as to cause
"said torque'motors to align said frame and sec
-ness ‘of the ribbons ‘I0 and 'I Il may be compensated
.for very accurately for small angles of tilt. Be
cause of the close following of frame I2 andy
ond >gyro `with said iirst gyro and Vtransmitters
`driven coaxially with said torque motors. :for
one of the objects of the invention is to measure f
an approximate degree `by gyroscopic inertia,
torque-producing means for causing precession
transmitting angles of roll and pitch of the craft
>gyrocasinglt, the relative tilting of plates 68 " which 'carries it relative'to said stabilizïed'plat
and 59 respectively attached thereto will always
platform for
be kept within small langular limits. "Hence, by
use_in movable craft the"combination with'a
‘the combination of several features of the in
sensitive gyro vertical of a gyro servo -system, com
vention, the gyro IQ is eiïectually relieved of all .30 prising
a universally mounted follow-up frame
angular constraint from the suspension, and acts
supporting said gyro- vertical in gimbals,'a servo
as a very accurate indicator of the vertical.
>gyro journalled for rotation‘abo-ut'a’ vertical axis
Gyro> I6, being slaved to follow gyro II) also
in said frame normally in line with the axis of
indicates the Vertical with similar precision, and
said gyro vertical and stabilizing'said frame to
and transmit tor receiving stations the angles of
roll and pitch of the craft from thel vertical.
_With this object electrical transmitters'ZZ and
of said servogyro about an axis,_ transmitting
means for transmittingthe angles of roll and
V23, Fig. 2, are ñtted on gimbal axesv 2l! and 4I
respectively, to transmit the angular rotations
about the gimbal Ipivots. The torque for driving
said transmitters is derived in the iirst instance
"from the gyroscopic inertia of gyro IB, >which by
its lvery immobility acts to drive thetransmitters
lin the required direction through the proper
angle. The reaction of said driving torque how
ever, causes a slight precession of the gyro and
this brings the photoelectric follow-up device into
pitch of the craft relativelytorsaid framey and
control means adaptedl to `energize said torque
producing means wheneverU the axle ,` of said
servogyro is out of alignment with said gyro ver
ticalcausing it tov precess into alignment with
y said gyro vertical.
` 3. In a gyroscopically stabilized platform com
prising a sensitive >gyro vertical, aservogyro, a
ñrst ,universal support for both gyros, and an
additional universal support vfor said'sensitive
play, enerigizing one or both of the follow-up
gyro; a pick-off device having a light source, giv
motors I8 and I9-, and causing them toy backup 50 ing a beam of light, means for causing said beam
the gyro I6. The energy for driving the trans
continuously to sweep out a cone, a'reflector, one
mitters is therefore ultimately derived from the
Vof said source or reflector being carried by said
>follow-up motors, but the initial instantaneous
first support and the other by saidsensitive gyro,
torque is provided by the gyroscope itself thus
55 `a photo-sensitive cell on to which said rotating
eliminatinglag between the actual angular move
beam of light is reflected by saidy reflector, said
ment of the ship and the indication thereof by
„photo-cell being adapted to give a signal depend
I the transmitter.
ing on asymmetry of the incidence of said light
Transmitters of angular indications of many
beam on said cell, and a plurality of torque motors
types are well known in the art >anulare not per 60 acting'about >different axes of said ñrst support
.se part of this invention. A self -synchronous " ' adapted >to be controlled by said'signal.
type of transmitter or Selsyn isy well adapted Ifor
4. In a gyroscopically stabilized platform,y _a
vthe vpurposes of this invention, and may vbe
V‘follow-up devicecomprising a light source, a mir
fmounted directly on the gimbal pivots for direct
ror, 'a rotating prism'and a photo-cell so con
l driveat one-to-one speed ratio, or the transmit
structed and arrangedthat a focussed image of
_ter may be driven at a higher speed throughY ,the said source after reflection> in the' mirroris
fÍ gearing.
' '
caused-by said prism to execute a circular orbit
Since many changes could be made in the
upon the cathodes ofthe photo-Cell, the position
above construction and many apparently widely
of the center of said orbit depending on .the rela
different embodiments of this invention _could zo tive inclination of saidlmirroi‘. and light source,
be made without departure from the scope there
said photo-,cell-- comprising two diametral .cath
of, it is intended that all matter contained in the
_ odes at _right angles giving a component signal at
,above Vdescription or shown in >the accompanying
vdrawings shall :be interpreted >as illustrative and
Vnot in a limiting sense. ¿Y
. n
the frequency of theA rotationof said image when
the orbit isnot centered at the intersection‘of the
Said` [email protected] @wird Qathodegvingasigna
of constant phase at rotation frequency inde
pendent of the centering of the orbit.
5. In a gyroscopically stabilized platform, a
sensitive gyro vertical, a gimbal ring and follow
up frame power driven to follow very closely the
motions of the gyro vertical, characterized by
having hinges or joints at the horizontal axes by
which the gyro vertical. is supported in the gimbal
ring, and the gimbal ring is supported in the
frame, each of said hinges comprising a plurality i
of parallel leaves or strips of elastic material dis
posed in a vertical plane vand attached at one end
to the part supported and at the other end to the
supporting part, and a second plurality of similar
leaves alternating with the ñrst and disposed in
a horizontal plane, the intersection of said ver
tical and horizontal planes constituting the axis
of rotation.
6. In a gyroscopically stabilized platform, a
sensitive gyro vertical, a gimbal .ring and follow- c
up frame power driven to follow closely the mo
tions of the gyro vertical, characterized by hav
ing hinges or joints at the horizontal axes by
which the gyro vertical is supported in the gim
bal ring, and the gimbal ring is supported in the
frame, each of said hinges comprising a plurality
of leaves of elastic material disposed in two in
tersecting planes the line of intersection mark
ing the axis of the hinge, said leaves connect
ing the supporting part to the part to be sup
ported, said hinge further comprising a tension
spring having one end attached to the support
and one end attached to the part supported so
that the axis of the spring passes through the
axis of the hinge, said tension spring being ad- '
justed so as substantially to counterbalance the
stiffness of said leaves for small angles of dis
7. A gyroscopically stabilized platform for use
in. movable craft comprising a normally horizon
tal frame suspended with freedom to tilt in any
direction relatively to said craft, a sensitive gyro
vertical suspended from said frame with free
dom to tilt in any direction relatively thereto, a
servogyro ?xedly mounted to spin about a nor- "f
mally vertical axis in said frame, torque produc
ing means for causing precession of said servo
gyro about any horizontal axis and consequent
tiltingr of said frame, and control means adapted
to come into action on any departure from par
allelism of the spin axis of the two gyros thereby
energizing said torque producing means so as to
cause preoession of said servogyro and maintain
the frame horizontal.
8. In a gyroscopically stabilized platform, a i
sensitive gyro vertical, a follow-up element com
prising a second gyro vertical and control means
responsive to relative angular movement between
follow-up element including a second gyro verti
cal on said platform, transmitters for transmit
ting to a distance the angles of roll and pitch of
the craft relatively to said platform, and control
means responsive to relative angular movement
between the axes of the two gyros, said control
means being adapted and arranged firstly so as
to cause said second gyro to precess and follow
the angular movements of said ñrst gyro and to
thereby stabilize the platform and drive said
19.1n a stabilized platform, a universal sup
port for the platform, a gyroscopic element r0
tatably mounted on said platform, a second gy
roscopic element supported on said platform with
three axes of freedom, means for detecting rela
tive displacement of the axis of rotation of the
first gyroscopic element and one of the axes of
freedom of said second gyroscopic element from
a prescribed relationship, means connected to
said support controlled by said detecting means
for eliminating said displacements, and means
controlled by the attitude of said stabilized plat
form with respect to a force lield due to the earth
for orienting said second gyroscopic element.
l1. In a gyroscopically stabilized platform com
prising a sensitive element and a power driven
following element, a follow-up device includ
ing a light source, an optical system forming an
image of said source moving so as to trace a pat
tern located according to the angle between said
sensitive and following elements, a photo-sensi
tive cell with three cathode elements, two of said
cathodes being arranged in cruciform fashion so
as to give alternating current signals of variable
phase depending on the asymmetry or” the pat
tern traced by said image on the cell and the
third cathode being so shaped and placed as to
give a signal of substantially constant phase, and
a pair of electric alternating current torque
motors for aligning the following and sensitive ele
ments, one of said torque motors being energized
by one of the variable phase signals and the con
stant phase signal and the other of said torque
motors being energized by the other of the vari
able phase signals and the constant phase signal.
The following references are of record in the
ñle of this patent:
the axes of the two gyros, said control means be
ing arranged to cause said second gyro to process 60
and follow the relative angular movements of
said first sensitive gyro vertical.
9. In a gyroscopically stabilized platform for
use in movable craft, a sensitive gyro vertical, a
Hort ____________ __ Feb.
Paxton __________ _„ Oct.
Wittkuhns _______ __ Apr.
Borchers _________ __ Nov.
Germany ________ __ June 14, 1937
Great Britain ______ __ Oct. 4, 1923
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