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Патент USA US2519835

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Aug. 22, 1950.,
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Patented Aug. 22, 1950;»)
Alden “r. Hanson, Midland, Mich., and Allen L.
Heston and Hans E. Buecken, Akron, Ohio;
said Hanson assignor to The Dow Chemical
Company, Midland, Mich" a corporation of
Delaware; said Heston and said Buecken as
signors to National R'ubber Machinery Com
pany, Akron, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Application Marchll, 1947, Serial'No. 733,890
1'6 IClaims.
(Cl. 18-7-22)
This invention refers to a machine for process
ing and extruding a plastic material. Such
“processing” includes any part or all of the par:
) ticular steps of milling, mixing, colloiding, heat
ing or cooling, as well as other steps of related
provide a machine utilizing certain of the prin
ciples of the said" “Plastruder" but which will be '
more practical to manufacture sturdier in opera
tion and more convenient and efficient in use.
Accordingly, a major object of the invention is
to pfovide a machine for milling, mixing, colloid
ing, heating, cooling, or otherwise processing, and
' The milling, mixing, and other processing, and
extruding of plastic material by conventional
equipment requires the presence of at least ‘two
extruding plastic material and ingredients asso
ciated therewith, which will utilize\the major
and-sometimes three kinds of machines, namely, 10 principles of the above mentioned “Plastruder”
a mill’and an extruder and sometimes a separate
but which will be more durable, effective and
mixer. "Further, since such a mill and such a
versatile than said machine and, hence capable
mixer both operate by batch process, at least two,
of more rigorous use and a wider variety of use.
and often three or more, of each of said ma
A further object of the invention is to provide
chines are required to supply suitably processed
a machine as aforesaidwhich will be convenient
material to one extruder. Thus a great» deal of
equipment and ?oor space are required to keep a
continuous flow of material going through a
and e?icient to use.
single extrusion die;
parts may be readily and quickly changed as de
A further object of the/invention is to provide
a machine as aforesaid in which the operating
These machines are expensive to make and to 20 sired for maintenance purposes or for the secur
ing of different operating characteristics.
use. The extruder screw alone is a highly expen—
A further object of the invention is to provide
sive item. The batch process by which they
a machine as aforesaid having a high output
necessarily operate requires a great deal of
capacity and yet requiring relatively limited ?oor
handling ‘of material, as it is transferred from
one piece of equipment to another, with attend 25 space.
Other objects and purposes of the invention
ant expense. Thus it is highly desirable to pro
will be apparent to those persons acquainted with
vide a single machine which will eifect all. of
equipment of this type upon examination of the
the operations involved in processing and ex
accompanying drawings and reading of the fol
truding of a plastic material and, further, which
30 lowing disclosure.
will do so as a continuous operation.
In the drawings:
Recently, there has been made ' available a
machine known commercially as a “Plastruder”
disclosed and described by Alden W. Hanson, one
of the inventors herein, in U. S. PatentNo.
2,488,189, wherein the functions of milling, mix
ing and creating of pressure for extrusion are all
accomplished by a relatively simple machine, in
Figure 4 is a top phantom view of the roll con
taining housing, with said rolls removed.
Figure 5 is an end view of the parts shown in
Figure 4 taken from the righthand end thereof
volving as its primary element a pair of smooth
rolls having their adjacent surfaces longitudi
Figure 1 is a side assembly view of my machine.
Figure 2 is a top assembly view of my machine.
Figure .3 is an end assembly view of my
as same appears in the drawing.
nally parallel to each other and each enclosed by
Figure 6 is a section taken on the line VI-VI of
closely adjacent walls having wide helical grooves
Figure 1.
therein. This machine and the principles em
Figure 7 is a top plan view of the lower roll
bodied therein have‘ made possible an entirely
‘ receiving housing.
diiferent type of milling, mixing ‘and extruding 45 Figure 8 is a bottom plan view of the lower roll
equipment over those previously known.
, receiving housing.
In this machine, however, there are still cer
Figure 9 is a section taken on the/line IX—IX
tain drawbacks in its speci?c design which it is
of Figure '7.
. '
the purpose of the ‘hereinafter disclosed and de
Figure 10 is a front view of the lower part of
scribed invention to correct. It is desirable to
the roll receiving housing.
toward said discharge point and is there dis
Figure 11 is a view of one of the rolls and a
charged under a considerable pressure to what
ever means is provided for receiving such mate
part of the surrounding housing.
Figure 12 is an illustration of the hinge mecha
nism supporting the housing and taken on the
line xn--xn of Figure 2.
rial, such as an extrusion die.
Frame and organization
Figure 13 is a section taken 'on the line
XIII—XUI of Figure 12.
Referring now to the drawings there is shown
Figure 14 is a section taken on the line
in Figures 1, 2 and 3 the overall assembly of our
XIV-XIV of Figure 13.
Since many of these parts are conven
Figure 14a is a section taken on the line Hi tional and can be supplied by any person ac
XIVa—XIVa of Figure 13.
quainted with equipment of this general type,
Figure 15 is an end view of the eccentric liner
only su?icient of the assembly is here shown to
illustrate its organization and detailed explana
Figure 16 is a bottom plan view of the upper
tion is limited to the actual processing and ex
roll receiving housing with the feed slot control
truding parts of the machine. (Except where by
ling blocks in position in both feeding openings.
the context clearly indicated otherwise, the word
Figure 17 is a top view of a discharge die show
“processing" wherever used in this speci?cation
ing in broken lines the groove and land relation
and in the hereinafter appended claims shall be
ship therewith.
taken to mean, or pertain to, any one, any por
Figure 18 is a side view of the discharge die 20 tion, or all of the steps more particularly desig
illustrated in Figure 1'7.
nated as milling, mixing, colloiding, heating, cool
Figure 19 is a further side view of said dis
ing, or other similar operations with respect to
charge die.
the plastics material.)
Figure 20 is a section showing the construction
There is ?rst provided a body part i mounted
of the feed opening controlling blocks in assem
upon a suitable base member 2. Said base mem
bled position with respect to the upper and‘ lower
ber extends rearwardly of said‘body part to pro
housings and roll, said section being taken on line
vide a mounting for a. suitably energized motor
XX—XX indicated with respect to the upper
3 and a speed reduction gear box ll associated
housing in Figure 16.
therewith. Extending upwardly from the top of
Figure 21 is an alternative form of roller shown 30 the body part I, conveniently but not necessarily,
separated from the rest of the construction.
integrally therewith are the roll and platen sup
Figure 22 is an alternate form of construction.
porting extensions 5 and 6. Contained in one
in the region of the feeding opening.
part of each of said supports are the bearings
Figure 23 illustrates a modi?cation of the
supporting the hereinafter described processing
general combination.
rolls. Contained in another part 01' said supports
Figure 24 illustrates a modification of the
are the bearings supporting the platen hinge
groove construction by a fragmentary view simi
shaft 1 which, through suitable hinge members
lar to Figure 11.
hereinafter described in detail, supports the up
Figure 25 illustrates a further modification of
per housing, or platen, member 8 and the lower
the groove construction by a fragmentary view 40 housing, or platen, member 8. These housings
similar to Figure 11.
receive and surround the processing rolls.
Figure 26 illustrates a further modification of
A power take-off pulley l0 drives a plurality of
the general combination.
V-belts II by which is driven a large wheel 12.
halves assembled in operative position.
General description
45 Mounted on the same shaft with said large wheel
' The machine herein illustrated and described
for turning with it is a pinion IS. The shaft upon
I which said large wheel I2 and the pinion ii are
mounted may be supported in any convenient
comprises a pair of housings, or platens, hinged to
manner as by a bearing I5 held within the body
member i and a bearing Ii mounted upon a suit
each other for easy opening and closing with re
spect to each other, each housing having recesses
therein cooperating with corresponding recesses
able frame support II.
The pinion l3 drives the large gear wheel l8
in the other housing to define a pair of substan
which is mounted on and drives the shaft i9. This
shaft in our preferred embodiment is connected
directly to one of the two milling rolls 20 and 2i,
here the roll 2i, but it may be connected thereto
tially cylindrical, adjacent, communicating, proc
essing chambers having their axes in a common
plane. These chambers have grooves helically .
around the walls of at least one of them leading
from near each end thereof toward a discharge
through other gearing without changing the
scope or principle of the invention. From the
point located intermediate the ends thereof,
said roll 2| there extends at its other end a shaft
which in the embodiment here speci?cally illus
trated is substantially equi-distant between said 60 22 driving a gear 23 which in turn drives a gear
24 and a shaft 25. This latter shaft is connected
ends but which may be varied toward one end or
the other end as hereinafter described. Each of
said processing chambers has a rotatable, and at
least partially smooth, processing roll contained 4
within it, which rolls are adjacent each other suf
ficiently closely to provide for milling of plastic
material passing between them. In the embodi
ment selected for primary illustration, material
is fed to said processing rolls at one or both of
their respective ends, is carried between them
and milled thereby and is concurrently carried
along and around the rolls following said helical
grooves by which thoroughly to mix and masti~
cate the material. Material is thus carried from
the feeding point or points of the pair of rolls
directly or through other gearing to'the roll 2|.
The gearing ratio may be ireely selected to drive
the rolls at any desired speeds with respect to
each other. In our preferred embodiment this
ratio is 21-27 but it may be varied as desired
according to known milling practice.
The mechanism described thus far illustrates
one particular way of supporting the roll platens,
or housings, and supporting and driving the
processing rolls within said platens. It should
be understood, however, that many other de
signs for this purpose can easily be made as re
quired for adaptation to speci?c uses and places
of use, and that mere change in the manner of
- '
supporting and driving the operating parts here
inafter described will by itself in no way affect
the operation and/or the principles of the inven
- center, for the discharge of milled and mixed
material under pressure to whatever means, such
as an extruding die, is provided for the recep
tion thereof. Said lower platen 9 is provided with
The platen, members
a main hinge supporting member 45 and a minor
Turning now to the platen members, or roll
housing in more detail, there is shown in Figure
4 a phantom top view of the platens with the
being operatively connected with a main hinge
41. This hinge and the minor hinge 48 both.
tion will ?rst be made of the upper platen 8.
This upper platen 8 comprises first a substan
tially rectangular body block 30 having therein a
also has openings 40a" along its side similar to
hinge supporting member 46, said member 45
encircle the hinge supporting shaft 1 (Figure 4')
holding bolts removed. Referring then to this 10 in the same manner as the other hinges as here
?gure as well as Figures 5 through 11 descrip
inafter described in detail. Said lower platen 9
pair of adjacent, parallel, substantially semi
the openings 40 indicated for the upper platen 8
through which extend the bolts, above mentioned,
15 engaging said two platens and holding them
cylindrical platen recesses 3| and 32. Feeding
tightly together.
openings 34 and 35 (Figure 4) are provided
Both of said platens may be, and usually are,
through said top member at each end thereof
provided with a plurality of passageways 49 (Fig
for the introduction to the rolls of material to
ures 6 and 9) through which may be passed
be milled. These are operatively connected to 20 warming or cooling ?uids as required for pro
any convenient form of material feeding means,
viding a selected temperature at any given point
such as a hopper and chute (not shown). As hefe
or zone along the. walls of the semi-cylindrical
shown, the said recesses will when placed to
recesses. These passageways are frequently as
gether with corresponding recesses in the lower
sociated with independent systems of ?uid con
roll housing form a pair of cylindrical roll receiv 25 duction by which conditions may be quickly
ing processing chambers, but it should be under
adjusted as needed from time to time to meet
stood that these chambers may be of other
different temperature requirements from one
shapes, as conical, to meet certain circumstances
platen zone to another. Other heating or heat
without departure from the scope of the inven
controlling means, as electrical, may alterna
30 tively be provided.
Fitted, and suitably held, within each of said
_ Within the semi-cylindrical platen\ recesses
feeding openings is a pair of blocks controlling
(Figures 7 and 16) are a plurality of wide and
the exast size and shape of the actual feeding
shallow helical grooves 50 and 50a, hereinafter
opening and permitting the operator by mere
sometimes called “platen groovesfi‘of which the
insertion of such blocks of selected dimensions 36 grooves in the one platen cooperate with the'
and shape to change and adjust said size and
grooves in the other platen, when the platens
shape of said feeding openings in order to accom
are together in operating, or closed, position, to
modate the characteristics of the various kinds
provide a continuous helical ?ight from near
of plastic materials which the machine may be
each end of the platens toward the discharge
called upon to handle. The speci?c form shown 40 point following various patterns as desired. The
in Figure 20 has been found highly advantageous
direction and arrangement of these helices is
for handling “Tenite II” in granular form and
such that material, following the grooves in the
will be suitable for a wide variety of similar
same circumferential direction will move from
granular plastics, but it is conceivable that other
each end of the platens toward said discharge
precise forms of’ feeding openings will be found 45 point. These grooves are of such depth that they
preferable for certain other kinds and/or forms
intersect each other near the nip of the rolls as
of plastics materials. In this particular case the
indicated by the numerals 33 and '61 in Figure 6
blocks, as utilized with rolls four inches in di
The lands are preferably'cut off even with these
ameter and twenty inches long, provide a feed
points of intersection by which to form 'a con
opening 1 inch wide and 4% inches long, and said 50 tinuous slot, or material exchange opening, pro
blocks preferably have a 45° chamber at their re
‘ viding a passageway between the roll receiving
spective corners 12. It should be clearly under
chambers when the platens are closed as appear
stood, however, that these dimensions are illus
ing in Figure 6.
trative only and in no way limiting.
The helical platen grooves 50 may sometimes
The body part block 30 has extending from its 55 'be placed in liner members as those shown at
rearward side a main hinge supporting bar 36
5|, 52, and suitably af?xed in the housing as
and a minor hinge supporting bar 31. The main
shown in Figure 6 if desired. This provides for
hinge supporting bar 36 is aillxed to hinge mech
ready replacement of the grooves as they become
anism 38, hereinafter described in more detail,
worn, or for the replacement of a given set of
which is rotatably supported on the hinge sup 60 grooves by ones of different characteristics, .more
porting bar ‘I, and the minor hinge bar 31 is af
conveniently than by replacing the entire ‘platen
fixed as by welding to a ring 39 likewise supported
with a suitable bearing on the hinge support
A further advantage of forming these platen
ing bar ‘I. Said upper platen also has a plural
grooves in liner members arises from the problem
ity of openings 40 along its side for the reception 65 of making suitable adjustment of the processing
of bolts holding the said upper platen in tight
rolls toward or away from each other to accom
operative association with the hereinafter de
modate them to the handling of plastic ma
scribed lower platen.
terials of different kinds. Said rolls being suit~
The lower platen 9 (Figures 5, 7 and 8) is sub
ably mounted for moving toward or away from
stantially similar to the upper platen 8. It com 70 each other in any convenient and conventional
prises a rectangular body block 4| within which
manner as indicated following, it is necessary
are provided a pair of substantially semicylin
similarly to adjust the inner surfaces of the
drical recesses 42 and 43. Said lower platen has
platens adjacent said rolls. This is conveniently
discharge opening 44 (Figures 4 and 8) at a se
accomplished by providing a plurality of such
lected discharge point, here substantially in its 75 liners ‘for association with whichever roll is to be
adjustable. This will usually be the roll most
remote from the hinge structure, but it may be
the other roll or in certain cases it may be both
rolls. By making the internal diameter of the
liner on a center eccentric to that of the external
diameter, a liner may be made to fit a given posi
tion of the said roll and other liners may be pro
that of the other roll, as through appropriate
adjustment of their supporting bearings, may be
provided in any convenient manner. Preferably
each end of at least one roll will be independ
ently adjustable toward and away from the cor
responding end of the other roll.
In the preferred embodiment of the machine
as here illustrated, the carrying of material out
vided appropriate to other adjusted positions of
from the area under the feeding openings, here
the said roll. One such liner is illustrated in
Figure 15 in which is shown together in opera 10 inafter sometimes called the “feeding zone," is
assisted by a wide helical groove (Figure 11)
tive position the upper and lower parts '1 and
provided at each end of each roll which groove
ii, respectively. This figure also shows suitable
is of progressively decreasing depth from the
means, such as the bosses ‘ll, by which said liners
are affixed in place with respect to the platens ' respective ends of each of said processing rolls
into which they are positioned. The liner part 15 toward said center leaving the helical land 14
thereon. Said roll grooves normally extend in
appears in position in the platens in Figures 6
ward from the ends of each roll a distance su?i
and 16.
cient to insure that the material being fed into
In the form shown in the drawings the platen
the machine will be packed well into the space
grooves are in the walls of all four of the recesses
ll, l2, l2 and 48 and follow respectively single 20 beyond the feeding zone between the surface of
the rolls and the walls of the surrounding re
helices from points near each end thereof toward
cesses, hereinafter sometimes called the “process
the said discharge point. However, where a
ing zone,” and without likelihood of any back
higher volume of delivery is desired and less
?ow. If, however, such back ?ow should be de
mixing needed then that for which the partic
ular machine here illustrated was designed, these 25 sired for any purpose, such as the removal of
moisture, it can be provided as needed by les
grooves may comprise a plurality, such as two, of
sening the distance that the roll grooves extend
independent helices from at least near each end
into said processing zone. In the embodiment
of the platens toward the discharge point, said
helices in such case having a substantially greater
here particularly shown, these roll grooves extend
single, continuous helix throughout its length,
can be made more or less as needed to insure
more or lesspositive introduction as desired into
pitch than those here illustrated. Although the 30 across the feeding opening and beyond same to
ward the material discharge point a distance
passageway de?ned by a platen groove may fol
axially equal to about one half of the parallel,
low, excepting only for the break therein caused
or axial, dimension of the feed opening, but it
by the cut-out parts indicated at 33 and 61, a
' normally these helices will be designed so that
the processing zone of the machine.
the passageway will extend ?rst around one roll.
The pitch of these roll grooves is preferably
then cross over into the adJacent opening and
such that a single turn will approximately equal
extend around the other roll. If more milling is
the axial lengths of the feed openings and this
desired with less‘ mixing and less delivery, then
the gooves may be omitted entirely from one pair 40 will be found to provide the desirable feeding
characteristics for a large number of purposes.
of roll surrounding walls, such as the walls sur
However, this pitch can be more or less if desired
rounding the roll 2 I. These alternative helix pat
for other reasons without going outside the scope
terns are not shown herein since they may be
multiplied indefinitely and, excepting as other
~ of our invention.
These grooves may be ar
wise set forth herein in detail, appear at this time
to be primarily matters of design.
ranged in single or multiple helices as desired.
The depth of these roll grooves at their deepest
The processing rolls
part in the particular embodiment here illus
trated is approximately twice the depth of the
platen grooves. However, this relationship will
Within the cylindrical chambers formed by
the above-mentioned pairs of cooperating semi
cylindrical recesses in the said platens, are lo
cated the processing rolls 20 and 2|. As here
shown these are substantially cylindrical rolls to
fit the cylindrical chambers formed by said co
operating platen recesses and ordinarily they
will be of such shape. However, even if they are
of other shapes, such as conical to fit other
‘ shapes, such as conical, of platen recesses, they
be greater or less as the bulk factor is greater
or less between the material as it is fed into the
machine and the material within the processing
zone of the machine.
Incidentally, it should be noted at this point
that where the bulk of the plastic material is
reduced with any material rapidity during the
milling, mixing or other processing, such as in
response to increasing pressure or progressing
may still be arranged according to the principles
polymerization, it will be desirable proportion
herein disclosed without departure from the 0b
ately to reduce the cross-sectional area of the
jectives of the invention. Shaft extensions from
platen grooves progressively from the feed open
each end of said rolls are mounted in suitable
ing to the discharge opening. This may be done
bearings in the upstanding roll supporting mem
either by progressively narrowing the grooves
bers 5 and I.
or by progressively shallowing them, or a com
The processing rolls are provided with at least
bination of both narrowing and shallowing them,
partially smooth surfaces and are mounted so 65
as illustrated in Figures 24 and 25. In this
that the nip is within the slot defined between
way the material will be kept moving axially
the edges 33 and 61, and their surfaces will be
of the rolls at a substantially constant rate and
spaced a proper distance apart at the nip to
thereby make possible more exacting control over
provide the ?neness of milling desired. They are
the heat and compression supplied thereto.
of such size and shape with respect to the adja
cent surfaces defining the platen recesses as to
provide no more than an easy running clearance
between their surfaces and the lands between the
Where the processing rolls are so grooved, the
grooving of the platens will commence a short
distance from each respective end of the roll
receiving platen recesses. As best shown in Fig
for adiusting the position of one roll relative to 75 ure 11 the grooves in the rolls should overlap
platen grooves 50 and Ila; Conventional means
the grooves ‘in the platens from about one to.
about two turns.
Where a high degree of milling and/or mix
\ ing is required so that the rate of material han
dling'will necessarily be low, there may be used
entirely smooth rolls as illustrated in Figure 21.
In this case the platen grooves will commence
substantially at the ends of the roll receiving re- '
cesses so that said grooves will be opposite sub
The platen hinge structure
Turning now to detailed consideration at the I
construction of the platen hinges shown gen
--erally, at .38 and 41 in Figure 4, attention is di
rected to Figures 12 and 13. In Figure 12 there
is shown the main hinge bars 36 and 45 of which
the latter is shown connected as by welding to
a ring 55.‘ This ring surrounds another ring 56
(Figure 13) constituting a part of the hinge hub
stantially the full extent of each of said rolls. 10 and this in turn surrounds and operatively en
Occasionally, one fully cylindrical and smooth
gages the central member '51 extending at 58
roll'as shown in Figure 21 will be used in con
from the said hub and appropriately
junction with a roll having the feeding grooves
above described, in which case the platen grooves -
will be modi?ed to ?t each as above described‘.
The discharge opening
provided with teeth to constitute a segmental \
gear 59. Similar construction is provided for
the main hinge 38 acting with the upper hous
ing part by which it likewise is appropriately
provided with teeth to constitute asegmental
It will be observed that on the bottom platen
gear 60 on a similar extending part 6| of a
illustrated in Figure 7 the grooves terminate ad
corresponding hinge hub.
jacent the discharge opening 44 so that the 20
Surrounding the extending part of both of said
areas 85 and 86 are not grooved but rather com
hinge hubs is a yoke member 62 mounted for
prise relatively wide lands. In the upper platen
(Figure 16) the area 81 likewise comprises a wide
and continuous land and it will be understood
that when the upper and lower platens are to
gether in operative position the end 88 of said
land 81 ?ts against the end 90 of the land 85.
A groove, however, is present in‘ the center of '
vertical sliding movement and provided inter
nally with a pair of short racks 63 and 66 en
gaging the segmental gears 59 and 69, respec
tively. A vertically reciprocable slide memberv 65
depending from the yoke 62 is received into a
guide opening 68 in the frame of [the machine
by which rotation of the yoke 62 is prevented.
This is necessary in order to effect proper co
the portion of the platen surrounding the other
30 operation of the parts.
roll and is indicated at9l.
Referring now to Figures 17, 1B and 19 there
As the yoke 62 is moved vertically it will en
is shown one manner of inserting an extrusion
die into the discharge opening 44. Said die com
prises a substantially cylindrical body member
92 having a ?ange 93 by which said die is bolted
to the bottom of the lower platen 9. ' The upper
end of the body member is curved on each 01' dts
sides 94 and 95 to provide a continuation of the
contour of the surfaces of the'lower platen sur
rounding the discharge opening 44, including
gage- the teeth of the segmental gears 59 and 69
and cause the hub parts associated therewith to
rotate in opposite directions.
Thus there is ‘
' imparted through the respective hinge hubs op
posite rotative movementto the hinge rings, such
as that at 55, bywhich the said platens may be
moved apart into open position.or moved to
gether into closed position as desired. ‘In the
40 embodiment illustrated a downward movement
continuations‘ of the lands thereon. In Figure 17
of the yoke 62 will be associated with separation
there appears in broken lines a showing of the
of the platens and an upward movement will be
contour of the lands in the regiion of the dis
associated with their coming together. .Since the
charge opening and their manner of coopera
weight of the lower platen 9 will tend to move
tionwith said upper end of the body member 92. 46 said platens to open position and the weight of
Comparison of this ?gure including these broken
the upper platen 8 will tend to move said platens
lines with Figure '7 in the region of the opening
to closed position, the overall tendencyv will be
44 will make this relationship clear.
substantially balanced and the opening and clos
A passageway 96 extends from the upper end '
ing of the platens will be easy.
of said die body part axially entirely there- '
In the form here shown a ribbon dis
charge is contemplated but it will be understood
that any discharge contour may be adopted.
While this insert as described is useful where
The particular machine above described op
erates as follows.
With the platens open as above described the
operator puts into place the desired liners 5| and ‘
it is desired to change the characteristics of the
outlet opening from time to time, it may in other
52, appropriate to the particular roll adjustment
cases be integral with the bottom plate and a
desired, and adjusts the processing rolls 20 and
selected die merely placed on the lower side of
2| to the proper distance apart, depending upon
said plate in suitable register with an outlet
the particular operation to be carried out. The
opening corresponding to what is here shown- as (it platens are then closed and the bolts 66 (Figure
the passageway 96. Other variations may be
l) are positioned and‘ tightened. Material to be
freely made in the characteristics of this outlet
milled, mixed and/or otherwise processed is then
opening,.and the die or other means associated
introduced through each of the inlet openings
therewith, without going beyond the scope of the
34 and 35, where said material enters between
65 the parts of the rolls directly opposite the por
Returning now to Figure 16 it will be seen that
tion of said openings exposed between the blocks
material will approach the discharge point of the
19 and ‘H and between the blocks 10a and ‘Ila.
mechanism‘ through the groove SI and through
As the material passes between the rolls it drops
the grooves 91 and 98. From all three grooves
onto the edge 61 (Figure 6) comprising the in
material will be discharged into the nip of the
tersection of the bottoms of the meetingiplaten ‘
rolls directly above said discharge opening. Said
grooves and splits, part going to one side and
opening being entirely surrounded by the lands
part going to the other side. The feeding lands
14 push the material into the processing zone
85 and 86 (Figures 7 and 17) material from the
rolls will be forced through said opening and
between the roll and grooved walls beyond the
little or none will be carried past it.
{ceding openings. The material being so car
Figure 23 in which is shown the lower platen with
one processing roll, 28a, in place. The relative
pressure on the discharge side of the nip of the
position of the feeding opening in the upper plat
rolls that such material is forced through the
en with respect to the lower platen‘ is shown in
grooves around the circumference of the rolls in
both directions and is again fed between the rolls (.1 said ?gure by broken lines. This is substantially
but at a point spaced longitudinally of said rolls
similar to the above disclosed and described
from the first point of feeding. Since each time
mechanism when same is operated by feeding
from only one end. Between the feeding opening
that the material goes between the rolls an in
“a and the discharge opening “a this modifi
crement of pressure is added to the entire mass,
by the time that it reaches the discharge point 10 cation is constructed and operates exactly like
of the rolls the material is being moved under.
the one disclosed and described above. However,
a large amount of pressure and may be forced
there is no feeding from the opposite end and
directly through an extrusion die with a high de
the oppositely directed ?ights 800. function solely
gree of efficiency. The magnitude of the total
to direct back toward the discharge opening “a
force will be a function of several factors, such
any plastic material which might otherwise have
as the closeness of the rolls to each other, the
gone beyond it, by which said ?ight serves to pro
closeness of the roll surfaces to the bottoms of
tect the adjacent roll bearings from entry of ma
the grooves, the speed of rotation of the rolls
terial thereinto,
and the number of ?ights made by a single groove
While the discharge opening in the double
ried between the processing rolls builds sufficient
from a feeding point to a discharge point on 20 ended form above described as a preferred em
the rolls.
Referring to Figures 7 and 16, it will be ob
bodiment has been shown as placed midway be
tween the two feed openings, it will be evident
served that the grooves of the one platen recess
are offset with respect to the grooves of the other
platen recess. In this way material moving in
a selected groove around the upper part of the
roll in, for example, the recess 88 will pass be
that this position may be varied one way or an
other as desired where different kinds of mate
tween said rolls and strike the edge 61. Here it
will divide into three parts, of which one part
time. In view of the foregoing it will be seen that
rials are fed into the respective feed openings and
where such materials are desired to be processed
in different amounts and for different lengths of
by appropriately varying the position of the dis
continues on around the same processing open 30 charge opening, by varying the depth and/or
ing in the same groove, another part crosses to
‘pitch of the platen grooves and by suitably con
the recess surrounding the other processing
opening and goes into the groove 80a next ahead
trolling the heating zones, a great variety of
of said selected groove and a third part crosses
essing of di?erent plastics prior to their being
35 joined together at the discharge opening.
conditions can be provided for the‘ different proc
to the recess surrounding the said other proc
essing opening and goes into the groove 88!) par
A further variation appears in Figure 26
tiallv behind the said selected groove. By thus‘
wherein there is shown a bottom platen I00, hav
advancing part of the material ahead one-half
ing a pair of semi-cylindrical recesses as in the
groove and retarding a part back one-half groove
other forms above described, and having a plu
a thorough and complete mixing is secured. It 40 rality of grooves [0| in said recesses similar in
will be evident that by placing the grooves in
form but opposite in hand to those of the em
the surfaces surrounding the rolls so that the
bodiments already described. A roll I82 is shown
grooves surrounding one roll are advanced or
in ‘place and a cooperating roll is shown parallel
retarded more or less with respect to the grooves
thereto in phantom. These rolls are similar to
surrounding the other roll various degrees of mix
the form of roll illustrated in Figure 21 for the
ing may at will be selected with respect to the
machines of the preceding embodiments except
amount of milling required.
Figure 22 shows a modi?ed form of feeding
means wherein means are supplied surrounding
ing that they are provided with relatively long
shaft extensions, as at I03 and I84, which are
supported in bearings as at I85 and I08, said
bearings being spaced a substantial distance
from the ends of the platen Hill for reasons ap
pearing hereinafter and supported on the frame
‘of the machine in any convenient manner.
The clearances at I Ill~ between the several shaft
extensions and the housing are made as small
as possible consistent with free operation of the
the feeding opening for holding the plastic ma
terial at a desired temperature prior to its intro
duction between the processing rolls. Since most
plastic materials will soften upon the applica
tion of heat and when softened the particles
thereof become adherent to each other and to the
parts, but the longitudinal extent of each thereof
surrounding metal surfaces, it will often be de
is relatively large to minimize the quantity of
sirable to provide in the walls of the funnel 8|
material escaping therethrough from within the
?uid conducting openings 82 connected to a. suit 60
processing recesses. Outlet openings are pro
able source for the circulation of cooling ?uid.
vided at I01 and I08, which may be ?tted with
This funnel is mounted in the upper platen 8
convenient extrusion dies, not shown, in the
within each of the feeding openings 34 and 85
same manner as above described for the other
and is preferably separated from immediate con
embodiments shown. An upper platen, not
tact with the metal of said platen by suitable heat
shown, is also provided in the same manner as
insulation 83. It will of course be evident that
shown for the other embodiments, excepting that
warm ?uid may be circulated through the open
its grooves will also be of hand opposite to those
ing 82 if such circumstances are present as to
of such other embodiments in order to conform
make it desirable to preheat the plastic material
to the grooves l8| of the lower platen Hill. The
entering into the device. The openings 49 indi
cate the ?uid conducting conduits controlling the
feed inlet, similar to those already described, is
temperature of the platen as above described.
In certain instances, it may be desirable to
placed in said upper platen at a point to fall in
modify the above disclosed apparatus to provide
termediate the outlet openings. It will be equi
distant between them, as shown in projection by
for only one way operation. This is illustrated
broken lines at ‘88, where it is desired to have
the same amount of processing from the feed
opening to each discharge opening, or it may be
placed unequally distant from each~of them if
differently processed product is desired from the
as shown. This will be in response to the feed
ing characteristics of certain materials and ex
respective discharge openings. '
scope of the invention.
By this embodiment, twin extrusion dies may
'be operated from one feed point and by one ma
chine, or other convenient arrangements involv
ing a split ?ow made possible. Further, a slight
leakage is constantly maintained outwardly
through the clearances H0 by which lubrication
of the rolls instead of over the nip of the rolls‘
cepting as otherwise claimed will not change the .
It is evident that many other variations and
changes from the specific form hereinv disclosed
can be made without departure from the princi
ples of the invention and the herein disclosed
embodiment is intended as illustrative only and
not as limiting. .It should particularly be em
from the bearings is positively prevented from
phasized that such details as mentioning of di
entering the extruded material. In spite of the
mensions, showing a, given number- of groove
?ights associated with the rolls, the angle of in- ,
resulting loss of material, this is highly desirable
in certain cases where it is especially important 15 clination shown for the helix described by said
groove and other similar items of detail are by
to maintain freedom from ‘such contamination.
way of illustration only and may be widely varied
It will be further understood that while con
within the principles of the invention. Accord
struction embodying only two rolls has been
ingly, the hereinafter appended claims are to be
above shown and appears at present to be‘ the
most useful and convenient, any plurality of 20 construed broadly and are to be limited only as
expressly required by their own terms.
rolls may be run together with suitably extended
platens. In such a machine embodying multiple
rolls each pair of rolls may be operated substan
tially independently of any other pair, or, alter
We claim:
1. In a machine for processing and ‘extruding
\ a plastic material the combination comprising: a
natively, the platen grooves may be so designed 25 pair of cooperating platens; means de?ning with
in said platens a pair of closely adjacent, proc
that there will be a wide diffusion of the material
essing chambers having a common side wall, and
being :processed throughout a multiplicity of
a slot in said common side wall providing com
rolls as the material travels from one particular
munication between said chambers; the wall of
feed opening to some particular discharge open
30 at least one such chamber having a groove re
cessed thereinto and positioned thereon advanc
Such variations, however, appear to be varia-- '
tions in design only and do not, so far as‘ is now
ing substantially helically in‘ one circumferential
direction from one of its ends toward a discharge
point intermediate the ends thereof; a similar
those above disclosed and described.
The foregoing has described a specific machine 35 groove similarly arranged advancing in the same
known, embody any different principles from
‘ made according to the invention which will ac
complish the objects and purposes above outlined.
circumferential direction substantially helically
from the other end of said processing chamber
toward said point; a processing roll having a
smooth surface through’ a portion of its length
centrally disposed in each of said chambers and
terials as may be fed into the machine for the
of size to have only a running clearance between
purpose. In this machine the operations of mill
its surface and the lands between said grooves;
ing, mixing, colloiding, heating, cooling and crea
means controllably effecting rotation of said rolls
tion of pressure may all be effected in a single
independently of, and in timed relation to, each’
operation, and the machine is one in which the
parts may be manipulated, adjusted and/or re 46 other; means introducing material to be proc
’essed between said rolls at points adjacent both
placed easily and quickly. Elaborating on the
ends of said rolls and an outletv receiving dis
latter point, the processing rolls may quickly and
charge of processed material at said discharge
easily be reached for cleaning, replacement or ex
change since the parts of the surrounding hous
2. In a machine for processing and extruding a
ing can easily be made to move a substantial dis 50
plastic material, the combination comprising:
tance away from the rolls, and further, such mo
means de?ning a pair of ‘closely adjacent, side
tion of the housing parts can be effected quickly
Particularly, in the described machine there is a
complete, thorough and rapid mixing of such ma
and without unreasonable inconvenience.
by-side, substantially cylindrical communicating
A particular advantage of our herein disclosed
machine is that the rolls are adequately supported
by bearings at each of their ends, and there is
chambers having’a feeding zone and a process
ing zone, the wall of at least one of said cylindri
cal chambers having a .wide helical groove re
no material under pressure adjacent said bear
cessed thereinto and positioned thereon advanc
ing in one circumferential direction from one of
It should be noted that although the foregoing
its ends toward a discharge point intermediate
description has been in terms of grooves made in (ll the ends thereof; a similar groove similarly ar
the walls de?ning the processing openings, it
ranged advancing the same circumferential di
could as well have been made-in terms of ridges
rection from the other end of at least said one‘
extending toward said rolls from said walls. In
chamber toward the said discharge point; a ro
each case the structure and its function are the
tatable roll centrally disposed in each of said
65 cylindrical chambers and of diameter to have a
The feed inlet is shown as at the top of the co
running clearance between its surface and the
operating housings, and the outlet appears at the — radially innermost surface of the walls de?ning
bottom. It is equally operable to place the feed
said chambers, said roll having a constant diam
openings at the bottom and the outlet opening
eter in the processing zone and tapering in the
at the top, all three openings at the bottom or 70 feeding 'zone to a minimum diameter at at least
all three at the top or other combinations of the
one end of said roll by a helical roll groove there
positionings without altering the scope and op
in of progressively increasing depth; means con
eration of the invention.
trollably effecting rotation of said rolls; mate
Further, the feed openings may in certain cases
rial feeding means adjacent said roll groove
be placed at a selected point over one or both 75 whereby said roll groove will assist in feeding
grooved portion of said chamber wall and hav
material into the processing none of the machine.
ing a smooth portion‘ substantially adjacent the
3. In a processing and extruding mechanism
grooved portion of said chamber wall, the ma
for plastic materials having a pair of cooperat
terial being fed being received adjacent the un
ing platens containing therein means defining a
grooved portion of the chamber wall and the
pair of communicating processing chambers and
grooved portion of said roll and delivered there
a partially smooth rotatable roll within each of
from to the space between the grooved portion
said chambers having the adjacent surfaces
of said chamber wall and. the ungrooved portion
thereof parallel with each other; the improve
of said roll.
ment in means permitting adjustment of said
7. In a combined milling, mixing and prasure
rolls with respect to each other comprising: 10
creating device for use with a plastic material
liner means de?ning one of said chambers, said
including a pair of cooperating housings having
liner having an internal diameter concentric with
adjacent faces, one such face having therein a
a pre-selected position of the roll which it sur
pair of adjacent recesses of which each cooper
rounds and said liner having 'an external diam
ates with the corresponding and opposite recess
eter concentric with the chamber in said platen
in the said adjacent face of the other housing to
into which it is designed to ?t, said centers of
form a pair of axially parallel adjacent com
concentricity being selected independently of
municating chambers and a rotatable, at least
each other.
partially smooth, roll in each of said chambers,
4. A combined mill and pressure creating de
vice for extruding plastic, comprising: a pair of 20 the improvement comprising: hinged means sup
porting said housing including a toothed mem
cooperating housings having adjacent faces,
ber associated with a hinge operatively con
each thereof having a pair of adjacent substan
nected with each housing: a pair of substantially
tially semi-cylindrical recesses, at least one be
opposed racks engaging said toothed members
ing helically grooved, cooperating with each
for causing oppositely directed rotation of each
other to form a pair of parallel adjacent com
thereof upon simultaneous lineal movement of
municating chambers; an at least partially
each of said racks, means for eifecting simul
smooth roll rotatabiy mounted independently of
taneous lineal movement of said racks; whereby
said housings for operating in each' of said cham
upon the occurrence of such movement said
bers, and means controllably effecting rotation
thereof; hinge means supporting said housings 30 toothed elements will rotate in opposite direc
tions and cause said housings to move away from
and including balance means whereby the open
or to move toward each other according to the
ing away from and closing toward said rolls of
direction of such movement of said racks.
both of said housings may be readily effected.
8. In a machine for milling, mixing and ex
5. A combined milling, mixing and pressure
creating device for use with a plastic material, 35 truding a plastic material, the combination com
prising: a pair of cooperating platens having
comprising: a pair of cooperating housings hav
within themselves a pair of closely adjacent
ing adjacent faces, one such face having therein
processing chambers communicating with each
a, pair of adjacent recesses of which each coop
other through a material exchange opening in
erates with a corresponding and opposite recess
a common side wall, an inlet into each of said
in the said adjacent face of the other housing
processing chambers near each end thereof and
to form a pair of axially parallel, adjacent, com
an outlet from said processing chambers inter
municating chambers; a partially smooth rotat
mediate said inlets; a smooth wall section de
able roll in each of said chambers; hinged means
?ning said processing chambers in the region
supporting said housings including a toothed
of each of said inlets and extending towards said
member associated with a hinge operatively con
outlets a distance less than the corresponding
nected with each housing; a pair of substantially
extent of said inlets, and said processing cham
opposed racks engaging said toothed members
bers further de?ned by walls having a helical
for causing oppositely directioned rotation of
groove commencing at the termination of each
each thereof upon simultaneous lineal movement
said smooth wall sections and extending to
of each of» said racks; means for effecting simul
ward ,said outlets and being of opposite hand
taneous lineal movement of said racks; whereby
with respect to each other; a pair of rolls within
upon the occurrence of such movement said
said processing chambers having a helical groove
toothed elements will rotatein opposite direc
of decreasing depth extending from each end of
tion and cause said housing to move away from
each thereof toward the center thereof a dis
or to move toward each other according to the
tance greater than the corresponding extent of
direction of such movement of said racks.
the respectively adjacent inlets, said rolls being
6. In a combined mixing, milling and pressure
de?ned by smooth surfaces between the respec
creating device for use with a plastic material
tive termination points of said helical feeding
including a pair of housings having a pair of
cooperating platens containing therein a pair of 60 grooves; means independently and controllably
rotating said rolls in timed relationship to each
communicating processing chambers, and a ro
other; whereby the grooved portions of said rolls
tatable roll within each of said chambers, and
in cooperation with the smooth portion of said
feed means at each end of said chambers admit
processing-chamber-de?ning-walls will consti
ting the plastic materials into at least one of said
tute a feeding zone for said plastic materials and
chambers and means axially spaced from said
the smooth portion of said rolls in cooperation
feed means conducting material out from said
with the grooved portion of said processing
chambers, the improvement therein comprising:
chamber-de?ning-walls will constitute a process
a substantially helical groove in the wall of one
ing zone for said material and said rolls will con
of said chambers extending from a point spaced
but near
chamber 70 stitute feeding rolls as well as processing rolls.
9. ma plastic processing machine the com
bination comprising: a horizontally split hous
ing having hingedly connected parts which parts
are provided with facing recesses cooperatively
feed means, and said roll having a helically
a pair of processing chambers whose ad~
grooved portion substantially adjacent the un
to a point spaced from but near the other end of
said chamber leaving ungrooved portions of the
walls of said chambers adjacent each of said
9,619,884‘ .
surfaces are substantially
axially spaced from said feed means conducting
tangent to each other; means de?ning a long
and narrow slot between said chambers provid
ing communication from one to the other; a
material out'from said chambers, the improve
ment therein comprising: a recessed-path in‘- the
wall of one of said chambers arranged around the
roll within said chamberI and at least in part
with a positive lead, extending from a point
spaced from but near the feeding end of said
chamber to a point spaced from but near the
feeding opening through said housing into said
chambers and a discharge opening through said
housing from said chambers at a point axially
' spaced from said feeding opening; the walls of
said chambers being smooth in the region thereof
axially adjacent said feeding opening and beingv
outlet end of said chamber leaving an unrecessed
spirally grooved from a point near said feeding
opening to said discharge opening, the grooves in
said feed means, and said roll having a substan
portion of thewalls of ‘said chambers adjacent
tiallyhelically recessed portion adjacent the un
recessed portion of said chamber wall and having
a smooth portion adjacent the recessed portion
or said chamber wall, the material being fed
being received adjacent the unrecessed portionof
the chamber wall and the recessed portion of said
roll and delivered therefrom to the space between
the recessed portion of said chamber wall and
‘the respective chambers being of opposite hand;
,a roll in each of said chambers approaching. each
other in milling proximity throughout their. re
. spective lengths through said slot, each roll being
spirally grooved in‘a material advancing direc
tion'in the portion thereof axially adjacent the
smooth walls of said chamber and being of
the unrecessed portion of said roll.
15. In a plastic processing machine the com
smooth surface through the rest of its extent, ' means independently rotating said rolls in timed
bination comprising: A" horizontally split hous
ing having hingedly connected parts which parts
are provided with facing recesses'cooperatively
de?ning'a pair of processing chambers whose ad
relationship toeach other.
10. A machine as claimed in claim 1 wherein
the grooves which meet each other in the- wall
of the chamber on the side of said slot opposite
from ‘the outlet are open into said slot, and the
jacent peripheral. surfaces are substantially
tangent to each other; means de?ning a material
exchange opening between said chambers provid
wall of the chamber immediately surrounding the
outlet is ungrooved, whereby no V-ends are pro-1
vided in said grooves wherein plastics material
can accumulate.
11. a machine for processing plastic material
comprising the combination of a pair of juxta
posed rotatabLv mounted smooth rolls, the proxi
mate surfaces of which are parallel, a closely
?tting'cylinder enclosing each roll, a-wall sepa
rating the cylinders but having a slot there
through adjacent the nip of said rolls through
ing communication from one of the other; a feed
ing opening through said housing into said
chambers and a discharge opening through said
housing from said chambers at a point axially ,
spaced from said feeding opening; the walls of
said chambers being spirally grooved from-a
point near said feeding opening to said discharge
opening, the grooves in the respective chambers
being of opposite hand and those grooves in one
of said recesses being offset axially with respect
which said rolls extend in
proximity to
to the grooves in another of said recesses; a roll
each other, an internal substantially spiral
groove in‘_each cylinder which grooves are of 40 in each of said chambers approaching each other
in milling proximity throughout their respective
opposite hand and of such depth that grooves
lengths through said material exchange open
in one cylinder intersect those in the other
ing, each roll being of smooth surface throughout
cylinder at the surfaces de?ning said slot, an
at least its central portion, means independently
inlet through the side of said cylinders at each
end thereof and an outlet through the side of
' rotating said rolls in timed relationship to each
said cylinders intermediate said inlets, means
independently rotating said rolls in timed rela
tion to each other.
16. In a pressure creating device for use with
._ 12. A machine as described in claim 11 wherein
having a pair of cooperating platens containing
therein a pair of communicating processing
a ?uent material including a pair of housings
the-spiral grooves within said cylinders com
mence at points respectively spaced from the
ends thereof and the rolls have spiral grooves
commencing at the ends thereof and extending
chambers, and a rotatable roll within each of
said“ chambers, and feed means at one end of
‘ towards each other a distance sufficient to over?
at least one of said chambersand outlet means
said chambers admitting the ?uent material into
axially spaced from said feed means conducting
sa‘id material out from said chambers, the im
provement therein comprising: a groove in the
wall ‘of one of said chambers arranged around the
cylinders, said inlets being placed to feed raw
roll within said chamber and at least in part with
material directly to the grooved part of said rolls.
00 .a positive lead extending from a point spaced
13. A machine as described in claim 1 wherein
from but near the feedingend of said chamber to
the portions of the grooves which are in one of
a point spaced from but near the outlet end of
said platens are offset axially with respect to the
said chamber leaving an ungrooved portion of
portions of the grooveswhich are‘ in the other
of said platens whereby to effect recirculation of 65 the walls of said chambers adjacent said feed
means, and the portions of said groove in one
portions of the plastic material being processed
platen being o?set axially with respect to the
and improve the mixing thereof.
corresponding portions of the grooves in the
14. In a pressure creating device for use with
other platen a distance other than a distance
a ?uent material including a pair of housings
having a pair of cooperating platens containing 70 equal to one full ?ight of said grooves.
therein a pair of communicating processing
chambers, and a rotatable roll within each of said
chambers, and feed means at one end of said
chambers admitting the- ?uent material into at
leastoneofsaidchambersandoutletmeans 75
(Beferences on following page)
lap at least one ?ight of grooves in said cylin
ders but
smooth the greater portion
.of the rolls adjacent the grooved part of the
The following references are of record In the
me of this
Boyle ____________ __ Apr. 18, 1933
hoomls __________ __ Feb. 12, 1935
Harmer __________ __ May 31, 1938
Grlmths _________ _._ Jan. 16, 1945
H810 ____________ -_ Dec. 17, 1867
Schrader ________ _._ Sept. 10, 1901
B11118? __________ __ M81‘. 26, 1918
Australh _____________ _- of 1943
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