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Патент USA US2530650

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Nov. 21, 1950
M. T. CAHENZLI, JR. ETAL
COMBINATIQN'ACCUMULATOR, HEA'I: EXCHANGER, AND
2,530,648
METERING DEVICE FOR REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS
Filed Sept. 26, 1946
F1255
Patented Nov. 21, 1950
2,530,648
STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,530,648
COMBINATION ACCUMULATOR, HEAT EX
CHANGER, AND METERING DEVICE FOR
REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS
Martin T. Cahenzli, Jr., Chicago, 111., and Glenn
Muf?'y, Spring?eld, Ohio, assignors to The
Harry Alter Company, Chicago, 111., a corpora
tion of Illinois
Application September 26, 1946, Serial No. 699,490
9 Claims. (Cl. 62-126)
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s This invention relates to improvements in a
combination unitlfor refrigerating systems, and
object of the instant invention to provide a heat
exchange arrangement between a metering tube
a minimum of labor in the suction side of a re
and the suction line of a. refrigerating system
that effect an extremely high amount of heat ex
frigerating system, the unit containing means to
change.
more particularly to a unit readily installed with
‘ function as a ‘metering device for ?uid passing
I
Another object of the invention is the provi
through the high pressure side of the system, and
sion of a heat exchange arrangement wherein a
as a. heat exchanger, or in another form as a com
metering tube is associated for heat exchange
bination accumulator, heat exchanger, and me
tering device, although the invention may have
frigerating system in an extremely economical
other uses and purposes as will be apparent to
manner.
purposes with a part of the suction line of a re
Another object of this invention is the provi
It is now'accepted in the trade that a highly
sion of a simple economical combination unit em
satisfactory way of controlling the flow of refrig
bodying both a metering arrangement and a heat
erant from the‘conde'nser to the evaporator in a
exchanging arrangement, which unit may be
refrigerating system is by means of a metering
easily and economically installed in a refrigerat
tube, sometimes referred to as a capillary tube.
ing system with a minimum of labor.
Such a tube restricts the flow of refrigerant by
It is also an object of this invention to provide
virtue of its small internal diameter, by virtue
a combination unit for installation in a refriger
of the shaping of the tube, or by virtue of a com 20 ating system, which unit embodies an accumula
bination of both. It is also desirable to effect a
tor, a metering tube, and a heat exchanging ar
heat exchange in the system so that the liquid
rangement of exceptionally high emciency, the
refrigerant passing to the evaporator may be ini
entire unit being installable at once in the suc
tially chilled to ‘a considerable extent before it
tion line of a refrigerating system.
reaches the evaporator thus lessening the load
It is also a feature of this invention to provide
on the compressor and cutting down the opera
a unit for installation in a refrigerating system,
tion of the mechanically moving parts of the
which embodies a casing for connection in the
system in the event it is an automatic stop and
suction line of the system, and a metering tube
start system; This is most frequently accom
having a goodly portion thereof disposed within
.,plished by associating a portion of the pressure 30 the casing, with the tube so arranged as to pro
lineintimately with'the suction line so that the
vide a minimum amount of restriction to the
refrigerant traveling‘ through the suction line
flow of refrigerant while the major portion of the
becomes warmer'by the extraction of heat from
heat exchange takes place, and to provide a high
the refrigerant in the pressure line.
er restriction to the flow of refrigerant while the
In the past, various arrangements have been 35 remainder and considerably lesser portion of the
provided, to e?ect such a heat exchange, and
heat exchange operation takes place.
these previously known arrangements were ob
Still another ob.ect of this invention resides
jectionable in many instances because of the con
in the provision of a unit for installation in a
siderable expense for their installation, and in
refrigerating system, which unit includes a cas
many instances because they did not eilect heat 40 ing for connection in the suction line of the sys
exchangeto a desirable extent. Di?iculty was
tem, and a metering tube having a goodly portion
frequently experienced in determining whether
1 one skilled in the art.
,
or not the heatexchange installation was warranted when the amount of heat exchange ob
tained was compared with the cost of the installa
tion.
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Refrigerating systems heretofore known have
also been objectionable as to their original cost
by virtue of the numberof separate units incor
thereof disposed inside the casing, that portion
of the metering tube being of uniform size
throughout, and so shaped that the portion
through which refrigerant ?rst passes in travel
ing to the evaporator affords a minimum restric
tion to the flow of refrigerant, while that part of
the tube portion in the casing through which
porated in ‘the system. - That is, where an accu- ~
refrigerant later passes affords a very high re—
mulator, a heat exchanger, and means for con
striction.
trolling the flow of refrigerant were desired, all
While some of the more salient features, char
acteristics and advantages of the instant inven
tion as mentioned have been above pointed out,
others will become apparent from the following
of these were incorporatedin the system as sepa
rate devices. ,
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p I with theforegoing in mind, it is an important
9,580,048
disclosures, taken in conjunction with the ac
companying drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a somewhat diagrammatic view of
a refrigerating system, showing a unit embody
ing principles of the instant invention as con
nected in operative position in the system, the
unit itself being shown in section;
Figure 2 is an enlarged part sectional part ele
vational view of the unit itself removed from
4
slug will thereupon easily and only the gasi?ed
refrigerant will pass through the pipe I! and the
suction line 8 to the compressor, thus avoiding
injury to the compressor by way of a slug of
liquid reaching it.
A goodly portion of the metering tube 4 is dis
posed inside the casing I, and it will be under
stood that where the tube 4 enters and leaves the
casing suitable sealing means are employed.
the refrigerating system;
10 This tube 4, of course, carries liquid refrigerant
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view, with parts
from the condenser I to the evaporator I. The
in elevation, of a unit embodying principles of
tube is designed so that at the same time it car
this invention but of somewhat different con
ries this liquid refrigerant, it meters or governs
struction than that seen in Figures 1 and 2; and
the quantity of liquid refrigerant delivered into
Figure 4 is a transverse vertical sectional view
the evaporator.
through the right hand portion of the metering
Such a tube that is substantially straight or
tube of Figure 3.
wound into a relativeLv large coil requires a con
As shown in the drawings:
siderable length to effect the desired or required
In Figure 1, the ?rst illustrated embodiment
restriction to refrigerant flow. It is therefore
of the instant invention is shown installed in a 20 desirable to shape the tube to increase the re
refrigerating system, diagrammatically illus
striction and thus shorten the length necessary
' trated.
This refrigerating system includes a
for any particular installation. It is easy to
compressor I connected by a suitable ?uid line
place the required length of tubing, shaped to
2 to a condenser 3. The condenser is in turn con
nected through a metering tube 4 to an evapo
rator 5. A portion of the metering tube 4 is in
corporated in the unit generally indicated by
increase restriction, inside the casing 9, and that
25 portion of the tubing inside the casing ! is obvi
ously in heat exchange relationship with the ?uid
passing through the suction line I from the
numeral 6 which embodies improvements of the
evaporator.
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instant invention. This unit is connected in the
A problem is presented in acquiring the opti
suction line of the system so as to form a part of 30 mum amount of heat exchange. If the tube is
that line, and may be connected directly to the
outlet of the evaporator or to an outlet conduit
1 from the evaporator as illustrated, and the op
posite end of the unit is connected to the usual
suction line 8 leading back to the compressor I.
If it is desired to employ a reservoir in associa
tion with the condenser, such may be done, and
the instant invention will not affect the opera
tion of the system including the reservoir in any
degree.
It is, of course, preferable to have the unit
itself disposed as closely to the evaporator as
possible, because the gasi?ed refrigerant leaving
the evaporator is colder in that region. It will
be especially noted that the entire unit may be
incorporated in the refrigerating system with
only one more connection than is required for
the system without the unit.
That would, of
course, be a connection to one end of the unit.
And yet, with the provision of the unit illus
trated in Figures 1 and 2, the system is provided
with an accumulator, a heat exchanger, and a
metering device for controlling the flow of re
frigerant to the evaporator, as will more fully
later appear.
The unit 6 itself embodies a hollow casing 9
highly restricted to refrigerant flow, the pres
sure obviously must drop, and as the pressure
drops the evaporation point or temperature at
which the refrigerant gasi?es also drops. There
fore, while it is known that the temperature is
dropping in the refrigerant under pressure, if that
pressure is permitted to rapidly drop also a com
mon point at which the refrigerant gasi?es will be
reached prematurely, and thereafter there is no
40 need for any further heat exchange, and the re
frigerant is gasifying in the metering tube rather
than in the evaporator to the detrimental oper
‘ation of the entire system.
The instant invention very capably solves this
problem. As seen more clearly in Figure 2, that
portion 44 of the tube 4 inside the casing 9
through which the refrigerant ?rst ?ows is coiled
loosely around the pipe [3. It has been found
that if this coiling is done so as to maintain
an inside coil diameter of one half inch or more
there is negligible restriction caused by the tube
over that of a straight tube. Consequently, the
loosely coiled portion I4 affords minimum restric
tion and thus the high pressure is maintained.
However, while the refrigerant is passing through
the part i4 of the tube 4 the temperature of the
larger than the component parts of the suction
refrigerant is lowered materially by virtue of the
line 8 so as to de?ne an interior chamber to that
heat exchange action. The remainder of the
may function as an accumulator. At one end
thereof the unit is provided with a ?tting H for 00 tube 4 inside the casing 9 is wound in the form
of a tight coil of very small inside diameter,
connection directly to the evaporator outlet or to
and then this coil is in turn coiled around the
an outlet conduit 1 as shown in Figure 1, and at
pipe I: as indicated at I! thus expanding the
the other end the unit is provided with a fitting
turns of the original coil. Coiling a metering
I! for connection with the suction line 8. Inside
tube this fine results in greatly increasing the
the casing 9 is an upwardly inclined pipe l3, one
restrictive powers of the tube. Pressure, ,of
end of which is associated with the ?tting I! in
course, will drop rapidly in the portion ii of the
such manner that the pipe forms substantially
tube, but by the time the pressure is dropping
an integral part of the suction line. The oppo
in
that portion of ‘the tube, the temperature of
site end of the pipe is disposed at a high point,
the refrigerant has been so materially reduced
desirably above the ?tting H, and this end of 70 that gasifying of the refrigerant cannot occur.
the pipe is freely open. Consequently, if upon
Thus the refrigerant will not vaporize until it
the sudden starting of the compressor I, a slug
reaches the evaporator, or only to a negligible
of liquid refrigerant is withdrawn from the evap
extent immediately before it reaches the evap
orator, that slug will pass through the ?tting H
orator. At the same time, a great amount of
and fall to the bottom of the chamber ll. The 75 heat exchange has been e?ected and the elli
.
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ciency of the entire system is thereby materially
increased. Aconsiderably ‘greater amount of
heat exchange can be effected with the inven
tion‘ as above described than has heretofore been
accomplished by previously known means.
In most instances in actual practice, there will
be a suflicient length, of tube 4' projecting from
details of construction may be varied through a
wide range without departing from the principles
of this invention and it is, therefore, not the pur
pose to limit the patent granted hereon otherwise
than necessitated bythe scope of the appended
claims.
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We claim as our invention:
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the unit 6 to establish connection with the evap
l. A combined metering tube and‘ heat ‘ex
orator and the condenser. Thus it can be seen
changer unit for connection in a, refrigerating
that the entire unit is extremely economical, and 10 system. including a housing arranged for‘con
veryeasily installed in a refrigerating system,
nection near the evaporator in the suction side
providing an accumulator, a heat exchanger, and
of the system, and a metering tube for con
a metering device all in the one unit.
nection in the pressure side of the system, ‘said
In Figures 3 and 4-1 have illustrated another
tube having'a relatively large portion thereof
unit vIi, which, embodies only a heat exchanger 15 inside said housing, said portion on the incoming
sideaffording relatively low restriction and on the
and a metering device. This unit is highly satis
factory in the event an accumulator is not de
sired“ Unit I 6 embodies a casing ll which may
beconnected to the aforesaid outlet conduit 1
outlet side being coiled into a coil of small inside
diameter to provide high restriction to the .flow
of refrigerant.
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2. A combined metering tube and heat ex
changer unit for connection in a'refrigerating
end to the suction line 8, as above described. * In
system, including a housing arranged ‘for con
side the casing H a goodly portion of a meter
nection near the evaporator in the suction side
ing tube in is disposed. The part of that por
of the system, and a metering ‘tube for con
tion through which the refrigerant ?rst travels
is in the form of a, loosely wound coil Ila of 25 nection in the pressure side of the system, a por
tion of said tube being within said housing, a
sufficiently great diameter as to provide a mini
part of said portion on the incoming side being
mum amount of restriction. The remainder of
coiled with a sufficiently large diameter to afford
that portion of the tube is in the form of a coiled
little restriction, and the part of said portion
coil i5a, the original coil of which has an ex
tremely small diameter so that restriction is very 30 on the outlet side being coiled into a coil of small
inside .diameter to provide high restriction to the
high, and the original coil is itself coiled as above
' flow of refrigerant.
explained to occupy a ‘smaller space and to ex
3. A combined metering tube and heat ‘ ex
pand the turns of the original coil as illustrated
changer unit, for connection in a refrigerating
at I8 in Figure 4. The showing in Figure 4 in
sofar as actual structure is concerned applies 35 system, including a, housing arranged for con
nection near the evaporator in the suction side
equally as well to the portion ii of the meter
of the system, and a metering tube, for con
ing tube seen in Figure 2 as it does to portion
nection in the pressure side of the system, a por
l5a of. the metering tube seen in Figure 3. With
tion of saidtube being within said housing, a
the structure of Figure 3, the operation issub
stantially the same as above described except 40 part of said portion on the incoming side being
coiled with a su?iciently large diameter to afford
that there is no accumulator action, and the same
high amount of heat exchange is effected.
little restriction, and the part of said portion on
the outlet side being coiled and recoiled in a
Of course, in both embodiments of the inven
manner to expand the loops of the ?rst coil to
tion there will be some restriction to the ?ow
of refrigerant in the parts It and Ila of the 45 provide high restriction and added surface ex
posure of the tube.
.
tubes 4 and 4a respectively, but as above stated
4. A combined metering tube and heat ex
that restriction is of very little amount in com
changer unit for connection in a refrigerating
parison with the restriction occurrent in the por
system, including a housing arranged for con
tions 15 and lid of these tubes. Of course, in
the overall installation the restriction in the 50 nection near the evaporator in the suction side of
portions l4 and Ma as well as the parts of the
the system, and a metering tube for connection in
respective tubes outside the casings is taken into
the pressure side of the system, said tube having
a relatively large portion inside said housing,
consideration in determining the total amount
said portion on the incoming side a?ording rela
of restriction desired before the refrigerant
reaches the evaporator. This amount of re
tively low restriction and on the outlet side being
coiled into a coil of small inside diameter to pro
striction, however, is very easily established
vide high restriction to the ?ow of refrigerant,
by virtue of the fact that the portions l4 and Ma
of the respective tubes afford substantially no
said metering tube being of the same size through
out said portion.
more restriction than does a straight length of
tube. Since by far the greater amount of re
5. A combination unit for inclusion in a re
frigerating system, comprising a casing, a ?tting
striction occurs in the portions l5 and [5a varia
on each end of said casing connecting the casing
tions to ?t different systems may readily be made
here.
in the suction side of a refrigerating system, an
upwardly inclined open ended pipe in said casing
From the foregoing, it is apparent that I have
provided a novel and highly efficient unit for in
and connected to the ?tting on the compressor
corporation in a refrigerating system. The unit
side of said casing, and a metering tube for con
nection in the high pressure side of a refriger
may be easily installed, and effects an extremely
high degree of heat exchange as well as providing
ating system, a portion of said tube being inside
said casing, a part of said portion being loosely
adequate metering means for controlling the flow
of refrigerant to an evaporator. If so desired,
wound around said pipe in a coil sufficiently large
from the evaporator at one end and at the other 20
the unit may be made to function as an accumu
lator as well. The entire unit is simple in con
to provide a minimum of restriction to the flow
of refrigerant and the remainder of said portion
being wound into a coil of sufficiently small
struction, highly durable and economical to manu
facture.
diameter to provide high restriction.
It will, of course, be understood that various 75 6. A combination unit for inclusion in a re
asses“
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7
.
a
frigersting system. comprising a casing. a ?tting
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drop in temperature of the reirigerant therein.
andapartofsaidportionbeingfirmlyeoiled
on each end of said casing for connecting the
casing in the suction side of a refrigerating sys
tem, an upwardly inclined open ended pipe in
said casing and connected to the fitting on the
compressor side of said casing, and a metering
tube for connection in the high pressure side of
a refrigerating system. a portion of said tube
being inside said casing, a part of said portion '
being loosely wound around said pipe in a coil 10
to provide high restriction to the flow of refrig
erant, said tube being of the same internal di
ameter throughout said portion.
9. In a combination unit for incorporation in
the suction side of a refrigerating‘ system, a hol
low casing through which refrigerant may pass
sufficiently large to provide a minimum of restric
in returning from the evaporator to the com
pressor, and a metering tube through which re
frigerant may flow to the evaporator, a portion
tion to the flow of refrigerant and the remainder
of said tube extending inside said casing, a part
of said portion being wound into a coil of suffi
ciently small diameter to provide high restric
tion, said small diameter coil being coiled about
mum restriction and of ‘a material length suffi
cient to cause a substantial drop in temperature
of said portion being arranged to provide mini
said pipe in a manner to separate the turns of
the small diameter coil.
7. In a combination accumulator, heat ex
of the refrigerant therein, and another part of
said portion being arranged to provide high re
striction to the flow of refrigerant therethrough,
changing and metering unit for a refrigerating
said last mentioned part being associated with
system, a hollow casing for connection in the 20 the outlet end of said portion.
suction side of the system, a metering tube for
MARTIN T. CAHENZLI, JR.
connection in the high pressure side of the system,
GLENN HUI-‘FLY.
and a portion of said tube being inside said cas
ing, a part of said portion being loosely arranged
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
file of this patent:
to provide minimum restriction and of a mate
rial length sufficient to cause a substantial drop
in temperature of the refrigerant therein, and a
part of said portion being ?nely coiled to pro
vide high restriction to the flow of refrigerant.
8. In a combination accumulator, heat ex
changing and metering unit for a refrigerating
system, a hollow casing for connection in the
suction side of the system, a metering tube for
connection in the high pressure side of the sys
tem, and a portion of said tube being inside said
casing, 'a part of said portion being loosely ar
ranged to provide minimum restriction and of
a material length sumcient to cause a substantial
UNITED STATES PATENTS '
so
Number
2,181,416
2,188,893
2,393,854
2,455,298
Number
11,177
Name
7
Date
Boles ____________ __ Nov. 28, 1939
Philipp __________ __ Jan. 30, 1940
Carpenter _______ _- Jan. 29, 1946
Cahenzli ________ __ Nov. 30, 1948
FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
Great Britain .......... _.;-_ 1896
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