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Патент USA US2537697

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Jan. 9, 1951
o. o. oAKs '
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed June 22, 1946
Jan. 9, 1951
o. o. OAKS
Filed June 22; 1946
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Jan. 9, i951 ,
-0rion.0. Oaks, ,Summit, Nrlwassignor, by mesne
assignments, to -'_i‘hermal Liquids, Inc., New
York,'N. ‘Y.,' a corporationof Delaware
AppIica'tiOn‘June-ZZ, 1946J'Se1‘ial No. 6723;626
1 Claim.
(01. ’ 123—41.1)
The xpresentsinvention relates to improved in
ternal combustion engines.
More particularly, the invention is directed ?to
.tion, all-danger of solidi?cation vof the cooling
improved combustion engines 'employinga liquid
of ztheacharacter ‘of tetracresylsilicate servingras -
the ‘cooling medium which is circulated in ‘the
cooling channel circuit Yof the‘ internal combus
medium due to .treezing .or still lower outer at
mosphericftemperature, is'obviated, and hence no
anti-freeze material is required :underlow tem
~perature expo-sure. Also, rinhibiting r-materials
commonly employed, ‘pursuant to :present prac
tice, are :not needed.
‘tioni engines such-as spark ignited internal‘com
An outstanding advantage- of the invention vis
bustion engines of thetypes commonly employed
that ‘incrustation-or =other deposit of impurities
:in the propulsion.ofrautomobiles, airplanes, and 10 commonly experienced initheause of water as the
the like,. also :forDieselengines, jet _ propelled en
cooling medium, is wholly eliminated. This ad
gines, etc.
vantage is~of particular value in the-cooling of
Outstanding characteristics of tetracresylsili
Diesel engines, the range ‘of operation tempera
pate serving asrsuch cooling medium‘ are its-boiling
»tures frequently exceeding 1000° F.
‘ point-of ‘approximately-:8l'7°-825°
its lowsolidi
:Anotheroutstanding ‘advantage, ,pursuant to
‘Tying or freezing point below <—65° F.,"at which
the inventiom is that the \engine, particularly ‘of
last named temperature it becomes viscous, its
the automotive :type, ~ma-y :be operated over a
‘speci?c gravity of 1513, its vspeci?c heat of .43, its
higher range of temperature, :attended by an in- low coe?icient of expansion? approximately .000047
* crease; in .eiiiciencyiand - consequent-reduced con
per ‘1° F., its non-poisonous, non-explosive, and 20 sumptionnf vfuel and \ lower . range 1of :reduction :of
‘non-toxic attributes, and itsnon-corrosive char
temperatureof the cooling medium in the course
acteristics with respect toacoppel‘, steel, iron, rub
of its circulation, thus reducing the requiredheat
vber and other materials commonly employed in
vexchange suriacerof themadiatoreor other supple
engineconstruetion of the types above named.
mental =cooling device. ‘.Such reduced ‘heat ex
Tetracresylsilicate possesses the further ‘ad 25 change surface of the ~.radiator and consequent
vantage that throughout the range of temperature
reduced. size. and weight enables the radiator to be
to which the cooling medium, pursuant .to the in
directly supported upon -orintegral:withthe- en
vention, is subjected in‘the operation of internal
:xgineblockpin.the'instanceof-the. automotive types
combustion engines,includingDiesel types of in
of engines, and markedly-lowered-cost of cooling
ternal combustion ‘engines, vaporization of the .‘
cooling medium is practically negligible.
By reason of the stated»characteristicsof cool
in ~ the instance ofDiesel types of :engines.
:Among .nther substances of general character
. f tetracresylsilicate asacoolingmedium, pursu
ing media, vpursuant to the invention, the usual
antto the invention, is tricresyl-phosphate, the
over?ow pipe necessary when water serves'as the
propertiesof whichinclude maintenanceof. liquid
cooling medium is eliminated. ‘Replenishment of
statusfrom -—.65°
the-cooling medium, pursuant to the invention,
is not required, obviating the needof any re?lling.
.In coorerationvwith a cooling medium,‘pursuant
to preferred practice of the invention, provision
is made for maintaining substantially uniform
at which itis viscous, to
750° F., non-tom'ty, .non-corrosiVe-ness .to iron,
steel, brass, cop-per. andrubber, -a speci?c gravity
of 1.12, a speci?c heatof .45 and. boiling-,point'of
Ingeneral,cooling,mediaapplicable to the in
pressure effective upon the cooling medium
vention possess .thecattributes .of having. a solidi
throughout therange of operation of the-engine.
iying temperature :below the ‘minimum tempera
‘ Such provision of uniform pressure is 1 preferably
ture, of the outer ~=atmosphere at the location of
in the form of‘suitable =va1ve meansautomatically
--operative~irom stage .tovstage of variation of the
temiteratureof .the cooling medium incident to
variation of the rate 'of‘operation of the engine,
use vof ~ the improved internal “combustion engine,
a boiling ,pcintexceeding 300°
within which
temperaturemange of such solidifying point and
.;as Well as during 'the stage of starting from
toiling-point the vaporization of the cooling me
~~.dium is- substantially negligible, also nonecorro
‘fcold” and during the stage between “shutting
'o?’lof the engine and consequent loweringof the
temperature of the engineblocl: and of the-cool
ing medium from operating temperature ,to that
of thesurrounding atmosphere.
.As appears fromtheabove, and referred to more
sire with respect 'to :steel, iron, copper, brass,
bronze ‘and the like, and “to ‘rubber and other
materials employed-lathe structure of the cooling
channel circuit, also non-explosive and non-toxic,
and desirably also non-poisonous, and further
having such coe?icient of expansion that when
speci?cally hereinafter, pursuant @to ,the .~inven_-. 5.5. raised, to the maximum range of temperature
radiator H being mounted stationarily relative
to the chassis of the automobile and the engine
at the stage of operation of the combustion en
gine, the expanded volume of the cooling medium
'is less than the capacity of the cooling channel
circuit, assuming that the volume of such cool
ing medium charged into the cooling channel cir
cuit at atmospheric temperature is su?icient to
form therein a substantially continuous body of
the cooling medium to afford circulation of the
l8 mounted on a cushion pad or equivalent, sup
ported by the chassis, in which forms of indi
vidual mountings of the radiator and engine, the
connections [3 and 16 are of ?exible material,
usually of rubber hose.
Pursuant to my invention, tetracresylsilicate
is employed as the cooling medium, which is
suitably supplied to the engine-radiator assem
bly, illustrated as utilizing the usual ?lling open
ing Ha, see Figs. 3, 4 and 5, advantageously lo
cated at or adjacent the top of the radiator I I.
The volume of tetracresylsilicate charged into
the cooling channel circuit of the engine-radiator
cooling medium in the cooling channel circuit.
In addition the cooling medium possesses the
characteristic of being immune to oxidization by
air, with or without the presence of moisture or
water, within the full range of temperature of
the full gamut of operation and non-operation
of the combustion engine.
assembly, namely at outer atmospheric tempera
Further features and obiects of the invention
will be more fully understood from the following
ture, is less than the over-all volume of the in
terior of the cooling channel circuit, but suffi
detailed description and the accompanying draw
ings, in which:
Fig. l is aside elevation of an internal combus
cient to form a continuous mass of the cooling
enlarged scale, of the valve component of the
nel circuit, pursuant to the invention, there is
medium to a?ord circulation of the cooling medi
um‘ by the pump, air ?lling any remainder of
tion engine, of the general type employed in auto
the cooling channel circuit, which may include
mobiles, equipped with my invention.
the upper compartment of the radiator ll.
Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of the radia
At such opening Ha, or equivalent opening
tor shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a detailed central sectional view, on an ‘ - leading to the upper portion of the cooling chan
provided valve means V serving to release the
embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1. This view il
lustrates the positions of the parts of the valve
means at the stage of non-operation of the en
gine and also at the stage of normal operation
of the engine.
Fig. 4 is a central sectional elevation similar to
air internally of the cooling channel circuit, while
excluding entry of the outer atmospheric air,
during the stage of starting the engine, at which
stage the engine parts are heated'and therewith
the cooling medium, serving also to restrict entry
of the outer atmospheric air during the stage of
that of Fig. 3, but showing the positions of the
parts of the valve means at the stages of starting
of the engine and during the period from starting
toward the stage of normal operation.
Fig. 5 is a central sectional elevation similar to
normal operation of the engine, and also to af
ford entry of the outer atmosphere inwardly of
the cooling channel circuit during the stage of
stopping the engine and subsequent stage of the
cooling of the cooling medium and of the air
Figs. 3 and 4, but illustrating the positions of the
internally of the cooling channel circuit.
parts of the valve means during the stage of
The valve means serves throughout the stages
shutting off of the engine and the cooling of the ~50
of starting and of normal operation and also of
cooling medium to the outer atmospheric tem
stopping and consequent cooling of the engine
and appurtenant parts to maintain substantial
Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional elevation of a Diesel
ly uniform pressure within the cooling circuit
type of engine equipped with my invention.
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic elevation of an im- . substantially equal to that of the outer atmos
proved internal combustion engine, shown of the
By such construction and operation of my
automotive type, equipped with a radiator of re
duced heat exchange surfaces and supported
valve means, the rate of circulation of the 'cool- '
unitarily with the engine block.
ing medium, effected by the indicated pump 48,
or equivalent, is maintained in correspondence to
Referring to Figs. 1 through 5, ID designates
‘ generally a type of engine illustrated as an inter
the rate of drive of the automobile or other ve
the outlet of the radiator, indicated at l5, shown
connected by the hose It to the pipe ll, then
through the pump l8, then to the inlet of and
hicle powered by the engine, and the pressure of
the air inwardly of the cooling channel circuit
is maintained substantially uniform, notwith
standing that the temperature of the cooling
medium ranges from that of the outer atmos
phere, namely, at the stage of starting of the
engine, to an over-all operating temperature de
pending upon the rate of drive of the engine.
Also, by virtue of the valve means access of
moisture, rain or the like Within the cooling chan
nel circuit is substantially precluded. It will he
observed that in the circumstance that when any
outer atmospheric air enters through the valve
means, as when the engine has been stopped, the
high temperature of the cooling medium evap
‘ through the cooling channels of the engine block,
orates any moisture or rain entrained with such
nal combustion motor conventionally employed
for automobiles. I I indicates typically a radiator
commonly employed with such automobile type
of engine.v Such conventional type of internal
combustion engine, as illustrated in Fig. l, in
cludes a cooling channel circuit comprising the
channels formed in the engine block for the pas
sage of the cooling medium, the out?ow port of
which is indicated at !2 leading to the hose l3,
shown as of rubber, then through the chamber
j M to the upper compartment of the radiator II,
thence through the radiator, discharging through
entered air through the valve means, thus" dis
charging all moisture from the coolingv channel
pump is indicated as driven by a countershaft 70 circuit and preserving the integrity o?the cooling
which concomitantly drives the fan (9, which co
A preferred form of my valve means is illus
operates With the radiator in the cooling of the
trated in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Such preferred enr
cooling medium.
bodiment of my valve means comp-rises a cap 28,
Fig. 1 illustrate also the typical individual sup
in return path to the radiator. As shown, and
typical of many automobile types of motors, the
ports of the engine I0 and the radiator H, the
shown detachably mounted on the tube 2!, the
'cap:20 ‘and. the tube :2 l sbeingarranged'ito maker's
sealing closure "with the opening “Ha. ‘Sealed
withinianiopening?naiin ithescap 28 1is zaiciroular
‘hollow housing 122 "which; is :provided ‘internally
sequent <coo1ing~zof :the 2cooling liquid, the mom‘
withaan :- annular/seat :23 upon which rests the
channel circuit and :the "therein contained ‘lair
effects :a vreduction {of pressurerinwardly io'f "the
p'on'entparts {of : my valve means itake'itheir :posi
tions. indicatedxinéFig. 5. suchishuttingro?itofiithe
engine and-‘cooling 'offthewinterioriof the cooling
'circular'valve plate :25, ‘normally held by the
expansile spring i'l?-iinasealingengagement there
‘with. The valve :platei? .is'iprovided-w-ith the
cooling channel circuit, the :thusrgreatenpressure
offthe outer atmosphere'causing an inwardiz?ow
‘opening :25 'which aiioriis communication ee
of :the router za'ir, indicated vrby the {arrows {411,
tween “the interior :22a of Zthe lower gcircularipor 10 through the vapertures 33, ‘it-hence through vthe
tion .ef the "valves-‘housing randithesinterior ;oi “the
opening 2950f the valve seat 28,:indicated?ayithe
annular‘asubmousing J21, i'forme'cl inward-1y" within
varrows e41, ia?orde‘d fby fdisplacernen't of ‘the
theupper portion ‘ofrthahousing '212. Viithirnthe
movable @valve member 11311 ‘againstitsrexpansile
sub-housing ‘=21? :is iproviue'd ‘the circular *valve
spring :31 ,Tthenoe about the ‘amovable'wa'lve mem
‘seat 128, shown iscrew~threacledly is'eate'd aat'the 1
ber £9, 'Lthen throughlthe-fopening :25 of ‘thelval-"ve
upper terminus of the circular wall Iri'f theiisub
Ipla‘te32'4, :andf?nally into" the v-upper'ir'egion ‘of ‘the
‘housingiz'i; ithe yalve’seatihas awalve ripening-129,
cooling channel circuit, ‘such flow of the inward
with iwhichroo‘perat'e's "the im'ova‘ole “valve zmem~
air being continued [until ‘the status of l‘equali-za- 7
‘her 130, snormal-ly 1biased by the ‘expansile spring
tion ofapressureriand:eventual- cooling-oi‘
31 to ~tclo'se the "valve opening 229. V
ing liquid to the temperature 1of v“the puter air
Il‘ibout circular
@the circular
‘wall Io'fTthe
wall pfupper‘portioneofithe
the sub-‘housing
IDesira'bly, ithe-<cap'1‘-20 »is secured imposition on
the "head ‘of the-tube Q'Fby bayonet ‘joint assem
housing "2-2 ,1 is ‘ thus fformed an rannularfchamher
'32 ‘which i is ‘provided T‘With one or -;more openings
533,1le'aiiing tolthe outer-atmosphere. "The upper .
T-Figjliillustraies at [it the“ employment ‘of can
end of thei‘h'ousin'g '22 of the *va'lve ‘means is
sealed by the cap 35 shownatta‘che'clito*the' upper
‘expansion vtank, l'the ' use or which ‘is -'optional, ‘as
proven =-"by actual "tests'in‘i‘the~Qperation “of an
portion ' of 2the ihousing by'ma'ting screw ithr'eari
automotive type of engine‘uniier’c‘ommerciarcon
.in'g. Conveniently the expansile spring 5-25 v‘is
"housed in ‘the annular chamber
itYisfiiesirabletoprovide4a sieve-or like element‘
‘as isYinclieated-at 113 in Fig."3,-'to exclude [dust-or
'ditions, since the *d-im-ens'ion-s of ‘the ‘upper’com
partment of a-conventional ra‘diator aiior‘dsisxii
?cient- expansion of tetracresyl-silicate ‘employed
as -’the"‘cooling'medium. ‘ In ‘all "events, su?ioient
other fore'ignmatter. '
capacity '“for expansion - of 'tetracresylsilica'te or
Fig. ‘3- illustrates *the'positicns of'the component
other cooling'mediaso'f‘llke characteristics is af
par-ts or the ‘valve means at the ‘stage of 'non— 35 forded by ‘providing sii?icient ‘capacity “in ‘the
operation-of *the-‘enginepat which staggers cool“
upper compartment
ing ‘medium is‘ at ‘the temperature ' of the ‘outer
‘ In the employment‘ Ora ‘radiator ‘of'ilesserf‘heat
exchange surfaces ‘ and "consequent "lessenweight.
‘such ‘radiator 'may 'be mounted upon ‘the "same
atmosphere. vUniier such ‘condition, anil assum
ing that the proper-amountofccoling<metiium
has been charged into the cooling channél’m'eans, 40 support‘als ‘the 'enginef'bl'o‘ck "and. " additionally ob;
upon ‘starting the-eng'in'a-‘the‘temperature voffthe
cooling medium'isgradually raisedfincluding‘that
viate the use of rubber ‘tubingfsu'c'h ‘as ‘indicated
at 13 and i6, asyvill "oe'more vfully set‘fo'rthin
of the air within ' the cooling 1 channel ' circuit,’ and
connection with Fig. ‘ '7.
‘ The invention isnppli‘cableailso tcYDiesel‘types
accordingly ‘upon * the heating ‘of such "inwardly
'containe'ii'air, its‘ ‘pressure islin'creasedfthus caus- .L 3 of internal ‘combustion ‘engines, as "is‘in'dic'ated in
‘ing the rise'of thevalve‘men'iber '28- above‘ its valve
seat ‘23, affording “?ow ‘of the heated "air v‘aloout
'the'valv'e‘member l2'2, throughthe annular cham
Fig.6. 45 indicates 'generallyithe Diesel vengine
which ‘maybe ‘of any speci?c construction and
organization .as mayhegpreferreil, provided with
ber ‘32 and escape through‘the'openings‘33'into
the’outer“atm'ospheregas indicated by’the arrows
a water ,jacke't including ‘the channels ‘45 which
35, "as indicated 'in'Fig. '4.
cooling channel circuit being indicated at J51,
shown connected tothetpipe?iiiand inturnto'Tthe
outlet of the rpumpilll?. An outlet'oftheicooling
channel circuit is indicated at "51], shown con
surround/the respective cylinders, an'inletjo'f- such
"The positions "of the component ‘parts of "the
valve-means during the stage of starting ofithe
engine to ‘the stage of normal operation are in
dicated in Fig; 4.
. nec-tedl‘by the pipe'?l with theiTecouplingjlone
Upon attaining normal operation of the engine,
end-- of which connects w'iththe . pipe 353 leading its
_the component parts of ‘my valve 'means are in‘
the coil ‘152i, shown'honsed .Wii'hinthe casing ‘.55 to")?
their respective positions as shownin "Fig. ‘3 in
the cooler, the interior :of :the casing 55 Ibeing
which status *under vthe 'conditionv'of'increase in
suppliediivith cooling liquid, usuallyvcoo‘l or chilled
watensuppliéd, say, throughwtheinletpipe Bland
temperature of the cooling medium, incident to
operating the engine at higher speed, escape of
discharging-through the outletipipe?l ‘The-re,
air 'ithroughmy valve means ensues similarly as
maining end of “the ,T-coupling l 52 ‘leads through
the-pipeligito.theiexpansion tank 59 whichismro
viclecl at its upper opening £0 with the-valvemeans
durin‘g'th‘e stage of starting from “cold” ‘to the
stage‘of normal operation, as Iin'dicatediin Fig. 4
and as above described.
vDuring the stage of operation pf the engine,
theLh'eat transmitted'through the 'enginellhlock‘lto
the lcoo'ling medium in the coolingichannell circuit
is reduceu during its transit through the radiator,
the reduction'being brought about-by thermal ex—
change ‘with the outer
contacting the heat
exchange surfaces of-the radiator, as in-thei-in
stance of an automobile or like vehicle in transit,
enhanced by the circulation of the fan.
. At the stage of stopping of the engine and con
a. w '
V ‘constructed .in respect : to its i-cornponentlparts
andloperating- correspondinglyzasthe valveimeans
=V' hereinabovei described 1and illustrated in apre
ferred embodiment in-Eigs. .3, I4 :and?. vThelower
endofthecoili?liis connect-ecl-totheinlet of the
pump 49,; as indicated in “Fig 5.
,In the practice .of the .-invention, vthe=coo1ing
‘medium, in ‘the operation of ‘an “automobile
equipped vwith ‘a conventional spark-ignited ‘in
ternal combustion engine, having its engine block
of cast iron, and co-ordinated with a conventional
radiator and conventionally geared fan and pump,
energy generated by the combustion is converted
ranges in temperature from approximately 214°
into delivered power of the engine.
F. to approximately 230° F. in its course of circu
lation. In the practice of the invention in the
operation of a Diesel type of internal combustion
The invention resides also in the improved as‘
sembly of an engine block, illustrated in Fig. 7
as of the automotive type, indicated generally
10, and a radiator 65 of reduced heat exchange
engine, the temperature of the cooling medium
ranges from approximately 100°‘F. to approxi
mately 300° F. By virtue of the valve means
communicating with the upper compartment of
the radiator, in the instance of the stated type of
automotive engine, and with an‘ upper portion
of' the cooling circuit, in the instance of the
Diesel type of combustion engine, the pressure of
the air in the cooling circuit is maintained sub
stantially uniform at approximately the pressure
of the outer atmospheric air whereby the cooling
medium pursuant to the invention is circulated
without entrapment of air and consequently af
fording free circulation of the COOllllg medium.
surfaces supported unitarily with the engine
block as by support of the radiator by the in?ow
tube 66 and out?ow tube 61 forming part of the
cooling circuit, the engine block being per se sup
ported upon a resilient pad or' equivalent, the
upper compartment of the'radiator 65 being pro
vided with the above set forth valve means V,
having the construction and operating as here
inabove described and as illustrated on enlarged
scale in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. In such construction,
to insure su?icient capacity for the expansion of
p the cooling medium, it is preferable to provide an
expansion chamber 59 co-ordinated with the valve
means V, similarly as is illustrated in Fig. 6.
Such improved radiator is suitably located with
respect to a fan 19, in the assembly of internal
combustion engines of the automotive type.
The engine is equipped otherwise with conven
tional appurtenant parts such as the pump (not
In the instance of the operation of a Diesel en- ‘
gine, pursuant to the invention, upon circulation
of the cooling medium the air within thecooling
circuit is maintained above the level of the cool
ing medium in the expansion tank and at a pres
sure substantially that of the outer atmosphere,
notwithstanding variation of temperature of the
cooling medium due to variation of rate of opera
shown) for circulating the cooling medium, and
other appurtenant parts.
The invention is also applicable for internal
Predicated upon the results of tests in the op
combustion engines employed on airplanes, the
eration of an automobile equipped with the in 30 engines or motors of many types of which are not
vention, a gain of over 50 per cent in mileage per
provided with fans, the extent of heat exchange
tion of the Diesel engine.
gallon of gasoline was attained over a total run
These tests proved also the immunity of tetracre
sylsilicate to cast iron, steel, brass, rubber and
surfaces of the radiator being selected'to effect
adequate cooling of the cooling medium to pro
vide e?icient operation of the engine or motor,'in
which construction the employment of tetracre
sylsilicate or equivalent cooling medium by virtue
other materials conventionally used in the cool
of the reduced range of cooling of such cooling
ing channel circuit, also the absence of depletion
of the tetracresylsilicate, attainment of uniform
mental cooling instrumentality.
of over 3,000 miles of operation of the automo
bile at a speed not exceeding 40 miles per hour.
medium a?ords the omission of a fan as a supple
pressure of the air within the upper compartment 40
of the radiator, higher rate of transfer of heat
from the engine cylinders to the cooling medium,
lower power loss in cooling of the cooling medium,
substantiating the practical use of a radiator of
materially less surface area of radiation and con
sequent lesser weight of radiator, as well as total
absence of solidi?cation of the cooling medium
at low atmospheric temperature and absence of
boiling of the cooling medium, and the mainte
nance of integrity of the cooling medium through
out the total run.
The invention is of outstanding advantage in
I claim:
In a closed cooling system for an internal com
bustion engine'using an organic silicate as the
liquid heat transfer medium and including an in
ternal combustion engine having passages for the
. heat transfer medium,~ a radiator for cooling the
heat transfer medium, and upper and lower con
nections between the radiator and the passages
of the internal combustion engine, an expansion
‘tank connected in said upper connection, a nor
mally closed pressure and vacuum relief valve
connected in the radiator and means for circu
lating the organic silicate through the closed sys
the cooling of Diesel engines, by virtue of the
maintenance of integrity of the cooling medium
‘at the high range of temperature to which the
cooling medium is subjected in the combustion
of the fuel-air mixtures pursuant to the. Diesel
principle, and without giving rise to any incrusta
tion or other deposit within the cooling circuit,
?le of this ‘patent:
The following references are of record in the
absence of corrosion of metal and other material
of the component parts of the cooling circuit,
‘absence of evaporation of the cooling medium
and. consequent avoidance of replenishment of the
cooling medium, and increased conversion of heat
energy into power output of the engine.
From the above, it is apparent thatthe in
vention provides for an improved internal com
bustion engine employing a cooling medium of
the stated character and providing eil’ective cool
ing of the concerned engine parts to afford sub
stantially complete combustion of‘ the fuel, either
'by spark ignition or by pressure explosion, and
adequate lubrication by the lubricating oil em;
ployed, whereby an increase invpercentage of the
Tower ______________ Nov. 3, 1914
Muir ____________ __ July 29, 1919
Moss ____________ __ May 22,
Williams _________ __ Dec. 18,
Geisse ___________ __ Feb. 16,
Fedders __________ __ June 3,
.Johnston ________ __ Nov. 23,
Newcombe _____ ____ __ July 18,
' 497,056
Date _
Great Britain _________ __n.___ 1938
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