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Патент USA US2544742

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March 13, 1951
A. A. VARELA
2,544,741
MEANS FOR EXPANDING A RECEIVED PULSE RADIO SIGNAL
Filed Oct. 27, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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March 13, 1951
2,544,741
A. A. VARELA
MEANS FOR EXPANDING A RECEIVED PULSE'RADIO SIGNAL
Filed Oct. 27, 1938
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
11.1323
5/
INVENTOR
Arthur A. T/arél 0.
av
ATTORNEY
Patented Mar. 13, 1951
2,544,741
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,544,741
MEANS FOR EXPANDING A RECEIVED
PULSE RADIO SIGNAL
Arthur A. Varela, Washington, D. 0.
Application October 27, 1938, Serial N0. 237,222
16 Claims. (01. 250—8)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370‘ 0. G. 757)
2
This invention relates to means for producing
an output of relatively high power and long dura
tion in comparison with the power level and
duration of a radio pulse signal of extremely
This invention has some points of similarity
to that set forth in my co-pending application‘
Serial No. 237,221, ?led October 27, 1938. The
principal advantage of the system herein de
short duration.
scribed over that forming the subject of my said
Among the several objects of this invention
co-pending application lies in the higher power
are:
gain. Also, the present system may be used at
To provide radio receiver circuits whereby a
low radio frequencies, where the system of my
very short received signal may be expanded into
said co-pending application would not be desir
an output signal persisting for a relatively long 10 able.
time after cessation of the received signal;
Transmitters adapted for used with this in
To produce an output of considerable power
vention are described in the application of R. M.
in response to a received signal of low power;
Page, Serial No. 223,503, ?led August 6, 1938, now
To convert a signal of very high frequency and
Patent No. 2,541,092 issued February 13, 1951.
extremely short duration into a response at audio 15 The only adjustment of such transmitters neces
frequency and of appreciable duration.
sary to make them usable with thisinvention is
In the drawings:
that the pulsing rate of the transmitter be ?xed
Fig. 1 depicts schematically one form of my
so that one pulse is transmitted for a dot and
invention;
three for a dash.
Fig. 2 shows by graphs the relative duration 20
of a received pulse and the response produced
thereby, together with certain voltage relations
involved;
’
Brie?y stated, the receiver shown in Fig. 1 con
sists of a self-quenching oscillator in which oscil
lation is initiated by the received pulse. During
oscillation this oscillator produces a reduced bias
Fig. 3 shows schematically a further embodi
on a second oscillator operating at audio fre
ment of the present invention wherein the energy 25 quency, thereby causing the second oscillator to,
in the system is twice recti?ed.
cut elf after quenching of the first oscillator is
The present invention is adaptable to all fre
quency bands and to wire telegraph communica
tion, but has particular application in high fret
quency radio communication and control in which
it is desired to use very low power in the trans
mitter and simple transmitting equipment.
My invention has further application in ex
tending the upper frequency limit of communica
tion with superfrequency negative grid transmit
ters in that oscillation in the transmitter exists
‘during only a very small fraction of the operating
time and therefore anode voltages of unusually
high value may be employed with consequent
reduction of electron transit time within the
tubes, thus permitting operation at very high fre
delayed by energy accumulated in a condenser,
the discharge of which toe?ect the desired re
sult is produced by a diode valve. A series of
recurrent pulses of proper time interval will
therefore maintain the audio oscillator in a state
of oscillation for a time proportional to the num
ber of pulses received in the series.
The input to Fig. 1 is shown as a dipole 4, al
though it may be the output of any conventional
amplifying means. The input is coupled to tuned
grid circuit 5 which is in turn tightly coupled
to tuned plate circuit 6, the tuned circuits re-.
spectively including the grid 1 and anode 8 of
vacuum tube 9. The circuit 5 will obviously be
tuned to the frequency of the signal to be re
quencies.
ceived and the circuit 6 will likewise be tuned to
The transmitter utilized in connection with this
that frequency to constitute, with tube 9 and
invention sends a single pulse of very short dura—
other elements, an oscillatory network. Voltage
tion to signal a dot and three evenly-spaced simi 45 divider It is adjusted to bias grid 1 to a point
lar pulses to signal a dash. The frequency of the
that is just below the value of grid bias at which
receiver output may be adjusted to give an audio
oscillations begin. Resistor II in series with
note of any desired frequency by adjusting the
cathode i2 is of such value as to prevent con
frequency of an output oscillator, to be described
tinuous oscillation after the received signal has
hereinafter, and the duration of the output sig 50 ceased and capacitor 62 is connected across resis-~
nal in response to a three pulse signal is substané
tially three times as long as the response to a
single ‘pulse. Since the'duration of the trans
mitted pulse maybe of. the order of one‘micro;
. tor II and is of such value that it delays the
quenching of oscillation for the desired time in
terval but gradually builds up to such potential
that oscillations are extinguished.
second or less the effective gain of this system‘ 55, Anode I3 of recti?er I4 is connected to the
over conventional means is venormous.
_-; high potential side of resistor H to be set into
4
operation by the potential there developed dur
The recti?er 34 is biased against operation be
low a predetermined signal level through con
nection 42 to voltage divider 43 and the bias
on grid 36 is derived through connection 44, to
the ‘voltage divider.
Upon reception of a signal and passage of
current through recti?er 34 the capaciotr 65 in
‘parallel with resistor 46 between cathodes 36
and grid 36 on the one sicie and voltage divider
22. Connected in parallel between grid ;l6 and "110 on the other, ‘becomes charged and after ces
sation ‘of current through the rectifier 34 the
voltage divider 22 are the capacitor 23 and‘re'sis
energy stored in capacitor 45 discharges through
tor 24, the value of resistor 24 being much ‘high
resistor 46 and maintains the tube 3? in oscil
er than the effective resistance of diode l4 while
‘latory condition for atime longer than the dura
the latter is passing current, ‘and therefore the
ing oscillation and the cathode l5 of recti?er i4
is connected to control grid 16 of vacuum tube i1.
Tuned plate circuit I8 is connected to anode 13
of tube H and is coupled with circuit 20 to con
stitute an ‘oscillatory system, the values \of the
elements in circuits l8 and 23 being such that
their output is within the audio range. The ?xed
bias on grid 16 is derived from voltage divider
time of discharge of capacitor 23 throughresistor
216 is considerably longer than the time during
which current is passing through the diode M
tion of "current passage through recti?er 34.
Capacitor 4i’ and resistor 48 in parallel between
cathode 49 and ground maintain a steady bias
that does not follow the voltage at capacitance 45.
Upon the discharge of capacitor 45 to a potential
to charge capacitor 23. The effective bias '01:!
grid l6 does not follow ‘the voltage on capacitor
23 but is held to ‘a fairly constant ‘value'by resis 20 less than that required to maintain tube 37 in an
oscillatory condition, the oscillations cease.
tor 325 and capacitor 26 ‘in parallel with each
Recti?er 56 has its anode 5! connected to the
other and in series with cathode 21. The anode
high potential side 'of resistor 43 and its cathode
supply 28 and bypass capacitors 29 and 30 are
52 connected to grid 53 of audio oscillator tube
conventional.
The operation of the ‘system ‘above described 25 54. Voltage divider 155 provides the bias for ex
tinguishing oscillation when the potential built
may be explained in connection with Fig. 2. A
signal *pulse impressed upon tuned input circuit
5 ‘is represented by the sharply peaked curve
P, the small time period occupied by the pulse
' up ‘on capacitor 56 across resistor 51 by current
through recti?er 50 :has dropped below a prede
termined ivalue. Again, the value of resistor 5'!
being indicated by the ‘shortness of the base. 30 is large jin‘comparison'with the effective resistance
of recti?er so while passing current, and there
When the pulse voltage reaches the value c at
fore ‘the ‘discharge of capacitor 56 through re
time To tube '3 ‘begins to oscillate ‘and capacitor
sister '5’! is longer ‘than the time of charging
23 begins to charge as shown ‘by curve a and
capacitor 56, and :hence the duration of oscilla
audio (oscillator tube I1 begins to operate. At
tions in audio oscillator tube 54 is longer than
the time designated T1 sufficient bias has been
the duration of oscillations in tube :31. The oscil
built up on capacitor 62 to extinguish the oscil
latory-netw'ork :of tube '54 includes tuned circuit
lati'o'ns'in tube 9 and capacitor 2-3 then begins to
58 connected to anode 59 and tuned :circuit 60
discharge with its potential following the curve b
connected:toiadditionalgrid'? l. The audio output
and when this potential has dropped to the‘value
isqoerceptible by :use'of phones v3i. It is thus ap
represented by the dashed line e1, at time T2,
parent zthat'the very high frequency ‘pulse of ex
the tube ll~ceases tor'oscillate at time T2. This is
tremely short duration is twice expanded inilength
the condition when -a single pulse, ‘representing
and a ‘response :of audio frequency and or per
a dot, is received. It ‘is apparent from Fig. 12
ceptible duration ‘is derived, and that the time
that the durationtof the received pulse is short
compared to time To—T1, and that this time 45 of the audio responsemay be varied to indicate
eitherla dot or a dash.
is ‘short ‘compared to time T1-—T2. Itis to ‘be
The invention herein described and claimed
understood that these values are not to ‘scale,
may be used and/ormanufactured by or for the
since the pulse duration may be one microsec
Government of ‘the United States of America for
ond while"Tu——T1'may be 0.005 second.
governmental vpurposes without the payment of
50
‘However, if *a-dashis being transmitted a‘sec
any royalties thereon or therefor.
ond pulse P2 is received and the operating voltage
I claim:
e on grid 1 is reached before the potential of
1. #A :method of .radio communication, compris
capacitor '23 has dropped to the value c1, and
irigthe ‘steps offreceiving a signal pulse, applying
therefore the audio oscillator is maintained in
said :pulse "to ‘initiate electric oscillations with
operation through-the time of a second discharge
transfer of energy while said oscillations persist,
of capacitor 23. It "is obvious that so often‘as
utilizing ‘a portion of ‘the said transferred energy
a new pulse is received before ‘the potential of
to'ibuildi'u‘p gradually a potential that extinguishes
capacitor "23 drops to value er, the tube I’! ‘will
said oscillations after a ‘predetermined time, rec
continue in "uninterrupted oscillation, and hence
the reception of three pulses, representing a 60 tifyinganother portion ‘of said energy, and utiliz
ing said recti?ed energy to initiate and maintain
dash,'would ‘mean merely adding another pulse
other
electric "oscillations for a time'longer than
and discharge curve to Fig. 2. Thus, the audio
said predetermined ‘time of duration of the ?rst
frequency signal in phones 3| for a dash would
oscillations.
.
have substantially three times the duration for
2. A method of ‘radio communication, compris
65
a clot.
ing the steps of receiving a train of signal pulses
The system shown‘in Fig. 3 provides greater
wherein the time between two succeeding pulses
facility of tuning ‘and the ?rst oscillator is not
is-‘lon‘gcompared'with the duration of one pulse,
self-quenching, but otherwise the action of the
applying each-said pulse‘to' initiate electric oscil
two systems is very similar. Here the tuned in
put circuit 32 is connected "to anodes 33 of a full 70 lations'with‘transfer of energy while said oscilla
tions persist,'utilizing a portion of thesaid trans
wave recti?er 34, whereof the cathodes 35 are
ferred energy to build up a potential that extin
connected to grid 36 of oscillator tube 31. The
guishes'saidbscillations after a substantial'por
oscillatory network of this tube includes tuned
tion ‘of the time between‘two succeeding pulses,
circuit 38 connected to anode ‘39 and a ‘further
tuned circuit‘ili) ‘connected to ‘additional grid 41. 75 rectifying another portion “of ‘said energy. and
2.54am»
utilizing ~said recti?ed energy to initiate and
maintain other electric‘ oscillations foi- a time"
longer than the duration of said ?rst oscillations.
3. A method of radio communication, compris
ing the steps of receiving a train of signal pulses
6_
1y connected to the cathode of said second tube,
the value of said resistance being greater than
the resistance of said recti?er, and means to
bias said second tube to extinguish oscillations;
when the potential on the grid of said second
tube becomes less than a predetermined value.
is long compared with the duration of one pulse,
7. Radio receiving apparatus, comprising a
rectifying the full waves in each said pulse, apply
vacuum tube having a cathode, a grid and plate,
ing the recti?ed energy to initiate ?rst electric
a tuned grid-tuned plate oscillatory network
oscillations and to store energy to maintain said 10 connected to said tube, input means feeding into
oscillations for a time long in comparison with the
the tuned grid part of said network, means to
duration of a pulse with transfer of energy while
bias said tube to prevent oscillations in the ab
said oscillations persist, applying and storing the
sence of signal in said input, means connected
said transferred energy to initiate second electric
to be fed by the plate-cathode current of said
oscillations and to maintain said second oscilla 15 tube to build up a potential to extinguish oscil
tions for a time longer than the duration of said
lations in said network, a recti?er connected to
?rst oscillations.
be biased for operation by said potential, a
4. A method of radio communication, compris
second vacuum tube having a plurality of elec
ing thesteps of receiving a train of signal pulses
trodes, a’ second oscillatory network including
wherein the time between two succeeding pulses 20 two of the said electrodes of the second tube, a
is long compared with the duration of one pulse,
second means fed by the current through said
rectifying at least a portion of the energy in each
recti?er to build up on said second means a po
said pulse, applying the recti?ed energy to initiate
tential, said second means including an element
?rst electric oscillations and to store energy to
having an impedance higher than the resistance
maintain said oscillations for a time long in com 25 of said recti?er, means connecting said second
parison with the duration of a pulse with trans
means to said second tube'to initiate and main
fer of energy while said oscillations persist, apply
_ tain oscillations in said second network While
ing and storing the said transferred energy to
the potential on said second means is greater
initiate second electric ‘oscillations and to main
than a predetermined value, and means to ex
tain said second oscillations for a time longer 30 tinguish oscillations in said second network
than the duration of said ?rst oscillations.
when the potential on said second means drops
below said predetermined value.
5. Radio receiving apparatus, comprising a
wherein the time between two succeeding pulses
vacuum tube having a cathode, a grid and a plate,
a tuned grid-tuned plate oscillatory network con
8. Radio receiving apparatus, comprising oscil
lator means to pass current when oscillating, in
nected to said tube, input means feeding into 35 put means to transfer signal energy to initiate
the tuned grid part of said network, means to
bias said tube to prevent oscillations in the ab
sence of signal in said input, a ?rst capacitance
and a ?rst resistance in parallel between said
cathode and said biasing means, a second vacuum
tube having a plurality of electrodes including a
cathode, a grid and a plate, second oscillatory
network connected to electrode elements of said
second tube, means to bias said second tube to
prevent oscillations in the absence of signal upon
said grid thereof, a second capacitance and a
second resistance in parallel between said biasing
means for the second tube and the grid there
of, a recti?er having an anode? connected-toithe '
oscillations in said oscillator means, means to
prevent oscillation of said oscillator means in the
absence of signal energy in said input means,
means fed by current passed by said oscillator
means to build up a potential to block the oscil
lator after a predetermined time, a recti?er con
nected to be biased for operation by the potential
on the last mentioned means, a second oscillator
means, means fed by current through said recti
?er to build up a second potential connected to
said second oscillator means to initiate and
maintain oscillations in said second oscillator
means while said second potential is greater than
a predetermined value, and means to prevent
high potential side of said ?rst resistance and 50 oscillation in said second oscillator means when
a cathode connected to the grid of said second
said second potential is less than said prede
tube and to said second capacitance and second
' termined value.
resistance, the resistance of‘ said recti?er being
9. Radio receiving apparatus, a full wave recti
less than that'oi said'second‘ resistance and audio
?er having two anodes and two cathodes, a tuned
output means connected to the ‘plate of said 55 input to said anodes, means to bias said anodes
to prevent operation below a predetermined sig
6. Radio receiving apparatus, comprising a
nal level, a capacitance and a resistance in
vacuum tube having a'cathode, a grid and'plate,
parallel connected in the cathode-anode circuit,
a tuned grid-tuned plate oscillatory ‘network
the value of said resistance being greater than.‘
connected to said tube, input means feeding into c0. the resistance of said recti?er while passing cur- '
the tuned grid part of 'said'network, means to
rent, a vacuum tube having a plurality of elec
bias said tube "to prevent oscillations in the ab
trodes including a cathode, a grid and an anode, _
sence of signal in said‘ input, means connected
means connecting said grid to the high potential
to be fed by the plate-cathode current‘ vof said
side of said capacitance and resistance and to said
tube to build upa potential to extinguish oscil 65 ; biasing means, an oscillatory network including
lations in said network, a recti?er having an
two of said electrodes, a second capacitance and
anode connected to the high potential side of, second resistance in parallel with each other and
said means and a cathode, a second vacuum tube;
in series with the cathode of said tube, a second
having a plurality of electrodes including a grid
vacuum tube having a plurality of electrodes in
connected to the cathode of said recti?er and a 70 cluding a cathode, a grid and an anode, a second
cathode, a second oscillatory network including‘
recti?er operatively connected to the high po
two electrodes of said second tube, a capacitance
tential side of said second resistance and to the
and a resistance each having one side connected
grid of said second tube, means to bias said sec-,
to the cathode of said recti?er and to the grid
ond tube, a third resistance and a third capacii
of said second tube and the other side operative
' tance in parallel connected" at one side to said,
second tube.
'
'
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'
'
9,544,741»
grid; and. the. Output of.‘ said; second recti?er. and
at the. other siee'io; sangbiasins means‘ for. Said.
second tube, the value of said'third resistance,
being greater than the resistance of’ said, second
.
,/
’
.at'or'ymeans dur
second, energy. sibragemeans,
S11 liedghy energy from saidvalve, 5- second;
tOi‘y. 1'11 .ns: cqnnecte?l. 59'. said. second en'
recti?er ‘H1111? passing current a sebomi, oscih
latory network including two, electrodes of Said
second tube’, and. audio output means. connected
to the, anode ojsaidsecondtubel,
.
,. ._ .
‘
' i '
19. Radio receiving means, comprisingzarectig
?er having inputand output means, a timed cir
cuitt connectedto said input, means to bias said
, 1
cans, ?oué' izéfenereyistoredthere
te and maintain a, second‘. oscillatory.
‘for. atime. longer, than thefirstsaidp
. .y ‘condition; and outnutmeans fedi by
.elnscillatbry means...
recti?er to prevent operation thereof, below a
predetermined input level, a ?rst resistance and
'
"
'
'
" 1.3..Pulseréceivingapparatus comprising ,a?rst.
normally‘.quicsceniselfébloeking oscillator; pulse‘
"
a ?rst capacitance in parallel connected in cir
SiVQiQW-t means. operatiiie toactiyaté. said
cuit, with said; input ‘means and said output r- can. ip'r,.asecond'normally.quiescentself-bloclsr
ing'os'cillator, and input means for, thesecond
means, the Valueof said resistance being greater‘
thantlie resistance of‘ said recti?er while passing:
current, a- ‘va?uurn tube having. 'a, pluralityv of
oscillator, responsive, to. operation of.- ’the' ?rst
"
'.tivatelthesécond0scillator.,said_
electrodes including a cathode,’ a grid and an
anode, means connecting said gridto the: high
potential side‘of' said capacitance and resistance
swede.
lfl.‘ Eulse receiving apparatus comprising a ?rst
IlEQI‘
to said‘ biasing means, an oscillatory net
Worl; including two. of said electrodes, a second
exinput means operativev toactivatesaid
oscillate a sebqnq normally quiescentself-bloclu
capacitance and second resistance in parallel.
with’ each other and in series with the cathode
" ing'zaudiggosrcillator,:anddinput means for the sec;
of-said tube, a second vacuum tube having a plu
ond'oscillator responsive to the operation of. the
rality of electrodes including a cathode, a grid
and'an anodaa second recti?er operatively con-v
nected- to the high potential side of said second
_
'lator to ‘activate the: second oscillator,
Said oscillations b.eine.»S¢1f-b10ckins ‘after pre'del
iérmitied?me periods!
resistance and: to, the grid of said second tube, ,
means to bias saidgsecond tube, a third resistance
'
‘
_.
repeater.systemcomprising abides.
ing oscillator, V'a 'circuitfor, receiving pulses from
a remotely located pulsing station and for im
pressingxthe same onrsaid blockingoscillator for
and a third capacitance in parallel connected at
onefsi'deto said-grid. and the output of Said second
reéti?éi'. and: at‘ the. other. sideio said, hi‘ashis
met-m‘ for said? seabed tube, the. veluaof an
thirdh‘esistance: being greater than the, r
sist'ancewo'f“
current, asécprisij
said second;
oscillatory
recti?er
network
whileicclu
pas as,
,
llylquiescent?selfebloclring oscillator, pulse
re
synchronizing the sama'and a pulse transmitter.
‘ under‘ control of saidblocking oscillator.
16‘. A. pulse repeater system comprising ablock
ingiéoscillator, a circuit for receiving pulses from
aremotely located pulsingfstai-ion and for. im.
pressing‘the same on'said blocking oscillator for
synchronizing thecsame, a pulse transmitter under
two electrodes of) s id second tube, and acidic
Output means, were ted to; the. anode. of said
second tubef,‘
1,1-.Badig regeiving apparatus’. comprising, a;
recti?er having input- arid output’ elements‘. an.
connected» thereto,‘ "means to bias-said recti?er 45
input circuit-responsive ‘to a short, signal pulse
to prevent operation‘below a predetermined sig;
nal-level, oscillatory means adapted topass curj-_
controlof said blocking, oscillator, ands. signal
modulation, circuit, for, modulating. the pulses
produced bysaid Lransmitten'
‘
‘ARTHUR A, VARELA.
REFERENCES. CITED
The following references are ‘of record? in the
rent! when oscillating, means‘ fed‘ by current'_
of this patent
throughsaid rectifier-tobuild up a potential con
UNITED STAT-ES'PATENTS
nected to- initiate and maintain for“ an oscili 50
later-y condition-in said oscillatory means for, a_-_ Number
Name
Date
time longer than a signal pulseha unidirectional
1,455,768
siepianlnngag-cu May 15,1923
current: valvelconnected to be set into operation
by. current- through-l said oscillatory‘ means, a
1,489,158.,
second oscillatory means, means fed by current‘ 55
1,931,950
Urtel __‘__; _______ __ Oct.- 24, 19.33
20,10,253.
Barton -__-.----:---- Ans-"6,519.35
2,030,120;
2,265,363
2,266,401
Rust et a1; __'____'_' ‘_'__ Feb“; 11‘, 1936.
Schonland ____ _____;_;;_ Dec. 9, 1941.
Re,ev_es.____i;_c__’_"__’_'_ Dec.» 1c,‘ 1941.
1,902,234
through said-valveand connected to said second
oscillatory 'means to initiate and‘maintain an
oscillatory condition in said second.» oscillatory
means for. a time longer than the duration of»
said ?rst mentioned- oscillatory condition, and
60
output means fed by said second oscillatory
means.
12‘ Radio. receiving apparatus, comprising a
recti?er, an input circuit and an output circuit
Schaiier- __
7 ’ ~
2,29fi/i11
2,297,742,
2333-1583
2,367,378
'
'
_
,_
‘ '___‘__ Apr. 1, 1924
j
c
v
"
I
. 21,
1933
"__VSeptf1‘,1942..
_
,
"Loci.- s, 1942.:
Shepard, Jr. _______,_1_ Nov. .9,‘ 19.413,
Schick _-_________'__c_ Jan. 16,, 1945
connected thereto; said output circuit including 65
OTHER REFERENCES:
energy storagemeans having a predetermined
“Superregenerationof an Ultra; Short Wave’
Receiver,” by-Ataka, Pro, I. R. E1,‘ v01‘: 23, "19,35,
time constant, oscillatory means connected to
saidenergy storage means to utilize the stored
energy. to. initiate and maintain. an, oscillatory
The basic principles of “Superregenerative Be:
condition-fora time longer than the time of pas; 70 ception,” by Frink, Pro. I; R; E., vol. 26, Jan' (13y
p.878.‘
sage ofz'currcnt through said- rectifier in’ response -'
1938,}); 104.
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