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Патент USA US2552287

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May 8, 1951
A. T. KARAS
2,552,282
CLEANING APPARATUS
Filed Dec. 11, 1948
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
ANTHONY T. K ARAS
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ail/$2442
May 8, 1951
A. T. KARAS
2,552,282
CLEANING APPARATUS
Filed Dec. 11, 1948
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
ANTHONY T KARAS
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A TORNEY
May 8, 1951
A. T. KARAS
2,552,282
CLEANING APPARATUS
Filed Dec. 11, 1948
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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'
INVENTOR.
ANTHONY T. KARAS
BY
A
T :gRNEY
Patented May 8, 1951
2,552,282
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,552,282
CLEANING APPARATUS
Anthony T. Karas, East Chicago, Ind.
Application December 11, 1948, Serial No. 64,731
2 Claims. (01. 68-157)
2
1
This invention relates generally to equipment
for dry cleaning wearing apparel and more par
ticularly is directed to apparatus for cleaning
hats, caps, and the like.
In the majority of dry cleaning establishments,
a conventional machine is employed for clean
ing soiled garments. Such a machine usually
includes, among other things, a tank partially
formity when subjected to the cleaning and dry
ing operations.
A further object of the invention is to provide
a rack and coupling means therefor embodying a
minimum number of components which can be
economically manufactured on a commercial
basis, and which will stand up in use and operate
efficiently.
?lled with a liquid cleaner and a drum or cylinder
Other objects and attributes of the invention
for the clothes rotatably mounted in the tank. 10 will become apparent after considering the speci
The walls of the drum are foraminated to provide
?cation hereinafter set forth in conjunction with
liquid communication between the tank and
the drawings annexed hereto.
_
drum, and ba?ies may be provided on the drum
In the drawing wherein like parts are desig
to turbulate the liquid and assist in causing agi
nated by the same numerals:
'
tation and tumbling of the clothes. When for 15
Figure 1 is a front view in elevation of the dry
instance, apparel like hats swash against one
another, the ba?ies, and assorted apparel, they
readily lose their original shape and become dis
cleaning machine embodying the improved prin
ciples of design and construction of the subject
invention;
'
torted or stretched, and occasionally one is
Figure 2 is an end view of the machine illus
damaged beyond repair. Expensive hats of a 20 trated
in Figure 1 depicting, among other things,
durable character, not including those which are
means for driving and controlling the rotative
frail, do not stand up long when subjected to
such treatment. In other words, the conven
tional machine is not suitable to properly clean
items such as hats.
speed of the drum adapted to contain the ap
parel or items to be cleaned;
Figure 3 is a vertical section taken substan
25 tially on line 3-3 of Figure 1;
'
Accordingly, one of the principal objects of
Figure 4 is a longitudinal section through
the invention is to provide the apparatus with
portions of the tank and drum assembly illus
a rack for individually supporting items as hats
trating the accessory or rack adapted for disposi
to be subjected to the cleaning ?uid.
tion in the drum for supporting hats or similar
More particularly, an object of the invention 30
items;
is to provide coupling means adjacent the ex
Figure 5 is a transverse vertical section, similar
tremities of the drum and rack so that the rack
to Figure 3, illustrating the arrangement of the
may be easily and quickly detachably connected
arms on the accessory or rack adapted to sup
for rotation with the drum, thereby permitting a
port the hats or other items;
conventional machine to be readily converted 35 Figures 6 and 7 are enlarged views exempli
into apparatus for cleaning certain items in a
fying improved coupling means whereby the .ac
different way. In other words, the subject ‘in
cessory
may be detachably mounted in the drum;
vention provides a machine suitable for at least
Figure 8 is a section taken substantially on
two purposes, without appreciably increasing the
cost, and no additional floor space is required, 40 line 8—-8 in Figure 1 showing means for sealing
the tank cover to prevent escape of the cleaning
all of which is important to proprietors of smaller
establishments where a minimum of overhead
expense and ?oor space are essential to satis
factory operations.
?uid from the tank;
'
Figure 9 is a front view of the accessory or
rack;
Figure 10 is a transverse sectional view taken
A signi?cant object of the invention is to pro 45
substantially on line Ill-4|] of Figure 9;
vide improved means for controlling the rotative
speed of the drum and rack as a unit, regulation
of the cleaning ?uid, and circulation of air
through the tank, drum, and rack to accomplish
the results desired.
Another object of the invention is to provide
a unique rack, preferably comprised of a shaft
or rod having radial spaced apart arms with
improved means at their ends for ?rmly detach
ably holding, the hats against substantial de 55
Figure 11 illustrates an arm part of the ac
cessory for supporting a conventional hat;
Figure 12 is an end view of the supporting part
illustrated in Figure 11 showing unique means
for retaining a hat ?rmly on such part against
accidental displacement; and
Figure 13 is a detail of the arm part depicted
in Figures 11 and 12 illustrating the use of fric
tionalmeans; whereby to assistin resisting rel
2,552,282
3
ative movement between a hat and such retain
.
ing means‘
Referring to the drawings, numeral I is a gen
erally rectangular frame providing a substan
tial support for a cylindrical stationary tank 2
adapted to contain a quantity of fluid sufficient
for cleaning purposes, and a reservoir 3 from
4
necting a rack within the drum, and that the in
vention may be practiced even though the drum
is omitted.
The shaft 23 may be provided with any suitable
means for supporting hats, caps, lamp shades, or
any items that can be cleaned in such apparatus,
but as herein exempli?ed the shaft is provided
with a plurality of equally axially spaced sets of
radial arms 35, the four arms comprising each
which the ?uid is forceably circulated into the
tank through an upright pipe 4 by a pump 5
driven by an electric motor 6. A_ combined gauge 10 set being preferably circumferentially spaced
and regulator l is preferably employed to main
tain a predetermined depth of fluid in the tank
and will be subsequently described. When deg-V
apart 90 degrees and spirally with respect to the
longitudinally axis of the shaft.
More speci?cally in this respect, all of the arms
in each set are preferably disposed in a single
sired the fluid may be drained o? into the reser»
voir 3 through a return line 8 having a valve 9 15 transverse plane and each set is preferably se
cured-to the shaft in a slightly different rotative
therein.
A foraminated cylindrical drum to, adapted to
contain wearing apparel or other items to be
position with respect to the adjacent set, in a
generally spiral or helical arrangement; in other
words,‘ the arms are not located in straight rows
cleaned, is rotatably mounted in spaced. apart
concentric relationship with respect to the sta 20 on the shaft. With this unique arrangement, the
tionary tank’ 2.. Such: mounting is preferably
hats or other items to be cleaned will be-more or
less successively» subjected to the cleaning ?uid,
accomplished by providing the drum with aligned
thereby preventing excessive or undue splashing
axles H-- and’ 12 which» extend’ through the end
of the ?uid and promoting a well balanced, smooth
walls I3 ofv the drum and end walls of the'tank
and‘ are journalled» in: angular bearing brackets 25 acting gyrating operation. It is to be understood
that insofar as the subject invention isconcerned,
l-4»carr-ied by the tank as clearly illustrated in
the arms may/be arranged aboutthe longitudinal
Figures 4, 6, and"7-. The end'wal-l's of the drum
axis of the rack or accessory shaft in anysuitable
are reinforced by bushings l5 and the shafts’. are
positionv whereby to obtain the most e?icient
?xedthereto by cross-pins lG-sdthat the axles
will rotate with the- drum. Obviously, other 30 results.
Any means’ suitable for the purpose may- be
means’ may be used to secure the axles to the
employed for retaining the hats or other items
drum. Glands ll surrounding the axles serve to
to be cleaned on the arms 35 but as herein illus
prevent theescapeof cleaning fluid or air through
trated, the outer extremity ofv each arm is pref
the end walls of the tank.
The‘ tank, is. provided withv a- hinged, door l8 35 erably formed with an offset 36. A radially ex
tending'bar 31' is secured to offset 36 by rivets 38.
and- clamp fasteners l9. for holding the door
against a gasket 20, as depicted in: Figures 1, 4.,
and 8, to prevent leakage, and the drum. is simi
larly provided with adoor 2]. andfasteners 22.
The opening in the, tankclosableby thedoor I8 40
The outer‘ extremity of each bar is provided with
a ?ange 391~and one end of a generally oval shaped
resilient element 40 of su?cient width is anchored
thereto by rivets 4|. The other end of the ele
ment is provided with an elongated'slot 42 which
is- of a size su?icientto-permit removal of the
slidably receivesa rib’ 43 formed on the flange 39
drum when desired.
in order that the element may be expanded or
The inner extremitiesoi the axles H and. I2
contracted to the cross-sectional size desired as
are. preferably designed and constructed in- a
manner whereby an accessoryvor rackconstituting 45 exempli?ed in Figures 12 and 13v of the drawing.
The inner end of an operating lever 44 is pivotally
animportant component‘ of the subject inven
connected to the inner extremity of- the bar and
tion-is adapted to.be detachably coupled to such
its outer end is provided with a plate 45 ?xedly
extremities. Such couplingv may. be, effected in
secured to the resilient element- by rivets 46. A
various ways, but. asherein, illustrated, the. longi
weight 4? is attached to the opera-tinglever at an
tudinal shaft 23' of the rack. is provided with a
appropriate location. The components of the hat
collar 24, secured at. one end. thereof by across
retaining'means are preferably- so constructed and
pin 25. This collar is formed. with a circular
arranged that the resilient element may be con
recess 28. which receives the. inner extremity of
tracted as illustrated by the dotted lines in Figure
axle l I. The inner extremity; of the axle 1-2 is
provided with a diametrical slot 21 and the other .- 12 so that the crown portion 48 of a hat 49 may
be mounted thereon with the sweat band 50 out
end of- theshaft 2.3 with. a key. 28 which may. be
turned as exempli?ed in Figure 11. The offset
slid into either end of. the, slot to the position
end 35 of each arm provides clearance for the
shown. in Figure 6. when a. slip ring 29,. one the
brim 51 of the hat. When the accessory or rack
shaft is shifted back. against a helical spring
is rotated in the direction of, the arrow 52, the
30. also carried by the shaft. This slip ring is
weights due to centrifugal force cause the resilient
provided with a recess 31 whichreceives an annu
elements to expand and as a result the hats are
lar abutment 32 affixed to the shaftv by av pin
automatically effectively retained in place- The
33. The recess is counterbored at 34 to form
axes of the oval shaped resilient supporting ele
a socket for, the inner extremity of axle I2. The
ments 40': and‘ crowns of the hats are disposed in
spring 30 is normally under tension with one
parallel relation to the longitudinal axis of rack
end backed against a stop‘and its other end
shaft 23 so that the hats swash broadside through
engaging the ring so as to force the ring in a
the cleaning ?uid. If found desirable, an ex
direction toward the shaft 12. Thus, it will be
panded spring or an adjustable means may be
evident that the rack can be readily detachably
‘connect‘ed‘for rotation with the drum. The open 70 connected to the bar and operating lever to nor
mally maintain the resilient element in an ex
ing inthe. drum normally. closed by the door 2!
panded condition in lieu of the weight set up.
is preferably of a size sui’?ci'entto permit the
In order to further assist in retaining a hat on
rack to be removed therethrough. It is to be
a resilient element 49 the exterior curved surface
understood that the invention contemplates the
of the element may be provided‘with a coating or
use of. any suitablermeansfor detachably. con
2,552,282
layer 53 of friction material‘ such as an abrasive,
rubber, or equivalents thereof.
Ba?les 18 may be arranged in the stack to ex
clude the possibility of any cleaning liquid from
The drum and hat rack may be rotated at any
being expelled outwardly through such stack.
speed desired by appropriate means, but as here
The arrangement is preferably such that the fan
in depicted are driven by the electric motor 8
is actuated during the spinning or drying opera
which operates the pump 5. More speci?cally in
tion, but obviously can be actuated While the hats
this regard, the motor drive shaft 54 and axle I2
are being subjected to the action of the cleaning
are operatively connected by a plurality of belt
?uid. In any event, air is preferably adapted to
and pulley arrangements to obtain at least two
be passed or circulated through and about the
different rates of speed; a lower rate being pref 10 hats prior to their removal from the rack.
erably employed when the hats are subjected to
As stated above, the return line 8 may be
the cleaning ?uid and a higher rate during the
opened by a valve 9 when one desires to drain off
dry-off or spinning period when the tank is sub
the ?uid from the tank into the reservoir 3. The
stantially free of ?uid.
spinning operation takes place after the tank is
As clearly shown in Figures 1 and 2, a bearing 15 substantially empty or free of ?uid. The pump 5 .
standard 55 is mounted on the extension of a
is adapted to operate while the rack is rotating,
platform 56, which platform also preferably car
and to prevent any ?uid in the reservoir, from
ries the reservoir 3, pump 5 and motor 8. The
passing into the tank 2 through the upright pipe
outer end of the motor drive shaft 58 is j‘d?r
Q, a by-pass line 19 is connected to the pipe and
nalled in the standard and'a pulley 51 is a?ixed 20 reservoir. This pipe 4 is provided with a valve
on and for rotation with the shaft.
A pair of
parallel and horizontal shafts 58 and 58 have
their inner ends journalled in suitable bearings
88 and by-pass 19 with a valve 8!. When valve
80 is closed and valve 8| is opened, the ?uid will
circulate through the by-pass back into the res
ervoir, and when valve 80 is opened and valve 8|
68 of the tank supporting frame I and their 25 is closed, the ?uid will pass up through pipe 4
outer ends in standard 55. Shaft 58 carries a
into the tank 2.
pair of pulleys SI and 62 adapted for rotation
The adjustable gauge 1 above referred to pref
therewith and an idle pulley 83 therebetween.
erably includes a pair of upstanding or vertical
mounted in a cross member carried by the legs
These pulleys are substantially of the same
closely associated parallel pipes 82 and 83. Pipe
diameter. A belt 85 connects pulley 51 on the 30 82 is connected to the return 8 above valve 9 by
motor shaft with idle pulley 83 on shaft 58 and a
a line 84 and pipe 83 to the reservoir by a line 85.
belt shifter 64 may be operated to shift the belt
An inverted U-shaped tubular member 88 has its
65 onto pulley 6! or 62 to obtain either'of the
ends telescopically adjustable in pipes 82 and 83,
speeds desired. A small pulley 88 and a large
with glands 8‘! to prevent leakage. With this
pulley 6'! spaced therefrom are mounted on shaft 35 unique arrangement, and due to the fact that a
59 for rotation therewith. Axle l2 similarly sup
liquid seeks its own level, the height of the liquid
in the tank will correspond substantially to the
height of the upper extremity of element 86.
When, for example, the element is lowered as
a V-belt 12 connects the small pulley 68 on a 40 illustrated by the dotted lines in Figure 1 of the
shaft 59 with the large pulley 69 on axle !2 so
drawing, the liquid in the tank will be corre
that when belt 55 is shifted onto pulley 82 the
spondingly lowered. This is an inexpensive, yet
drum and rack may be rotated at a predeter
efficient way to control the depth of the liquid.
mined uniform rate of speed for an appropriate
If found desirable graduations may be provided
period of time during which the hats are sub
on the element to indicate various depths as il- '
jected to the cleaning ?uid maintained at a pre
lustrated in Figure 1.
determined depth in the tank 2 and drum It! by
The term cleaning ?uid as herein employed is
the adjustable gauge 1 as depicted in Figures 1,
intended to include any desirable liquid, such as
3 and 5. The drum, among other things, serves
naphtha, derivatives thereof, solvent, or agent,
to break up the fluid during the washing or 50 suitable for the purpose.
cleaning period and since it is foraminated' a
In view of the foregoing, it will be manifest
certain amount of ?uid is dispersed in a circuit
that the invention embodies improved principles
ports a small pulley 88 and a large pulley 89.
A V-belt ‘H operatively connects pulley 82 on
shaft 58 with the large pulley 81 on shaft _59 and
ous direction over and down through the hats or
other items on the rack. The pulley 85 on shaft
58 is operatively connected to pulley 68 on axle
l2 by a V-belt 18 so that when the belt 85 is
manually shifted onto pulley 6! the drum and
hat rack will be rotated or spun at a different
uniform rate of speed to free the saturated hats
or other items carried by the rack from the clean
of design and construction whereby a conven
tional cleaning machine may be modi?ed or con
verted into a machine to serve a plurality of uses.
And it is to be understood that although the rack
or accessory above described is particularly
adapted to support hats, the invention contem
plates the utilization of different forms or types
of racks including various means for supporting
ing ?uid, when the tank is substantially empty
different items to be cleaned.
of ?uid. It is to be understood that the inven
While the foregoing description has been given
tion contemplates driving the rack at any speed
in detail, it is not the intention to thereby restrict
or speeds suitable to obtain the best results.
the scope of the invention beyond that de?ned by
During the spinning or drying period, the hats 65 the appended claims since the inventive prin
carried by the rack are preferably subjected to a
ciples thereof are capable of assuming other
continuously moving volume of air generated by
physical embodiments than those hereinbefore
a suction fan .13 mounted on a shelf ‘is adjacent
described.
one end of the tank, a duct 15 extending from
Iclaim:
the fan for communication with the atmosphere 70
l. A cleaning machine comprising a tank
exteriorly of the building. A stack '58 is suitably
adapted to contain a cleaning ?uid, a horizontal
supported adjacent the other end of the tank and ‘ foraminated drum rotatably mounted in said tank
is provided with a damper T! to prevent fumes
adapted to contain garments to be cleaned, 'cou
from the ?uid in the tank and drum from pass
pling means arranged in the drum adjacent its
ing into the room where the machine is situated. 75 ends, a shaft having at its ends means for detach
2,552,282
8
ably, connecting‘ it within, the drum, to the; cou
pling means, arms carried by the shaft, and
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
means carried by the arms for attaching items
?le of this patent:
thereto.
2'. A dual purpose cleaning. machine comprising
a frame, a tank for liquid horizontally supported
Number
on the frame, an opening in the tank'and‘a cover
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Name
Date
186,295
203,695
for the opening, axles extending throughthe end
walls of the tank, a foraminated drum within the
tank‘ horizontally supported, on the axles, an 10
opening in the side wall of the drum and a 010
sure forisaid opening, a longitudinal shaft within
218,327
740,778
770,172
838,640
Beatty ___________ __ Jan. 16,
Austin __________ __ May 14,
Smith ____________ __ Aug. 5,
Prestwich _________ __ Oct. 6;
Doize et a1 _______ __ Sept. 13,
Orkin ____________ __ Dec. 18,
1877
1878
1879
1903
1904
1906
the drum detachably connected to the axles,
1,345,341
Anders _____________ July 6, 1920
radial arms carried by the shaft, means on the
ends of the arms. whereby items to be cleaned may
be attached, means enabling a liquid to be in
troduced into the tank and drum, and means for
rotating the drum and shaft;
1,783,249
1,854,228
2,019,011
2,193,495
MacMillen ________ __ Dec. 2,
Schenck _________ __ Apr. 19,
Johnson __________ __ Oct. 29,
Rolkern _________ __ Mar. 12,
ANTHONY T. KARAS.
1930
1932
1935
1940
FOREIGN PATENTS
20 Number
526,535
Country
Date
Great Britain ____ __ Sept. 19, 1940
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