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Патент USA US2555925

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June 5, 1951
Filed May 5, 1949
/ 25 Z
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Fm 7 3b
Jlme 5, 1951
Filed May 5, 1949
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
5 Y.
Patented June 5, ‘1951
Paul Faber, Baden, Switzerland, assignor to
Aktiengesellschaft Brown, Boveri & Gie, Baden,
Switzerland, a joint-stock company
Application May 5, 1949, Serial No. 91,556
In Switzerland November 27, 1948
6 ‘Claims.
The present invention relates to rotors em
ployed in high temperature apparatus such as gas
turbines and the like. In particular the inven
tion is concerned with a rotor structure adapted
for cooling by a liquid coolant, and by “liquid”
is meant a ?uid which is normally liquid and
which may or may not become vaporized upon
absorption of heat from the apparatus.I
In gas turbine rotors cooled by a liquid, the
coolant, for instance water, normally is intro
(Cl. 60-41)
peripheries, whereby the coolant may ?ow from
an inlet at one end along the circumferential
wall of the rotor from chamber to chamber to
ward the opposite end of the rotor, where it is
withdrawn through an axial passage in the other
end of the rotor, the axial passage providing a
conduit through the outermost disk and a sec
ond hollow shaft ?xed to that disk. The open
ings through the peripheral regions of the disks
10 are so located that they normally are located
duced into the rotor through a hollow shaft and
beneath the surface of the liquid.
in ?owing off towards the outer circumference of
A second group of openings is provided through
the rotor is at once brought to the corresponding
those disks situated within the interior of the
circumferential speed. A rotor cooled in this way
rotor, this second group of openings in the inner
is subject to the stress of high water pressure in 15 disks being in a region adjacent the centers of
addition to the centrifugal action of the rotating
the disks, which region normally is not in contact
body of water. A gas turbine rotor of cylindrical
with the body of liquid coolant, whereby vapor
or conical form of long extent and which must
carry a number of rows of rotor vanes, therefore
cannot be built in customary fashion as a hollow
drum, but on the contrary must be assembled of
separate disks of equal or approximately equal
strength, welded together at their outer periph
iced coolant may pass from chamber to cham
ber and ?nally out of the rotor through the hol
low shaft. If the coolant does not vaporize but
only heats up, then comparatively warmer liquid
coolant flows through the second group of open
ings and comparatively cooler liquid coolant ?ows
through the ?rst or outer group of openings.
In addition, a plurality of vane-like radial par
titions preferably as disposed in the chambers,
each extending in width substantially but not en
tirely over the entire cross-section of the cham
It is an object of the present invention to pro
vide a rotor of sufficient structural strength to
withstand forces created by the use of a liquid
coolant ?owing in the region of the outer cir
cumference of the rotor.
ber and extending in length from the peripheral
It is a further object to provide in such a struc 30 wall of the chamber to a point between the inner
ture means adapted to promote the necessary
openings through the disk and the central axis of
?ow and distribution of the coolant through the
the disk. The partitions form a plurality of com
rotor and its discharge therefrom in either or
partments within each chamber and serve to
both liquid or gaseous form.
facilitate the return of the coolant from the cir~
Still another object is the prevention of un 35 cumference of the rotor to its axis of rotation,
equal coolant distribution which would result in
whereby the energy (corresponding to the rotary
vibration of the rotor. Additional objects will be
motion) absorbed by the coolant when it ?rst
evident from the following description and claims.
moves to the circumference of the rotor is re
The invention comprises, in general terms, a
covered, and the coolant can be carried oil to the
rotor made up of a plurality of coaxially aligned 40 outside through the hollow shaft without con~
circular disks joined together at their relatively
sequential energy losses.
thick peripheries, the disks having relatively thin
Each radial partition can be made in one piece
center portions or recessed faces de?ning circu
and secured only to the face of one disk, or the
lar chambers between adjacent disks, the cham
partition can be made in two full length halves,
bers being traversed by the coolant and a num 45 each half being secured to different disks. In
ber of openings being provided for carrying the
any event, clearance between the halves, or be
coolant into and through the rotor disks in the
tween a single partition and the opposite disk is
neighborhood of the rotor axis as well as in the
provided whereby liquid coolant may pass
* 1 neighborhood of the outer periphery of the cham
through to level itself.
The: invention is illustrated in the drawings in
The coolant is introduced into one end of the
rotor through a hollow shaft and flows toward
Fig. 1 is an axial longitudinal section through
the circumferential wall of the rotor under the
a rotor embodying the invention,
in?uence of centrifugal force. Openings are pro
Fig. 2 is a transverse section on the line 2--2
vided through the disks in the region of their 66 of Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary axial longitudinal sec
tion, through a modi?cation of the rotor of Fig. 1,
showing partitions composed of separated halves, v
Fig. 4 is a transverse section on the line [email protected]
of Fig. 3,
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary axial longitudinal sec
tion through a further modi?cation of the rotor
of Fig. 1, showing integral partitions formed by
milling the rotor disks,
cated slightly nearer the rotor axis than the
openings 29, 2| and 22.
In operation, while the rotor turns on the axis
through the supporting shafts 8 and 9, liquid
coolant is forced through the shaft passage I0
into the axial passage in the disk I, then out
through the radial passages II and into the
chamber I3. As the liquid depth in chamber I3
builds up, the liquid over?ows through the open
Fig. 6 is a transverse section on the line 6-45 10 .ings I‘I into chamber III and so on until a com
of Fig. 5,
. mon depth in all the chambers is obtained, that
depth being sufficient to cover the passages I1,
I8 and I9. If the liquid is vaporized by the ab
sorption of heat from the apparatus, the vapors
15 are free to pass through the openings 20, 2I and
tion of a turbine employing the rotor of Fig. 1.
22 from chamber to chamber until they are
Referring to the drawings, it will be seen that
withdrawn from outermost chamber I6 through
the rotor of Figs. 1 and 2 is made up of ?ve co
the passage 23.
axially aligned disks, designated I, 2, 3, 4 and
‘ If the liquid coolant does not become vaporized,
5, those designated by the reference numerals I
and 5 being outermost disks, ‘and 2, 3, and A 20 it may be withdrawn in the same manner.
In ‘Figs. 3 and 4, a modi?cation of partition
being inner disks. The disks each have-a rel
structure and mounting is illustrated. The par
atively enlarged peripheral thickness, or by the
titions are composed of two full length halves
same token they may be described as having re~
26, each of which is welded, soldered, riveted or
cessed center portions in their faces. The disks
are joined together around their peripheries by 25 otherwise joined to its supporting disks 3a, 4a
. Fig. 7 is a horizontal section on the line 'I—'I
through the rotor of Fig. 5, and
Fig. 8 is an axial longitudinal section of a por
welds 1, as shown or otherwise. The outermost
disks I and 5 are provided with axial shafts 8
and 9, respectively, which may be formed inte
grally with the disks. Shaft 8 has through it an
in the same manner in which the partitions 25
are mounted. The opposed free edges of the
halves 26 substantially meet but are not in con
tact, this arrangement serving to provide clear
axial passage III, aligned with an axial passage 30 ance for the passage of fluid.
In Figs. 5, 6 and 7 a further modi?cation of
through a portion of the disk I. The axial pas
partition structure and mounting is illustrated.
sage in the disk I is joined with radial passages
Full length halves 27 according to this modi?
II formed‘ in the interior of the disk I and ter
cation are integral with the disks 3b, 51) sup
“minating in openings I 2 which open into the
outermost circular chamber I3 near the periph 35 porting them, having been milled or otherwise
formed therefrom. It is obvious that full width
ery thereof. The chamber I3, formed by the ad
partitions similar to those designated by the
jacent joined disks I and 2 is similar to cham
numeral 25 might also be formed in
bers I4, I5 and I 6 formed by the other pairs of
opposed adjoined disks.
Chamber I3 is in communication with the
chamber I4 through spaced openings I'I formed
in disk 2 near the periphery thereof. Similar
sets of openings I8 and I9 provide passageways
for liquid through disks 3 and 4, respectively.
tegral with their supporting disks to comprise
40 still another modi?cation.
The turbine of Fig. 8 comprises a rotor 28,
having a structure for ?uid cooling in accordance
with the invention, and carrying blades or vanes
29. vThe liquid coolant enters the rotor by way
of passage Iii through the hollow shaft 8 and
leaves the same by way of passage 23 through
the outermost disk 5 and hollow shaft 9, as in—
dicated by the arrows. In the outermost rotor
disk I at the admission side, the coolant is sup
plied to the ?rst (outermost) chamber in the
In like manner, groups of spaced inner open
ings ‘29, ‘M, and 22 are formed respectively in
disks 2, 3, and 4, the openings of each group be
ing spaced around and in the vicinity of the axis
of the disk.
Through the shaft 9 and the other outermost 50 neighborhood of its outer periphery, through
disk 5, is an axial passage 23 leading from the
the radial passages II and openings I2 respec
interior of the rotor and serving as a coolant
tively. Through the openings I'I, I8 and I9 as
withdrawal conduit.
well as through the slits between the vane-like
Each chamber is provided with a plurality of
partitions and the disks there is an equalization
radial vane-like partitions 25 which extend from 55 of the liquid level in the whole rotor as indicated
the peripheral wall of the chamber toward the
axis thereof and terminate just short of the
The ?ow of coolant, as described above, results
axis. These partitions 25 are eachmounted on
in the transfer and removal of heat from the
a single disk, being secured along one longitu
cylindrical rotor wall 30, the exterior surface of
dinal edge to the face of the disk, and each sub 60 which is exposed to high temperature motive
stantially occupies the entire width of the cham
fluids such as combustion gases. Increments
ber but does not contact the face of the oppositely
of the heat passed by conduction from the vanes
disposed disk. That is to say, each partition ex
29, rotor wall 30, and exterior faces of the outer
tends approximately the whole width of its cham
most disks I and 5 to the interior portions of
ber, but is secured only along one edge and has 65 the disks I, 2, 3, It, and 5 are transferred to
its opposite edge shaped more or less exactly to
the coolant during its contact with the interior
the outline of the surface of the opposed disk
of the rotor wall, the faces of the disks and par
without making contact therewith and without
titions ?xed thereto, and the surfaces of the disks
means securing it thereto. Through the crack 70 de?ning the openings I‘l, I8, I9, 20, 2I, and 22,
or slit remaining between the partition and the
and the conduits, passages, and openings I9, II,
opposed disk equalization of the liquid level be
I2 and 23.
tween the compartments formed by the parti
The invention combines the advantages of
tions in the individual chambers can occur. The
rotors welded together from individual disks with
innermost terminus of each partition '25 -is 10 75 those of cooled rotors. The individual disks
can be constructed as bodies of equal or approxi
mately equal strength, the mechanical strength
of which is affected only slightly by the com
paratively small passage
sembly of these malleable bodies, solid in them
selves, by welding them together at the outer
periphery gives at comparatively small cost an
exceptionally solid and stiff rotor with a high
critical number of revolutions, which, in a cooled
rotor subjected to additional centrifugal force
due to the cooling liquid, is especially important.
In this connection the entire cooled rotor can
be built for a given stress, with the least ex
bines and the like comprising a plurality of co
axially aligned circular disks of enlarged periph
eral thickness joined together around their
peripheries thereby de?ning an outer cylindrical
CI; surface and a plurality of interior circular cham
bers, a plurality of spaced conduits through the
inner disks for passing coolant from chamber to
chamber from one end to the other of said rotor
along the interior circumference thereof, means
for introducing liquid coolant axially through
the outermost disk at said one end into the
peripheral region of the outermost chamber at
said one end, and means for axially withdrawing
penditure of construction material. The type of
liquid and vaporous coolant from said rotor
construction according to the invention assures
through the outermost disk at the other end of
a rapid, good and uniform heating-through of
said rotor in the region of the axis thereof, and
the whole rotor. Finally, the cooling is accom
a plurality of vane like radial partitions extend
plished with slight losses in energy, since the
ing into each circular chamber from at least
cooling agent is brought back by the partitions
one of the disks de?ning the chamber, said par
from the circumference of the rotor to the neigh 20 titions forming a plurality of segmental com
borhood of the rotor axis.
partments from said chamber.
I claim:
4. A rotor adapted for exposure to high tem
1. A rotor comprising a plurality of coaxially
peratures comprising a plurality of coaxially
aligned disks of enlarged peripheral thickness
aligned circular disks having enlarged peripheral
joined together around their peripheries, ad 25
thicknesses, said disks being joined at their
jacent disks forming circular chambers therebe
peripheries in fluid-tight relation to adjacent disks
tween, the inner disks having spaced openings
thereby forming circular chambers between ad
adapted for the passage of fluid coolant from
jacent disks, means for introducing a fluid cool
ant medium through the interior of one of the
30 outer most disks into the adjacent outermost
of said chambers forming the chambers into a
chamber near the periphery thereof, a plurality
plurality of compartments, each of said parti
of passages spaced in each of the inner disks
tions being disposed substantially in an axial
near the peripheries thereof providing communi
plane of the rotor and each of said partitions
cation from each chamber into its next adjacent
extending in length from the periphery of the
chamber, a plurality of passages spaced in each '
chamber to a point short of the rotor axis and
of the inner disks nearer the axis thereof than
in width less than the width of its chamber.
the ?rst mentioned passages, means for dis
2. A ?uid cooled rotor structure for gas tur
charging said fluid coolant medium axially
bines and the like comprising a plurality of co
through the other of said outermost disks, a
axially aligned circular disks of equal diameters 40 plurality
of vane-like radial partitions within
and enlarged peripheral thickness, adjacent
of a width less than the chamber
disks being joined along their peripheries in
and extending in length from the periphery to
?uid-tight relation whereby opposed face por
adjacent the axis thereof, and a plurality of
tions of adjacent disks are spaced apart to form
passageways through said inner disks situated
circular chambers between said adjacent disks,
a plurality of radial partitions disposed in planes 45 adjacent but at greater radial distance than the
inner termini of said partitions, said passageways
of the axis of said rotor in each of said cham
providing additional fluid paths between adjacent
one chamber to an adjacent chamber, and a
plurality of disk carried radial partitions in each
bers, each of said partitions being joined along
one of its edges to a face portion of one of said
5. Rotor structure as defined in claim 2 where
disks with the other of its edges being spaced
from the opposed face portion of the adjacent 50 in all of the said partitions disposed in any one
chamber are joined to one and the same disk.
disk, the innermost ends of said portions termi
6. Rotor as defined in claim 4 wherein said
nating short of the longitudinal axis of said
vane-like partitions each comprise two cooperat
rotor, said disks having a plurality of openings
ing oppositely disposed sections mounted on op
providing a plurality of spaced ?uid passage
posing faces of the disks forming any given
ways disposed on radii of equal length near the
outer extremity of said face portions, and hav
ing a plurality of spaced openings providing a
plurality of spaced ?uid passageways disposed
on radii of equal length near the inner extremity
The following references are of record in the
of said face portions but farther removed from
?le of this patent:
the axis of said rotor than are the inner extremi
ties of said partitions, shafts having axial passages
joined to the outermost circular disks, one of said
passages communicating with one of the outer
most chambers through the outermost disk to 65 2,213,940
which it is joined, the other of said passages in
the opposite shaft ending in a juncture with a
plurality of radial conduits within the other of
the outermost disks, each of said radial conduits
connecting the end of the axial passage with an 70 Number
opening into the adjacent outermost chamber.
3. A liquid cooled rotor structure for gas tur
Jendrassik _______ __ Sept. 3,
Jendrassik ________ __ May 27,
Bloomberg ________ __ Apr. 201,
Boestad __________ __ Feb. 22,
Germany _________ __ Jan. 5,. 1922
Great Britain _____ __ Oct. 16, 1935
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