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Sept. 11, 1951 A, J, DAwE 2,567,473 TIME IQNTERVAL. CIRCUIT Filed Dec. 13, 1946 Z0 // 55 37 3/ 56 Nun-“ Aw" I 74 60 .52 157 r/ezzfor 52 2,567,473 " Sept. 11, 1951 ' umm sra'rss PATENT OFFICE $507,473 - 'rnu: INTERVAL cntcUrr 7 Albert J. ml... Milwaukee, wa., asalgnor to Allen-Bradley Company, Milwaukee, Wis., a eerperatielefwbeonliu Application December 1:, 1946. Serial No. 110,038 ' a cm (01. 175-373) This invention relates to delayed response electrical apparatus and resides more particularly ent upon undesirably delicate relays lacking in the ruggedness preferred for industrial equip ment. The grid-glow or three element gaseous in an improved form of delayed-action or interval discharge tube has heretofore been little used for timing circuit in which a grid-controlled gas filied glow-discharge tube or grid-glow tube is g delayed-action circuits because its behavior in the circuits employed has been considered ?ckle related with other circuit elements in such and unreliable. Such unreliability has been at fashion that ?ring of the .tube is regulated by tributed to shifting of tube characteristics as a gradual charging of thegrid and the interval result of the history of treatment to which the during which the tube remains conducting upon tube has been subjected. The grid-glow tube, ?ring is reduced to'a minimum. however, is possessed of the advantage of being An object of this invention is to provide # able to perform without standby demand and delayed-action interval timing circuit apparatus without "warm up" delay and may be controlled dependent for its action upon a grid-glow tube to continue supply of energy to a relay for any in which tube life is greatly extended by reason of a very low ratio of active to inactive time of use 15 interval which may be required to cause its posi of the tube. ‘ tive operation. 1 Another object of this invention is to provide a delayed-action interval timing circuit apparatus Through this invention consistent and depend able response is obtained in a delayed-action or interval timing circuit apparatus which is de dependent for its action upon a grid-glow tube in which increased dependability and consistency of ” pendent upon a grid-glow tube for its operation by a novel circuit arrangement in which load is response “of the tube is obtained due to the com imposed upon the tube only so long as is required paratlvely brief periods during which the tube is for positive relay operation. By reason of the loaded. . ,. very brief intervals during which load is imposed Another object of this invention is to prOYide a upon the grid-glow tube, shifting of tube char delayed-action interval timing circuit apparatus acteristics is held well within limits such that possessed of the advantages of constantreadi practical consistency of operation is obtained. uses to perform without a "warm up delay!" and ‘ Furthermore, the total time of functioning re of freedom'from standby current requirements. quired of the grid-glow tube for a large number Another object of this invention is to provide a simpli?ed delayed-action interval cir cuit apparatus adapted for operation with filter nating current supply and capable of repetitive timing of-successive intervals through i‘fg'ingle interval Delayed-action determining circuit instrumentallty. apparatuses of various 30 of cycles is so short that the life of the tube in use is greatly extended. ‘ This invention is herein described by reference to the accompanying drawing in which there is set forth by way of illustration and not of limi 85 tation one form in which the circuit of this invention may be embodied. forms, depending upon the controlled function— In the drawing the ?gure shows diagrammati of thermionic or gaseous discharge devices cally a circuit constructed in accordance with have been extensively used. In the case of ap— this invention applied to the regulation of the paratus depending for operation upon thermionic devices, disadvantages are involved because of 40 starting function of an alternating current in the necessity of maintaining standby conditions involving continuous supply of ?lament or heater current and because of the large expenditure of available tube life during idle conditions. A fur- - ther disadvantage also is the waiting .period for “warm up" that may be involved. The two ele ment glow-discharge tube as heretofore employed has also suffered a disadvantage in that the quantity of energy available for actuation of a relay actuated thereby is limi to the charge prevailing in the capacitor at the moment of "striking" of the tube. If for any reason the relay does not react positively to the quantity of energy thus delivered, unreliable response is en . countered. Such circuits are. therefore, depend duction motor. 7 . a As depicted in the drawing the time delay ap paratus of this invention depends for its opera tion upon a cold cathode grid-controlled gas ?lled glow-discharge tube I. The cathode of tube 1 constituting one of its main electrodes is con nected by a lead 2, a resistor 3, normally closed switch contacts I and lead I with an adjustable tap 8 of an auto transformer ‘I. The anode of tube I constituting the other main electrode is connected by lead I and lead I 'with one end of the winding of a relay II. The opposite endof the winding of the relay II is connected by lead H with terminal I! of the auto transformer ‘I. In this manner a plate circuit is provided through 2,507,473 . conducting. . 4 cycle and then immediately drops to start a new timing interval. For each energization of the relay III the tube I remains excited for only a very which current may be passed to the relay III for energizing the same whenever the tube I becomes I brief period. Usually two or three current cycles are su?'lcient to cause the relayI? to move. The life of tube I thus is‘ greatly extended even though a large number of timing cycles is employed since The grid I3 oi! tube I is arranged to be charged at a regulated rate through the action or half wave‘ recti?er I4. Recti?er I4 is connected on one side by lead I5 and lead II with terminal I2 of the auto transformer 1 and on'the opposite-side through-leads I5 and I1 with a capacitor I8. 'The even under conditions of. repeated timing cycles the ‘total active time 01' the tube I is extremely capacitor I3 is connected on its opposite side 10 The interval timing circuit above described through a lead I9 with resistor 3 and thence may be employed for any purpose which requires through switch'contacts ,4 and lead 5 with the a switching function automatically regulated to tap-5 of transformer 1. In this way, with trans; former 1 supplied with alternating current “occur -at pre-determined intervals. One such through leads 29 and 2I, the capacitor I3 be requirement» is the successive reduction or the small. . ‘ ' comes charged through the action oi! the recti?er -. secondary resistance of a wound rotor induction I4, and lead I1 connected thereto is rendered ‘motor during starting. The drawing shows the positive with respect to lead I9.‘ , timing circuit of 'this invention thus applied. Connected to lead I1 as shown is a variable ' - As shown in the drawing a motor 39 is connected v resistor 22 having a movable side tap which is 20 through leads 40, M and“ with a load contactor connected’ in turn through switch contacts 23 and -43 which is connected in turn with power supply lead 24 with one side 014a capacitor 25.‘ Alterna ._ tively connected to lead I1 is a variable resistor mains 44, 45 and 45. Control current for closing . the contactor 43 is supplied from main 46 and 22' which is connected in turn through switch ' from thence passes through normally closed stop contacts 23' and lead 24 with the capacitor 25 as switch 41, normally open start switch 49, lead 52 shown. The opposite side of capacitor 25 is con and overload control 49 to the coil of contactor nected through lead 25v with lead I9 and, conse 43 from which connection to supply main 45 is quently, ‘with-‘the cathode of tube I. Lead 24 is provided by lead 59. Upon closure of the start connected by lead 21, resistor 29 and lead 29 with ing switch 48 the contactor 43 closes-and in so the grid I3 of tube I. Thus when current is sup 30 doing establishes a maintaining circuit through plied to the auto transformer 1 and lead I1 be stop switch- 41, lead 5|, auxiliary contacts 53, comes negative, current ?ows through the rela I lead 52', overload control 49 to the coil of con tively high resistance of resistor 22 .(or resistor tactor 43.thus causing the contactor 43 to re 22' depending upon the position of switch con main closed‘ until the stop switch 41 is opened. - tacts 23 and 23')‘ at a limited rate with the result 35 Upon closure of start switch 48 or of main that capacitor 25 gradually becomes charged. The .rate at which capacitor, 25 becomes charged taining contacts 53, current also becomes sup will cause ?ring of tube I may be adjusted. contacts 51,-~to' be described in greater detail plied to the transformer 1 by reason of lead 54 may be altered by adiustment oi resistor 22 or which joins with lead 2I and by reason of the resistor 22' as the case may be so that the time connection of lead 29 to switch 55, which in turn required for the ,grid I3 to reach a charge which 40 is connected through lead 55, normally closed Having selected an adjustment for the resistor 22 and having applied current to the auto trans-1 Iormer 1 the grid I3 or tube‘ I will at some pre later, and lead 58 with main 45.‘ As a result of theclosure oi.’ contactor 43,'assuming switch 55 determined interval after commencement of ex- - - citation of transformer 1 reach a potential at which the tube I ?res thus admitting current to‘ the winding oi.’ relay I0. _ _ ‘ Upon excitation of the winding'of relay ID the movable member of contact 4 is shifted into en GI) ' gagement with stationary contact '4' which is is in closed position, a timing interval is initiated inthe timing circuit, and at the same time the motor 39 becomes energized with a maximum of resistance in its secondary circuit. At the end of the ?rst timing interval, assum ing switch 34 to be open, normally 'open contacts 59 become closed momentarily and in so doing establish a circuit extending from line 45 through connected through lead 30 with the grid lead 21. In this way the capacitor 25 is caused to dis charge through the resistor 3 which reduces the charge on the grid I3 of tube I, thus preparing the same for a‘ succeeding timing function. At the same time normally open contacts 3| become closed and this establishes a circuit through leads lead-53, lead 59, lead H to the winding of con tactor 52 and thence through leads 53, 54, 55 and the contacts 59 to the lead 85 and thence through lead 54 and maintaining contacts 53, lead Ill and stop switch 41 back to power line 45. The establishment of this circuit causes contactor 52 to close and to short out the resistances 51 in ‘ 32 and 33 which causes the capacitor I8 to empty ' its charge through the resistor 3 likewise. , At the 60 the secondary of motor 39. Upon closure of contactor 52 a maintaining circuit for causing the same to be retained in same time normally closed contacts 4 open thus breaking the supply of current to the cathode of tube I. In order that the relay III remain excited when desired after a single timing interval a maintain closed position is established through auxiliary contacts 58' and lead 59. 05 I ing circuit is provided which extends from line At the same time through mechanical interlock 52' contacts 23ware opened and contacts 23', closed. _ Following the ?rst momentary closure of relay I I through relay coil III, leads 9 and 8, and thence I0, normally closed contacts 19 re-engage and through resistor 35, switch 34, recti?er 35, nor upon such re-engagement a subsequent step cir mally open contacts 31 and lead 33 back to line 5. This maintaining circuit is subject to being con 70 cuit, prepared by the closure of the auxiliary trolled by the switch 34 which when closed com pletes the maintaining circuit described. With the switch 34 open, the relay III upon ?ring of . tube i, moves to the closed position which pre pares the circuit tor the starting .of a new timing 75 contacts 53, becomes completed. This subsequent step circuit extends from contacts .58 through lead 55 and through the contacts 10 and leads ‘II and 12 to the winding of interlock relay’ 13, the other end of which winding is joined with lead 2,507,473 5 lo. Relay 1:, therefore, immediately closes and I claim: 6 . v - 1. In an interval timing circuit a current upon closing maintains itself in closed position through the action of auxiliary contacts ‘I4 con nected by lead 15 with lead 64 as shown. The closure of relay ‘I3 through closure of its contacts 16 then sets up but does not complete source adapted to be controllably activated; a grid-glow tube having main electrodes ‘and a grid; a charging circuit for said grid including a resistor and a grid charging capacitor; said ca pacitor being connected on one side to one of the main electrodes of said tube and to one side of said'current source and connected on its other side through said resistor to the other side of an energizing circuit for a contactor 11. The cir cuit thus prepared extends through lead 13, the winding of contactor 11, lead 19, contacts 13, lead 90 to a pair of normally open contacts 9|. The said current source to said current source and contacts 8| are joined in turn through a lead 33 with lead 66. By reason of this preparatory action upon occurrence of the second succeeding closure of relay In at the end of ‘the second timing interval, contactor ‘l1 closes and in so doing elimi nates the remaining resistances 93 from the sec ondary of motor 39. It will be understood that the duration of the first timing interval will be to said grid for charging the same to a'striking potential at a pre-determined interval after activation of said current source: and a relay connected through said main electrodes of said grid-glow tube to a source of actuating current, said relay including contacts interposed in the connections joining said relay with said actuat ing current source to interrupt the supply of determined by the adjustment of resistor 23 while the duration of the following interval will 20 actuating current for said relay and including be determined by the adjustment of resistor 22’. contactsconnected in discharging relationship to said capacitor to discharge said grid charg These two intervals may thus be independently ing capacitor upon excitation of said relay, varied within the limits of adjustment available. whereby said relay on closing immediately re Closure of contactor ‘I1 also establishes its own maintaining circuit through maintaining con 25 opens to- restore the circuit to a conditionper mitting repetition of a timing cycle. tacts 84 and lead 85 causing it to remain closed 2. In an interval timing circuit a current after re-opening of relay l0. At the same time source comprising means adapted to be supplied upon closure of contactor 11 the normally closed with alternating current and to rectify the same; contacts 51 previously referred to are caused to open, thus interrupting power supply to the 30 a grid-glow tube having main electrodes and a grid; a charging circuit for said grid including a transformer ‘I so as to terminate further repeti resistor and a grid charging capacitor, said ca tion of timing intervals by the timing circuit. pacitor being connected on one side to one of The motor 39 thus is brought up to operating the main electrodes of said tube and to one side speed through three successive stages of resist ance in its secondary circuit and this sequence 35 of said current source and connected on its other is performed automatically without intervention side through said resistor to the other side'of said current source to said current source and to said of the operator once the starting switch 48 is grid for charging the same to a striking poten closed. In order to stop the motor the stop tial at a pre-determined interval after activa- ' switch 41 is opened causing contactors 43, 62 and 11 to drop open closing contacts 51 and also de 40 tion of said current source; and a relay connected through said main electrodes of said grid-glow energizing relay 13. The circuit is thus brought tube to a source of actuating current, said ' into condition for execution of a new starting *relay including contacts interposed in the con sequence whenever start switch 48 is again closed. If it is desired that the motor 39 be run at re nections joining said relay with said , actuat duced speed switch 55 may be opened before closing of the starting switch 49. In this case ing current source to interrupt the supply of actuating current for said relay and including the motor 39 will continue to run with maximum resistance in the secondary circuit. If it is de contacts connected in discharging relationship to said capacitor to discharge said grid charging sired that the motor run at an intermediate rate capacitor upon excitation of said relay, whereby said relay on closing‘ immediately‘ reopens to re the switch 55 may be closed and the switch 34 also. Under such circumstances a single timing store the circuit to a condition permitting repe tition of a timing cycle. sequence only will ~occur and the motor 39 will be caused to run with the resistance 83 only in the secondary circuit. It will be understood that for normal starting, switch 55 is closed and switch 34 is allowed to remain open. It will be observed that the tube i is subjected, in the operation of the circuit of this invention, . 3. In an interval timing circuit a current source adapted to be controllably activated; a grid-glow tube having main electrodes and a grid; a resistor; a grid charging capacitor con nected to one side of said current source through said resistor and to said grid for charging the same to a striking potential at a pre-determined required for the relay Hi to positively close, an 60 interval after activation of said current source: a connection joining the other side of said cur action aided by the capacitor 96. Immediately rent source to one of the main electrodes of said on closing of relay ID the opening of contacts 4 tube; a relay having an actuating coil connected terminates passage of current through the tube through said main electrodes of said grid-glow I. The actual period of loading of tube I need tube to asource of actuating current, said relay not be more than 2 or 3 current cycles and this including contacts interposed in the connection interval is so short that no perceptible change joining said relay coil to said actuating current in the characteristics of the tube results. The source to interrupt the supply of actuating cur response on repetition of successive timing in rent for the actuating coil of said relay‘ when I tervals, therefore, remains reasonably constant and reliable for a very large number of timing 70 said relay is actuated, and contacts connected to load carrying conditions only for so long as is functions. The principle involved further ob in shunt relationship to said grid charging ca viously is not limited to but two successive tim pacitor to discharge the same upon excitation of ing intervals since the timing circuit will repeat said relay, said contacts acting immediately upon as often as need be to meet the requirements of any control circuit dependent thereon. - 75 closing of said relay to cause the same to reopen to placethe circuit in condition for repetition of 9,507,473 . a timing mated to a control said load cycle; load contacts operatively con- said relay to be actuated thereby; and circuit responsive to the actuation of contacts by said relay adapted to as 8 ‘ \ vated: a grid-glow tube having main electrodes and a grid; a relay having a winding- normally open resetting contacts closed when said relay is excited,normally closed resetting contacts opened sume successive circuit positions in response to successive timed interval actuations 01' said relay. 4. In an interval timing circuit ‘a current when said relay is excited, and load contacts; re lay circuit connections extending through the main electrodes of said grid-glow tube through source adapted to be controllably activated; a grid-glow tube having main electrodes and a grid: interval regulating variable resistor means: said normally closed resetting contacts and through the winding 0! said relay to said source of alternating current; a ?rst capacitor; a recti?er; initial grid control circuit connections joining said a grid charging capacitor connected on one side through said resistor means to one side of said ?rst capacitor through said recti?er and said nor mally closed resetting contacts of said'relay to said source of alternating current for charging side to one of the main electrodes of said tube and to_ the other side of said current source for 15 said ?rst capacitor upon activation 01' said alter charging said grid to a striking potential at pre nating current source; a second capacitor; a tim ing resistor; intermediate grid control circuit con determined intervals aiter commencement of charging of said capacitor; a relay having an ‘ nections Joining a ?rst side of said second capaci actuating coil connected through said main elec tor through said timing resistor to a ?rst side of trodes of said grid-glow tube to a source of actu 20 said ?rst capacitor and joining the other side of saidsecond capacitor to the other side or said ating current, said relay including contacts interposed in the connections joining said coil to ?rst capacitor and to one of the main electrodes said actuating current source to interrupt the of said tube to cause said second capacitor to be ' supply of actuating current for the actuating gradually charged at a rate regulated by said tim coil ot'said relay upon actuation of said relay. 25 ing resistor when ?rst capacitor becomes charged; contacts connected in shunt relation to said ca_ ?nal grid control circuit connections joining the pacitor, to discharge said grid charging capacitor ?rst side of said second capacitor to the grid of said grid-glow tube adapted to apply a striking upon excitation of said relay, and load contacts; and a control circuit responsive to the actuation charge thereto when said second capacitor be of said load contacts by said relay coil including 30 comes charged to a pre-determined potential: current source and to said grid and on its other ' shiitable means responsive to successive closures of saidzload contacts cooperatively engaging said time interval regulating variable/resistor means, and. discharging circuit connections connected through the normally open resetting contacts of the relay in shunt relation to said ?rst and to successively vary the same upon successive second capacitors for discharging the'same when actuations oi’ said relay whereby the duration of 35 said relay moves to excited position whereby the successive timing intervals is altered successively. timing circuit is prepared at the end or one tim 5. In an interval timing circuit a current ing function for a succeeding timing function. source'adapted to be controllably activated; a 7. In an interval timing circuit a source 01' grid-glow tube having main electrodes and a alternating. current adapted to be controllably grid; a relay having a winding, normally open 40 activated; a grid-glow tube having main elec resetting contacts closed when said relay is ex trodes and a grid; a relay having a winding, cited. normally closed resetting contacts opened normally open resetting contacts closed when said relay is excited, normally closed resetting contacts opened when said relay is excited, main taining contacts and load contacts; relay circuit when said relay is excited, and load contacts; relay circuit connections extending through the main electrodes of said grid-glow tube through said normally closed resetting contacts and through the winding of said relay to said source oi’ current; initial grid control circuit connec 15 tions connected to one of the main electrodes of connections extending through the main elec trodes of said grid-glow tube said normally closed resetting contacts and through the winding of said tube and extending through said normally said relay to said source of alternating current; a ?rst capacitor; a recti?er; initial grid control closed gresetting contacts of said relay to a ?rst side oi said source of current; a capacitor; 9. circuit connections joining said ?rst capacitor resistor; intermediate grid control circuit connections joining a ?rst side of said capacitor through said timing resistor to the other side of said cilrrent source and joining the other side of said ‘apacitor through said initial grid control circ t connections to the ?rst side of said our rent‘source to cause said capacitor to be gradu ally charged at a rate regulated by said timing r-.sistcr when said current source is activated; ?nal grid control circuit connections joining the ?rst side of said capacitor to the grid of said grid-glow tube adapted to apply a striking charge ' thereto when said capacitor becomes charged to a pre-determined potential; and discharging circuit connections connected through the nor-' mally open resetting contacts oi’ the relay to said capacitor in shunt'relation thereto for dischargé ing the same when said relay moves to excited 70 position whereby the timing circuit is prepared at the end of one timing function for a succeed ing‘timing function. _ , , v 6. In an interval timing circuit a source of al ternating current adapted to be controllably acti- Y through said recti?er and said normally closed resetting contacts ofisaid relay to said source of alternating current for charging said ?rst ca pacitor upon activation oi’ said alternating cur rent source; a second capacitor; a timing resis tor; intermediate grid control circuit connections joining a ?rst side of said second capacitor through said timing resistor to a' ?rst side or said ?rst capacitor and Joining the other sides of said capacitors to one another and to one of the main electrodes 01’ said tube to cause said second capac itor to be gradually charged at a rate regulated by said timing resistor when said ?rst capacitor becomes charged; ?nal grid control circuit con nections joining the ?rst side of said second ca pacitor to the grid of said grid-glow tube to apply a striking charge thereto when said second capac itor becomes charged to a pre-determined po tential; discharglng'circuit connections connect ed through the normally open resetting contacts of the relay to said ?rst and second capacitors in shunt relation thereto for discharging the same when said relay moves to excited position; and a maintaining circuit controlled by said maintains ' 0 8,567,478 ing contacts adapted to maintain excitation of said relay after opening of said normally closed resetting contacts. 8. In an electrical apparatus adapted to assume a plurality of circuit positions and to shirt suc 10 to be actuated thereby upon the ?rst excitation of said relay, said electro-magnetically actuated switch having load contacts and shifting means cooperatively engaging said resistor selecting switching means to alter the selection of said cessively at pre-determined intervals subject to resistor means forming the connection between said capacitor and said current source, and pre tion, the combination comprising a grid con paratory means operative to prepare a succeed-1 trolled tube having main electrodes and a grid; a ing control switch circuit for actuation by said current source adapted to supply current at a 10 relay upon the second excitation thereof; and grid charging potential su?lcient to render said a second electro-magnetically actuated control tube conducting; a capacitor connected to a main switch having load contacts connected through electrode of said tube and the grid thereof; a said preparatory means and others 01' said relay plurality of independently adjustable resistor contacts to said control current source to be means each adapted to be selectively connected actuated thereby upon a second closing of said relay. between said capacitor and said current source to cause charging oi’ said capacitor to a potential ALBERT J. DAWE. at which said tube will become conducting at REFERENCES CITED rates determined by the particular resistor means and the position of adjustment thereof forming The following references are of record in the the connection between the capacitor and said tile of this patent: current source; resistor selecting switching means UNITED STATES FI'ATENTS \ adapted to be shifted to select the particular re sistor means forming the connection between the Number Name Date _ current source and the capacitor; a relay having 25 2,360,721 Rose ____________ __ Oct. 17, 19“ an actuating coil connected through the main 2,370,727 Holden __________ __ Mar. 6, 1945 electrodes of said tube to a source of actuating 2,379,262 Terry __________ __ June 26. 1945 independent adiustment, from position to posi current to be excited thereby, said relay having a plurality of contacts movable upon excitation of its actuating coil; a ?rst electro-magneticalLy 30 actuated control switch connected through some otsaidrelaycontactstoacontrolcurrentsource 2,442,238 Haungs __________ __ May 25, 1948 OTHER REFERENCES Ber- NO- 387.673, Schmidt (A.P.C.), published May 18. 1943.