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Патент USA US2576794

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Nov. 27, 1951
R, J. JACKSON
2,576,791
PILE _FABRIC FLOOR COVERING
Fílèd Jan. 24, 1947
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IN VEN TOR.
Nov. 27, 1951
R. J. JACKSON
2,576,791
PILE mams FLC-of; cox/ERIM;
Filed Jan. 24, 1947
§[email protected]
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BY
'A7
24 7
2,576,791
Patented Nov. 27, 1951
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,576,791
PILE FABRIC FLOOR COVERING
Robert J. Jackson, Hazardville, Conn., assigner,
by mesne assignments, to Bigelow-Sanford Car
pet Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application January 24, 1947, Serial No. 723,965
18 Claims. (Cl. 139-403)
l
This invention relates to woven pile fabrics.
particularly carpets and rugs.
A principal object of the invention is to pro
vide a. pile fabric door covering having on the
surface of the fabric high and low pile loops
which may be arranged in rows in warpwise and
weftwise relation to each other in any pattern
desired.
An important feature of this invention is the
2
the high portions in the direction of the with~
drawal of the pile wire, are of the proper slope,
not over 75°, to raise the loops formed over the
low portions of the wire to the height of the
high portions as the wire is withdrawn.
Fig. lA shows a pile wire II', which diifers
from the Wire II of Fig. 1 in the omission of the
high portion I0.' It has `portions I3a’ and I3d’
extending where the selvages of the fabric are to
employment in a wire loom of sets of two or lu be located. In the case where the pile warps are
wound on the usual warp beam, the height of the
more pile wires having high and low portions so
placed as to produce .the pattern desired.
Other objects and features will appear from
the following description taken in conjunction
with the accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 is a side view of a pile wire of a set of
pile wires;
Fig. 1A is a side view of a modification of the
wire shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 2 is a warpwise diagrammatic 'cross-sec
tional view of a fabric with some of the pile wires
inserted;
Fig. 3 is the same view as in Fig. 2 after one
of the wires has been withdrawn;
Fig. 4 is the same view as in Fig. 3 after an
other wire has been withdrawn; and,
Fig. 5 is a diagram of a weave produced with
y a repeat set of four wires.
portions I3a' and I3d’ is such that the same
lengths of pile warps are drawn over these por
tions as over the other portions of the wires in
a repeat set.
I prefer to weave the fabric on a loom provided with the usual warp beam. In such case
the shapes of the wires in a repeat set to impart
a given pattern are such that every pile warp is
of the same length as it passes over the high por
tions and the low portions of a set of wires. To
secure this effect the sums of the heights of the
portions of a set of wires warpwise are the same.
Thus every pile warp is drawn evenly from the
warp beam without variation in length.
If, however, the wires are used on a loom pro
vided with spools on which the pile warps are
wound, the shapes of the wires are not so limited,
because the drawoff of the pile warps need not
Any known form of pile wire loom, such as that
'
described in Patent No. 1,840,856, may be em 30 be the same for a set of wires.
Figs. 2, 3 and 4 illustrate an example of the
ployed in the application of my invention.
method of forming high or low pile loops and
A preferred weave of a common type is illus
show the usual pile yarns I6, stuffer warps I1,
trated in Figs. 2-4, in which I'I represents the
weft threads I8 and I8' and. binder warps I9.
stuiIer warps, I9 the binder warps, I8 the holding
In Fig. 2, a pile wire has already been with
weft shots above the stufi'er warps and I8' the 35
drawn from under loop I6’ and pile wires IIa,
weft shots below those warps. I6 are the pile
IIb, IIcl IId and Ile are under loops IBA, ISB,
warps which are strong enough to render with~
IBC, I6D and ISE respectively.` All loops of the
out breaking under a holding weft shot'when
weftwise row on which the loop I6' is located are
pulled by the high portion of a wire as will bef
discribed. The sections shown in Figs. 2-4 show 40 high, having been either looped over high por-.
tions of the wire under loop I6' or raised by such
the high portions of some wires and the low por
portions of said Wire as it was withdrawn.
tions of others.
.
In Fig. 3. the pile wire IIa, Fig. 2, has been
The wires are formed with high` and low por
_ withdrawn forming the high loop ISA which has
tions according to the pattern of high and low
been raised from a low loop, Fig. 2, by one of the
warp loops desired. Fig. 1 shows such a wire.
high portions of the wire IIa. The yarn to give
This wire may have a high portion I0 at the end
the loop IGA its increased height was drawn
beyond the inner selvage of the fabric when the
from the previous loop I6', which was high, but
v wire is fully inserted. High portions Iza, I2b and
is now drawn low.
I2c are located on the pile wire in accordance
with the desired pattern and may be of any num- i
ber and length. An entire wire may be high, if
desired. Low portions I3a, I3b and I3c in ac
cordance with the desired pattern are located
between high portions I Ii, I2a, I2b and I 2c, and
low portion I3d is at the outer selvage. The low
portions may be of any number and length. The
high portions of the wires may be of the same
or different heights and the low portions of the
wires may be of the same or different heights.
The inclines I5.- I5a, I5b and |50, on that side of 60
In Fig. 4, the pile wire IIb, Fig. 3. has been
withdrawn leaving the loop IBB, which was
looped over a high portion of the wire I Ib, high;
and, as said loop was originally high, it does not `
draw yarn from the previous loop I 6A which con
sequently remains high.
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of the cf
fect of a repeat set of four wires, a, b, c and d on
pile warps taken from a warp beam so that the
lengths of the warps woven over the wires of the
set are the same. The-wire a at the top of the
2,570,791
3
figure may be assumed to be the leading wire.
tortion created by the concentrated twist, and by
yWhen it is Withdrawnitäleaves all the loops high
in row A. When' thel nextìwire-b is withdrawn the
loops over its high.portions `do not change _the
Ia varied. angularity.
'
=
.
D-the loops which are woven low, raised and
subsequently pulled down are not so tightly twist
ed as the C low loops and are distinguished there
-from by a more regular and uniform appearance,
loops in row A but the low loops over the low por
tions of wire b are raised by the withdrawal of the
wire and draw from the high loops of the same l as the- low loops from which they originate have
not as many twists in the yarn as the longer high
warps in row A and reduce their height. The
loop from which the C low loops originate. I call
result is that the loops in row A correspond in
height to the heights of the corresponding por 10l the twist in the low D loops a twist less than
tions of wire b. The high loops are indicated by
s_upernormal.
crosses and the low loops by small circles in Fig. 5..
Thus, the loops, A, B, C and D are character
When the wire b is withdrawn it leaves allthe
ized as to twist: '
loops in row B high and when the wire c is with
A--normal twist
drawn it reduces the height of the loops of row B
B--subnormal twist
the warps of which pass over the low portions of
C--supernormal twist
wire c, etc. The pattern of the rows of high
D-less than supernormal twist
and low loops, both warpwise and weftwise, -is
shown by the rows of crosses and small circles and
corresponds to the arrangement of` the highand 20 While I do not wish to be bound by any theory,
I believe that this difference in degree'of twist
low portions of the wires in the set.
in the different kindsV of loops can be explained
As an example, Fig. 5 illustrates a repeat set
as follows. The warp yarn overlying a wire just
of four Wires. A repeat set may include any de
prior to withdrawal of the wire is tightly bound in
sired number of Wires. If the warps are wound
on the warp beam the lengths of the warps woven 25 the backing structure of the fabric and -against
the stuffer warps, adjacent pile yarns, binder
over the wires of a repeat set should be the same.
warps and the holding weft. When a pile warp
If -the warps are wound on separate spools the
so confined and engaged by adjacent strands is
lengths of the warps in a repeat set need not be
forced by the withdrawal of a wire to slide be-_
the same.
_
All loops in the weftwise row are high when a 3 O neath a holding weft I8 it is pinched as it slides
so that there is a tendency for the twist to be held
wire in that row is withdrawn. The loops which
back. Accordingly, as a high loop is pulled down
pass over a low portion of a wire are raised by
yarn is withdrawn from the loop but some or all
the high portions of the wire as it is withdrawn
of the twist in this withdrawn yarn is held baci;
and drawn down the loops in the same warpwise `
so that it is added to the twist present in the yarn
rows in the preceding weftwise row; but, the loops
remainingin the loop, with the result that the
which pass over the high portion of the withdrawn
pulled-down loop contains more turns of twist per
wire leave the high loops in the preceding weft
unit
length than it did before it -was pulled down.
vwise row high.
Similarly, when a low loop is pulled up it 'gains
The effect of this method of weaving, is that
40 in length without a corresponding gain'in num
there are four kinds of loops:
ber of turns of twist, whereby the turns perunit
A-high loops, Woven high, and remaining high ;
length
are decreased. Whatever the explanation
B-high loops, woven low, raised to high and
remaining high;
may be, however, the fact remains that my de
.
scribed method of weaving necessarily and inher-4
ently results in loops in the same warp yarn which
C-low loops, woven high and pulled down to
low, and
^
-
' differ from each other in the number'of turns
D-low loops, woven low, raised to high. and
pulled down to low.
These different kinds of loops, both high and
of twist per unit length present in the yarnof
which they are composed, and, consequently, dif
fer in their appearance and textural effect.
_ In the foregoing I have described the applica
tion of my invention to a fabric in which there
are two sets of binder warps which cross each
other, but my invention is applicable to a fabric
in which there is a single set of binder warps. In
one form of such a weave the upper weft shots'
may be the holding weft shots around which the
pile warps are looped. In another form of such
weave with a single set of binder warps the lower
low, are conspicuous on the face of the fabricand
are distinguishable from each other.
A-the high loops which were woven high and
are not disturbed by the; wire withdrawal have
a loose, full and irregular appearance. 'I'he num-'
ber of turns or twists in the yarns> comprising
these loops remains undisturbed, that is. it is the
same per unit of length as in the yarn on the
~beam or spools.
This, I call, a normal twist.
These loops are characterized by a noticeable
weft shots may be the holding weft shots around
which the pile warps are looped to form a pattern
twist, fullness and varied angularity, which are
60 on the back of the fabric. In the latter case the
lacking in the high loops woven low and raised.
fabric should be so woven that the pile.
B-the loops which were woven low and raised
loops may be drawn down around the lower weftl
high by the withdrawal of a wire appear very close
shots when a pile warp, which has been woven
together and their yarns have comparatively little
over a low portion of the succeeding wire, is raised
twist, which -I call a subnormal twist. This is
by the withdrawal of that wire. My invention is
caused by the twist in the low woven loop being
also applicable to a Jacquard weave in which
extended over the additional length of the yarn
there are areas in which a pile warp is raised to
present in the loop after it has been raised. These
the surface for a series of consecutive loops. In
loops are characterized by a uniformity in shape
such case, as in the applications of my invention
and direction of lay and by a noticeably low twist.
to other weaves, s'uch a series of pile loops may in
C--the loops which are woven high and pulled '
clude two or more high loops in succession. My
down low are tightlyr twisted, as the twist inthe
invention is applicable to any fabric in which
' high loops is concentrated -in the shorter-‘length '
of the low loop. This, I call a superno'rmal twist.
These loops are characterized by a noticeable dis
¿may be formed a pattern of high and low- pile
warp loops which corresponds to the high, aridi l
75 low portions of a s'et of wires.
Y
2,570,791
Weaving processes, looms and pile wires for the >
manufacture of my pile fabric are disclosed and
claimed in, my divisional application Serial No.
785,640 filed November 13, 1947, now Patent No.
2,516,465;
Iclaim:
'
g
‘
.
1. A pile fabric floor covering having a pattern
formed of groups of high warp loops and of groups
of low warp loops, and wherein a weftwise row of
loops includes both high and low loops, the warps
of said pattern being separated by binder warps
and the binder warps being separated by stuffer
warps. a series of holding wefts disposed on one
side of said stuiîer warps and a series of non-`
holding wefts disposed on the other side of said
stui‘ler warps, each group of high loops compris
ing a plurality of loops in sequence in the same
a pattern corresponding to the high ‘and low por
tions oi' wires of a set over which the pile warps
' were woven._
5. A woven pile fabric floor covering having a
warp pile face comprising high and low warp
pile loops arranged to form a pattern wherein a
weftwise row includes both high and low pile loops
and wherein high and low pile loops are located in
any desired predetermined relative order and are
woven into a backing structure including stuñ‘
er-warps, a series of weft shots lying on one side of
the stuifer warps, a series of weft shots lying on
the other side of the stuffer warps, and a binder
warp looped about wefts of both series of wefts
and holding the wefts in position against the
stuifer warps. said fabric including a pile warp
` forming two adjacent pile loops of greater height
than the lowest pile loop of said face, the high and
pile warp, the high and low loops in weftwise
low loops in weftwise rows forming a pattern
rows forming a pattern corresponding to the high
and low portions of wires of a set over which the 201 corresponding to the high and low portions of
pile warps were woven.
2. A woven pile fabric floor covering having ~a
warp pile i ace comprising high and low warp pile
loops arranged to form a pattern wherein a weft
wires of a set over which the pile warps were
woven.
.
6. A pile fabric floor covering having a pattern
formed of groups of 'high warp loops and of groups
wise row includes both high and low pile loops 25 of low warp loops, and wherein a weftwise row
of loops includes both high and low loops, the
and wherein high and low pile loops are located
warps of said pattern being separated by binder
in the pattern in any desired predetermined rela
warps and the binder warps being separated by
tive order and are woven into a backing structure
stuiîer warps, a series of holding wefts disposed
including stuffer warps, a series of _holding wefts
lying on one side of the stufler warps, a series lof 30 on one side of said stuffer warps and a series of
non-holding wefts lying on the other side of the
stuffer warps, and a binder warp looped about
wefts of both series of wefts and holding the wefts
in position against the stuflîer warps, each pile
warp of said fabric forming a loop around each
weft of the »series of holding wefts, the high and
low loops in weftwise rows forming a pattern
corresponding to the high and low portions of
wires of a set over which the pile warps were
woven.
3. A woven pile fabric floor covering having a
warp pile face comprising high and low warp pile
loops arranged to form a pattern wherein a weft
wise row includes both high and low pile loops
non-holding wefts disposed on the other sideof
said stuffer warps, each group of high loops com
prising a plurality of loops in sequence in the
same pile warp, said pattern having a multiplicity
of sequences of a high loop and a low loop in the
same pile warp.
7. A pile fabric floor covering having a pattern
formed of groups of high warp loops and of groups
of low warp loops, and wherein a weftwise row of
40 loops includes both high and low loops, the warps
of said pattern being separated by binder warps
and the binder warps being separated by stuffer
warps, a series of holding wefts disposed on one
side of said stuffer warps and a series of non-hold
and wherein high and low-pile loops are located 45 ing wefts disposed on the other side of said stuif
er warps, all of the pile warps being raised into the
in any desired predetermined relative order and
face of the fabric to form pile loops between every
are woven into a backing structure including
two holding wefts.
stufi'er warps, a series of weft shotsk lying on one
8. A pile fabric door covering having a pat
side of the stuifer warps, a series of weft shots `1y
tern formed of groups of high warp loops and of
ing on the other side of the stuifer warps, and a '
groups of `low warp loops, and wherein a Weftwise
binder warp looped about wefts of both series of i
row of loops includes both high and low loops, the
wefts and holding the wefts in position against
warps of said pattern being separated by binder
the stuffer warps, said fabric including a pile
warps and the binder warps being separated by
warp forming a low pile loop between and imme
stuffer warps, a series of holding wefts disposed
diately adjacent to two high pile loops of the
on one side of said stuifer warps and a series of
4same warp, the high and low loops in weftwise
non-holding wefts disposed on the other side of
rows forming a pattern corresponding to the?high
said stuffer warps, e'ach group of high loops com
and low portions of wires of a set over which the
prising a plurality of loops in sequence in the same
pile warps were woven.
4. A woven pile fabric floor covering having a 60 pile warp, some of the pile warps containing se
quences of two high loops and a low loop, some of
warp pile face comprising vhigh and low w'arp
the -pile warps containing sequences of a low
pile loops varranged to form a pattern wherein a
loop, a high loop and a low loop, and someA of
wei'twise row includes both high and low pile
the pile warps containing sequences of a high
loops and wherein high and low pile loops are lo-'
cated'in any .desired predetermined relative order
and are woven 'into a backing structure including
stuifer warps, a series of weft shots lying on one
, side of the stuflîer warps, a series of weft shots ly
ing on the other side of the stufler warps, and a
binder warp looped about wefts of both series of
wefts and holding the wefts in position against the
_stuffer warps, said fabric including a pile warp
'forming a high pile loop between and immediately
adjacent to two other pile loopsl of the same warp,
the high and low loops `in weftwise vrows forming
65 loop, a low loop and a high loop.
'
9. A woven pile fabric floor covering having
high pile loops and low pile loops in the same
' warp, the `yarn forming some of said high loops
having a normal twist, the yarn forming others
of said high loops having a subnormal twist, the
yarn forming some of said low loops having a' =
supernornial twist and the yarn forming others
of said low loops having a twist less than sl‘perf
normal.
"
_10. A wovenplle fabric floor covering having
2,510,791
8
7
forming others of said low loops, each group of
high loops >comprising a plurality of loops in se~
high loops and low loops in the same warp, the
yarn forming some of said high loops having a
normal twist, the yarn forming others of said high
loops having a subnormal twist and the yarn
forming some of said low loops having a super
normal twist.
quence in the same pile warp.
18. A pile fabric floor covering having a pat
tern formed of groups of high warp loops and of
groupsl of low warp loops, and wherein a weft
wise row of loops includes both high and low loops,
'
1l. A woven pile fabric floor covering having
pile loops in the same warp of substantially the ‘
the warps of said pattern being separated by
same height,`the yarn forming some> of said loops
having a normal twist and the yarn forming
others of said loops having a subnormal twist.
12. A woven pile fabric floor covering having
pile loops in the same warp of substantially the
same height, the yarn forming some of said loops
having a supernormal twist and the yarn forming
others of said loops having a twist less than super
normal.
13. A woven pile fabric floor covering having
high pile loops and low pile loops in the same '
warp, the yarn forming some of said high loops
having a subnormal twist, the yarn forming some
of said low loops having a supernormal twist and
the yarn forming others of said low loops having a
twist less than supernormal.
14. A woven pile fabric floor covering having 25
high pile loops and low pile loops in the same warp,
binder warps and the binder warps being sepa
rated by stuffer warps, a series of holding wefts
disposed on one side of said stuiïer warps and a
series of non-holding wefts disposed on the other
side of said stuifer warps, the yarn forming some
of said high loops having a normal twist, the yarn
forming others of said high loops having a sub
normal twist, the yarn‘forming some of said low
loops having a supernormal twist and the yarn
forming others of said low loops having a twist
less than supemormal, each group of high’loops
comprising a plurality of loops in sequence in the
same pile warp.
'
ROBERT J. JACKSON.
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
file of this patent:I
the yarn forming some of said high loops having
UNITED STATES PATENTS
a normal twist, the yarn forming some of said `
Number
low loops having a supernormal twist and the yarn
forming others of Said low loops having a twist so' 281,069
less than supernormal.
353,937
440,593
15. A woven pile fabric floor covering having a
Name
Date
Hobson ________ __ July 10, 1883
Harrison ________ __ Dec. 7, 1886
Harrison ________ __ Nov. 11, 1890
.warp pile face comprising high and low warp pile
549,372
Klein _______ __'_____ Nov. 5, 1895
loops arranged to form a pattern wherein a weft
wise row includes both high and low pile loops and 35
wherein high and low pile loops are woven into a
backing structure including stuilîer warps, a se
637,486
762,210
Poole ____________ __ Nov. 21, 1899
Stewart __________ __ June 7. 1904
ries of weft shots lying on one side of the stuifer .
warps, a series of weft shots lying on the other
side of the stuifer warps', and a binder warp looped 40
about wefts of both series of wefts and holding
the wefts in position against the stuller warps,
said fabric including a pile warp forming two
adjacent pile loops of greater height than the
1,191,487
Warner __________ __ July 18, l1916
1,287,997
1,317,704
Hope ____________ __ Dec. 17, 1918
Hope ______________ __ Oct. 7, 1919
1,319,709
Hope ___-.. _______ __ Oct. 28, 1919
1,319,710
1,676,039
1,811,008
2,121,909
2,141,152
Hope _____________ __ Oct. 28,
Mason ____________ __ July 3,
Hall ____________ __ June 23,
Fonda __________ __ June 28,
Kaufman ________ __ Dec. 20,
lowest pile loop of said face, a plle warp forming 45 2,164,090
1919
1928
1931
1938
1938
Shuttleworth ___--- June 27, 1939
a high pile loop between and immediately adjacent
2,270,103
to two other pile loops of the same warp, and a pile
warp forming a low pile loop between and imme
2,318,499
Keen ____________ __ May 4, 1943
2,477,249 Y
Harding __________ __ July 26, 1949
diately adjacent to two high pile loops of the same
warp.
-
FOREIGN PATENTS
50
16. A pile fabric floor covering having a pattern
formed of groups of high warp loops and of groups
of low warp loops, and wherein a weftwise row
of loops includes both high and low loops, the
warps of said pattern being separated by binder 55
warps and the binder warps being separated by
stutter warps, a series of holding wefts disposed on
one side of said stuffer warps and a series of non
holding wefts disposed on the other side of said
stulfer warps, the yarn forming some of said
high loops having less twist per unit length than
the yarn forming others ofsaid high loops, each
group of high loops comprising a plurality of loops
in sequence in the same pile warp.
17. A pile fabric iloor covering having a pattern 05
formed of groups of high warp loops and of groups
of low warp loops, and wherein a weftwise row of
loops includes both high and low loops, the warps
of said pattern being separated by binder warps
Baynton ________ __, Jan. 13, 1942
Number
17,905
»36,870
140,819
186,773
269,285
273,602
Country
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
'
-
Date
________ __ May 25,
________ __ Sept. 16,
________ __ Sept. 12,
_' _______ __ June 27,
________ __ Nov. 6,
________ .__ May 4,
1882
1886
1901
1907
1912
1914
582,432
Germany ______ ____ May 25, 1932
55,087
124,848
451,065
467,315
Holland __________ __ Aug. 16,
France __________ __ June 14,
France __________ __ Nov. 27,
France __________ __ Mar. 27,
1943
18.78
1912
1914
449,620
731,216
France __________ __ Dec.‘28,
France _ _________ __ May 24,
Belgium __________ __ Oct. 26,
Great Britain ____ _-___ July 6.
1912
1932
1912
1927 y
250,673
273,409
OTHER REFERENCES
Textile Mercury and Angus, December 24, 1937,
page 650.
, and the binder warps being separated by stuffer
warps, a series of holding wefts disposed on one
side of said stuffer warps and a series of non-hold
tional Textbook Co. of Scranton; 1906; sec. 83.
ing wefts disposed on the other side of said stuffer
warps, the yarn forming some of said low loops
Von E. Muller: Handbuch der Weberai (Leipzig
1896) Band III, Handbuch de Mechanischen
“Weaving Fabrics Textile Designing;” Interna
page 13.
-
having less twist per unit length than the yarn 75 Technologie, K. Karmarsch, pp.,677, 678.
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