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Патент USA US2578146

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Dec. 11, 1951
2,578,145
J. R. MILLER
APPARATUS FOR HANDLING LIQUIDS
Filed Oct. 17, 1946
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Dec. 11, 1951
2,578,145
J. R. MILLER
APPARATUS FOR HANDLING LIQUIDS
Filed Oct. 17, 1946
3 Sheets-Sheet 2 '
.m
mmm.
t]5_Zn_ R Miller
BY
-
Dec. 11, 1951
J. R. MILLER
2,578,145
APPARATUS FOR HANDLING uquws
Filed Oct. 17, 1946
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVEN TOR.
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Patented Dec. 11, 1951
2,578,145
UNITED STATS
ATENT OFFICE'
2,578,145
APPARATUSv FOR HAN DLINGv LIQUIDS
John R. Miller, Royal Oak, Mich., assignor to
Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park; Mieh.,.a
corporation of Delaware
1
ApplicationOctober 17, 1946', Serial‘ No. 703,862
11 Claims.~ (Cl. 315-11);
This invention relates to an apparatus for
producing electrical discharges in contained‘
bodies of liquids for the purpose of increasing the
2
Fig. 10 shows a modified‘ form of electrical sys
tem used with the injection apparatus of the
present invention.
pressures within the liquids. ’ More speci?cally,
As seen in Fig. l the engine includes a cylinder
block H1‘ in which is formed a cylinder ||. The
jecting fuel in an engine.
piston I2 is slidably mounted in the cylinder ||.
An object of the present invention is to pro
A spark plug l3 extends through one side of the
vide improvements in a device for creating, an
cylinderv Wall. Passages l4 and | 5 are formed
electrical dischargebetween spaced electrodes in
in the block for circulation of a cooling ?uid.
a liquid such as a fuel, whereby the production 10 A head I6 is suitably attached to the block I5
of’ the electrical discharge is facilitated. Accord
and has passages |‘l, I8, I9, and 20 formed
ing to the present invention, appropriate means
therein for circulation of the COOIing ?uid. An
are provided between the electrodes for insuring
air intake passage 2| is formed in the head I6,
the creation of an electrical discharge there
and an air intake manifold 22 is attached to
across. The interposed means facilitates the 15 the head with the passage 23 formed therein
electrical discharge through an initiation pro
communicating with the passage 2| in the head.
cedure involving the creation of minor electrical‘
An exhaust passage 241 is formed in the head It,
discharges across the smaller spaces between the
and an exhaust manifold 25 is attached to the
electrodes and the interposed‘ means.
head with a passage 25 therein in communication
A further object is to associate the aforesaid 20 with the passage 24. At the top of the cylinder
spaced electrodes and interposed means facilitat
l I a seat 27 is formed, which is engaged by an
ing electrical discharge, with an engine and a
inlet valve 23 opening and closing the air intake
valve leading from a passage where the elec
passage 2|. The inlet valve 28 is slidable in av
trodes are positioned, whereby fuel is injected
sleeve 29 suitably mounted in the head IS. A
into the engine.
.
25 coil spring 30 acting between a recess formed in
Another object is the use of the aforesaid
the top of the head l6 and a collar 3| on the
spaced’ electrodes and interposed means facilitat
valve 28 acts to- maintain the valve. againstthe
ing electrical discharge, with a system compris
seat 21. The end of the valve In is engaged. by
ing a closed path for fuel‘ and pumping means
a cam 32 secured to a- shaft 33. A seat 33EL is
advancing the fuel about the closed- path, 30 formed in the. end of. the exhaust passage. 24
whereby the passage containing the electrodes
adjacent,- the end of the cylinder II. An exhaust
and leading from the path to an engine is ap
valve 34 engages the seat and: is slidable in a.
propriately cleansed of any undesirable prod‘
sleeve 35 suitably mounted. in the head l6. A
ucts of the fuel produced by the electrical dis
coil spring 36 acting between a recess formed in
charge such as should not be injected in the 35 the head l6 and acollar 3'! attached to the-valve
engine.
34 urges the valve 34 against the seat33a. Thev
Other objects will appear from the. disclosure.
end of. the stem of the valve 34 is engaged by a
In the‘ drawings:
cam 38 secured to a shaft 39.
Fig. 1 is a sectional view through an engine
Aninjection nozzle 4|] includes a sleeve 4|~ hav
showing the novelfuel injection apparatus of the
ing an external thread engaging. the wall of the
present invention:
cylinder I0, and a valve 43 having a head 44 en
Fig. 2. is a diagrammatic view of parts of the.
gaging the inner end of the sleeve 4| and a stem
fuel injection'apparatus and includes‘a showing
portion. 45. The outer end. of the sleeve 4| is
of the electrical system connected therewith;
enlarged as indicated at 48, and the bore at this
Fig. 3 is an end view‘of an electrode unit em 45 portion. is enlarged as indicatedv at 41. A coil
ployed with the. apparatus: of Fig. l, the unit
spring 43 is held on the valve 45 by means of a‘
being shown in section in Fig: v1;
pair of nuts 49, the coil spring. acting between
Figs. 4 and 5 are an end view and a sectional
the nuts and a shoulder 56 formed in the‘ bore in
view; respectively. of a ?rst. modi?ed. form. of
the nozzle sleeve 4|. The enlarged portion 46 on
unit;
the sleeve 4| limits the inward adjustment of the
it relates to the use of such an apparatus for in
Figs. 6 and 7' are an end'view and a sectional.
.view, respectively, of a second modified‘ form of
unit;
Figs. 8- and9 are an end view. and‘ asectional
viewrrespectively, of azthird‘ modi?ed form of. *
unit‘; and
sleeve in the cylinder wall by engaging the cylin
der wall. _ A- threaded extension on the nozzle
sleeve 4| connects the nozzle sleeve’ with a ?bre
block 54-. A through passage 55 is formed in the
block 54. A side passage 56 isalso formed in-the.
block' and‘ intersectsthe through: passage‘v 55- at a.
2,578,145
4
3
plug l3 for cylinder No. I, which is in turn con
nected to a ground IUI.
central region thereof, the side passage 56 being,
in communication with the enlarged portion 4‘!
of the nozzle sleeve bore. As will contribute
toward the provision of a free discharge passage
In Fig. 2 the distributor arm 93 is shown to be
for block 54, a smooth bore ?tting 56 may be
threaded straight into the upper end of the
through passage 55- and receives the ?ared end of
a tube 5'1. A ?tting 58 clamps the ?ared end of
the tube 51 on the ?tting 56. The tube 51 leads,
as may be observed, directly and unobstructed
to a fuel tank 59. A fitting 99 is threaded in the
lower end of the through passage 55 and the
?ared end of a tube 6| is clamped in the ?tting
99 by a ?tting 62. The tube 6| extends to the
discharge side of a pump 63. A tube 995‘ extends
from the fuel supply tank 58 to the intake side
-'
of the pump 53.
An electrical discharge unit 64 is threaded into _
the block 55 as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an end
view of the unit. The unit comprises a threaded 20
tubular section 55, by which threaded engage
ment of the unit ?ll with the block 54 is effected. '
‘Within the tubular section 55 is a mass of insulat
ing material 99, in which are embedded a plu
passing over the contact 9| for the spark plug
l3 of engine cylinder No. I, and for set of elec
trodes 68 and 69 associated with the spark plug
engine cylinder No. 3 (the next in‘ ?ring order
after cylinder No. I) which electrodes are con
nected by the recti?er l8, conductor 3?, and im
pedance 88 with the spark plug is for engine
cylinder No. I. At each contact 9! the numeral
not in parenthesis indicates the number of the
engine cylinder for the spark plug connected with
the contact, andlthe numeral in parenthesis, the
number of engine cylinders for the set of elec
trodes connected with the contact.
" At the instant the‘ distributor arm 93 passes
over the contact 91, as shown in Fig. 2, a portion
of the energy stored in the capacitor 95 is dis
charged in the spark plug l3 for cylinder No. I,
and current ?ows through line 81 and from the
ignitor rod 8| into the mercury pool 39 causing
ionization of the mercury, which results in cur
rent ?ow between anode TI and cathode ‘:9, ‘which
25 establishes a suf?cient difference in potential be
rality of plate-like or strip-like conductive in
tween electrodes 68 and 69 to cause an electrical
serts 61 in parallel spaced relation. The inner
discharge therebetween, derived from the balance
ends of the inserts 6'? project beyond the insulat
of the energy stored in the capacitor 95. This
ing mass 66, and the outer ends of the two outer
electrical discharge acts on the supply of fuel
inserts 61 are bent so that the spacing between
the inserts is increased at this region. A pair of 30 passing continuously from the fuel supply tank
59 through the conduit 63“, the pump 63, the con
plate-like or strip-like electrodes 68 and 69 are
duit 6|, the passage 55 in the ?bre block 54, and
positioned in the insulating mass on the outer
the conduit 5'! back to the fuel supply tank 59.
sides of the inserts 97 in parallel spaced relation
The action of the electrical discharge is, perhaps
thereto. Portions of the electrodes 98 and 69
near the outer side of the insulating mass 65 are 35 because of a partial cracking thereof into gaseous
or other products, to increase the pressure of the
bent so as to diverge and present end connecting
fuel very considerably.
portions 19 and ‘ll in widely spaced relation.
If the coil spring 48 causing the nozzle valve
These portions 19 and ‘H are appropriately con
44 to hold the nozzle sleeve 4| closed is appro
nected as shown to conductors 12 and ‘i3.
priately regulated, the increased pressure, con
The electrodes 58 and B9 and the conductors
strained locally by inherent ?uid inertia acting
‘i2 and 13 are shown in a complete electrical cir
on an increment of relatively unresisting fuel will
cuit for a four-cylinder engine in Fig. 2. There
be sufficient to make the nozzle valve openv the
are four sets of electrodes 68 and 69, one for each
valve sleeve and discharge ?uid through the
of the four cylinders. Each set of electrodes is
shown within a box designated by an engine-cyl 45 nozzle into cylindervNo. 3. The spacing between
the electrode tips 68 and 69 and the rate of
inder number. An impedance ‘M, which may in
discharge across these electrodes as determined
clude inductance, is connected across each set of
by the adjustment of the ?eld resistance 85
electrodes 68 and 99. Each electrode 73 is con
determines the amount of fuel discharged, prob
nected through the associate conductor 69 with
a ground 15. .Each electrode 68 is connected by 50 ably by governing the duration of increase in
the associated conductor '12 and an electrical con
nector T6 with an anode ‘ll of a gas-?lled recti?er
18 of the cold-cathode type. Each recti?er has
a cathode 79 containing a pool of mercury 89 and
an igniter rod 8| dipping into the mercury. Each
cathode ‘I9 is connected by a line 82 with the
negative side of a D. C. generator 83 having a
?eld B4 controlled by a variable resistance 85.
The positive side of the generator is connected to
a ground 85. The igniter rod 81 of each recti?er
19 is connected by a line 81 containing an im
pedance 88 with a connection point 89 from which
a line 99 leads to one of a plurality of contacts
pressure of the liquid - fuel or the magnitude
of the increase in pressure. The evanescent
increase in pressure lasts only long enough for
the required injection of vfuel through the
nozzle 40 into the engine cylinder. v A great
portion of any gaseous products formed by the
electrical discharge are injected into the engine
cylinder with great advantage for these gaseous
products are very satisfactory as a fuel. The con
tinuous circulation of the fuel from the supply
tank through the pump and through the block 511
and back to the supply tank causes any gaseous
products not injected into the engine cylinder and
solid residue to be carried o? through the conduit
9| of a distributor 92 having a rotating arm 93. 65 51 and thereby scavenges the space between the
The distributor arm 93 is connected with a ground
electrodes for conditioning for the next electrical
94, and a capacitor 95 is connected between the
discharge.
ground 94 and the negative side of the gen
The electrical discharge between the electrodes
68 and 69 is initiated and facilitated by the ends
erator 89.
A line 96 leads from each connection point 89
of the members 6‘! projecting from the mass of
insulating material 66 between the projecting _
to the primary side of a powdered iron core trans
ends of electrodes 69 and 69. These are small
former 91, which is connected by a line‘ 98 to the
electrical discharges, for example, from electrode
line 82 at a connection point 99. The secondary
68 to the adjacent member El, from one member
side of the transformer 91 is connected at one end
to a ground l?lland at the other end to the spark‘
61 to another, and ?nally from the last member,
5t
2,5 78.‘, 1 4.51"
61 to. the electrode 69. This small discharge from
electrode to member, from member to member,
and from member to electrode, make possiblethe
large electrical discharge between electrodes.
The members 67 intervening between the elec
trodes 58 and B9 constitute What may be con
sidered a semi—conducting path between the
electrodes.
The impedance of the armature of the gen
_ vantage when employed: with spark. plug- ignition
because. the electrical systems of.v the two may be
combined and common parts maybeused, for ex
ample, the. distributor and the magneto. How
ever, it is. to be understood that a fuel injection
system of. the present invention is not limited to
use with engines having spark plug ignition, but
may be just as well applied to engines, for ex~
ample, of the diesel type having compression
ignition. The invention may'also be applied to
to be high enough to prevent continuous dis‘
the injection. of fuel in, an engine manifold. It
charge across the electrodes 68 and 69 and low
is also to be stated at this point that the present
enough for adequate charges of the capacitor 95
invention is notv limited in its use. to fuel injection
between discharges across the electrodes.
for an engine, but is particularly applicable to
The impedance 88 between the igniter rod BI
other installations. wherever discharge of a liquid
of the recti?er ‘I8 and the connection point 89
may be employed.
prevents the potential across the spark plug I3
As previously stated‘, one result of‘ the injection
from approaching too low a value during ?ring‘
by electrical discharge in. a liquid fuel is the
of the recti?er ‘I8. Similarly the impedance of
cracking of the. fuel. If the, fuel is gasoline, the.
the transformer 97 prevents the potential applied 20 gaseous products along with the liquid products
across the recti?er ‘I8 from approaching too low
are injected in the engine. Both liquid and
a value during ?ring of the spark plug IS. The
gaseous products may have higher octane rating,
erator 83 must be appropriately regulated so as
impedance 88 should be high enough so as to pass
just enough current to cause the igniter rod 8|
to make the recti?er ‘I8 conductive. The current
?owing through the igniter rod is small in com
parison with the current passing between anode ’
‘I1 and cathode ‘2'9.
The purpose of the impedance“ is to prevent
because the residue formed as the result of the
cracking is carbon. Thus it is clear that the
V gasoline resulting from the cracking has had
some of its carbon removed and, in effect, its
hydrogen increased. This may mean a higher
octane rating. With the cracking and injecting
of the fuel carried on together, there is no sub
the cathode 79 and anode TI of the recti?er "I3 0 , stantial loss of gaseous. products normally'result
from approaching the same potential between
discharges across the electrode tips 68 and 69 and
thus to prevent failure of the recti?er to conduct
when ?red by the igniter rod 8|, because of in
su?icient diiference of potential between anode
ing from cracking.
Figs. 4 and 5 show a modi?ed form of electrical
discharge unit I82, comprising a threaded ring
I02 containing a mass of insulating material I915.
In the insulating mass is positioned an outer
and cathode. The impedance ‘I4 should conduct '
electrode I95 in the-form of a ring having an ex
as little current as possible during electrical dis
tension I??, to which the conductor ‘I3 is con
charge between the electrodes 68 and 69, thus in
nected. In the ring electrode I05 is an inner elec
suring a maximum current ?ow across the elec
trode It? in the form of a rod having an offset
trode tips during discharge.
,
4.0 end I08, to which the conductor ‘I2 is connected.
Let it be assumed that the engine of which
A plurality of metallic rod-like members I09 are
one cylinder and its associated parts are shown
positioned within the ring electrode I05, being
in Fig. 1 has four cylinders, and that their ?ring
embedded in the insulating mass I04 so as to be
order is 1——3-~2-—4 as indicated by the row of
insulated from the ring electrode Hi5, from the
spark plugs I3 illustrated diagrammatically in
central electrode I61, and from one another. The
Fig. 3. This ?ring order for the spark plugs is 45 unit E92 may be substituted for the unit 613 so as
insured by the distributor 92, the contacts 9i
to have threaded engagement with the block
thereof being connected with the appropriate
54, the projecting ends at the left side of unit I92
spark plugs. The numeral 1, 2, 3, or ll associated
of Fig. 5 being within the chamber in the block
with each contact 9| and not in parenthesis
54 so as to be in the fuel as it flows through
designates the contact for the spark plug of the 50 the block 5t. When su?icient potential is ap
cylinder of that numeral, the spark plug itself
plied across the electrodes I?5 and IO'I by the
carrying the same numeral. The numeral 1, 2,
conductors l2 and ‘I3, small discharges occur from
3, or 4 in parenthesis at each contact 9| desig
the inner electrode I 01 to adjacent interposed
nates the contact for the set of electrodes 68 and
55 rods I 09, then across individualrods I 89, and
69 for the cylinder of that numeral, the box sur
then from the outer rods N39 to the outer rim,
rounding the set of electrodes carrying thesame
electrode I05, thereby initiating a large discharge
numeral.
between electrodes IIl5and IN. This latter dis
charge will act as the discharge previously dc»
at the same time as the electrical discharge is
69 in Fig.
as taking
1, to raise
placethe
between
pressure
electrodes
of fuel in the
effected in the No. 3 fuel injection discharger. 60 scribed
Discharge of the No. 3 apparatus produces in
block 54 sufficiently to open the valve t3 and
jection of fuel in the No. 3 cylinder and there~
thereby to inject fuel into the engine cylinder.
after the No. 3 spark plug is ?red. At this time,
Figs. 6 and 7 show a modi?ed electrical dis
as indicated by Fig. 3, the No. 2 fuel injection
charge unit I89, comprising an outer threaded
discharger is being fired and ‘causes the injection
ring IIQ, a mass of insulating material Hi, and
of fuel in No. 2 cylinder. Thereafter the No. 2
two electrodes H2 and H3 having oifset endsv Ill
spark plug ?res and at this time the No. 4 fuel
and M5 to which conductors ‘I2 and '13 are con
injector operates. Thereafter the No. 1% spark
nected, respectively. All these parts are very
plug ?res and at this time the No. I fuel in
similar to corresponding parts of the unit 64 of
jector operates. Then the cycle is repeated. The
Fig. 3. However, the present unit I09 carries a
fuel injection system of the present invention
layer IE6 of semi-conducting material a?ixed to
has been shown as applied to an engine. of the
the surface of the mass of insulating material I I I
type in which ignition is eifected by spark plugs.
between the projecting ends of the electrodes I I2
The present fuel injection system is of great. ad 75 and H3. The semi-conducting layer H5 may be
As previously stated, spark plug No. I is ?red
2,578,145
7
formed 'of va ?nely divided carbon product em
Figs. 4 and 5 and the unit II‘! of Figs. 8 and 9 is
bedded in the insulating mass III when in a
that, no matter in which direction small dis
charges start from the inner electrode across the
semi-conducting layer I24 or the spaced rod
softened condition from heating by a pounding
process or the like.
Penetration to a mixed layer .
depth as desired may thus be achieved wherebir
the working-surface parts can withstand pitting
and other evidences of sustained operation with
out requiring frequent attention or re-surfacing.
Within the broader aspects of the invention, the
inserts . I09, the outer ring electrode will be
reached.
‘
Fig. 10 shows an electrical system for use with
the sets of electrodes 68 and 69 of Figs. 1, 2, and
3 or the alternative devices of Figs. 4-9, inclusive,
insulating mass III may alternatively be a 10 which differs from that of Fig. 2 in that the recti
?ers ‘I8 of Fig. 2 are eliminated. Thus for each
phenolic ?bre board and the semi-conducting
set of electrodes the conductor ‘I2 connected to
layer I It may be formed of an appropriate metal
one electrode is connected directly to the con
sprayed on the board. In another form, the in
ductor 81, impedance 88, and connection point 89,
sulating mass III may be quartz, and the semi
rather than by way of the recti?er 18. Other
conducting layer I I6 may be tungsten applied on
wise, the electrical system of Fig. 10 is the same
the quartz in small particles by a so-called evap
as that of Fig. 2, as the use of the same numerals
oration process, involving placing‘ the quartz near
to designate like parts indicates.
a tungsten wire in a high vacuum and applying
The intention is to limit the invention only
a high heating current to the tungsten wire. The
unit I09 is threaded into the block 54 in place 20 within the scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
of the unit 64, the projecting ends of the elec
1. Apparatus for discharging liquid from a
trodes H2 and I I3 and the semi-conducting layer
chamber into the combustion chamber of an in
H6 being within the block 54 and in the liquid
ternal combustion engine, said apparatus includ
fuel flowing therethrough.
.
‘
When an appropriate electric potential is 25 ing a mass of insulating material forming a wall
of the chamber, a plurality of electrodes provided
applied across the electrodes H2 and H3 by the
‘with relatively diverging electrode terminals and
conductors l2 and 13, there are small electrical
having each an end projecting through and held
discharges from the electrode II2 to an adjacent
by the insulating mass such as to dip into the
point on the semi-conducting layer H6, then
liquid in spaced relation to any other electrode
from one point on the semi-conducting layer i I6
to another and so on, and ?nally to the other
electrode II3. This facilitates the creation of a
large electrical discharge between electrodes,
which increases the pressure of the liquid fuel in
the block 54 sufiiciently to open the valve 43 and 35
thereby to inject fuel into the engine cylinder.
end, and conductor means embedded in the mass
of insulating material and exposed to the liquid
between the electrodes and in spaced relation
thereto.
,
2. Apparatus for discharging liquid from a
chamber into the combustion chamber of an
internal combustion engine, said apparatus in
Figs. 8 and 9 show a modi?ed electrical dis
cluding a mass of insulating material forming a
charge unit I H, which represents a combination
wall of the chamber, a plurality of electrodes pro
of the unit I02 of Figs. 4 and 5 and the unit I09
of Figs. 6 and 7. The unit II‘I comprises a 40 vided with relatively diverging electrode termi
threaded ring H8, a mass of insulating material , nals and having each an end projecting inter
nally through and held by the insulating mass
I I9, an outer ring electrode I26 having an exten
such as to dip into the liquid in spaced relation
sion I2I to which the conductor ‘I2 is connected,
to any other electrode end, a condenser having a
a central rod electrode I22 having an o?set end
I23 to which the conductor ‘I3 is connected, and 45 continuously charging source of electric potential
and a switch between the condenser and elec
a semi-conducting layer I24 applied to the sur
trodes closable to apply a difference in potential
face of the insulating mass II9 between the pro
across the latter, and means for causing the
jecting ends of the outer ring electrode I20 and
difference in electric potential to create an elec
the inner rod electrode I22. The semi-con
ducting layer I24 may be applied to the insulating 50 trical discharge between the electrodes in the
liquid, said last mentioned means comprising a
mass H9 in the same way that the semi-con
plurality of conductive inserts embedded in the
ducting layer II6 of the unit I09 of Figs. 6 and '7
mass of insulative material and exposed to the
is applied to the insulating mass III. The unit
liquid between the electrodes and in spaced rela
II‘! is adapted to replace the unit 64, the ring
H8 having threaded engagement with the block 55 tion to one another and to the electrodes and
between them.
54, the projecting ends of the electrodes I20 and
3. Apparatus for discharging from a chamber
I22 and the semi-conducting layer I24 being
a liquid not readily ionizable into the combustion
wtihin the block 54 and in the liquid fuel passing
chamber of an internal combustion engine, said
therethrough.
When an appropriate velectric potential is 60 apparatus including a mass of insulating material
forming a wall of the chamber, a plurality of
applied across the electrodes I20 and I22 by the
electrodes provided with relatively diverging elec
conductors ‘l2 and 13, there are small electrical
trode terminals and having each an end pro
discharges, for example, from the inner rod elec
jecting internally through and held by the insu
trode I22 to an adjacent point on the semi-con
ducting layer !24, then across successive points 65 lating mass such as to dip into the liquid in
spaced relation to any other electrode end. a con
of the semi-conducting layer I24, and ?nally
denser having a continuously charging source of
from an outer point on the layer I24 tov the
electric potential and an interconnecting switch
outer ring electrode I20. This action facilitates
between the condenser and electrodes closable to
a large electrical discharge between electrodes
I2 and, I22, which increases the pressure of the 70 apply a difference in potential across the latter,
and means for causing the difference in electric
liquid fuel in the block 54 su?iciently to open the
potential to create an electrical discharge be
valve 43 and thereby to inject fuel into the engine
tween the electrodes in the liquid, said last men
cylinder.
tioned means comprising a layer of semi-con
The advantage in the use of outer ring elec
trodes and inner rod electrodes in the unit I02 of 75 ducting, particles impregnated in and below the
,9
face layer‘ of the insulating mass and exposed to
the liquid.
4. Apparatus for discharging liquid from a
chamber into-the combustion chamber of an in
ternal combustion engine, said apparatus includ
ing a mass of insulating material forming a wall
10
electrode and the semi-conducting means and "be
tween points representing crystalline particles of
the semi-conducting means spaced apart les
than the electrodes.
'
7. Apparatus for discharging liquid from a
chamber, including an electrical discharge unit
of the chamber, a plurality of electrodes provided
with relatively diverging electrode terminals and
having each an end projecting internally through
comprising a massof insulating material form
ing a wall of the chamber, an ‘inner electrode hav
ing an energizing terminal and an end extending
and held by the insulating mass such as to dip E10 through the mass of insulating material and dip
. into the liquid in spaced relation to any other
ping into the liquid, an outer electrode surround
,electrode'end, a condenser ‘having a continuously
ing the inner electrode and having an energizing
charging source of electric potential and circuit
terminal at relatively divergent angles to the ?rst
means including a switch'between the condenser
energizing terminal and an end extending through
and electrodes closable to apply a difference in 15 the mass of insulating material and dipping into
potential across the latter, andmeans for causing
the liquid in spaced parallel relation to the inner
the difference in electric potential to create an
electrode end, a condenser having a source of elec
electrical discharge between the electrodes in the
trode'potential under constant charge and having
liquid, said last mentioned means comprising a
a switch in series therewith closable to subject
plurality of conductive plates inserted in the in
the electrodes to a potential di?ference, and con
sulating mass and insulated from one another
ductive means atleastpartially embedded in said
and from the electrodes and protruding therefrom
mass of insulating material in surrounding rela
in spaced relation to one another and to the
tion to the inner electrode and in surrounded re
electrodes and between them.
lation by the outer electrode, said conductive
5. Apparatus for discharging liquid from a 25 means being exposed to the liquid and .to the elec
chamber into the combustion chamber of an in
trodes and de?ning conducting points interme
ternal combustion engine, said apparatus includ
diate the electrode ends for causing the differ
ing a mass of insulating material forming a wall
ence in electric potential to create an electrical
of the chamber, a plurality of electrodes pro
discharge between the electrodes through ,a se
vided with relatively diverging electrode termi '30 ries of electrical discharges taking place between
nals and having each an end projecting internally
each electrode and said interposed means, and
through and held by the insulating mass such
‘between conducting points of said interposed
as to dip into the liquid in spaced relation to any
means spaced apartless than the electrodes.
other electrode end, a condenser having a con
8. Apparatus for discharging liquid from a
tinuously charging source of electric ‘potential 35 chamber, comprising a mass of insulating mate
and a connecting switch between the condenser
rial forming a wall of the chamber, a ?rst elec
and electrodes closable to apply a difference in
trode having an energizing terminal and an end
potential across the latter, and means for causing
extending through the mass of insulating material
the difference in electric potential to create an
and dipping into the liquid, a second electrode hav
electrical discharge between the electrodes in the 40 ing an energizing terminal at relatively divergent
liquid, said last mentioned means comprising a
angles to the ?rst energizing terminal and an end
plurality of parallel rod-like conductors inter
extending through the mass of insulating matei
posed substantially coextensively between the
rial and dipping into the liquid in spaced parallel
electrodes in spaced relation to one another and
to the electrodes, said conductors having each a
relation to the ?rst electrode end, a condenser
under constant charge and having a switch in
substantial portion thereof insulated mutually
series therewith closable to subject the electrodes
and from said electrodes, and a minor portion
to a potential difference, and a plurality of par
thereof exposed mutually and to said electrodes,
allel plate conductive means at least partially em
the minor portions aforesaid dipping into the
bedded in said mass of insulating material, said
liquid in the manner of said electrode ends.
50 parallel plate conductive means having ends ex
6. Apparatus for discharging from a chamber
posed to the liquid and to the electrodes and de
a liquid not readily ionizable including, in combi
?ning transverse conducting strips intermediate
nation, an electrical discharge unit comprising a
the electrode ends for causing the difference in
mass of insulating material forming a wall of the
electric potential to create an electrical discharge
chamber, a pair of electrodes provided with di
, between the electrodes through a series of elec
verging energizing terminals and spaced parallel
plate porticns‘generally embedded in the mass of
insulating material and each having an end
emerging from the insulating material and dip
ping into the liquid in spaced relation to the end
of any other parallel plate portion, a condenser
having a constantly charging source of electric“
potential for the electrode terminals and having
a switch in series therebetween closable to make
available a difference in electrical potential from
the source across the electrodes, and semi-con
ducting means cf a substance containing ran
trical discharges taking place between each elec
trode and the strips formed by said interposed
means, and between conducting strips of said in
terposed means spaced apart less than the elec
trodes.
9. Apparatus for discharging from a chamber
a liquid not readily ionizable including, in com
bination, a mass of insulating material forming
a wall of the chamber, a pair of electrodes pro
vided with diverging energizing terminals and
spaced parallel plate portions generally embedded
in the mass of insulating material and each hav
domly spaced crystalline particles generally em
ing an end emerging from the insulating mate
bedded in the insulating mass and being partially
rial and dipping into the liquid in spaced rela
exposed at the surface thereof to the liquid be 70 tion to the end of any other parallel plate por
tween ends of the parallel plate portions of the
tion, a condenser having a constantly charging
electrodes, for causing the difference in electric
~ source of electric potential for the electrode ter
potential to create an electrical discharge in the
minals and having a switch in series therebe
liquid between the electrodes through a series of
tween closable to make available a difference in
electrical discharges taking place between each
electrical potential from the source across the
“2,578,146
11
12
electrodes, and a plurality of intervening con
material so as to dip into the liquid in the man
ductor elements in the mass between the elec
ner of the main electrodes.
11. In a device of the character described, a
trodes comprising spaced parallel plate portions
extending coextensively with the electrode paral
spark discharge unit comprising a chamber-wall
forming portion of insulating material adapted
lel plate portions and having each an end emerg
ing from the mass dipping into the liquid, for
causing the difference in electric potential to cre
ate an electrical discharge in the liquid between
electrodes through a series of electrical dis
to be impervious to and con?ne a contained liq»
uid at one side thereof, a concentric set of main
electrodes provided with relatively diverging elec
trode terminals and each having a substantial
charges taking place between each electrode and 10 portion thereof projecting internally through and
held by the insulating material so as to protrude
in part from the said one side thereof and dip
into the liquid, the electrodes being in parallel
spaced relation within the material to one an
10. In a device of the character described, a
spark discharge unit comprising a chamber-wall 15 other at all points and being energizable to dif
ferent electrical potentials, and means for caus
forming portion of insulating material adapted to
ing the difference in electric potential to create
be impervious to and con?ne liquid at one side
an electrical discharge between the electrodes in
thereof, a set of strip-like main electrodes pro
the liquid, the just-named means comprising a
vided with relatively diverging electrode termi- nals and each having a substantial portion there 20 plurality of metallic rods embedded in the insu
lating material in parallel spaced relation to one
of projecting internally through and held by the
another and to each main electrode and having
insulating material so as to protrude in part from
a minor portion thereof protruding from said one
the said one side thereof and dip into the liquid,
side of the material so as to dip into the liquid
the electrodes being in parallel spaced relation
within the material to one another at all points 25 in the manner of the main electrodes.
JOHN R. MILLER.
and being energizable to di?erent electrical po
tentials, and means for causing the di?erence
REFERENCES CITED
of electric potential to create an electrical dis
The
following
references are of record in the V
charge between the electrodes in the liquid, the
the intervening elements and between the inter
vening elements spaced apart less than the elec
trodes.
just-named means comprising a plurality of me
30 ?le'of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS
tallic plates embedded in the insulating material
in parallel spaced relation to one another and
to each main electrode and having a minor por
_ tion thereof protruding from said one side of the 3.5
‘Number
1,333,612
2,436,090
~
Name
Date
Fisher __________ __ Mar. 16, 1920
Bodine __________ __ Feb. 17, 1948
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