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Патент USA US2578962

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,DeC- 18, 1951
2,578,959
J. E. YARBOROUGH
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FOR DRILLING RIGS
Oct. 30'
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Patented Dec. 18, 1951
2,578,959
UNITED STATES‘ PATENT OFFICE
2,578,959
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FOR DRILLING RIGS
Joel E. Yarborough, Enid, 0kla., assignor to The
George E. Failing Supply Company, Enid, 0kla.,
a corporation of Oklahoma
1
Application October 30, 1948, Serial No. 57,543
5 Claims. (Cl. 60-51)
This invention relates to drilling rigs such as
used for drilling earth formations and of the
type employing a hydraulic lift and pressure
mechanism for running in and pulling pipe, con
trolling and applying pressure on the drill bit,
and for other operations involving manipula
tions of the drilling string.
_
2
I8 that are connected with a common supply
pipe l9. During lifting, liquid is exhausted from
the upper ends of the cylinders through branch
pipes 20 and 2| that are connected by a common
pipe 22. When the drilling string is lowered, the
direction of the pressure liquid is reversed with
the liquid being admitted through the pipes 20
The principal objects of the present invention
are to provide a high speed lift with a rela
tively small pump; to provide a hydraulic mech
anism capable of holding a high pressure on the
drill bit while drilling without heating of the hy
draulic ?uid; and to provide a hydraulic control
and 21 and discharged from the pipes Ill and 18.
The pipes l9 and 22 are interconnected by trans
10 fer pipe 23 having a control valve 24 connected
therein. The pipes l9 and 22 continue from their
connections with the transfer pipe 23 to con
nect with a storage tank 25 which contains a
apparatus capable of greater lifting’ power with
supply of the liquid. The pipe I9 is provided
a given size hydraulic mechanism.
15 with a control valve 26 that is inserted therein
In accomplishing these and other ‘objects of the
intermediate the storage tank and the connection
invention I have provided improved structure,
with the transfer pipe 23. The pipe 22 is also
the preferred form of which is illustrated in the
provided with a similar control valve 21 that is
connected therein between the connection of
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a hydraulic 20 the transfer pipe 23 and the branch pipes leading
unit of a drilling rig and a hydraulic control
to the upper ends of the cylinders. Connected
apparatus therefor constructed in accordance
into the pipe 22 between the transfer pipe and
with the present invention.
the pressure cylinder is a pump 28 having an inlet
Fig. 2 is a vertical section through the pressure
connection 29 through which liquid is drawn
accumulator of the control apparatus.
25 from the tank 25 through a, connecting portion
Referring more in detail‘to the drawing:
30 of the pipe 22 and discharged through the out
l designates a hydraulic unit of a drilling rig
let connection 3! of the pump into the pipe 22.
such as used in rotary drilling of earth forma
A bypass 32 is provided around the pump to
tions. Drilling units of this character usually
connect the pipe 22 with the storage tank for
accompanying drawing wherein:
comprise a pair of laterally spaced cylinders 2
and 3 arranged in vertical relation and connected
at their upper ends by a cross head 4. Slidably
relieving pressure in excess of a predetermined
maximum as set by a pressure relief valve 33 that
is connected into the bypass.
The structure thus far described is substan
vator 5 carrying the usual swivel head 6 to which
tially conventional but to provide for high speed
a Kelly rod 1 or upper section of the drill pipe
35 operation, a pump of substantially large capacity
is adapted to be connected for raising and lower
is required to provide pressure liquid in volume
ing the drilling string as when running in or pull
to produce the desired speed of operation.
ing the drill pipe and controlling pressure on the
In order to overcome this difficulty and at the
drill bit (not shown) that is connected to the
same time provide for high speed operation with
lower end of the drill pipe.
a pump of relatively small capacity, the pipe 22
Reciprocably mounted in the respective cylinJ 40 is provided between the cylinders and the con
mounted on the cylinders is a cross head or ele
ders are pistons B and 9 that are connected with
substantially large piston rods l9 and l l slidable
trol valve 2'! with lateral connections 34 and 35
for a bypass 36 having leg portions 3‘! and 38
through stu?ing boxes l2 and I3. carried as a
interconnected by a pipe 39 to which an accumu
cross head on the upper ends of the cylinders. 45 lator 40 is connected through a T ?tting 4!. The
The rods l9 and I! are interconnected by a
leg portion 31 of the bypass is provided with a
cross head M which in turn is connected by rods
choke 42 and the other leg 38 is provided with
[5 and I6 with the cross head 5 to effect raising
a control valve 43. Connected in the pipe 39
and lowering thereof on the cylinders when a
between the choke and the connection of the
pressure ?uid is applied on the pistons as will be 50 accumulator is a check valve 44 opening in the
well understood by those skilled. in the drilling
art
'
direction of the accumulator.
The accumulator 40 comprises a casing 45 of
‘ The pressure ?uid, for example, a liquid under
substantially cylindrical shape enclosed at the
pressure of a pump, is admitted into the lower
ends to provide a bladder chamber 46. Mounted
ends of the cylinders through branch pipes I‘! and 55 in the chamber 46 is a bladder 41 that is formed
2,578,959
4
the valves 26 and 27. Assuming the accumulator
of resilient material such as rubber to permit ex
pansion thereof under a gaseous ?uid such as
compressed air that is admitted into the bladder
is charged, the valve 43 is opened so that the
liquid in the accumulator is released to supple
ment the pump pressure.
through a valve connection 48. On in?ation the
bladder may substantially ?ll the casing but is 5
In the event that an exceptionally heavy load
adapted to be compressed by the pressure ?uid
must be lifted, it is possible with the system of
admitted into the casing through a port 49
valves illustrated, to lift substantially twice the
load that is possible with an ordinary straight ‘
through the pipe connection 4|.
>In operating the control apparatus constructed
lift differential control system. To accomplish
and assembled as described, the gaseous pressure
this result all the valves are opened, after which
?uid such as compressed air is admitted into the
valve 21 is closed and then valve 26. The liquid
bladder to exert pressure on the liquid in coopera
on top of the pistons is displaced into the accumu
tion with the pressure established by the pump
lator and. full pump pressure is provided in the
23. When the pump is in operation, liquid is
bottom of the cylinders. Since the nominal lift
drawn from the tank 25 and discharged through , is accomplished with the same pressure on the
the pipe 22 upon opening of the valve 21 and
top as on the bottom of the cylinder, this ar
closing of the valve 24. The liquid is then re
rangement of valve control gives twice the area
tained in the lower end of the‘ cylinders and the
for the pump pressure to act upon. This setting
flow is diverted through the choke 42 and check
is alsoimportant as with the valve setting just
valve 44 into the chamber of the accumulator up
described, it is possible to apply double the pump
to the point where the pressure on the liquid
pressure in the accumulator so that the accumu
substantially balances the gaseous pressure in the
lator is’ charged for effecting an exceptionally
bladder.
high speed. If desired, the entire system may be
Assuming that liquid is to be admitted to the
operated as- a straight differential control sys
lower ends of the cylinders for raising the cross.
tem by closing the valve 43 and opening the valve
head 5 as when lifting the drilling string, the
21-. By using relatively large piston rods, the
valves 26 and 43 are closed and the valves 24 and
control system is much faster on both the up and
2i are opened. The pump then discharges liquid
down stroke.
through the transfer pipe valve 24, through the
With the present system, there is no necessity
pipe l9 and branch pipes l1 and I8 to the lower 11 of an unloader as it is possible on the downstroke
ends of the cylinders to act on the pistons and
to feed from the accumulator.
effect upward movement thereof. Pressure ?uid
This is e?ected
by closing the valve 21 and opening the valves
is also acting on the upper ends of the pistons
43, 24 and 26. With this arrangement, the pump
through the pipe 22 and branch pipes 20 and 2|
operates under no pressure as the liquid is mere
since the valve 2‘! is open, however, since the
lyi circulated from the pump through the trans
area ‘on the tops of the pistons as established by
fer pipe back to the receiver. Thus, a pressure
the relatively large diameter rods I0 and H is
maybe maintained on the drill bit by means of
less than the area of the bottoms of the pistons,
the accumulator without. heating of the pressure
the movementv is upward. If a'high speed lift is
liquid. The choke and check valve are important
desired, the valve v43 may be opened which allows
features in effecting ?ll of the accumulator auto
the liquid in the accumulator to be discharged 40 matically at high pressure points in the operating
into the pipe 22 under the expansive action of
cycle without/giving a spongy or slack feeling of
the gaseous pressure medium in the bladder to
supplement. the pump pressure and, increase the
volume flow of liquid to the lower ends of the
the system.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
cylinders.
1. In combination with a hydraulic unit of a
For the downstroke the valves 24: and 43 are
drilling rig including a cylinder, a piston in the
cylinder having differential effective areas on
closed and the valve 21 is opened. The valve 25
is then used as a throttling valve to control the
return of the pressure ?uid to the storage tank.
The pressure of the pump is being applied to the
upper areas of the pistons through the pipes 22,
20 and 21 during which time a portion of the
liquid may be discharged through the choke and
the respective ends thereof, the combination of a
. reservoir for storing hydraulic medium, ducts
check valve into the accumulator to maintain or
re-establish the liquid supply in the accumulator.
Upon throttling of the valve 26, the liquid in the
lower ends of the cylinders is discharged through
the pipes I1 and I8 and pipe l9 into the storage
tank allowing descent of the cross head 5.
During drilling operation if a hard’ ‘formation 5
highly resistant to cutting action of the bit is
encountered, the valves 26 and 24 are opened
and the valve 21 is closed. Then upon opening
of the valve 43, the liquid stored under pressure
of the bladder is immediately available to act on
the pistons. This feature eliminates the usual
disadvantage of a hydraulic system, that is, heat-4
ing of the oil, when the pressure is applied by
the pump. It is obvious that during this opera
tion when utilizing the accumulated pressure
liquid the pump is merely circulating the pres
sure ?uid through the transfer pipe back to the
storage tank.
High speed operation may be effected on the
downstroke by closing the valve 24 and opening 75
connecting the reservoir with the respective ends
of the cylinder, a pump connected in one Of the
ducts, a transfer duct. interconnecting said ducts
for supplying hydraulic pressure medium to the
end of the cylinder having the larger effective
area on the piston, a valve in the other of the
?rst-named ducts between the transfer duct and
reservoir for rendering the pump pressure. effec
tiveythrough both ducts when said valve is closed
to affect movement of the piston, valves in the
duct having the pump. and the transfer duct to
direct the hydraulic pressure medium from the
pump to one or the other ends of the cylinder,
a bypass duct connected with one of the first
named ducts between the valve therein and the
hydraulic unit, an accumulator connected with
the bypass duct, a, control valve in the bypass
duct between the accumulator and hydraulic unit,
a choke in the bypass duct ahead of the accumu
lator, and a check valve in the bypass duct be
tween the choke and accumulator.
2. In combination with a hydraulic unit of a
drilling rig including a cylinder and a piston‘
reciprocable in the cylinder having differential
effective areas on respective ends thereof, ducts,
2,578,959
connected with the respective ends ‘of the cylin
der, means for supplying a hydraulic pressure me
dium to the duct that is connected with the end
of the cylinder having the smaller effective pis
ton area, said supply means having an inlet in
connection with the duct that connects with the
end of the cylinder having the larger effective
piston area, a transfer duct interconnecting said
ducts intermediate said supply means and the
8
of the pressure supply means when the transfer
valve is ‘closed to operate the piston in said other
direction, and means for supplying the hydraulic
pressure medium displaced from the end of the
cylinder having the smaller piston area to the
accumulator when the piston is moved in said
one direction.
'
4.'In combination with a hydraulic unit of a
drilling rig including a cylinder and a piston re
cylinder through which hydraulic pressure me 10 ciprocable in the cylinder having differential
dium is supplied simultaneously to the end of
effective areas on respective ends thereof, ducts
the cylinder having the larger effective piston
area to effect movement of the piston in one
direction responsive to the difference in effec
tive areas of the piston, a valve in the transfer
connected withthe ‘respective ends of the cylin
der, means‘for supplying a hydraulic pressure
medium'to the duct that is connected with the
end of the cylinder having the smaller effective
piston area, said supply means having an inlet
in connection with the duct that connects with
the end of the cylinder having the larger effective
piston ‘area, a transfer duct interconnecting said
ducts intermediate said supply means and the
cylinder through which hydraulic pressure me
dium is supplied simultaneously to the end of
the cylinder having the larger effective piston
duct for shutting off hydraulic pressure medium
under pressure to the end of the cylinder having
the larger effective ‘piston area to effect move
ment of the piston in the opposite direction,‘an
accumulator connected with the duct that con
nects with the end of the cylinder having the
smaller effective piston area and located in said
duct intermediate the transfer duct and said
cylinder, a control valve between the transfer
area to effect movement of the piston in one di
duct and the accumulator to control operational
rection responsive to the difference in effective
speed of the piston, a shut off valve in the duct
areas of the piston, a valve in the transfer duct
that connects with the end of the cylinder having
for shutting off hydraulic pressure medium under
the larger effective piston area and located in
pressure to the end of the cylinder having the
said duct intermediate the transfer duct and the
larger effective piston area to effect movement
inlet of the supply means to shut off flow to the 30 of the piston in the opposite direction, a bypass
inlet of the supply means when said transfer
duct having inlet and outlet connections with
valve is open to operate said piston in said one
the duct that connects with the end of the cyl
direction and to establish flow to the inlet of the
inder having the smaller effective piston area
pressure supply means when the transfer valve
and located in said duct intermediate the
is closed to operate the piston in said other direc co L: transfer duct and said cylinder, an accumu
tion, and means for charging the accumulator
lator in the bypass duct, a check valve in the
from the pump responsive to movement of the
inlet of the bypass duct to pass pressure medium
piston in both of said directions.
into the accumulator, a control valve between
3. In combination with a hydraulic unit of a
the transfer duct and the accumulator to control
drilling rig including a cylinder and a piston re
operational speed of the piston, a shut off valve
ciprocable in the cylinder having differential
in the duct that connects with the end of the
effective areas on respective ends thereof, ducts
cylinder having the larger effective piston area
connected with the respective ends of the cyl
and located in said duct intermediate the trans
inder, means for supplying a hydraulic pressure
fer duct and the inlet of the supply means to
medium to the duct that is connected with the 4 shut off flow to the inlet of the supply means
end of the cylinder having a smaller effective
when said transfer valve is open to operate said
piston area, said supply means having an inlet
piston in said one direction and to establish
in connection with the duct that connects with
?ow to the inlet of the pressure supply means
the end of the cylinder having the larger effective
when the transfer valve is closed to operate the
piston area, a transfer duct interconnecting
piston in the opposite direction, and a shut off
said ducts intermediate said supply means and
valve in the bypass outlet to retain the pres
the cylinder through which hydraulic pressure
sure medium in the accumulator and to release
medium is supplied simultaneously to the end
the accumulated pressure medium when said shut
of the cylinder having the larger effective piston
off valve is opened for supplementing the pump
area to effect movement of the piston in one 1
pressure.
direction responsive to the difference in effective
5. In combination with a hydraulic unit of a.
drilling rig including a cylinder and a piston re
areas of the piston, a valve in the transfer duct
for shutting off hydraulic pressure medium
ciprocable in the cylinder having differential ef
under pressure to the end of the cylinder having
fective areas on respective ends thereof, ducts
the larger effective piston area to effect move 60 connected with the respective ends of the cylin
ment of the piston in the opposite direction, an
der, means for supplying a hydraulic pressure
accumulator connected with the duct that con
medium to the duct that is connected. with the
nects with the end of the cylinder having the
end of the cylinder having the smaller effective
smaller effective piston area and located in said
piston area, said supply means having an inlet
duct intermediate the transfer duct and said 65 in connection with the duct that connects with
cylinder, a control valve between the transfer
the end of the cylinder having the larger effective
duct and the accumulator to control operational
piston area, a transfer duct interconnecting said
speed of the piston, a shut off valve in the duct
ducts intermediate said supply means and the
that connects with the end of the cylinder hav
cylinder through which hydraulic pressure medi
ing the larger effective piston area and located 70 um is supplied simultaneously to the end of the
in said duct intermediate the transfer duct and
cylinder having the larger effective piston area
the inlet of the supply means to shut off flow
to effect movement of the piston in one direction
to the inlet of the supply means when said trans
responsive to the differences in effective areas of
fer valve is open to operate said piston in said
the piston, a valve in the transfer duct for shut
one direction and to establish flow to the inlet
ting off hydraulic pressure medium under pres
2,5528%!”
1
sureto the enclof thecyllntleit having the lesser
effective piston‘ area to efiect movement; of; the
piston in the opposite direction, abypass duct
having inlet and-_ outlet connections, with the duct
that connects. withthe-emlo? the cylinder- having
the smaller e?eotive piston area and located in
pressureimellium in the accumulator and tore!
leasethe. accumulated pressure medium ‘when
said shutoff valve is opened for supplementing
the. pump pressure, and a choke in the. bypass be.—
tween the. check valve. and the. inlet connection
thereof. with. the, bypass inlet connection.
said duct intermediate the transfer inch and said
cylinder, an aceumulatorin the bypass duct, is
check valve in ‘the inlet Qfi'hh? bypass. duct. ‘to
pass pressure medium into the. accumulator; a, 130
control valve between the transfer duct and. the.
accumulator to control. operational speed of: the
piston‘ a shut o?. valvein the duo-t that. connects
with the end, of. the cylinder-having vthe. larger
e?ective piston area, and located in said duet in-.
termediate' the transfer duct, and the inlet of
the supply means to shut. oil’ ?ow to/the inlet of
the supply means when said transfer. valve is,
open to operate said piston in’ said one direction
and to establish ?ow to the. inlet. of the pressure 20.
supply means when the transfer valve. is closed.
‘to operate the piston in the. opposite direction, a
shutoff valve in the bypass outlet. to retain the.
J QEL El YARBOROUGH.
REFERENCES CITED
The‘ following references are of record in the
file of this patent:
UNiTED STATES PATENTS
Number
Name.
Date
2,005,731
2,147,536
Ernst. '_____________ -June 25, 1935
Levy __,___.n___._.____.-. Feb... 14. 193.9
2,.239A48lv
2,239,566
Christensen _ _____ __ Apr. 22, ‘194.1
Mercier _..___. _____ __ Apr. 22, 19411
2365,98‘?
Anderson et al. _.__._._ Dec;.. 16, 19.41
2,309,999
2,392,471,
2,437,520‘
Vanderzee ____ __...___ Feb. 2, 1943
Fox ______________ __ Jan. 8., 1946.
Gunning _________ __ Mar. 9, 1948
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