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Патент USA US2608924

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Sept. 2, 1952
2,608,921
M. E. P. sTuDDERT
REFLEX CAMERA WITH CURTAIN SHUTTER
8 Sheets-Sheet l
Filed May 17, 1948
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M. E. P. sTuDDERT
REFLEX CAMERA'WITH CURTAIN SHUTTER
Filed May 17, 1948
2,608,921
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‘Sept’ 2, 1952
M. E. Pfs'ruDDERT
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REFLEX CAMERA WITH’ CURTAIN SHUTTER
Filed May 17, 1948
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Sept. 2, 1952
M. E. P. STUDDERT
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Sept. 2, 1952
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M. E. P. STUDDERT
REFLEX CAMERA WITH CURTAIN SHUTTER
Fi_1ed May 17, 1948
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Sept. 2, 1952
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M. E. P. STUDDERT
REFLEX CAMERA WITH CURTAIN SHUTTER
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Filed May 17, 1948
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M. E. P. STUDDERT
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2,608,921
Patented Sept. 2, 1952
UNITED STATES PATENT orricr.
2,608,921
p
REFLEX CAMERA wrm CURTAIN sHUT'rEfa
Maurice Eyre Persse Studdert, Waterford, Eire;
Helena Ruth Katie Studdert, executrix of said
Maurice Eyre Persse Studdert, deceased, as
signor to Wray A(Cameras) Limited, Bromley,
England, a British company
âpplication'May 17, 1948, Serial No. 27,535
`
¿In-Great Britain May 21, 1947
11 Claims.
(Cl. 95-42)
.
This "invention relates to photographic carn
eras and, vin particular, to miniature cameras
such as those in which 35 mm. or cinematograph
film is used and one of its main objects is to pro
vide a form of camera constructionsuch that a
miniature camera can be built as a practical re
.
.
2
on a guide out of the shutter space and then
initiates the operation of the camera shutter for
making an exposure. This movement of the mir
ror »may be effected by a spring which is re
. stressed when the mirror is returned at the end
of anl exposure. This return movement is ef
flex camera for direct focussing thereby elime
inating the need of range-finder mechanism while
fected by power provided by a hand-wound main
ing a> much smaller number of `parts than has
been found possible previously in a camerafof .the
normally held by detents and pivoted levers which
spring which mayalso be arranged to feed the
film foi` a number of exposures without rewind
enabling the camera to be of dimensions near to
the recognised size of a miniature camera. At 10 ing.
The shutter arrangements comprise two blinds
the Vsame time, the invention provides a camera
or equivalent plates and cords which are released
of the above type which can be fully automatic
so as to move in succession at a time interval
so that upon a single winding, it is only necessary
determined by the shutter~speed setting member.
to set the shutter ‘speeds and operate a release
when a lnumber of pictures can be taken without 15. The operation of the two blinds is preferably ef
fected by a pair of spring-actuated take-up
further preparation; the selection of exposure is a
rollers, the springs of which are also rewound and
very simple operation and focussing can be car-v
the blinds returned after an exposure by `power
ried out at eye level with an image apparently
provided by the main spring. The shutters are
of natural size and all this in a camera embody
grade inV question.
are released in succession by a pair of pins or
K similar projections and to enable the projec
tions to operate with an adjustable timeinterval,
In order to make the above results possible,
they may be connectedby a slipping clutch which
according to the invention, an optical system> is
employed in which a prism has one face ground 25 allowsone to be adjusted relatively to the other
but causes them to be rotated together when they
to serve as a focussingscreen for >theimage
are freed; they are preferably driven by a further
f formed by light entering the `camera lens and re»
spring also rewound after an exposure by power
fle'cted by a mirror and other faces of the prism
derived from the main hand-wound spring. In
reflect «the light from ythe image which leaves at
the `rear and entersa magnifying eyepiece.` Thus,
one` ~face of the ‘prism ‘serves 0as ¿ the focussing,
screen, two other faces for reflectionand the light'
finally leavestheface ïatthe rear'so that a four->
sidedv prism could be used. However, ias the `prism*
is' housed in a well inthe camera body fand, in
such-a type of camera, saving of space yis a dom'-`
order to control the slower speeds of the shutter,
the pair of projections is connected by gearing
to a centrifugal governor or brake which thus
limits the speed at which the spring can rotate
those projections. -
.
It is necessary to make provision for relating
the Ashutter speed to the sensitivity of the film
in use since >other variables such as the aperture
used in the camera lens and any filters employed
are compensated for by the nature of the ex
era lens and, in `order t'o avoid detracting from 40 posure .meter system. For this purpose, the cou
inant factor, a pentagonal prism is preferred to
be employed. A photo-‘electricf'cell is used'to de
termine .zthe intensity of light l`entering the 'ca'm
the brightness of the picture, light scattere'dffrom
the vfocussed -irna'gefis utilised for .activating the
photo-electriccell. It is preferred ‘to vapply the
latter direc-t to ‘one óf the endïfa‘ceslof 'the prism.
pling between the adjustable part of the electric
meter and the shutter setting member is made
to >include an adjustable element which can rbe
adjusted by a manual control graduated in terms
rÍ'he cel-l `is connected to v`~an electric meter lar-> 45 of film speeds.
Other components may be fitted including
ranged V‘for the-pointer attached to its moving
system to be setto' a predetermined position seen
in the eyepiece, by adjustment lof the >member
' for selectingthe shutter speed. ' The electric
meter _employed is'conveniently adjusted by turn-Y
ingits iield'magnet `'about the laxis rof its Vmoving
system.
_
I
means for automatically igniting flash bulbs or
controlling electronic flashes at predetermined
times before theÍcomrnencement of an exposure.
50 For that purpose, one or more pairs of contacts
may. be provided, arranged to be actuated upon
movement ofthe shutter blinds and connected ‘to
terminals on the camera body for connection of
The mirroryis arranged lto be controlled by the
leads to an electrically-ignited fiash bulb or an
operation of the exposurev releaselmember and>
when Vreleased may conveniently move upwards 55 electronic flash.
:2,608,921
3
4
In order that the invention may be more fully
explained, an example of a miniature camera for
a 35 mm. ñlm or standard cinematograph ?llm
will now be described with reference to the ac
companying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of the complete
camera;
Figure 2 is an elevation from the iront taken
in section through the axes of the ñlm spools;
Figure 3 is a sectional plan on the line III-III
in Figure 2;
y
I6. All these parts are located at the bottom on
the left of the camera as viewed from the front,
as can be seen from Figure 2. The spring 2 is
secured to the axle I5 by a rivetl I1 (Figure 10)
at its inner end >and at its outer end, is .rivetted
to an inner' housing I8 by a rivet I9. The hous
ing I8 is free to be turned on the axle I5 and
carries a spur wheel 20. The spring has an
outer housing 2I fixed to the camera body as at
10 22 and carries a pawl 23 held by a spring 24
in engagement with the ratchet wheel I8; this
pawl and ratchetvconnection prevents the knob
I4 from running back when the spring 2 is
wound. Winding of the spring enables it to
supply the power for carrying out the operations.
associated with twelve exposures.
Figure 4 is a transverse section taken on the
line IV-IV in Figure 2;
'
Figure 5 is a similar transverse section taken
on the line V--~V in Figure 2;
Figure 6 is yet another similar section taken on
the line VI-VI in Figure 2;
`
Figure 7 is a section of a detail taken on the
The mirror 3 and its carriage, when released,
move up along the guide pillar 4 as already stated
line VII-VII in Figure 2;
but it is possible to mount the mirror 3 pivotally
Figure 8 is a similar section taken on the line 20 on the bracket 25 (Figure 4) so that it is held
VIII-_VIII in Figure 2;
by a spring against a stop in the operative posi
Figure 9 is a localised section taken on the
tion shown, but on rising clear of the shutter
line IX--IX in Figure 2;
.
space, its front edgeat 26 may engage a fixed
Figure 10 is an axial section on the line X-X
pin, not shown, and cause the mirror 3 to be
in Figure 2, showing the main driving spring;
25 turned downwards so as to save headroom. In
Figure 11 is a detailed elevation of the mech
that event, the spring would return the mirror to
anism for providing delayed exposures, taken in
the- working- angular position when it is again
lowered.
section on the line XI-XI in Figure 6;
Figure 12 is a front elevation in section taken.
on the line XII-XH in Figure 4;
Y' `_,
Figure 13 is a cross-section taken along the
line XIII-_XIII of the lower part of Figure 12:
Figure 14 is a detailed transverse section on
the line XIV-«XIV in Figure 12; and
Figure 15 is a diagram of the optical system of
The mirror carriage 25 can be released either
'30
by pressing the release button I3 or by automatic
delay mechanism. In the former event, on press
ing in the exposure button I3, its stem 21 moves
down and a projection 28 thereon engages the
hooked end of a lever 29 which it rocks clock
wise, as seen in Figureiß. The lever 29 is ñxed
to a spindle 30 to which also another lever 3l
the camera.
The camera illustrated has a conventional type
is secured on the other side of the camera, as
of body I as is familiar to users of miniature
seen-in Figure 4. By this movement the lever
cameras. VThe camera is arranged to be operated
3I releases the mirror carriage at the point 32.
by a main spring 2, which provides the power 40 As soonv as the projection 28 has passed the
for operating the roller blind shutters and the
hooked end of the lever 429, the levers 29 and 3|
film feed after each exposure and for returning
are swung back by a wire spring 33 to their
the- mirror, and is designed so that one winding
original position where they remain on releasing y
of the spring 2 suffices for the operations corre
the button I3, since the lever 29 is springy and
sponding to a number of exposures, forexample, 45 can yield in a plane at right angles to the drawing
twelve, in the embodiment illustrated.
»
in Figure 6, and the projection 28 is of such a
The camera is a reiiex camera with a mirror
shape as tocause the lever 29 so to yield that
3 arranged to slide upwards out of the shutter
the projection, in moving upwards, can pass it.
space on a guiding pillar 4.
Y
'
The mirror carriage can also be released by
The optical system will be described more fully 50 means of the automatic mechanism for delayed
later but it may be mentioned that the light re
exposure seen in Figure 6 and shown in detail in
ceived through the lens _5 is reflected by the
Figure 114. >On-rotating the setting lever 34 ñxed
mirror 3 on to the upper surface 6 of a'pentagona'l
to a spindle» 35, inthe counterclockwise direction,
prism 1 which is ground and, in'effect, serves as
as seen »in Figure 11, the toothed segment 36 is
the focussing screen; the image is reflected suc 55 turned and tensions the spring 31 anchored to it
cessively from the faces 8, 9 of the prism 1 and
at 38; at the same time, the segment 3‘6 drives a
normally can be viewed in a magnifying eyepiece
pinion 35i-which is connected -to a spur Wheel 4_0
I9 at the back of the camera through an aperture>
I I in the inner orpfront blind I2 of a pair of
through a one Way. slipping clutch comprising a
the focussing screen appears to be of natural size.
wheel 40 drives a pinion 43 ñxed to a further spur
spring arm 4I, the end of which is shaped to
shutter blinds. The magnifier may have a mag 60 engage a ring of slots 42 in the spur Wheel 40.
nification of 5 to l which has the effect that with
The arm 4I can yield under a certain driving force
a camera lens of 5 cms. focal length, the image on
and jump from one 'slot 42 to the next. The spur
Thus focussing is normally effected ïwith'the
camera at eye level.
'
Y
’
-
The mirroi- is released by depressing an ex
posure button I3 and the rising of the mirror
initiates the subsequent stages of operation. A
After this preliminary explanation, the dif
wheel; 44, which, in turn, drives another pinion 45
65 iixed- to `an escapement wheel 46.
This last
wheel is engaged by a pivotally mounted escape
ment 41 and during the tensioning of the spring
31 by-turning the lever 34, the escapement is
locked by a pin 48 with the clutch 4I, 42 slipping».l
ferent parts will now be described in detail. The 70 The pin 48, as seen in Figure 6, can be retracted
by a knob 49 and is tapered at 50 so then it frees
spring 2 is wound up by rotating the hollow
knurled knob I4 in which the spring 2 and its
housing are lodged; The knob I4 is ñxed to the
central axle I5 and on the inside 'of the lower
Wall of the knob I 4 is secured aratche't wheel
the escapement 41 and releases the mechanism;
the spring 31 then recovers and turns the seg
ment 36 clockwise, in Figure 11, so that a tail 5I
7.55 lof the segment 36 pushes >down a foot 52 ñxed by
'2,608,921
6..
a-vpín’ '53 to the stem 21 of theexposure button
I3 (Figure 6). The latter is, therefore, drawn
slowly downwards and releases the mirror car
riage 25 after ñfteen seconds, in the manner
already» described. The release button I3, it'will
be noted, cannot be operated unless the spring
31 is'tensioned, which is the normal condition of
the mechanism. The return spring for the but
ton' I3 is shown at 54 in Figure 6.
-Whenthe mirror carriage 25 has been re
leased by either of the means described above.
it is driven upwards on the guide pillar 4 by thel
coiled compression spring 55 (Figure 2) encircling
the bottom of that pillar so that a projection 56
at'` the top of the carriage 25 comes into» contact
with a lever 51 (Figure 4) fixed to a spindle
58' and- thereby lifts that lever as soon as the
mirror 3 has risen clear of the shutter space.
At the other end of the spindle 58, a detent 59 is
fixed (Figure 5) so that detent is lifted clear
of a projection 6l)Y which extends from a disc
6 I (Figure 3) which will be referred to'below.
The shutter timing mechanism is driven "by a
coiled torsion spring 62 anchored at one end at
63 to a fixed spindle 64 and at the other end to a
sleeve 65 which can be turned on the spindle 64.
The disc 6I is part of an outer sleeve which is
keyed to the sleeve 65 at 66 so that when the de
tent 59 releases the projection 60, the spring 62
which is rewound at the completion of each ex- .~_
posure, can rotate the disc 6I and with it a shut
ner end 88 to the‘spindle 86 and at its outer'end- to
a flange 89 of the roller 85. The initial tension
ofthe spring 8-1 can be set during manufactureA
by an adjusting lever 99 by which the spindle 86’`
v can be slightly turned, and the lever then held
in place by suitable means (not shown) .,
The rear blind, however, is attached to a pair of>
cords 9I which are wound on the pulleys 89 and
82. However, outside the roller 85 there are va
pair of pulley wheels 92, which are free of the
roller 85 andl free to turn loose on the spindle 8'6.
The cords 9| of the rear blind 83 pass around
these pulley wheels 92 as seen in Figures 4 and 5
and are attached to the end flanges 93, 94 of
another bottom roller 95 mounted to turnon
another fixed spindle 96. In this case also in
side the roller there is a spring 91 fixed at one
end to the spindle- 96 at 98 and at the other end
tothe flange 93 and a lever 99 is also provided
to turn the spindle 96 and adjust the initial
tension of the spring 91 during manufacture Simi
lar to the adjustment of the spring 81. As will be
seen later, at the end of an exposure, the springs
81 and 91 are rewound, placing tension upon the
blinds I2Íand 83 in readiness to draw them down
when they arey released by the levers 14 and 15 as
described above. In Figure 12, the blinds are
shown in the closed position and the image can be
seen on the ground face 6 of the prism 1 through
the aperture I I in the front blind I2v in that posi'
tion.
`
The timing of the shutter depends upon the
tei` releasing pin 61 which extends from the disc
angular setting of the pins 61 and 19 and for
6I. After rotating counterclockwise as Vseen in
setting the pin 19, the bevel wheel 12 which
Figure 5 through an angle of about 2’10 degrees,
the projection 60 engages the tail end 68 of thev t. turns with ,itr is adjusted by a setting wheel |09
at the top of the camera, the setting of which
detent 59 and is held there until the detent 59
can be observed through a transparent Window
is rocked by a flat spring 69 when the mirror
I9I (Figure 2). The wheel |90 drives through
carriage finally descends to its initial position
spur gearing I02, a bevel wheel ID3 which engages
and releases the lever 51; the tail '68 then re
leases the projection 69 which moves on to its orig- - with the bevel wheel 12 and the ratio of this gear
ing is such that in one complete revolution of the
ina-l position engaging the detent 59, as shown in
bevel wheel 12, the wheel |99 makes an exact
Figure 5. There is a second shutter releasing
number lof revolutions so that. as will be ex=
pin 10 which projects inwardly from a cam 1I
plained later, when the shutters have been op
(Figure 3). This cam is part of a sleeve integral
erated, the wheel |89 returns to its original set'
with a bevel wheel 12 and mounted so that it
can turn on the sleeve 65 but is normally pre
ting; ' As already explained, the rotation of the
bevel wheel 12 turns the pin 19 relatively to the
pin 61 with the clutch 13 slipping but those pins
are driven together when the yprojection 60 is
pin 61.
released in the way already described, and then of
During the ñrst 270 degrees of rotation of the
course, the bevel wheel 12 turns with them turn
shutter releasing pins 61 and 19, they respec
ing the indicating wheel |90 through a number
tively act on levers 14 and 15 (Figures 7 and 8).
of complete revolutions. During the operation
The tips of these levers engage projections 16 and
of setting the pin 19, the pin 61 is prevented from
11 in order to hold the two shutter blinds in the
starting or closed position; thus the pins 61 55 backward rotation due to the friction clutch- 13
by means of a ratchet Wheel |04 and pawl 105
and 10 release the projections 16 and 11 and
(Figure 8).
levers 14 and 15, when the pins 61 and 19 pass
The rate 'of rotation of the pin 61 and pro
them, are returned to the positions shown in
jection 69 is controlled by a mechanism of the
Figures '7 and 8 by flat springs 18 and 19. It can
be seen from Figure 12 that the projection 16 60 gramophone governor type. A friction Wheel
|06 is rigidly connected with the pin 61 and pro
extends from a pulley wheel 89 which is secured
jection 80 (see Figure 2) and drives the mecha
to a spindle 8l having a similar pulley wheel 82
nism, best shown in Figure 9. This friction wheel
at its other end. The pulleys 89 and 82 are in
vented from doing so by a slipping clutch 13
through which it is connected to the disc 6I and
|06 drives a pinion 281 fixed to another friction
wheel r298 which drives a pinion 209. This last
(see Figures 4 and 12). The inner or front blind.
Wheel is fixed to a Wheel 2I9 `which drives the
I2. on the other hand, is wound around an upper
centrifugal governor 2I`I provided with weights
roller 84 which is loosely mounted on the spindle
2I2 which fly out and apply a brake if the speed
8l between pulleys 89 and 82, and the projec
is too high.
’
tion 11 extends from one of the end flanges
On release of the shutter projections 16 and
of that roller sov that the levers 14, 15 hold the 70
two blinds in their starting or uppermost posi
11, the blinds I2 and 83 are drawn down as
already mentioned, the pin 91 first engages the
tions. The front blind I2 at its lower end is
lever 14 and releases the projection 16 so that the
Wrapped around a lower roller 85 which can turn
front blind I2 ñrst descends and during the first
freely on a fixed spindle 86 but is connected to
that spindle by a torsion spring 81 ñxed at its in 75 portion of the downward travel before the ñlm
effect the roller of the outer or rear blind 83
2,608,921
7
opening is uncovered, the aperture to the eye
piece I0 is cut off to prevent the entry of light into
the space in front of the iilm. In this way, Vthe
acceleration period of the shutter movement is
usedfor that purpose. When the front blind |2
is started, the other projection 11’ is released at
a time depending upon the setting of the pins
61-` and 10 so that the rear blind 83 moves down
and, at its lower edge, cuts off the exposure to
theñlm.
.
8
mark on a transparent window disc |30 in the
top of the camera. '
j
‘
In. order to enablebulb or brief exposures to
be made by keeping the button I3 depressed. a
lever I3| is mounted in the top of the camera with
its hub formed asV a cam`v |32 (Figures 2 and 4);
when the lever I3| is rotated through 180 degrees,
the cam |32 acts on a lever |33 and thereby de
presses a stirrup bar |34 (Figure 2). The right
10 hand end of the stirrup‘bar, as seen in Figure 2, is
,
On the upper blind pulley 82 there is a pro
thus moved into the neighbourhood of a project
jecting vstud |01 which has two purposes; ñrst,
ing plate 15a on the lever 15 which engages the
to _act as a limiting stop for the front blind I2
projection 11 controlling the rear or outer shut
on the roller 84 and secondly, to carry that roller
ter blind 83. On pressing the release button I3,
84 with it through a co-operating projection |01a
a bracket |35 iixed to the stem 21 engages ,the
on Athe end ilange of the roller 84 during the
left-hand end of the stirrup bar |34, as seen in
rewinding process.
Figure 2, to ycause the other end of the stirrup bar
The roller 84 has a further projection |08 which
to pass under the plate 15a, and thus to prevent
just’before the blinds I2, 83 are moved fully
the lever 15 releasing the projection 11, so ~that
down cooperates with a lever |09; the tip I I0 of 20 While further depressing of the button I3 will
the llever |09 releases a pin |I| extending from
release the front blind I2, it prevents the outer
a wheel ||2 (Figures 2 and 4). The wheel ||2
or rear blind 83 from being released until the
is driven from the main spring 2 through the spur
button I3 is allowed to rise and the stirrup bar
wheel 20, spur wheel ||3, vertical shaft |I4, and
|34 frees the projection 11, whereupon the blind
bevel wheelsII5, IIS, the latter being on the 25 83 then moves down to close the shutter.
same shaft as the wheel || 2. Thus, the wheel
Provision is made for igniting iiash bulbs auto
||2 is free to revolve and a second pin ||1, 180
matically at predetermined times. Two cams |30
degrees from the pin ||I, drives the mirror car
and |31 on the shutter pulley 80 (Figure 3) are
riage 25 downwards by pressing on a plate || 8
arranged to close two pairs of electrical contacts
until the catch 32 engages with the hook of the 30 |38, |39 at the correct time intervals before the
lever 3|. The pin ||1 goes on moving until it is
shutter is opened. By this means, two alternative
stopped by the tip I I Il of the lever |09 which has
time intervals of approximately eight and eight
been returned by a spring ||9 as soon as the
een milliseconds to suit standard flash bulbs, are
projection |08 has passed the lever |09, in which
provided for, merelyby plugging in the leads to
position plate ||8 is able to pass >upwards past 35 the bulb into the sockets |40 and |4| or |4| _and
piri- II1.
,
~
'
|42 in the camera body, as shown in Figure 8.V
vThe spur wheelY ||2 drives a spur wheel |20
The optical system has already been referred
ñxed- to the spindle 64 having a cutaway por
to but is shown diagrammatically in Figure 15
tion |20a subtending an angle of 60 degrees and
where the same reference numerals are employed
which in turn, engages a wheel |2| fixed to the 40 as above. The camera lens 5 is a large aperture
shaft 8| -of the roller 84. On the release of the
lens, for example, of l'lve centimeter focal length
wheel ||2 as described above, the wheel |20
and the light passing through it and the dia
which has half as many teeth as the spur Wheel
phragm |43 is reiiected by the mirror 3 onto
||2` is thus driven from the main spring 2
the top'ground glassface4 6 ofthe prism 1, the
through one complete revolution winding up the
vcoursefof the ray |44 being shown to the eye'
spring 62 of the shutter release gear and driving , piece I0. It will be realised that the prism 1
the wheel |2| in such a way as to wind the blinds
is housed in a small well |45 of the camera body
up again to their original position. When the
which does not add appreciablyto the bulk. 'I'he
blinds have been wound back in thisY way and
lens 5 is focussed by a quick start screw thread
the levers 14, 15 have ‘engaged the projections 50 I 46 engaging an internal thread in the camera
16, 11 the cut-away in the wheel |20 seen at I20a
body iitting |41 and operated fromA ,ar small
is reached, leaving the spurwheel |2| free to re
knurled wheel |48 (Figure 4) in the camera cover,
volve when an exposure is made, and in this posi
tion, the tip ||0 of the lever |09 stops the wheel
||2.
' The. film feeding
sprockets
|22
have
on
through spurl wheels |49, |50. _
„
The shutter speed is set in dependance upon
55 the light by using a photo-electric exposure meter
which is sensitive to the light passing through
their spindle a spur wheel |23 which engages
with the wheel II3 driven from the spring» 2
through the wheel 6. A wheel |24 on the spindle
the main lens 5 so that the particular aperture
employed and any ñlter employed in conjunction
with the lens 5 are automatically allowed for.>
of the sprockets |22, drives the normal take-up 60 The photo-electric cell -|5I- is applied to oneside
spool, as used in 35 mm, cameras, through a fork
|25 which is driven from the wheel |24 through
intermediate wheels |26 and |21 and a slipping
clutch |28 (Figure 2). This wheel |21 is driven
at a greater rate than the corresponding feed
of the sprocket |22, so that the clutch |28 allows
for the variation in feed per turn necessary to
keep tension on the film, both when the take-up
spool is empty and nearly full. The wheel |21 is
geared at such a ratio that a dial |29 on its upper
surface is rotated by one division more than a
complete revolution at each exposure and is grad
uated so as to move forward therefore by one
of' theprism 1; this photo-electric cellrreceives
diiïused light passing lthrough the ground glass
face `6 of the prism and which is obviously pro
portional to the total light passing through the
lens 5 and this method does not detract from the
brightness of the image on the ground glass
screen since only wastelight is'used. No ycor
rections have to be made so long as the colour
sensitivity of the cell is similar to that of the
film in use, except of course for ñlms with emul
sions. of diii’erent speeds. A ñxed mark |52 (Fig
ure 3) is provided on the edge of thefground glass
face 6 of the prism 1 so that the pointer r| 53 of
division at each operation and thus shows the
an electrical meter connected to the cell |5| moves
number of exposures made against an adjustable 75 over it. The pointer I 53 and mark | 52 appear on
10
vi)
mechanism ,comprising in combination a ñrst
shutter blind, a cooperating second shutter blind,
V||L
l
'individual driving springs for actuating said re
The cam i`|| which rotates with the pin 1|] is
spectiveshutter blinds during an exposure, means
engaged by the upper end of 'a lever |54 (Figure
5J) andthe shutterl speed is .set 'by rotating the ~ `to ystress said driving springs and set said blinds
"prior yto Van exposure, first and second detents
cam ‘H by the disc |06 until the pointer |53 is
for holding said driving springs in stressed con
brought into coincidence'with themark |52 and
dition, ya spring motor, .means -for stressing said
the shutter speed is then correctly set.
spring motor before each exposure, a member
In order to adjust the exposure meter to suit
films of different sensitivity a dial |55, operating 10 directly driven v»by said motor, acatch engageable
`with said drivenfmember to >hold said spring mo
as will be .describedibelow is provided (Figure 5).
tor in stressed condition, exposure initiating
An electrical meter is used in which the zero
mechanism connected to said catch to disengage
position is set by rotating the ñeld structure.
f said catch from said driven member, iirst cam
Thus, a permanent magnet |56 with pole-pieces
ymeans connected directly to said driven member
|56a is mounted to turn on’a pivot |51 attached
to disengage said iirst detent, second cam .means
'to the camera body andthe magnet is turned
'for' disengaging said ,second detent, a slipping
.about the axis of the pivot by the cam 1| through
clutch between -said .first cam means and vsaid
vvthe lever |54 which is also pivoted at |51. The
second ,cam means, >means to adjust said second
effect of turning the dial |55 to suit different film
the side edge of the picture asseen inthe eyepiece
'speeds is tofrotate a ring-shaped' cam |64, the 20 cam 'means in relation to said first cam means,
`and means to prevent reverse rotation of said
edge of which engages the lever |54, and as the
first cam means and said driven'member.
lever |54 is held in contact with> the cam '1| _by
`3.1In >a photographic 'film camera, a shutter
a spring |58, the rotation of the dial |55 slightly
mechansim comprising in combination a first
rotates the permanent magnet |56 and sets its
initial position relatively to the lever |54. This ` 25
v
happens because 'the cam |64 is connected to the
magnet |56 by a piece |59 and the spindle |66 of
the dial |55 has a pin |6| which can turn 'the
cam |64 about the axis of the spindle |56 but
the pin |6| engages in >grooves in the inside of 30
the cam |64 so that the latter can move with
respect to the pin |6| along the axis of the stem
|60.
'
y
It has already been mentioned that during the
voperation of the shutter, the cam '1| is turned
shutter blind, a vcooperating second shutter blind,
individual/driving springs for actuating said re
spective shutter blinds during an exposure, means
to str-esssaid driving springs and set Vsaid blinds
prior to an exposure, iirst land second detents
for 'holding said driving springs in stressed con
dition, a spring motor, means ‘for stressing said
spring motor before each exposure, a, driven
member rotatable by said spring motor, a catch
engageable with said driven member to hold said
spring motor in stressed condition, exposure
initiating mechanism connected to said catch
to disengage said catch 'from said driven member,
through one revolution -and this would tend to
kick the ‘magnet |56 around. However, the end
first cam means connected directly to said driven
of the lever |54 is connected> to the cam |64 by
a spring |65, the stiffness of which is such in rela
member to disengage said ñrst detent, second
tion to the inertia of the magnet |56 that when 40 cam means for disengaging said second detent. a
this kick occurs, the spring |65 stretches without
slipping clutch between said iirst cam means and
substantially moving the magnet |56.
said second cam means, means to adjust said
The instrument has a double moving coil arma
ture |62 carried from the ñxed attachment so as
to be deflected against the torsion of coil springs i
|63 which also serve to carry the current to and
from the coils |62.
I claim:
1. In a photographic ñlm camera, shutter
mechanism comprising, in combination, a ñrst _f
shutter blind, a cooperating -second shutter blind,
individual driving springs for actuating said
respective shutter blinds during an exposure,
means to stress said driving springs and to set
ysaid blinds prior to an exposure, first and second
retaining means for holding vsaid respective driv
second cam means in relation to >said ñrst cam
means, means to prevent reverse rotation of said
ñrst `cam means and said driven member, and
means to arrest said driven member after one
revolution, one revolution of said driven member
and said first and second cam means being suffi
cient to- disengage both said first and said sec
ond detent.
A4. In a photographic iilm camera, a shutter
mechanism comprising in combination a first
shutter blind, a cooperating second shutter blind,
individual driving springs for actuating said're
spective vshutter blinds during an exposure,
means to stress said driving springs vand set said
ing springs in the stressed condition, a spring
blinds prior to an exposure, ñrst and second de
motor, means for stressing said motor beforeeach
exposure, means to retain Vsaid motor >in .the
tents for holding said driving springs in stressed
condition, a spring motor, means for stressing
stressed condition, exposure-initiating"mecha
said spring motor before each exposure, a mem
`Lber Vdirectly driven by said motor, a catch en
gageable with said driven member to hold said
spring motor in stressed condition, exposure
initiating mechanism connected to said catch to
nism operatively connected to disengage said
retaining means for said motor to release said
motor, an actuator for disengaging said ñrst
retaining means and releasing said ñrst blind
and in direct driving connection with said spring » disengage said catch from said driven member,
ñrst cam means connected directly to said driven
motor, a second actuator for disengaging said
member to disengage said nrs-t detent, second cam
second retaining means to release said second
means for disengaging said second detent, a, slip
blind, an adjustable driving connection between
ping clutch between said ñrst cam means and
said second actuating means and said spring
motor permitting of variable timed relationship 70 said second cam means, means to adjust said sec
ond cam means in relation to first cam means,
between the disengagement of said two retaining
and means to hold said driven member and said
means, and a manually operated member for
first cam means stationary during the stressing
adjusting said driving connection for diiîerent
of said spring motor, said means for stressing
exposure settings.
said spring motor being operatively connected to>
2. In a photographic ñlm camera, a shutter
' 2,608,921
11
l12
the opposite end of said -spring motor. to said
»
‘
driven’member."
~
g.
.
.
_..
.
.
power spring and said nlm advancing means such
that said film is advanced when said main power
spring isV released after an exposure.
l0. A reflex photographic camera according
to claim .7, further comprising a reñux mirror
mounted for movement between the viewing Aand
exposure position, spring means to move' said
..
5. In'a photographic ñlm fcamera, a .shutter
according to claim '2,ffurther» vcomprising bulb
exposure means operative upon; actuating said
exposure initiating mechanism, >to arr-est Said
-spring motor vafter the ‘disengagementof said
first detent and before th‘e disengagement of-said
mirror into the’exposure position and means
driven by said main power spring to restress said
second detent, and means to -retain said bulb ex
? posureV means in inoperative condition.
10 spring means and restore said reflex mirror to
6. A photographic reflex camera comprising in
combination cooperating ñrst and second shutter
the viewing position after an exposure.
11. A photographic camera comprising in com
bination ñrst and second shutter blinds, indi
blinds, individual driving springs 4for said ñrst
and'second blinds, means to stress said driving
vidual spring loaded pulleys to actuate said
' springs, means to hold said springs stressed prior 15 blinds during an exposure, let off pulleys torset
said blinds and stress said springs prior to an
exposure, first and second detents engageable
with said let ofi pulleys to retain said blindsin
`to ` an exposure, a reflex mirror mounted lfor
movement between viewing-and exposure posi
tions, means to movesaid mirror into the _expo
sure position, means to retain said mirror in the
set condition, a spring motor, a ñrst cam mem
.viewing position, manually operable“ means to 20 ber permanently connected to said spring motor
release saidçmirror,v a spring motor, means to
to disengage said ñrst detent, a second cam mem
str-esssaid spring motor 'before an exposure,
ber to disengage saidsecond detent, a slipping
clutch between said first and second cam mem
means to retain said motor. in stressed condition,
means operated by said mirror upon movement
bers, means to set said second cam member
of vthe latter into the exposure position to dis 25 relative to said iirst cam member, a hand wound
main power spring, gearing connecting said
engage said retaining means to release saidl mo
power spring to one of said let oiî pulleys, a
.tor,:a first timing member in driving connection
driving dog providing a driving connection be
with said motor to effect the release of said ñrst
tween said let off pulleys during the resetting of
blind, a second timing ,member in adjustable
driving connection 'with said motor to eiîectl the
release of said second blind, and means to adjust
the- relationship between said ñrst and second
30
timing members.
7. A photographic camera' comprising in com
said blinds, further gearing connecting said
power spring to said spring motor to stress'said
spring motor during the resetting of said blinds,
a latch normally disposed to latch said gearing,
and a detent operated by one of said let off
bination ñrst and second cooperating shutter 35 pulleys to release said latch and free said power
spring and said gearing towards the end of an
blinds, individual driving springs to actuate said
exposure movement of said blinds to initiate the
blinds during an exposure, firstv and second re
winding of said blind springs and said spring
taining means to retain said shutters set and
motor by said power spring.
said >springs stressed prior to» an exposure, a
spring motor, a first >timing member in` per 40
MAURICE EYRE PERSSEL STU'DDERT.
manent driving connection with said spring
motor to disengage said firstV retaining means,
a second timing ymemberin adjustable connec
tion with said motor to disengage said second
retaining means, a main power spring, means
-to stress said main power spring, means to'hold
said main power spring inA stressed condition,
means driven by said main power springto reset
said blinds andv restressr said spring motor and
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
file of this patent:
'
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
Name
Date
operated by said second blind to release said main
1,449,429
1,602,483
1,631,300>
1,980,546
power spring after an exposure, and means to
2,025,609
Nuchterlein ______ __ Dec. 24, 1935
_arrest said main power spring when said spring
motor and said driving springs are fully wound.
8. A photographic camera according to claim
7, further comprising means to disconnect said
blinds from said main power spring when said
2,048,655
2,057,198
2,119,200
2,169,001
2,256,207
2,282,284
Hineline _________ __ July 2l, 1936
Marcussen ___' _____ __ Oct. 13, 1936
Campbell ________ __ May 31,1938
Mihalyi ___________ __ Aug. 8, 1939
Leitz et al ________ __ Sept. 16, 1941
Hineline __________ __ May 5, 1942
said driving springs after an exposure, means 50
blinds are reset.
,
,
'
.
McNaughton ____ __ Mar. 27, 1923
Freeman ____ ____ __ Oct. 12,1926
Washington ______ __ June 7, 1927
Petit et al _________ __ Nov. 13, 1934
9. A photographic nlm camera according to
`2,297,428
Nuchterlein ______ __ Sept. 29, 1942
claim 7, further comprising means to `advance
.said ñlm, and a driving connection between said
2,330,613
Nuchterlein ______ __ Sept. 28, 1943
`2,351,978
Kuppenbender ---__ June 20, 1944
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