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Патент USA US3096731

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July 9, 1963
Filed Aug. 14, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
5/ 53
‘July 9, 1963
Filed Aug. 14, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
’ atent O ”
Patented July 9, 1963
various pump housing structures. This results in an
economy of fabrication since the sheet metal can be
Jack M. White, Florissant, and Eldon A. Johnson, Sunset
Hills, Mm, assignors to ACF Industries, Incorporated,
New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey
Filed Aug. 14, 1961, Ser. No. 131,174
13 Claims. (Cl. 103-150)
This invention relates to fuel pumps and particularly
to a ‘diaphragm pump suitable for pumping fuel to an
worked with less expensive techniques than required with
a metal casting. The problem, however, is also in the
fabrication of dampening chambers in a sheet metal
pump which is designed for economy and with a minimum
number of parts.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention then to
provide a fuel pup fabricated from sheet metal having a
novel structural arrangement providing fuel pump pulsa
internal combustion engine.
tion dampening chambers within the pump housing.
Pumps of the type used to pump fuel from a fuel tank
to the carburetor of an internal combustion engine con
It is a further object of this invention to provide a
novel structure for a fuel pump which provides a pulsation
ventionally comprise a diaphragm pumping element driven
dampening chamber adjacent to the inlet and outlet valves
through a lever system by the engine of the vehicle. The 15 of the fuel pump.
diaphragm constitutes one Wall of a pumping chamber, in
an opposite Wall of which are positioned inlet and outlet
Valves for causing the fuel to move through the pumping
chamber as the diaphragm is reciprocate-d‘. In an auto
motive vehicle the fuel pump is normally mounted either 20
on or adjacent to the engine mounting and at some distance
It is a further object of this invention to provide an
inexpensively fabricated fuel pump for an automotive
engine having pulsation chambers adjacent to the inlet
and outlet valves of the pump and formed of a minimum
nuber of parts.
The invention coprises essentially a fuel pump for an
from the fuel tank which is normally positioned at the
automotive engine in which a portion of the fuel pump
opposite end of the vehicle. A fuel inlet line extends from
comprises a housing structure ?abrioaltedil {from sheet
the fuel tank to the inlet chamber of the fuel pump. Also,
metal. This housing structure forms one wall of the
the carburetor in an automobile is normally mounted 25 pumping chamber of the pump in which the diaphragm of
above the upper surface of the engine block and above
the pup forms a movable second wall. The sheet metal
the fuel pump position. A fuel line extends from the
housing structure includes a pair of tubular extensions
outlet of the pump upwardly to the inlet of the carburetor.
projecting from the pumping chamber ‘and in one there is
During engine operation, the reciprocating action of
mounted an inlet valve assembly and in the other there
the diaphragm sucks fuel through the inlet line to the 30 is mounted an outlet valve assebly. Within each of the
pump from the fuel tank and forces fuel through the
tubular extensions and adjacent to the respective valve
outlet line of the pump into the carburetor. The fuel in
structures there is formed an annular pulsation or pulsa
the line ‘between the pump and the fuel tank consists sub
tion dampening chamber. The chamber is formed from a
stantially of a long column of liquid having an inertia
spool-like metal element coaxially mounted within each
which must be overcome when the ‘diaphragm sucks the 35 tubular extension and having ‘access to the flow of fuel
fuel through the inlet line ‘and which must be resisted
respectively into the pump or outward from the pump.
when the fuel in the inlet line is suddenly stopped by the
Air and fuel vapors are trapped within the dampening
closing of the inlet valve each time the pump starts a
chambers to form a gaseous bubble in each chamber for
pumping stroke. Also, the fuel in the outlet line of the
minimizing the effect of the pump pulsations on the fuel
pump extending to the carburetor contains a column of 40 coluns entering and leaving the fuel pump.
fuel which is moved rapidly upward and then stopped
FIG. 1 is a view in elevation illustrating a diaphragm
with the closing of the outlet valve each time the dia
pump of this invention in use on the engine of an auto
phragm reverses itself and goes into a suction stroke. The
motive vehicle for pumping fuel from the fuel tank of
inertia of the fuel in this outlet column must be over
the vehicle to the carburetor for the engine, this pump
come upon each movement of the fuel upwardly and 45 being of a type that may be referred to as an inverted
upon the stopping of the fuel each time the outlet pump
valve closes.
FIG. 2 is a vertical section of the pump shown in
The pump diaphragm of the fuel pump in an automotive
FIG. 1;
vehicle is reciprocated backwards and forwards through
FIG. 3 is a horizontal section taken on line 3-3 of
the pumping and suction strokes from 250 times a minute 50 FIG. 2;
to 2,000 times per minute at high engine speed. At high
FIG. 4 is a horizontal section taken on line 4-4 of
speed, the inlet valve and the outlet valve ust be opened
FIG. 2;
and closed at this same rate. Simultaneously the column
FIG. 5 is a vertical section illustrating a second pump
of fuel in the inlet conduit leading to the pump from the
of this invention, being of a type that may he referred
fuel tank and the column of fuel in the outlet line leading 55 to as an upright pump; and
from the pump to the carburetor must be moved and
FIG. 6 is a horizontal section taken on line 6-6 of
stopped in their motion with the same frequency. It has
FIG. 5.
been found that with an engine operating at high speed,
Corresponding reference characters indicate corre
the valves of the pup cannot operate efficiently to open
sponding parts throughout the several views of the draw
and close at these high frequencies. Accordingly, pulsa 60
tion chambers or vapor domes have been formed in the
pump to dampen the rapid pulsations of the pump so that
the fuel in the inlet and outlet conduits to the pump is
moved more continuously, and only the fuel adjacent to
the inlet and outlet valves of the pump need to be re 65
ciprocated at the pumping frequencies. This allows proper
functioning of the inlet and outlet valves of the pump
Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings, there is indicated
at A an automotive vehicle having an engine E on which
is mounted a fuel pump P of this invention. 1Fuel is
delivered (from fuel tank T of the vehicle through a line
L1 to the fuel pump P and delivered by the latter through
a line L2 to the carburetor 'C for the engine. The car
buretor is mounted ‘on the intake manifold of the engine,
since they are not now subject to the inertia of the moving
and an air ?lter F is shown mounted on the air horn of
fuel columns as they would be without the dampening
the carburetor.
As appears in FIGS. 1-3, pump P is a so-called inverted
A more recent approach to the fabrication of automo
pump, i.e., its inlet and outlet are located at the bottom
tive fuel pumps is the use of sheet metal in forming the
of the pump. As shown in detail in FIGS. 2 and 3,
pump P comprises a rocker arm housing 1 which is
open at one end (its left end as appears in FIG. 2), this
end being referred to as the inner end of the housing.
integral deep-drawn rounded-bottom cylindrical cup
shaped projections 57 and 5% extending downwardly from
the bottom wall 23 of the body 21 on opposite sides of
the center of the bottom wall. Projection ‘57 de?nes an
inlet passage or intake cavity =61 and projection 59 de?nes
cross section and of decreasing height from its inner
an outlet passage or discharge cavity ‘63. An inlet nipple 65
end to its outer end (which is closed). At its inner end
is provided at the lower end of projection 57, and an out
it has a ?ange 3 rfor attaching it to the engine E. A
let nipple 67 is provided at the lower end of projection
rocker arm 15 is pivoted at 7 in the housing for rocking
'59. To the installation shown in FIG. '1, supply line L1
motion on a horizontal axis transverse to the housing.
Arm 5 has a portion 5a projecting out of the open inner 10 is connected to inlet nipple ‘65 and discharge line L2 is
connected to outlet nipple 67. An intake check valve
end of the housing, and is biased to rock clockwise as
‘69 is provided in the upper end of the intake cavity 61
viewed in lFIG. 2 by a spring 9. When the pump is
and a discharge check valve 71 is provided in the upper
mounted on the engine, the ‘free end portion 5a of the
end of the discharge cavity 63. ‘Nipple '65 provides for
rocker arm is engaged by an engine-driven eccentric or
cam 11. On rotation of the cam through half a revolu 15 connection of supply line L1 to intake cavity 61 upstream
trom the intake check valve 69‘ and nipple 67 provides
tion ‘from its FIG. 2 position (wherein the low point of
for connection of discharge line L2 to the discharge
the cam engages portion 5a of the rocker arm), the
cavity 63 downstream from the discharge check valve
rocker arm is rocked counterclockwise from its ‘FIG. 2
71. These check valves are of identical construction,
position against the bias of spring 9. The latter is adapt
ed to return the arm clockwise during the succeeding 20 each comprising a valve sea-t 73 and a mushroom head
This housing is of generally rectangular form in vertical
half-revolution of the cam.
Extending downward from the rocker arm housing 1 at
its outer end is a hollow conical pump head 13. An open
87 on a stem extending from the valve seat, with a spring
surrounding the stem and pressing a disk valve member
72 toward the seat. Valves of this type are shown in
the copending coassigned application of Russell F. Smith
ing 15 is provided between the interior of housing 1 and
the hollow head 13 at the top of the latter. The conical 25 et 211., Serial No. 122,025, ?led July 5, 1961. Intake
valve 69 opens upwardly and discharge valve 71 opens
head has an outwardly projecting ?at rim 17 at the bot
tom. The bottom of this rim constitutes a seating sur
‘face for the margin of an annular diaphragm 19 con
sisting of a relatively thin disk of ?exible ‘fuel-resistant
A generally spool-shaped member ‘91, which may be
formed of any appropriate sheet metal or plastic or
material, such as a suitable synthetic rubber, which, when 30 other material, is ?tted in the cylindrical projections 57
and 59 below the respective valve, the projections being
in unstressed condition, is ?at or substantially ?at. The
of such height as to accommodate both the valves and
outer margin of the diaphragm is clamped against the
the members 91. It will be understood that in the
bottom of rim 17 by a pump body 21 which, as illustrated
manufacture of the pump, members 91 are ?tted in the
in ‘FIG. 2, is of one-piece thin-walled sheet metal con
projections respectively through their open ends. Then,
struction, formed of shallow cup shape, having a bottom
a valve 71 is ?tted in the cavity of each projection re
or end wall 23 and a ?aring, rounded annular peripheral
spectively, after which the body 21 and diaphragm are
wall 25 de?ning a pumping chamber 26, with an out
assembled with the head 13 on the rocker arm hous
wardly extending annular ?at ?ange 27 at the top of
ing 1. Each member 91 has a tubular stem portion
wall 25, and a cylindric rim 29. The body 21 is main
tained in assembly with head 13 by spinning the rim 29 40 93 and upper and lower ?aring end heads ‘95 and 97.
Each head ‘95 has a cylindrical rim $8 dimensioned for
over on rim '17 of the head as indicated at 31, with the
a press ?t in the cavity of the projection. Heads 97
margin of the diaphragm clamped ‘between rim 17 and
are of generally square roundedacorner outline as shown
flange 27 under sufficient pressure to provide a vfuel-tight
in FIG. 4, with their diagonal dimension somewhat less
seal all around the margin of the diaphragm.
The diaphragm is adapted to be pulled or ?exed up 45 than the internal diameter of the projection cavity.
Each member 91 is pressed down in the respective cavity
ward by a diaphragm-actuating rod 33 and to be ?exed
to the point where the rounded corners of its head 97
downward by a spring 35. Rod 33 extends upward
engage the rounded bottom of the respective cavity, and
through head 13 and through the opening 15‘ at the top
thereby forms an annular chamber 99 around stem 93
of the head into the rocker arm housing 1. The rocker
arm 5 has a slot 37 at its end in housing 1 receiving the 50 in restricted communication with the lower end ‘of the
cavity through the spaces such as indicated at 101 in
rod 33. The latter has a collar 39 at its upper end en
FIG. 4 between the straight sides of the head 97 and
gageable by this end of the arm 5. The rod extends slid
the rounded bottom of the cavity. Each chamber §9
ably through an oil seal and rod guide 41 held in an
constitutes a dome in which fuel vapor (as distinguished
annular recess at the top of the head 13 by the reaction
on a seal retainer ring '43 of the spring 35, this spring 55 from liquid fuel) and air may be trapped.
The pump valves 72 are spring biased into a closed
being a coil compression spring surrounding the rod.
position. The inlet valve 72 to the pump is only opened
The diaphragm is mounted on the lower end of the rod
because of fuel under atmospheric pressure in the fuel
33 between a pair of circular plates '45 and 47, plate 45
tank T and the inlet ‘conduit L1 forces the inlet valve
being the upper plate and plate 47 the lower plate. The
upper plate is formed with an annular corrugation or 60 open as the pump goes through a suction stroke. The
outlet valve of the pump is opened against its biasing
rib 49 forming a seat for con?ning the lower end of
spring and the weight of fuel in conduit L2 by the
spring 35. The upper plate is of larger diameter than
vforce of fuel in the pumping chamber against the pump
the lower plate vand the margin of the upper plate which
valve as the pump reverses and goes into a pumping
overhangs the lower plate is ?ared outward :and down
ward to provide a rim 5'1 constraining the diaphragm 65 stroke. During the suction stroke of the pump, the fuel
in the fuel line L1 is moved so» that some ‘of the fuel
to have an annular, free, nonreversing loop 53. The
lower plate has a curved rim 55 engaging the loop. In
?ows into the pumping chamber ‘of the pump. Upon
the downward position of the diaphragm illustrated in
the quick reversal of the pump diaphragm in direction
FIG. 2, the outside of the loop engages the rounded flar
to form a pumping stroke, the moving fuel in the inlet
ing wall 25 of the pump body 21. When arm 5 is 70 line L1 must be stopped and rthe valve closed so that
rocked counterclockwise by cam 11, it lifts the rod and
the fuel in the pumping chamber can be forced through
pulls the diaphragm upward. This loads the spring 35.
the. outlet rather than back through the inlet. During
Then when arm 5 rocks clockwise, spring 35 is adapted
this pumping stroke the column of fuel L2 is set in
to drive the diaphragm and rod downward. .
motion so that fuel is forced upwardly into the car
The sheet metal pump body 21 is ‘formed with two 75 buretor. During the suction stroke of the pump, the
column of fuel in the outlet line L2 is substantially
between the portion of the cavity below the head and
stationary because of the closed outlet valve, while dur
the annular space 121 around the nipple extension above
ing the pumping stroke, the line of fuel in the inlet line
the head. This space 121 constitutes a dome or surge
L1 is substantially stationary because of the closing of
chamber in which fuel vapor (and air) may be trapped,
the inlet valve to the pump. During rapid reciprocation
which functions in a manner similar to chambers 99 of
of the pump at higher engine speeds, the stopping and
pump P of FIG. 2 to damp pulsations in pressure of
starting of these lines of fuel presents somewhat of a
fuel. The nipple extensions act as conduits for ?ow of
problem and it has been found that at very high speeds
fuel, the annular surge chambers 12]. surrounding these
of pump reciprocation, the inlet and outlet valves of
the pump cannot operate successfully because of the 10
In view ‘of the above, it Will be seen that the several
.inertia of the moving columns of fuel. However, with
objects of the invention are achieved and other advan
the use of the dampening or pulsation chambers 99‘ es
tageous results attained.
tablished in the pump, the pulsations are dampened to
As various changes could be made in the above con
an extent that fuel ?ow in the lines L1 and L2 becomes
structions without departing from the scope of the inven
slower and continuous and only the fuel adjacent to the 15 tion, it is intended that all matter contained in the above
description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall
valves 71 goes through a rapid starting and stopping
cycle. This, then, permits the closing springs of the
be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
We claim:
inlet and outlet valves to operate as intended, since
1. A diaphragm pump comprising a cup-shaped sheet
there is much less inertia of the fuel immediately ad
jacent to the valve.
20 metal body having an end and a peripheral wall de?ning a
pumping chamber and having a pair of cup-shaped pro
On demand for fuel from the carburetor, diaphragm
jections extending from its end wall de?ning an intake
19 is flexed up and down by the action of cam 11 and
cavity and‘ a discharge cavity respectively opening into
spring 35. On an upward (suction) stroke of the dia
said pumping chamber, a diaphragm closing the pumping
phragm, the intake check valve 69 opens and the dis
charge check valve 71 closes, and fuel is drawn into the 25 chamber, the intake cavity having an intake check valve
therein ‘and being adapted for connection of va supply line
pumping chamber 26 below the diaphragm. On a
thereto upstream from ‘the intake check valve, the dis
downward (discharge) stroke of the diaphragm, the in
charge cavity having a discharge check valve ?tted there
take check valve 69 closes and the discharge check valve
in and being adapted for connection of a discharge line
71 opens, and fuel is forced out through line L2 to the
carburetor C. Fuel vapor and air, if any, in the fuel 30 thereto downstream from the discharge check valve, and
are trapped in the annular chambers or domes 99.
fuel vapor and air trapped in these annular chambers
or domes 9-9 are compressible, consequently the cham
means comprising a tubular stem and a head on the stem
‘arranged axially in the discharge cavity downstream from
bers 99 serve as standpipes or surge chambers tending
the discharge check valve providing an annular surge
chamber around the tubular stem in the discharge cavity.
tion of pulsation.
chamber and the portion of the discharge cavity below
2. A diaphragm pump as set forth in claim 1 further
to reduce pulsations in pressure of the fuel and to in 35
having means comprising ‘a second tubular stem having a
crease the rate of delivery of fuel by the pump to
head ‘arranged ‘axially in the intake cavity upstream from
the carburetor in comparison with a pump not equipped
the intake check valve providing an annular surge cham
with such chambers for trapping fuel vapor and air and
ber around said second tubular stem in the intake cavity.
utilizing such trapped vapor and air for damping pulsa
3. A diaphragm pump as set forth in claim 1 wherein
tion. The tubular stem portions 93 of the spool-shaped 40
the pump is arranged with the cavities extending down
members 91 act as conduits for ?ow of fuel, the annular
ward from said pumping chamber, and wherein said head
surge chambers 99 surrounding these conduits. The use
is located at the upper end of the stem and is ?tted in
of a surge chamber is particularly important as regards
said discharge cavity to constitute the top of said surge
the discharge side of the pump, and in some instances
it may not be necessary to use a surge chamber at the 45
4. A diaphragm pump as set forth in claim 1 wherein
intake side. However, use of a surge chamber at the
said head is at one end of said stem with space around
intake side in addition to the surge chamber at the dis
said head for restricted communication between the surge
charge side ordinarily adds to the effectiveness in reduc
said head.
The flared heads 97 tend to prevent entrainment of 50
5. A diaphragm pump as set forth in claim 1 wherein
fuel vapor and air in the surge chambers 99 in liquid
the pump is arranged with the cavities extending down_
fuel ?owing through the passages or cavities ‘61 and
Ward from said pumping chamber, and further having
63 such as otherwise might occur due to turbulence, and
means comprising a second tubular stem having a head on
thus serve to maintain vapor and air trapped in these
said second stem ‘arranged axially in the intake cavity
cavities to accomplish their intended ‘function.
55 upstream from the intake check valve providing an
FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrate a pump P1 which is a so
annular surge chamber in said intake cavity, the head of
called upright pump, i.e., its inlet and outlet are located
each means being located at the upper end of the respec
at the top rather than at the bottom, and in which means
tive stem- and being ?tted in the respective cavity to con
different from than the spool-shaped members v91 of the
stitute the top of the respective surge chamber.
pump P shown in FIG. 2. is used to provide the surge 60
6. A diaphragm pump ‘as set forth in claim 5 wherein
chambers in the intake and discharge cavities. Pump
each means includes a second head at the lower end of
P1 is essentially simply an inversion of pump P, but,
the respective stem thereof with space around each said
as appears in FIG. 5, the inlet and outlet nipples, which
lower head for restricted communication between the re—
are designated 65a and 67a, have extensions such as
spective surge chamber and the portion of the respective
indicated at ‘111 projecting axially into the respective 65 cavity below each said lower head.
cavities 61 and 63. Each nipple extension has a sheet
metal member 113 secured to the end thereof within the
respective cavity, this member 113 having a flaring coni
7. A diaphragm pump as set forth in claim 1 wherein
the pump is arranged with the cavities extending upward
from said pumping chamber, ‘and wherein said head is
cal head 115 at one end of a tubular stem 117 which
located ‘at the lower end of the stem with space around
has a press ?t on the nipple extension. Each head 115 70 said head for restricted communication between the surge
?ares outward and dovmward from the lower end of the
chamber and the portion of the discharge cavity below
respective nipple extension, and its diameter at its lower
said head.
(and larger) end is smaller than the internal diameter
‘8. A diaphragm pump :as set forth in claim 1 wherein
of the respective cavity to provide an annular space 119
the pump is arranged with the cavities extending upward
around the head providing for restricted communication 75 from said pumping chamber, and further having means
comprising a second tubular stem having a head on said
second stem arranged axially in the intake cavity up
chamber and an outlet cavity extending from said pump
ing chamber, an outlet valve assembly ?xed between said
pumping chamber and said outlet cavity, and a tubular
element forming an outlet ‘passage within said outlet
stream from the intake check valve providing an annular
surge chamber ‘around the tubular stem in the intake
cavity, the head of each said means 1being located at the :5 ‘cavity and sealed at one end to the outlet cavity wall to
lower end of the respective stem with space therearound
for restricted communication between the respective su-rge
form a surge chamber therebetween, said tubular element
having a head at the other end thereof, said head ?aring
chamber and the portion of the respective cavity there
outwardly from the axis of said tubular element towards
said outlet cavity wall and forming with said outlet cavity
9. In a pump for pumping liquid comprising a pump 10 wall a restricted passage for communication between said
vbody provided with a generally vertical passage for ?ow
surge chamber and said outlet passage.
of liquid, a member having a tubular stem portion and
12. The invention set forth in claim 11 wherein said
one end of said tubular element comprises an annular por
heads at the ends of said stem portion arranged axially
in said passage, the upper head on said stem portion clos
tion extending outwardly from the axis of said tubular
ing oil the portion ‘of the passage therebelow and de?n 15 element between said outlet valve assembly and said other
ing ‘an annular surge chamber in said passage around said
tubular element end, said annular end portion being sealed
tubular stern portion, the lower head on said stem por
at its periphery to said outlet cavity Wall.
tion being ‘formed for restricted communication between
13. The invention set forth in claim 11, wherein said
said chamber and the portion of said passage therebelow.
head is positioned between said outlet valve assembly and
10. iIn -a pump for pumping liquid having a pumping 20 said one end of said tubular element.
chamber and a cavity extending upward ?rom said prnnp
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ing chamber, a tube extending downward into said cavity,
and a head on said tube within said cavity de?ning an
annular surge chamber within said cavity ‘around the por
Babitch ______________ __ Feb. 14, 1933
tion of the tube in said cavity, said head being formed for 25
Zubaty et a1 ___________ __ Jan. 23, 1934
restricted communication between said chamber and the
portion ‘of said cavity therebelow.
11. A pump comprising a body having a pumping
- 2,957,420
Rockwell _' ___________ __ Oct. 22, 1935
Reynolds et a1 _________ __ Oct. 25, 1960
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