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J. Benzing -- The Chuvash Word for Knife

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The Chuvash Word for "Knife"
Author(s): J. Benzing
Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 1 (Apr., 1948),
pp. 52-54
Published by: Cambridge University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25222221 .
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The Chuvash Word
for
"Knife "
By J. BENZING
contains many words
lacking a clear
to
Turco-Tatar.
the
THE
languages (of which
etymological
as
as
a
to
Finno
well
is
the
the Chuvash
member)
neighbouring
is
the word for
One of these odd expressions
languages.
Ugrian
"
to Ashmarin's
Thesaurus Lingu
knife ", z?z?, which, according
no derivations
in
has
Tschuvaschoruml
xiii,
pp. 109-110),
(vol.
one
use
of
the
the
shown
this language.
there,
Among
examples
of folklore and may therefore be
is of some interest for students
"
:
buried the maid they put
inserted here in translation
Having
Chuvash
language
relation
at her head, saying : Cut thou with this knife the bread
:Sew the chemises
yonder ; and they put a needle and thread, saying
with them."
To find the origin of the word z?z?, we shall start from the pro
which may be shown
nunciation
Thesaurus,
given in Aslimarin's
a knife
as ??z?, ??z?, where ? is a palatal
are reduced vowel sounds.
s, ? a palatal
voiceless
zt and ?, 6
The dialect form ??i? suggests that the original vowel may have
In most
of the Chuvash
dialects
been ?, ? or o, u.
(and in the
are
o
?
sounds
the
reduced
and
pronounced
literary language, too)
like ?, ? (?about like e in begin, ? about like ou in furious), but in
?, a. and ?, 6
dialects,
irregularities,
though there are many
?
from old
are different and show where the literary ?,
originate
So we have kernel (: k?mdl, cf. Tatar kernes, Turkish
labial vowels.
"
"
total ",
silver
", p?l?m (:pOt?m, cf. Tat. beten, Tk. b?t?n)
g?mitf)
"
autumn ", p?r (:p?r, cf. Tat. boz,
k?r (: k?r, cf. Tat. kez, Tk. g?z)
"
ice ", etc.
Tk. buz)
The initial ? and the ? (in literary writing both z, as each ? between
is pronounced
vowels or between
?) point to an
liquid and vowel
the beginning of the word?to
old 6 (ch), if (sh) or?in
y, too. There
.
c?..
with
fore the original form-of z?z? will probably
(?? .)
begin
or y? .. (y? ..).
to be
are considered
Balkars
and Caucasian
Chuvash
Both
idiom
the Balkar
of the Bulgarian
descendants
people and, though
of the
conies no nearer to the Chuvash
language than any other
some
1 Reviewed
in the Orientalislische
Literaturzeitung,
1939,
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col. 538-542.
TUE CHUVASH WORD FOR
"
KNIFE
"
53
features
idioms, there may be found many common
of a
in detail.1
The Balkar word for knife is ?ylgyc, a member
"
razor ", Karaim
rather common word family : Azeri ylgyc
iligic
?ureo-?atar
Turkish ?lk?c id.
(Trocki dialect iil?w?c) id., Coman yulu(n)yu6\?.,
forms of the same word are y?lg? and y?liigen
Other Turkish
"
"
razor ", derivated
to scrape off, to shave ",
from *y?l-, yiil?"
"
to shave ",
to
skin
Balkar
which we find in Yakut
",
?ylysyland many others. W. Bang (in the Hirth-Festschrift,
p. 30, note 1 )
forms to be palatal variants of the common Turco
explained these "
to pluck "?the
above Coman yuluytic shows the
Tatar root yul~
we find in Chuvash
of
root?which
the
zal- (: z?l-)
shape
original
"
to pull, to pluck ; to reap, to mow ; to ransom, to save ".
z?z? points back to a root beginning with
As noted the Chuvash
or yii..
of course, we may now ?quai z?z?
and, as a matter
to Balkar ?ylgyc, etc., i.e. reduce it to an original form *y?lgi? :
we have to see whether
this is compatible
with the intricate laws
??..
historical phonetics.
shall begin with the disappearance
of the g. It is a great and
in Turco-Tatar
that in many
hitherto unsolved problem
phonetics,
words a g, y (sometimes k, q) is found where other dialects do not
in some
show this sound, and it has not yet been proved whether
or in others it has been inserted.
dialects
the g has disappeared
of Chuvash
We
in a.D.
the famous Turkish
al-K?shghar?,
matter
in
this
his
Div?n Lugh?t at-Turk.
lexicographer,
"
"
"
"
Turkish
word tamyAq
throat
E.g. instead of the common
the Oghuz and Kipchaks
(i.e. the Western
group of the Turks) say
Already
1073 Mahm?d
dealt with
vol. i, p. 33 ;
Ankara,
tamaq (v. Divan? L?gat it-Turk Terc?mesi,
"
"
cf. Tk. damak
the palate ", Karaim
throat, gullet ",
tamaq
"
like
throat ; food ", and others.2
tamaq
Kirghiz
Examples
"
sibiricum
Chuvash pult?ran
Heracleum
(a plant) ", p?t? (:p?l?)
"
"
"
"
lark ", tile
fox
show that in this language, too,
groats ", tari
is found, as the corresponding
this phenomenon
forms of these
"
:
are
Tk.
baldlran
hemlock ",
words in Turco-Tatar
(1)
languages
"
"=
assaf
the
tida
Tat.
(Redhouse)
baldirgan
plant
baldbroian
"=
"
"
a plant
Heracleum
sibiricum
(: ajuu
Kirghiz
baltbroian
1
are scattered
in the volumes
about such details
of the Hungarian
Many notices
Oriental
Review
(Keleti Szcmlc).
'*
"
"
*'
* tarn
the roof of tho mouth
< tam
roof
suffix nq ;
-f- aq
-f- diminutive
v. Ananjasz
et verbaux dans ?a langue des
Les suffixes nominaux
Zajaczkowski,
kara?ms
occidentaux,
Krakow,
1932,
p.
17.
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"
"
THE CHUVASH WORD FOR
KNIFE
"
"
"
=
; (2) Tat. buiqa = Kirgh. bolqo groats
baltbroian
Heracleum)
;
"
"
= Tat.
=
lark
Tk.
tilki
(3) Tk. turgay
;
turoyaj
(4)
" Kirgh. Uyroyoj
= Tat. telke =
fox ".
Kirgh.
tylky
we may now start from the assumed word
With
regard to that
"
"
razor
which
would
have
been *z?l?z in
(~ *yulgi-c)
*y?li?
54
Chuvash. The words ?j?h~
"
"
yjh?
sleep ", mil?k
~ milk? < Russ.
(
the birch-twigs
u?ed for whipping
oneself in the sauna ",
"
"
~
Chuvash
sacrificer
", hujh?
jurnza ~jumaz
huj?h
grief ", etc.,
prove that a word ending with consonant
-f- ?, a may put the ?, a
before
the consonant
(as in hujh?, cf. Tat.
qajoib id.) or may
a word
a
be
with
consonant
?,
+
(as mil?k), and
originally
ending
"
"
now turns from *z?l?z to *z?lz?, a form which comes
knife
very
near to the Chuvash word z?z?.
v?nik)
the disappearance
of the I in Chuvash words there
Regarding
"
are many
:
utm?l (cf. Tat. altmbs, Tk. altmls)
GO ",
examples
"
arvense ", kin (= Tat.
(= Tat.
thistle, Cirsium
bilcan)
pizen
"
"
~
kilen = Tk. gelin)
sword ;
h?z?
bride, young woman "9 h?z
"
"
"=
"
weaver's
reed
Tat.
sword
sword
Tk.
;
(=
qbhc
k?l??
coulter of a plough ").
"
"
"
"
razor
The way from *yiilgi?
to z?z? knife
is an interesting
of the problems
covers
of Turco-Tatar
which
example
philology
not only etymology
and grammar, but also the literature of many
of the peoples of the U.S.S.R.
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