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801 goryachih yu.m. ateeva .e. types of business activity and company presentation

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Қазақстан Республикасының Білім және ғылым министрлігі
С. Торайғыров атындағы Павлодар мемлекеттік университеті
Филология, журналистика мен өнер факультеті
Аударма теорияcы мен практикасы кафедрасы
Аударма іс мамандықтарының студенттеріне арналған
оқу-әдістемелік құралы
ӘОЖ 81’255.4(075)
КБК 81.2Англ-9я7
Баспаға С. Торайғыров атындағы ПМУ филология,
журналиситка мен өнер факультетінің оқу-әдістемелік кеңесімен
Пікір берушілер:
Кенжетаева Г.К. – филология ғылымдарының кандидаты.
Құрастырушылар: Ю.М. Горячих, Ө.Е.Атеева
Т43 Types of business activity and company presentation:аударма іс
студенттеріне арналған оқу-әдістемелік
құралы / құраст. Ю.М. Горячих, Ө.Е. Атеева. – Павлодар :
Кереку, 2010. – 70 б.
студенттеріне арналған.
ӘОЖ 81’255.4 (075)
КБК 81.2 Англ-9я7
© Горячих Ю.М., Атеева Ө., 2010
© С. Торайғыров атындағы ПМУ, 2010
Материалдық дурыс болуына, грамматикалық және орфографиялық қателерге
авторлар мен құрастырушылар жауапты
One of the subjects offered as an elective course for “Bachelors of
Translation and Interpretation” is Business English. Analyzing the sphere
of possible activity of our graduates we may underline that our graduate
should have a widely developed personality with a vast background of
knowledge in different spheres of a human activity.
Business sphere is one that the professional often encounter with. So the
purpose of this manual is to introduce basic notions used in business and
train lexical minimum necessary for business communication on the topic
Types of business and Company Рresentation.
This manual presents information about types and spheres of a business activity, the way of enlarging business and making company presentation.
It consists of 3 parts (1 Forms of business activity; 2 Takeovers and
merges; 3 Company presentations) and 2 enclosures.
Only for use of students of Pavlodar State University named after S.
1 Forms of Business Activity
Task 1.1 Read the text paying special attention to new words and
set phrases and say if these statements are true or false:
1) Sole proprietor is liable with all his property by the obligation.
2) Private limited companies are not allowed to announce public
subscription for their shares.
3) The equity capital of the private limited company is formed by
way of receiving government subsidies.
4) Winding up is a process of establishing a new company.
Sole Proprietorship (ағыл) Individual Proprietorship (амер.)
Жеке (меншік) кәсіпкерлік
Sole proprietors are individuals carrying out economic operations in
various spheres of business activities (industrial, trade, transport, banking
etc.) and concluding commercial deals on their own behalf.
The legal form is not to be indicated in the name of the firm. The
hired staffs are not referred to as proprietors.
The proprietors must be registered in the trade register, obtain a licence to carry out business activities and keep the books reflecting the results of the latter. The contents of the books are a commercial secret not accessible to a third party. In case of a lawsuit the books can be open for the
court and the parties concerned provided the proprietor acts either as a
plaintiff or a defendant. Also, the books can be made public in case of either insolvency or inheritance.
Sole proprietors are not subject to public report therefore it is not
possible to get true information of their activities.
The sole proprietor is not a legal person and is fully liable with his
property by the obligations of his firm. Millions of sole proprietors in the
world carry out business activities mainly in the sphere of various services
and retail trade.
Unlimited Partnership (ағыл.) General Partnership (амер.)
The main feature of unlimited partnerships is equal and collective
responsibility for the property for all members of the partnership. In other
words, creditors can be paid either at the expense of the partnership's property or private property of the members. Besides, the agreement can not
provide for the exception of property liability of any of the members before
a third party.
The property of the unlimited partnership is a joint property of its
members. The profit obtained is distributed proportionately to the share of
participation in the property of the partnership. Concession of the share of
participation can be made only with the consent of the members. The number of the members of the partnership is not limited.
The unlimited partnership can be disbanded either in case of insolvency or resignation of one of its members or by resolution of all participants. Unlimited partnerships are not subject to public report.
Limited Partnership
Жауапкершілігі шектеулі серіктестігі
The limited partnership is a contractual union of entrepreneurs participating only by way of contributions without taking direct part in the
management (investors); and those who, apart from contributing, carry out
direct management of the partnership and are fully liable by the partnership's obligations with their own property (full members).
It takes at least one full member and one investor to form a limited
partnership. The limited partnership is to be registered just like any unlimited partnership.
The name of the partnership includes the names of one or two full
members; the including of the name of the investor into the firm's name
makes the investor equally and jointly liable by the partnership's obligations.
Master Limited Partnership
Акционерлік-Командиттік серіктестігі
Master limited partnerships carry out business activities on the basis
of a Charter and are to be registered. One or more full members and shareholders as investors make a partnership. Shares can either be sold to or distributed among the investors or quoted on the stock exchange. Full members ran the partnership and are liable by the partnership's obligations.
The shareholders run the risk of devaluation of their shares. A legal
person can act as a full member. Thus a master limited partnership bears
characteristics both of a limited partnership and a public limited company.
The advantage of a master limited partnership is in 'getting additional income through an issue of securities and their subsequent sale on the securities' market.
Dividends are tax exempt, so the investors are mainly attracted by a
tax regime of master limited partnerships which pay only income tax.
Private Limited Company (ағылшын) Close Corporation (американ.)
(Жауапкершілігі шектеулі акционерлік компаниясы)
Жабық акционерлік компаниясы
/Жабық тұрпатты жауапкершілігі шектеулі қоғам (ТМД)/
A private limited company has the word 'Limited' or the abbreviation
'Ltd' in its name. A private limited company should be registered under the
Companies Act and act in compliance with its Charter. The company is a
legal person fully liable by the company's obligations. The equity capital of
the company is formed at the expense of deposits; the shareholders get a
certificate of deposit which is not considered to be a security and as a rule
can not be assigned to third persons without the consent of other shareholders of the company, that provides for the close character of the company.
There are private limited companies with a single shareholder.
There is one more circumstance that limits the financial rights and
hence production opportunities of the private limited companies: they are
not allowed to issue debentures and announce public subscription for their
Private limited companies keep statutory books which are not subject
to public report. The number of members of the company is not large, usually consisting of close relatives or people knowing each other well, who
united for business.
Public Limited Company (ағылшын) Corporation (американ.)
Ашық акционерлік компаниясы/корпорациясы
/Ашық тұрпатты акционерлік қоғамы (ТМД)
Public limited company is the main legal form of large firms. A pubic limited company is a union of investors called shareholders. It carries
out business activities on the basis of the Articles of Association and is to
be registered under the Companies Act. Any legal person or an individual
can be a founder of the company. The shareholders are not liable by the
company's obligations.
The public limited company is the most stable kind of unification of
capitals as the resignation of any of its investors does not involve the liquidation of the company. The investor has a right to sell his shares without
consent of other shareholders.
The initial share capital is formed by way of selling shares. During
that period the initial share capital is the only source of financing of its activities. The means obtained from the sale of shares are used for the purchase of plots of land, industrial premises and offices, equipment, basic
commodities (raw materials) to launch manufacturing activities. Therefore
the company receives an income and also can be financed by way of issuing debentures and securing bank loans.
Thus a number of advantages make a pubic limited company the
most effective means of concentration and centralization of capital goods
and capital. The shareholders can return their capital only by way of selling
shares at the price currently quoted on the stock exchange.
The shareholders have property and personal rights. Property rights
are realised in case of liquidation of a company and in case of getting dividends. Personal rights mean the right to vote; normally a share gives a right
for one vote. The decisions are to be taken by a large majority, hence the
person or a legal person holding the majority interest is the one who makes
resolutions. Public limited companies' names must have the abbreviation
'plc' in their name.
Task 1.2 Working in groups of three with one monitor answer the
following questions:
1 What is a sole proprietorship?
2 Are people hired to work in the sole proprietorships considered
to be proprietors?
3 In what cases can the books of the sole proprietorships be made
4 Why is it not possible to get true information of the activities of
the sole proprietorships?
5 What is the main feature of an unlimited partnership?
6 In what way is the profit obtained distributed in the unlimited
7 In what case can the unlimited partnership be disbanded?
8 What is a limited partnership?
9 Why do master limited partnerships bear the features both of the
limited partnership and a joint-stock company?
10 What is the advantage of a master limited partnership?
11 What is a private limited company?
12 What kind of abbreviation must private limited companies have
in their names?
13 How is the equity capital of the private limited companies
14 What factor provides for the close character of the private limited companies?
15 What is the public limited company?
16 Are the shareholders liable by the company's obligations?
17 Does the investor to the public limited company need to get a
special permit to sell his shares?
18 What are the rights of the shareholders in a public limited company?
19 How many votes one share is equal to?
20 What kind of abbreviation must public limited companies have
in their names?
21 What is the difference between the private limited company and
the public limited company?
Task 1.3 Give English equivalents to words and word-combinations.
And check them with your partner
 іскерлік белсенділіктің әр түрлі салалары.
 банк ісі.
 коммерциялық мәмілелер жасақталады.
 жалдау шарты бойынша жұмыс істейтін қызметкерлер.
 заң түрі.
 сауда тізілімінде теркелген болу.
 рұқсаттаманы сатып алу.
 сауда кітаптарды жүргізу.
 өз фирмасының міндеттемелірі бойынша.
 бөлшек сауда.
 қызмет көрсету саласында.
 толық серіктестіктің негізгі ерекшелігі.
 шектелмеген және ынтымақты мүліктік жауапкершілік.
 алынған пайда.
 жеке мүлік.
 пайда үйлесімді бөлінеді.
 серіктестік мүлігінде қатысу үлесі.
 серіктестікті таратып жіберуге болады
 төлеуге қабілетсіз болу жағдайда.
 толық серіктестер.
 өзінің бар мүлігімен оның міндеттемелері арқылы
шектелмей жауап беру.
 қор биржасында айналысы бар.
 акционерлер өз акциялардың құнсыздануы тәуекелдігіне
акциялар шығару (эмиссиясы) арқылы.
құнды қағаз нарығында келесі сатылуымен.
компанияның акционерлік капиталы.
жарнашыларға енгізген салым үшін куәлік беріледі.
компанияның таратуын душар қылу.
капиталдардың біріктіруінің ең тұрақты түрі.
акциялардың бақылау пакетінің иесі.
дивидендерді алу.
Task 1.4
a) Cover the right side of the table to check if you know the words well.
серіктес, жарнашы, үлескер
limited liability
шектеулі жауапкершілік
limited liability company
жауакершілігі шектеулі компаниясы
to own
ие болу
ие, иеленуші, қожа
адвокат, қорғаушы
жылжымайтын мүлік
estate agent
жылжымайтын мүлікті сатып алу-сату
бойынша агенті
аудитор, тексеруші
басқару, менеджмент
кеңсе бланкілер
біріктірілген, біріккен,бірлескен
joint-stock company
акционерлік қоғам
үлес, бөлік, акция
Акциялардың иесі, акционер
to divide
бөлу, үлестіру, бөлісу, бөліну
stock exchange
қор биржасы
to offer
to incorporate
корпорация түрінде тіркеу
under the law
заң бойынша
liable for debt
to share
profit to
to elect
at will
state authorities (Am.)
state authorities (E)
to state
қарызға жауапты
бөлу, қатысу
табыс, пайда
пайда алу
инвестиция, капиталды енгізу
қалауынша, еркінше
билік, өкімет
штаттың өкіметі
мемлекеттік билік
салық салу
b) Split into groups. Listen to the text, make up questions and let
your opponents answer.
Task 1.5 Listen to the tape about the development of Thomas Mahoney’s business and answer the questions.
First listening
 What did Thomas Mahoney start?
 What stages did his business pass?
 Did he reach everything by his own?
Second Listening
Being a student Tom accepted a full-time job with the
He thought about his own shop being at school.
After graduation Thomas started his own business
He dreamed to earn profit for himself being his own boss
To expand his business he invited his friends Alex and
Lynda to become part owners of his business.
In their partnership agreement they defined their responsibilities
They set up a partnership with equal investments of
$30,000 in cash.
Profit and losses will be shared equally.
They became liable for all the debts of their business.
At the end of the year Tom’s salary came to $6,000
They decided not to talk over such matters as hiring
Buying new equipment was the only important matter to
discuss with the partners.
Tom inherited his first business from the man he had
worked for .
He took a bank loan to buy out a share in a sporting
goods department store.
He found out that a sole proprietorship required long
hours and much decision making.
He employed his wife part-time.
They opened a branch store in a new shopping centre.
They enlarged the present store adding new sales and
storage space and also lines of outdoor furniture and
They decided to get another partner.
They wrote an application asking authorities for incorporation.
1) They were still owners of the partnership
2) They owned 9,000 shares of stock
3) They had enough votes to control the operation of the
4) All in all the corporation then amounted 30 shareholders
1) JoAnn McCline was elected as a managing director
2) The total profit including taxes was $11,200
3) There were seven people in the Board of Directors
4) The part of the profit that each stockholder received is
called a share
Task 1.6 Choose the correct answer.
A partner is...
1) Any person who signs any kind of legal document.
2) A person or group of people who take part in a legal agreement or dispute.
3) One of two or more people who run a business.
The investor of the public company has a right to sell the
shares belonging to him
1) Only with the permission of the Chairman of the Board of Directors.
2) Without the consent of other shareholders of the company.
3) Only to the shareholders of the same company with the resolution
of the shareholders' meeting to follow.
A sole / individual proprietor is...
1) The managing director of the company.
2) An individual carrying out economic operations in different
spheres of business activities and concluding commercial deals on his own
3) A hired person who is in charge of the operation of the company.
Task 1.7 Give your own definitions to these words
1) partner
5) trade
3) company
7) advantage
2) business
6) consent
4) liability
8) disband
Task 1.8 Below there are ten words and word-combinations used in
the text. On the right of them, there are ten alternative ways of saying the
same thing; however, these are mixed up. Choose the words and wordcombinations on the right which have the same meaning as the ones on the
a) to consider
b) consent
c) to carry out
d) liquidation
e) to carry on
f) the proprietor
g) management
h) a certificate of indebtedness
i) staff
j) to obtain
1) to go on
2) personnel
3) the owner
4) the body of the directors
5) to receive
6) to fulfill
7) to regard
8) agreement in opinion or sentiment
9) debenture
10) winding up
Task 1.9 Study this information
All partnerships and companies are regulated by the law of the
U.K. or by Acts of Parliament, and are to be registered with the Registrar
of companies. In order to be registered they are to deliver a few documents,
 a certified copy of the company's charter;
 statute;
 memorandum and others.
When a company is registered a certificate of incorporation is issued by the
Here is one of the certificates:
Duplicate for the file No 989855.
Certificate of Incorporation
I hereby certify that the Goldfields, Limited is this day incorporated
under the Companies Acts, 1862 to 1994, and that the Company is Limited.
Given under my hand at London this tenth day of July one thousand
nine hundred and ninety four.
Fees and Deed Stamps 15,200. 00
Stamp Duty on Capital 13,510.00
Registrar of Joint Stock Companies
Certificate received by Stephen Low
65 London Wall, E.G.,
Date 13 the July, 1994
Task 1.10 Read the text and make a short summary in English
Жеке кәсіпкерлік
Жеке кәсіпкер өз қызметінің орынын айқындайды және іске өз
капиталын енгізеді. Оған – жергілікті заңдарды білу және істі бастау
үшін жеткілікті қаражаты болу керек. Бұл - кәсіпкерліктің ең оңай
және ең арзаң түрі.
ең оңайы - бастау;
ең арзаңы - ұйымдастыру;
ең икемді құрылымы, себебі бар білік Сіздің қолыңызда.
заң алдындағы жауакершілігі және қарызға жеке жауапкершілігі
тұрақсыздық. Аурғаныңыз немесе өліміңіз Сіздің бизнесіңіз үшін
– қауіп-қатер;
жауапкершіліктің ауыртпалығы және ресурстардың шектеулігі;
өз жеке істеріңізді бизнеспен шатыстыру оңай.
Сіз, тағы бір немесе одан да көп адам өз жеке мүлікті біріктіріп,
серіктестікті құрастыруға келістіңіз. Сізге тек қана капиталды және
дивидендтерді қатысушылардың арасында (Agreement of Capital
and Dividends Share) бөлу туралы жазба түрінде келісімді және
серіктестікті басқару жөнінде барлық ережелерді ескертілген
жарғыны (Statute) құрастыру керек. Серіктестік үшін қызметінің
шектеулі мерзімі және ең болмағанда бір серіктестің шектелмеген
жауапкершілігі қарастырылған.
- ұйымдастыру оңай;
- серіктестер арасында жұмыс қуаты, идеялар, тәжиребе және
жауапкершілік бөлінеді;
- капиталдың әлуетті қосымша көздері;
- қатысушылар
(корпорацияның пайдаға салынатын салығын). Қатысушылар
серіктестіктің қызметінен табыстарын табысқа салық
салынатын өз жеке табыстарға енгізеді;
- негізгі серіктестердің әрқайсысына серіктестіктің атынан
әрекет етуге болады.
- негізгі серіктестердің шектелмеген жеке жауапкершілігі бар;
- банкротқа ұшыраған жағдайда, ең үлкен жеке жарнасы бар
серіктестер артығырақ залал көреді;
- серіктестіктің бас қатысушысы қаза болған жағдайда,
серіктестік бастапқы түрінде жабылып қалу мүмкін (бірақ,
үнемі олай болмай, жаңа мүшелерді кіргізуге болады);
- жүріс-тұрыс стратегиясы және өкілеттіктің үлестірімі анық
айқындалмауы да мүмкін;
- фирма істерінде әрбір серіктестің қатысу үлесін дұрыс
айқындау қиын да болады;
- жаман серіктестен құтылу қиын.
Корпорацияны құрастыру – бизнес ұйымдастырудың ең қиын
және қымбат жолы. Корпорациялар меншікті бөлу түрін анықтайтын
акцияларды (stocks, shares) шығарады. Жабық корпорацияларда
кейбіреулер адамдар ғана акцияларға ие болады және оларды өздері
сатады, ал ашық корпорацияларда – брокерлер арқылы сатып алғысы
келетін адамға акцияларды сатады. Ең алдымен акцияларға жазылысты
өткізу керек және тіркеуге керек құжаттарды дайындау қажет. Содан
кейін осы штатта корпорацияның құруына оның қызметінің құқықтары
мен шектеулері көрсетілген өкіметтің рұқсатын алу керек.
Корпорацияның меншігі әрбір меншіктенушінің қатынасында заңмен
анық айқындалады, бұл әрбір акционер немесе акциялар иесінің
(stockholder, shareholder) жарналарын белгілі жағдайда қорғайды.
Корпорацияның меншіктенуші болып жиі оны басқаратын адам емес
болады (корпорацияның меншіктенуші болып акционерлер болады, ал
менеджерлер болмау да мүмкін).
Акциялардың бағасы фирманың жақсы жұмыс істеуіне және ол
қоғамға ұнағанына байланысты өседі немесе төмендейді. Мысалы,
фармацевтикалық компания жаңа таңқаларлық дәріні ойлап тапса,
акцияларының бағасы таур дүкенге түспей тұрғанда көтеріледі.
Егерде, фирманың қызметіне өкіметтің қадағалау ықыласы түскен
болса, оның акцияларының бағасы, іс сотқа жеткенге дейін төмендеуі
мүмкін. Компания туралы қоғамдық пікір оның бағаларына жұмысы
сияқты әсерін тигізуі мүмкін.
Акциялардың иелерін спорт командасы иелерімен салыстыруға
болады. Олар командасын көтермелейді, акцияларды сатып алғанда,
команда жақсы ойнап, сыйлық ұтады деп үміттенеді (акциялардың
бағасы өседі). Команда ұтыла бастаса, матчқа аз жанкүйерлер
билеттер сатып алады. Адамдар фирма өсіп, пайда табады деп
үміттенеп, акцияларды сатып алады. Фирманың өсуі баяулай бастаса,
ал ақша жоғалта бастаса, адамдар матчқа бармайтын жанкүйерлер
сияқты, өз акцияларын сата бастайды. Акциялардың иелері
акционерлердің жиналыстарына қатысуға және негізгі сұрақтары
бойынша, мысалы, директорлар кеңесінің мүшелерін, кейде
президентті де ауыстыру сияқты шешімдерді қабылдау құқықтары
салыстыруға болады. Олар нақтылықта майданға шықпайды және
ойындарға қатыспайды, бірақ команда жұмысы бойынша тағдырдың
шешімін қабылдайды. Барлығы да жақсы жүріп жатқанына көзі жету
үшін, кеңеске жылда бірнеше рет жиналады. Күнделік шешімдерді
корпорация ішіндегі менеджерлер қабылдағанымен, диркторлар кеңесі
жоғары буынның басшыларын өздері жалдап, жұмыстан шығара
алады. Директорларды акционерлер сайлайды.
командасының ойыншыларға ұқсас. Тренерлері мен басшылары емес,
олар өздері ойынды жүргізеді. Тренер қаншалықты жақсы болса да,
жанкүйерлер қаншалықты ынта көрсетсе де маңызды емес, ойынның
нәтижесін тек ойыншылар нақ шешеді.
Президентті немесе атқарушы директорды - chief executive
officer (CEO) – спорт командасының жауапкершілік тренермен
салыстыруға болады. Ол фирманы басқарады және өз қызметкерлерді
белгіленген мақсатқа жету үшін шабыттандырады. СЕО фирманың
жұмысы үшін жалпы жауапкершілікті өз міндетіне алу және істер
ойдағыдай емес жүрсе, директорлар кеңесі мен акционерлердің
алдында жауап беру тиіс.
акция иелерінің жауапкершілігі мөлшері жеке жарнасының
сомасымен шектеленеді;
инвестордың артық болған жағдайда капиталды тарту оңай;
қатысушыларға табыстау мүмкін;
меншік құқығын басқаға қайта табыстау процедурасының
корпорация құрушы/серіктес егер қайтыс болғанда, - жоқ болып
жұмыс функцияларын әр түрлі корпорациялардың арасында
үлестіруге мүмкіндігі бар;
құқықтары мен өкілеттіктерін табыстау;
көптеген кісілердің тәжиребесі мен білімдерін пайдалану
серіктестікпен салыстырғанда, жай корпорациялар үшін
зейнетақы қоры мен жалақы аударымына шектеу қолданылады;
олардың іс-әрекетіне бақылауды жасау қиын, акционерлерден
пайда бөлігін жасыру сияқты алаяқтықпен жиі кездеседі;
акционерлердің құқықтары Жарғымен шектелген, азшылықтың
мүдделеріне жиі қысым жасалады;
шамадан тыс реттеуге жатады;
құру мен тарату өте қиын;
басшылар әдетте акциялар бас иелері үшін «жұмыс істейді»
және олардың мүдделерін сақтайды;
кәдуілгі корпорациялар қос салық салу субъектілері деп
есептеледі, себебі корпорациялық салығы бар;
заңдық реттеу жеке кәсіпкерлігі мен серіктестікпен
салыстырғанда қатаңдау;
меншіктенушіге жалған қауіпсіздік сезімін береді;
қызмет еркіндігі аз;
жүргізу мен «тарқатылу» қымбат және қиын.
Task 1.11 In pairs make up a dialogue on one of these topics:
 A business adviser and a person who wants to start his business;
 Two friends are going to start their business and discuss all pluses
and minuses of all types;
 Your partner is going to enlarge your business incorporating it.
Try to persuade him that it is an unprofitable step.
2 Takeovers and mergers
Task 2.1 Being a Company Number 1 on the market you want to get
more profit but you have a competitor Company Number 2. What steps
would you do to make your position stable?
Takeovers and Mergers
There are several relationships that may grow up between business
in Great Britain and the United States of America. They are as follows:
 takeovers;
 mergers;
 amalgamation;
 integration;
 combination;
 absorption etc.
No agreement has been reached among financial experts as to the
precise difference in meaning between the terms. The most popular are
takeovers and mergers. In a takeover one company buys a controlling interest in another company by acquiring at least 51% of its shares. The
company does this by making a direct approach to the company's shareholders for their shares. The company intending to take over will not necessarily consult the company it is taking over.
The Stock Exchange Council in London has drawn up a code of
practice to regulate takeovers to prevent some abuses. One such abuse is secret dealing when a company wishes to take over secretly and buys its
shares secretly. Another abuse is insider dealing thanks to information
used for personal profit.
With a merger, two or more companies involved will consult with
each other previously. They try to make a certain agreement on their merger
to the satisfaction of both companies.
Task 2.2 Study this chart. Can you give your own examples for every
Vertical integration
Сатылас интеграция
A situation where two more organisations
that deal with different stages h production process are combined and controlled
by one company. Vertical integration re-
duces costs and the threat of competition.
Генри Форд өз компаниясын 1903
жылы сатылас бойынша құрды. Ол
Бразилияда каучукты плантацияны,
Канадада орманның телімін және
Америкада рудникті сатып алды.
Автомобильдерді өндіру бойынша
зауыты Дирборнда орналасқан, оған
ағаш, каучук және тау рудасы
жеткізілді. 20 жылдан кейін сатылас
өзіңді ақтамаған.
Horizontal integration
Деңгейлес интеграция
A situation where two or more organisations that produce similar goods or carry
out the same stage of the production process are combined and controlled by one
company. The aim of horizontal integration is to eliminate competition.
Дженерал Моторс компаниясының
құрушы Альфред Слоун деңгейлес
интеграция идеясын қолданды. Ол
дайын автомобиль компаниялары мен
жиынтықтарды өндіру зауыттарын
сатып алды. Слоунның деңгейлес
сұлбасы қазіргі кезде де бар.
A holding company together with any
subsidiary companies in which it owns
more than half of the share capital.
Holding / Parent company
The leading company of a group that
holds all or more than half of the shares of
the other companies.
Subsidiary / Daughter
Еншілес компания
A company of which at least half the
share capital is owned by another company called a parent or holding company.
Associate company
A company of which more than 20%, but
less than 51% of the share capital is held
еншілес компания
Affiliate company
by another company.
A company that is attached to a larger organisation, i.e. completely or partly
owned by another company.
Филиал / Бөлімше
A local office, shop or group that is part
of a larger organisation with a main office
The buying of one company or most of
the shares in it, by a person or another
Black knight
Қара сері
A person or a company that tries to buy
(take-over) another company that does not
want to sell. A black knight makes an
unwanted take-over bid.
Grey knight
Сұрқай сері
A person or a company that tries to buy
(take-over) another company and does not
reveal any plans for the company's future.
White knight
Ақ сері
A person or an organisation that rescues a
company from an unfavourable take-over
bid. A white knight makes a better offer.
Target company
A company that a person or another company tries to buy by making a take-over
Dawn raid
«Таңғы рейд»
A surprise attempt to buy a large number
of shares in a company in the first
minutes of a day's business on the stock
exchange, before dealers can react by
raising prices. But now "the dawn raids"
are restricted by the City Code on Takeovers and Mergers and a Monopolies and
Mergers Commission.
Task 2.3 Scan the texts and find the answers:
a) What is the main idea of setting up a joint-venture that is to be
launched in Seoul?
b) Will the car financing venture limit itself to financing Kia and
Ford car buyers only?
c) What did the shareholders of TSB Group approve?
d) Why is the demerger of the US healthcare group 'Baxter International' a classic of the genre?
e) What is curious in that demerger?
f) What does 'Banco de Napoli' intend to do with its branches?
g) What did Cordis Company agree to?
h) What are the terms of the agreement?
i) Where from did the increase in sales arise?
Кia, South Korea's second largest vehicle maker, and Ford Motor
Credit, a unit of Ford of the US, have established a joint venture car finance company for Korean buyers. Kia Ford Credit Finance has an initial
paid-in capital of Won 33.3bn ($44m) which will be increased yearly. The
venture will be launched on January 1, 1996 in Seoul, with plans to expand nationwide. The car financing venture will not limit itself to financing Kia and Ford car buyers.
Shareholders of TSB Group approved the bank's merger with
Lloyds Bank, and the change of name of their company to Lloyds TSB
Group. The merger is expected to take effect from December 28, 1995.
The shareholders also voted to allow TSB directors to make arrangements
for Lloyds Bank share option holders to be given options over Lloyds
TSB shares.
The demerger of the US healthcare group Baxter International
is in several ways a classic of the genre. First, Baxter is splitting off
the manufacturing and distribution activities.
Second, it is unpicking a decade-old merger with its larger rival
American Hospital Supplies, which was largely designed to bring manufacturing and distribution together. It might also seem curious that only
two years ago, Baxter carefully considered demerging the business and
decided against it. The impression remains that Baxter's demerger is very
much in line with the prevailing fashion: take a vertically integrated business and pick it apart, with a view to possible horizontal merger with fresh
Banco di Napoli, the troubled Italian bank, intends to sell or
close chronically loss-making Italian branches, while unproductive foreign branches will be disposed of or turned into representative offices.
Cordis, the US maker of cardiology equipment and other medical devices, agreed to a takeover by Johnson and Johnson in a deal valued at about $1.8bn. Under the terms of the agreement, Cordis would keep
its Miami, Florida headquarters and its name.
Sale of the first six months of 1995 rose to FF26.95 billion, showing
an increase of 22.8 per cent. The growth can be attributed to a 20.6 per cent
increase arising from changes in structure, in particular the consolidation of
four new subsidiaries into the group.
Task 2.4 Give English equivalents to words and wordcombinations. Make up your own sentences using them.
1 Бастапқы капитал
2 Бірлескен кәсіпорынды құру.
3 Банкілердің қосылуын мақұлдау
4 Өндірістік қызметі мен үлестіруін бөлу
5 Бизнестің дәстүрлі саласы
6 Сатылас біріктірілген бизнестің типтік үлгісі.
7 Жаңа серіктестермен деңгейлес қосылу
8 Қиындықтарды көрген банк
9 Созылмалы залалды филиалдар
10 Банкілердің өкілдіктері
11 Джонсон энд Джонсон жұтып қоюды ниет еткен кезде
12 1 милд доллар шамалап бағаланған мәмілесінде
13 Шарт талаптарына сәйкес
14 Сатудың көлемі ... дейін өсті
15 Жаңа еншілес компаниялардың бір топқа бірігуі фурорды
Task 2.5 Choose the correct answer:
A joint-venture is...
a) A business or commercial activity in which there may be some
risk for the parties concerned.
b) A business activity in which two or more people or organizations work together.
c) A group of people chosen to represent others in organizing affairs thatconcern them all.
A merger is...
a) The aim of selling to a particular group of people.
b) A company whose shares are not recorded on the main market of a
stock exchange.
c) The combining of two or more organizations, usually to share costs,
increase efficiency and avoid competition
A consolidation is...
a) A temporary association of two or more companies for a major project that is too complex for any of them to do alone.
b) The bringing together the financial resources and accounts of a holding company and its subsidiaries so that the strength of the whole group is
c) A number of companies, sometimes involved with different products, joined together and run as one large company.
Task 2.6 Give every word combination collectively pertaining to each
word listed below.
a) effect
e) to value
b) merger
f) takeover
c) capital
g) option
d) to agree
h) consortium
Task 2.7 Below there are ten words and word-combinations used in
the text. On the right of them, there are ten alternative ways of saying the
same thing; however, these are mixed up. Choose the words and wordcombinations on the right which have the same meaning as the ones on the
1 a subsidiary
2 manufacturer
3 growth
4 consolidation
5 a take-over
6 a combination of businesses
7 to allow
8 loss-making
9 a firm
10 to finance
a merger
to supply with money
a company
to permit
the process of assuming management
h) a daughter company
i) increase
j) unproductive
Task 2.8 Insert the right word or word-combination choosing from
those given.
a) partner
f) business
l) strict
b) a joint-venture
g) work
m) sole proprietorship
c) the company
h) decisions
n) corporation
d) limited
i) the proprietor
o) matter
e) Board of Directors
j) a letter
p) manufacturer
k) private
q) General Manager
1) I have a meeting with my………., so I decided to postpone all my
2) I've got my own………, so my company is…….. ………
3) My friend's father has got a factory. He is …………
4) The Korean and Kazakhstani parties have agreed to establish
……… to produce TVs and VCRs.
5) The director of the company is very………... He doesn't like it
when people are late for………...
6) A private limited company must have a word “……… “ in its
7) Someone of the Town Hall came to see …… ………on an urgent ……….
8) My father is the President of the………..
9) Members of the ………. make important decisions about the policy of ………
10) The sales manager reports to the ……….
Task 2.9 In the interview below a Chief Executive describes how he
and his board decided whether to merge with a larger company in the same
industry. Read the interview point out statements for and against it.
A merger of equals had a lot of appeal. If you combine the Number 1
and Number 2 players in an industry, by definition you're Number 1 in
terms of size. And when you are growing that fast, you have a number of
key management openings you have to fill. By combining two companies
with good management teams, you automatically build up the strength of
your management and you do it quickly. You can also widen your customer
base and have more distribution channels.
In addition, the merger automatically makes your remaining competition second level. As a result, your competition must rethink its strategy.
In the end, you force a period of mergers and acquisitions on your competition. They have no choice but to respond to the changes you initiated.
When we looked more closely, our concerns were raised. For example, percent of large-scale mergers fail. Mergers can fail on a number of
levels. They can fail in terms of their benefit to the shareholders, customers, employees and business partners. A decision has to be right with each
of those groups, or we would not go forward with it.
If you merge two companies that are growing at percent rates,
you stand a very good chance of stopping both of them. That's a fact. For a
period of time, no matter how smoothly they operate, you lose momentum.
Our industry is not like the banking industry, where you are acquiring branch banks and customers. In our industry, you are acquiring people.
And if you don't keep those people, you have made a terrible, terrible investment. We pay between $500,000 and $2 million per person in an acquisition. So you can understand that if you don't keep the people, you've done
a tremendous disservice to your shareholders. So we focus first on the people and how we incorporate them into our company, and then we focus on
how to drive the business.
From Today leaders, Joel Kurtzman
Task 2.10 Complete this letter to shareholders. Use appropriate
forms of these verbs.
rely on
combine with
consist of
advise on
succeed in
budget for
spend on
account for
compete with
invest in
Dear Shareholder,
I write to inform you that the Board has received information of a takeover
bid for your company. This ……….an attempt by Porto Presto Co. to acquire a controlling interest by offering to purchase shares at a price of 650
pence. We have brought in a team of consultants to……… the tactics we
should use to resist the bid.
Although the offer seems attractive, it does not reflect the true value of the
company or take into account our future prospects. We have ………a major programme of expansion. During the next two years we plan to……….
new plant and equipment. We have also allocated funds to……… a new
computerised stock control system which will allow us to……… our much
larger rivals. Furthermore, we plan to……… a machine tool company in a
joint venture in China. We are confident this will allow the company
to……… opening up new markets in Asia.
Policies like these ……… our success to date and contribute to our vision
of the future. Therefore, we strongly advise you not to accept the offer of
Porto Presto Co.
You can ………the Board to keep you fully informed of any future developments, but for the present we advise you to take no action in relation to
the offer.
Yours sincerely
Darcy Shwimmer
Task 2.11 Write a letter to your partner about a forthcoming
merger of your company with another one and about the current situation
in the branches of your company abroad.
Task 2.12 Using the brief descriptions, match
organisation to each paragraph.
a) subsidiary
b) licensing agreement
d) Export
Trading e) sole trader
g) multinational corpo- h) private
the type of business
c) partnership
f) joint venture
i) holding
j) public limited company
m) franchise
k) associated company
l) head office
1 A ... is a private individual who runs a one-man business. Не/She
takes all the profits but also all the risks.
2 There are different kinds of... but they are all associations of two
or more people sharing the risks and the profits in agreed proportions.
3 A ... (Ltd.Co.) cannot offer its shares or debentures to the general
public. Nor can shares be transferred between members without the consent
of the other shareholders.
4 A ... (plc) must have a minimum nominal share capital of
$50,000. Shares can be freely bought and sold by members of the public.
5 A ... or parent company owns more than half the share capital of
another company which is known as a ....
6 A ... is an agreement by which a franchisor gives another person
or company (the franchisee) the right to sell goods or services using the
franchisor's name and/or general business approach in return for a royalty.
7 Under a... one firm allows another to exploit its intellectual property (e.g. a patent) in return for a royalty. This agreement provides an opportunity to benefit from R & D already carried out and to test a foreign
market without a major capital outlay or management effort.
8 A... involves the pooling of resources of two or more companies
in a common undertaking in which each party contributes assets and shares
risks. It is not necessary for the partners to have an equal stake. The type of
contribution varies and many consist of funds, technological skills, plant
and machinery or labour.
9 A ... (MNC) is a firm which owns or controls production or services outside the country in which it is based. Examples include Exxon
(USA), IRI (Italy), Unilever (The Netherlands/GB), Nestle (Switzerland)
and Nissan (Japan).
10 An ... is the American equivalent of the Japanese Sogoshosha. It
consists of a consortium of firms which enables overseas buyers to purchase US goods without too many complicated procedures. The EximBank
guarantees payments to American exporters who trade in this way.
11 A company of which at least 20% and not more than 50% of the
ordinary shares is held by another company is known....
12 A ... is the controlling centre of an organisation.
Task 2.13 Make up dialogues following these specific situations and
use set phrases you know.
1 Discuss a merger of two car manufacturing companies, the advantages and disadvantages of the possible merger.
2 Discuss consequences of a possible take-over of your company
by another one.
3 Discuss a demerger of a large electronic company.
4 Discuss the establishing of the Kazakhstani-American jointventure to produce petroleum.
3 Talking about company
Task 3.1 Listen to the presentation and fill in the chart
Company type
Location of the company
Number of employees
Annual turnover
Task 3.2 Explaining company structure
a) Look at the FUJITSU company structure
Picture 1
b) ICL is a subsidiary of FUJITSU
FUJITSU is the parent company of ICL.
The group
Consists of
Is made up of
Is divided into
Operates in
Twenty-nine companies
Three divisions
Six target markets
Task 3.3 Listen. Shigeru Kanamori and some colleagues from Japan
are attending a presentation of ICL. A senior executive is talking about how
the company is organized. Listen and complete the chart.
Parent company owns…1
% of shares
ICL Group
Business solutions
Mainframe computers and PCs,
Computer services (maintenance, training)
Target markets
…..5 (shops, etc)
…..6 Services,
Local and …7government
Travel and ….8
Picture 2
Task 3.4 Fill in the spaces using the words below.
Divided into
ICL is a …… of Fujitsu, which is an 82% shareholder in the company. The company …… a total of 24,000 people. ICL group consists of
twenty-nine autonomous companies. Each company has its own Managing
Director. The group is …… three divisions. The first is Industry Systems.
This division produces business solutions (software) for ICL’s customers.
The second is Technology, which …… computers and components. The
third …… is Services, which sells computer services, like maintenance and
ICL operates in six different target markets: ……- that’s shops,
healthcare: manufacturing, and travel and transport.
Task 3.5 Listen and add missed information
1 We're probably the bestknown computer company in the
world... We're making some big organizational changes, and we have
great hopes for the future.
4 We produce and market
metal products and industrial and
construction machinery. We're also
expanding in other areas such as
electronics, robotics, information
systems, and land development.
2 We have a reputation for
high quality. At present, 77% of our
earnings come from our automobile
division and 14% from motorcycles.
Our 750 cc motorcycles are especially popular.
5 We manufacture cars, buses, and trucks, as well as engines and
components. We have major production bases in the United States, Great
Britain and Thailand,
3 We produce the world's
leading ballpoint pen, and we also
manufacture disposable pencils,
disposable lighters, and disposable
6 Clothing stores worldwide.
We're expanding our sporting goods
lines, and now produce tennis rackets, skis, hiking boots, roller skates,
and sunglasses.
Task 3.6 Make a short presentation of your company on these basic
Location of the company
Number of employees
Annual turnover
Task 3.7 Listen to the texts and find the answer
a) Name types of directors and managers
b) Name types of secretaries and their duties
Task 3.8 Read the text and build the hierarchy
register - тізім, жазу журналы
a notice – хабарлама
a humanitarian- гуманист,
an implication - зардап, мағына
an argument - дәлел
a visionary - сәуегей
The British Company Management
The management of the company is called the Board of Directors
(not Managers) headed by the Chairman (- the President /Am./). There is
usually a Managing Director and in the case of big companies there may be
several Joint Managing Directors.
A Manager in British companies is the person who is head of a department - Sales, Export, Works (Production), Staff, etc. So there are Sales
Managers, Export Managers, Works (Production) Managers, Staff Managers, etc.
A General Manager has managers, working under his control, and
receives his instructions form the Managing Director.
By British Company Law (the Companies Acts of 1948 and 1985) a
limited company (public or private) must have a Company Secretary whose
duties are plenty. First he is the clerk to the Directors: he is to keep Registers of Directors and Members, arrange for proceedings at directors and
shareholders' meetings, prepare notices for the calling of these meetings,
attend them and advise directors at board meetings on the legal, accounting
and tax implications of any proposed business move as well as write
minutes and reports (the minutes of a meeting are usually concise records
of resolutions or decisions reached, and the reports are more extensive and
give details of desiccations, arguments for or against the resolutions, and so
on.) Second he represents his company and, in this capacity he supervises
the working of the staff and the maintenance or start records (If there is no
special staff manager), he is often finally responsible for the accounting
and handling of contracts. Thus he is the link between the company and the
members, between the company and the staff and between the company
and the public.
The Company Secretary must be a properly qualified person, and to
be able to fulfil his routine duties well he is supposed to have training in
company law, accountancy and many other subjects. He is expected to be
part-lawyer, part-economist, part-administrator and part-accountant.
But it taken a good deal more than professional qualifications to
make a good company secretary: "he must be businessman and humanitarian, lawyer and visionary" (as one of the English newspapers put it).
the Board of Directors - директорлар кеңесі
the Chairman
- төраға (ер), төрайым (әйел)
the Managing Director - өкімші-директор
a Sales Manager - сату бөлімінің меңгерушісі
an Export Manager
- экспорттық бөлімінің меңгерушісі
a Production Manager - өндірістік меңгерушісі
a Staff Manager - кадр бөлімінің меңгерушісі
a General Manager
- бас басқарушысы
the Company Secretary - коммпанияның хатшысы
Task 3.9 Match the definitions and the names of a company departments
produces goods
Dispatch and Distributions
monitors company products, tries
to improve their quality
Customers Services
provides meals
Health and Safety
deal with after-sales service and
sells goods, contacts customers,
e) deals with inquiries about products
checks equipment regularly, carf)
ries out reports
makes sure that products are
g) widely known, finds out customers’ needs
protects staff and property
against crime
deals with telephone calls in and
out of the company
deals with money coming in and
going out of the company
develops new products and new
deals with visitors, takes messagl)
PR (Public
R & D (Research
and Development)
Quality control
m) sends goods out to customers
checks for dangers at work, monitors health
deals with training, recruitment,
staff problems
talks to journalists, presents the
company to the public
Task 3.10
a) Here are some terms used in a job titles
Head of Marketing Security Officer
Switchboard Operator
Sales Representative
Head of Sales
Quality Control Maintenance Engineer
Catering Supervi- Inspector
b) Read the notes about the jobs of different people in a company.
Talk to a partner about each person. Describe his/her job, using the words
in brackets IN A SUITABLE form. Guess his/her occupation.
In charge of
Responsible for
Concerned with
Look after
Make sure that
Deals with
For example: LUC BERTRAND
Liaise with
Payments to staff
(concerned with)
Money required for trip
(deal with)
Checking expenses claims, issuing cheques (responsible)
Amount paid out for expenses
Luc Bertrand is connected with payments to staff. He deals with the
money required for trips. He is responsible for checking expenses and issuing checks. He monitors amounts paid out for expenses – He is a chief accountant
company canteen
(in charge of)
food supplies, staff rotas, meals
food preparation and service
canteen operates efficiently
(make sure)
customers’ complaints
(deal with)
complaints are dealt with quicker
(make sure)
checking the complaints are valid
(job –involve)
Production manager
(liaise with)
Write a report on any complaint
(have to)
visitors arriving at front desk
(look after)
all visitors sign in on arrival
(make sure)
taxi and bus transport for visitors
messages left for staff members
(deal with)
security and switchboard staff
(liaise with)
preventing crime within the building
(responsible )
checking means of access to the building
(job –involve)
test burglar alarm regularly
(have to)
people entering/leaving the building
doors and windows are locked after hours (make sure)
distribution of keys
(deal with)
security patrols at night/weekends
health and safety of every employee (responsible)
make record of every accident
(have to)
accident rate in the firm
inspecting machines and equipment (job – involve)
training in safety and first aid
talks on safety
Task 3.11 Complete the organization chart from the information provided. Two examples have been done for you. (Note that there are various
ways constructing an organization chart. This is one of the most usual.)
The Managing Director (sometimes called the Chief Executive or
President in the USA) is the head of the company.
The company is run by a Board of Directors; each Director is in
charge of a department. However, the Chairman of the Board is in overall
control and may not be the head of any one department.
Most companies have Finance, Sales, Marketing (sometimes part of
Sales), Production, Research and Development (R & D) and Personnel Departments. These are the most common departments, but some companies
have others as well.
Most departments have a Manager, who is in charge of its day-to-day
running, and who reports to the Director; the Director is responsible for
strategic planning and for making decisions.
Various personnel in each department report to the Manager, One
example, present in almost all companies, is the Sales Representative, who
reports to the Sales Manager.
Picture 3
Task 3.12 Below you may see a chart showing the way in which company
may be organize. Find the correct word of gaps
Picture 4
Task 3.13 This exercise is concerned with describing corporate organisation. Look at the chart below which shows the structure of the DSA
Corporation. Then complete the paragraph which follows, using the correct
form of the words in the box.
DSA Corporation (New York)
Building Materials
KAF Inc.
Civil Engineering
Road Co
Picture 5
The DSA Corporation consists of three ... , Building Materials, Construction and Civil Engineering. DSA... New York and comprises four ...,
KAF Inc., Halcon, Conway and RoadCo. Each of these is ... a Senior Vicepresident who ... the ... .
report to
be based in
be headed by
parent company
Task 3.14 This exercise is concerned with describing management hierarchy. The illustration below shows the organization of КAF Inc. Study the
organization chart, then complete the paragraph, using the correct form of an
appropriate word or phrase from the box.
Chief Executive Officer
Board of Directors
VicePresident Finance
3 Directors
Sales & Marketing
3 Directors
2 Directors
Human Resources
1 Director
Domestic Sales
Picture 6
responsible be in charge of
consist of
be headed by
be supported by be accountable
KAF Inc. is a building materials manufacturing company in Detroit,
KAF ... the Chief Executive Officer, the Board of Directors, which ... four
people. The staff in each of the four departments is ... a Vice-President who
is also on the Board. In each department, a managerial team of directors ...
the Vice-President. In the Sales Department, one director ... exports, the
other ... domestic sales.
Task 15 Work in groups of three. Choose a monitor.
Task for a monitor: Listen to the translation and mark the pluses and minuses.
Task for students: Translate your part into English.
Discuss translating problems in groups.
- Қайырлы таң, мырзалар. Халіңіз қалай?
- Рахмет, жақсы. Өзіңіз ше?
- Рахмет, ептеп.
- Маған фирма туралы әңгімелеуге рұқсат беріңіз. М-р
Клименко, Сіз білетіндей, біз технологиялық жабдықтарды өндіреміз.
Біздің фирмамыз 6 бөлімнен тұрады: өндірістік, сату, экспорттық, кадр
бөлімі және ғылыми-зерттеу мен тәжірибе-конструкторлық жұмыстар
бөлімі. Олардың ішіндегі соңғысы – ең жаңасы.
- Сіз өз заңдық мәртебе бойынша ААҚ, солай ма?
- Дұрыс, солай... Біздің басшылығымыз – акционерлердің
жиылысы мен директорлар кеңесі. Бұрын фирма президенті аға
компаньондардан біреуі болған, ал енді, сіз білетіндей, м-р Роджерс.
Фирмада 1600 адамдай жұмыс істейді.Біздің айналымымыз 300 млн.
фунттан аса құрайды.
- Сіз біздің экспорттық бөлімімізбен жұмыс істейсіз. Біз
жабдықтарды әлемнің 5 еліне экспортқа шығарамыз. Бұдан басқа,
біздің Голландия мен Германия елдерінде штаб-пәтерлерімен еншілес
компаниялар бар.
- Бұл еншілес компаниялар ма, филиалдар ма?
- Бұл еншілес компаниялар. Олардың әрқайсысының да өз атауы
бар. Бірақ біз Шығыс Еуропада серіктестерді іздеп жүрміз. Біздің өз
қызметіміздің саласын кеңейтуіміз келеді. Сол себепті,
фирмаңызбен қарым-қатынас орнату үшін м-р Картрайт Киевке кетті.
Бұрын Сіздерді тек хат жазысу арқылы білдік.
Task 16 Make a short presentation of your created company
1 Бедрицкая Л.В., Василевская Л.И. Business vocabulary: учебнометод. пособие: 2-е изд., испр. – Минск: «Экоперспектива», 2001. –
128 с.
2 Богацкий И.С. Бизнес-курс английского языка. Словарьсправочник /под общей редакцией Богацкого И.С. – 3-е изд., испр. –
Киев: «Логос», 1997 – 352 с.
3 Кумарова М. Новый бизнес английский. Курс деловой лексики
английского языка – М. : АКАЛИС, 1997. -396 с.
4 Лукьянова Н.А. Настольная книга бизнесмена: учебное пособие.
– 4-е изд., испр. – М. : Руссо, 1996. – 570 с.
5 Шевелева С.А. Стогов В.Е. Основы экономики и бизнеса: учебное пособие по англ.языку. – М. : Культура и спорт, Юнити, 1996. –
296 с.
6 Business Basics Oxford University Press, 1997
7 Business Venture Oxford University Press 1997
8 General Business for economic understanding Eleventh edition. –
South-Western Publishing Co, Cincinnati Ohio, 1976. – 630 p.
Appendix A
Part 1
sole proprietorship (анг.)
individual proprietorship
general partnership (ам.)
master limited partnership
private limited company
жеке кәсіпкерлік
толық серіктестік
акционерлік-командиттік серіктестік
акционерлік компаниясы / өз
құқығы бар жабық акционерлік
close corporation (ам.)
құқығы бар жабық акционерлік
public company public көпшілік
limited company (анг.)
акционерлік компаниясы
corporation (ам.)
additional a.
қосымша, үстеме
advantage п.
1артықшылық, басымдылық
gain / get / score / win an біреуден үстем болу
advantage of/ over smb.
take advantage of smb
біреуді алдау
2пайда, тиімділік, ұтыс
show smth. to the best ad- бірдемені нағыз тиімді жағдайда
take full advantage of біреудің пайдалануымен іске асыру
take advantage of the
қажетті жағдайда пайдалану
to advantage
пайдалы, жақсы, біреудің пайдасына
This is to my advantage.
Бұл маған тиімді
This is not to her ad- Бұл оны тиімді жағын көрсетпейді
Sequel to appendix A
assign one's rights v
өз құқықтарын табыстау, қайта
assign one's rights to third баға бойынша өз құқықтарын үшінші
persons / party at the price тұлғаға /жаққа табыстау
Articles of Association n. акционерлік
be liable predic
байланыстырылған болу/ мінтетті
be fully liable
толық жауапты болу
be fully liable for the берешекке/борышқа толық жауапты
2 жататын, тиісті, бейімді, ынталы,
әуес, бейімделген, ұшыраған
be liable to income-tax
табысқа салынатын салық
liable to catch cold
тұмауға ұшыраған
liable to dispute
Талас, даулы
(be) subject to
жату, болу, бағынды болу, тәуелді
болу, байланысты болу
subject to agreement
келісімге жату
The design is subject to
Жобаға/дизайнға өзгерістерді енгізу
These initiatives are sub- Бұл ынталарды менеджермен келісу
ject to the manager's керек
subject to approval
мақұлдауға жату
subject to contract
шартқа қол қойған жағдайда
The goods are sold sub- Шартқа қол қойылған жағдайда,
ject to contract
тауарлар сатылады
subject to survey
тексеруге/қаралуға жату
(be) subject to public re- көпшілік алдындағы есеп-қисапқа
The text is subject to Мәтінге түзетулерді енгізу мүмкін
A treaty is subject to rati- Шарт бекітуге жатады
bear characteristics v.
ерекшелік/ белгі/ нышан болу
business n.
1мамандық, қызметінің түрі
1 (Sg.) job, occupation,
He's in banking business. Ол банкіде жұмыс істейді.
Sequel to appendix A
put business before pleasure
talk business
3 (Sg., no indefinite article) commerce, industry,
a business deal
a business appointment
4 association, company,
corporation, federation,
firm, group, organisation
a dry-cleaning business
a family business
a furniture business
a hard-pressed business
a small business
an insurance business
close down a business
establish a business
start a business
run a business
(Sg., no indefinite
business is bad
business is booming
business is good
business is slow
(Sg., no indefinite
important/ pressing / urging business
Our business is to make
an attractive offer.
2 жұмыс
жұмысты демалыстан жоғары қою
жұмыс туралы сөйлеу
3 коммерциялық қызмет
(сауда, өндіріс, мәміле)
іскерлік кездесу
әр түрлі қызмет көрсетулерді
білдіретін, таурлардың таратуымен,
сатуымен және сатып алуымен
айналысатын адамдар туралы
Химиялық тазалау
отбасылық бизнес
жиһазмен сауда
зиян көретін фирма
шағын бизнес
сақтандыру компания
фирманы, компанияны, істі жабу
фирманы, компанияны, істі ашу
фирманы басқару, істі жүргізу
5 істің жағдайы
жұмысымыз өрге домалап тұр
Жұмысымыз жақсы жүріп жатыр
жұмысымыз баяу жүріп тұр
6 сұрақ, іс
маңызды іс/ мезгілдік іс
Біздің ісіміз – тартымды ұсынысты
Sequel to appendix A
We have important busi- Бүгін бізге бір маңызды іспен
ness to attend to today.
айналасу керек.
(be) in business
фирмада жұмыс істеу, фирманың
иесі болу, көп тапсырыс берушілері,
клиенттері болу
(be) open for business
клиенттер қабылдауға дайын болу,
«келушілерді қабылдау», жұмысқа
дайын болу
do business (with smn.)
сауданы жүргізу, сатып алу, сату,
коммерция мәселелерін талқылау,
жұмысқа кірісу
get down to business
фирмада жұмыс істеуін бастау
go into business
өз ісің бастау
go out of business
банкротқа ұшырау, өз ісің жабу
(have) a head for busi- бизнесте, коммерцияда жақсы түсіну
set up in business
дүкенді, фирманы ашу
10 capital goods n.
өндірістің негізгі құрал-жабдығы
carry on v.
carry out v.
орындау, жүзеге асыру
11 certificate of deposit n.
үлестік жарна куәлігі
12 circumstance n.
мән-жай, істің жағдайы
under the circumstances
тап осы жағдайда
under / in no circumstanc- ешқашан
unforeseen circumstance ойда болмаған жағдай
13 Companies Act n
Англияда қабылдаған компания
құрылымы бойынша (жауапкершілігі
шектеулі қоғамның) заң
14 company n.
form / set up a company
компанияны құру
register a company
компанияны тіркеу
listed company
биржада акцияларының айналысы
бар компаниясы
unlisted company
биржада акцияларының айналысы
жоқ компаниясы
Sequel to appendix A
15 conclude v.
conclude / make a deal / a con- мәмілеге келу/ өзара шартты,
tract / an agreement
келісімді жасау
16 concession
Кеңшілік, шегінім, келісім
make concessions v.
Кеңшілік жасау
17 consent n
Келісу, келісім беру
accord of minds
by the consent
with the consent
by common consent
Жаппай келісімімен
with one consent
without the consent of smb.
Ешкімнің келісімісіз
half-hearted consent
Мүддесіз келісу
tacit consent
Үнсіз келісу
carry the consent of smb.
Біреудің келісімін алу
obtain / win smb.'s consent
Біреуді келісімге келтіру
18 consider v.
Қарау, ойлау, келіседі деп ойлау,
назарға алу, есепке алу, есептеу,
consider a matter / a proposal / a Істі / ұсынысты / мәселені қарау
consider a problem
Проблеманы / мәселені назарға алу
19 contractual a
20 contribute v.
21 current a.
Ағымдағы, қазіргі
22 debenture n.
secured debentures
Активтермен қамтамасыз етілген
unsecured / naked debentures
Активтермен қамтамасыз етілмеген
борышқорлық міндеттемелер (АҚШ)
23 bond
24 disband a company v.
Компанияны тарату
25 distribute v.
Үлестіру, тарату
Sequel to appendix A
26 dividend n.
27 equal obligation n
жауапкершілігінің міндеттемесі
hence adv.
Сондықтан, нәтижесінде
income n.
Пайда, түсім, табыс
an annual income
Жылдық табыс
a high income
Табыстың жоғары деңгейі
a low income
Табыстың төмен деңгейі
a regular income
Тұрақты табыс
accrued income
Жинақталған кіріс
declaration of income
Табыстың мағлұмдамасы
earned income
Еңбекпен табылған табыс
franked income
алынған табыс
gross income
Жалпы пайда / табыс
income and expenditure Кіріс пен шығыс шоты
income support
Халықтың ауқатсыздар табысының
деңгейін қолдау
net income
Таза табыс
taxable income
Салық салынатын табыс
total income
Жиынтықты кіріс
transfer income
зейнетақы, жәрдемақы, жәрдемпұл)
unearned income
Еңбекпен табылмаған табыс
unfranked income
Таңбаламаған табыс
income tax n.
Табыс салығы
indicate v.
Көрсету, сілтеу, куәландыру, білдіру,
inheritance n.
Мұралану, мирас, мұра
insolvency n.
Төлеуге қабілетсіздік
investor n.
legal form n.
Заңдық түрі
liability n.
1 (Sg., no indefinite article)
absolute liability
criminal liability
joint and several liability
1 жауапкершілік
Шектелмеген жауапкершілік
Қылмыстық жауапкершілік
Жиынтық жауапкершілік
Sequel to appendix A
limited liability
Шектеулі жауапкершілік
product liability
өнім сапасы үшін жауапкершілік
accept liability for some- Бірдеңеге жауапкершілікті мойындау
2 (Sg.)
2 қитық, кедергі, қиындық, бөгет,
тосқауыл, масыл
be a liability in a firm
быть обузой для фирмы
An unhappy workplace is Көңілге жақпаған жұмыс – масыл.
a liability.
36 licence n. (am.)
лицензия, рұқсаттама
license (ам.)
export licence
Экспорттық лицензия
import licence
Импорттық лицензия
apply for a licence
Лицензия алуға мәлімдеме беру
issue a licence /
Лицензияны беру
grant a licence
lose a licence
Лицензиядан айырылу
obtain a licence
Лицензияны алу
37 limit v.
38 liquidate a company v.
Компанияны жабу,
wind up a company
істі жабу,
liquidation of a company компанияны тарату,
winding-up n.
(Sg.,no indefinite articles)
compulsory winding-up Сот
мәжбүрлеп таратуға берілген ордер
voluntary winding-up
Компанияны ерікті тарату
39 majority interest n.
Акциялардың бақылау пакеті
40 management n.
1 (Sg., no indefinite arti- 1 басшылықты жүзеге асыру
bad / poor management
Нашар басшылық
good management
Жақсы басшылық
human resource manage- Кадр саясаты
skilled management
өте жақсы басшылық
strong management
Мықты басшылық
Sequel to appendix A
at management level
a management decision
a management position
a management team
a management trainee
a management system
middle management
senior management / executives
41 manager n.
an area manager
department manager
deputy manager
export manager
general manager
2 басшылық құрамы
Басшылық деңгейінде
Басшылар шешімі
Басшылық айқындамасы
Басшылық командасы
Басшы-машықтанушы (стажер)
Ақпараттық-басқару жүйесі
Ортаңғы буындағы басшылар
Жоғарғы басшылық құрамы
менеджер, басқарушы, бастық
Аймақтық жобаның басшысы
Бөлім жетекшісі
Бөлім меңгерушісі
Бас менеджер, бас басқарушы
managing director
personnel / staff/ human Кадр бөлімінің бастығы
resources manager
public relations manager
Жұртшылықпен байланыс бөлімінің
product manager
өнімнің әрленімін және сапасын
бақылау менеджері
production manager
өндіріс меңгерушісі
rights manager
Басқа елдерде фирманың тауарларын
сатуға, сатып алуға, таратуға және
артық өндіруге жататын өзара
шарттың сақталуын бақылайтын
sales manager
өткізу бөлімінің бастығы
market n.
obtain v.
Алу, тауып алу, сатып алу, жету
obtain information
obtain a licence
on the basis of smth.
owing to smth.
Мәліметті алу
Лицензияны алу
Негізде, негізінде
Бір заттың себебімен, сол себептен
Sequel to appendix A
47 partner n.
active partner
general partner
junior partner
limited partner
Серіктес, әріптес, жарнашы, үлескер
Белсенді серіктес
Серіктестің мүшесі
Толық серіктстің қатысушылары
Кіші серіктес
серіктестіктің қатысушылары
managing partner
Фирманың күнделікті жұмысын
басқаратын серіктес
nominal partner
Атаулы серіктес
senior partner
Аға серіктес
secret / sleeping / dormant «ұйқыдағы» серіктес, «есептелген»,
бірақ фирма істеріне белсене
қатыспайтын серіктес
silent partner
Белгісіз серіктес
trading partner
Сауда серіктес
partnership n.
a deed of partnership
Серіктестік келісім
a partnership agreement
a partnership-at-will
Мерсімсіз серіктестік
illegal partnership
Заңсыз серіктестік
become / form a partner- Серіктестікті ұйымдастыру
dissolve a partnership
Серіктестікті тарату
join a partnership
Серіктестіктің мүшесі болу
enter partnership
go into partnership
private a.
a private business
Жеке бизнес
a private company
Жеке компания
a private firm
Жеке фирма
private information
Жариялауға жатпайтын мәліметтер
in private
property n.
Мүлік, меншік
corporate property
Акционерлік, корпорациялық меншік
movable property
real property
personal property
private property
Жылжымалы мүлік
Жылжымайтын мүлік
Жеке мүлік
Жеке меншік
Sequel to appendix A
public property
provide for / against smth.
resolution .
run the risk v.
Қоғамдық меншік
Шаралар қолдану
statutory books n.
tax exempt/
tax free
Қаржы жағдайы, мушелер, басшылар
жауапкершілігі шектеулі қоғамның
жарғы кітаптары
Салықты төлеуден босатылған тұлға,
Салық салынбайтын
Шешім, қарар
Қауіп / қатерге / тәуекелдікке
secession from the organi- Ұйымнан шығу
sation n.
share capital n.
Акционерлік капитал
solvency n.
Төлем қабілеттілігі
staff n.
account staff
бухгалтерия, есепшілер
administrative staff
әкімшілік қызметкерлер
hired staff
catering staff
clerical staff
Кеңсе, құжатхана қызметкерлері
counter staff
Сөре артында жұмыс істейтін
қызметкерлер (банкіде, дүкенде)
junior staff
Төмендегі, бағынушылар
industrial staff
office staff
Кеңсе қызметкерлері
permanent staff
Тұрақты штат
temporary staff
Уақытша штат
staff shortages
Кадрлардың жетіспеушілігі
staff vacancies
Бос орындар
employ / take on staff
штатты жалдау / штатты жинақтау
recruit staff
Sequel to appendix A
60 trade n.
1 (Sg., no indefinite article)
trade between countries
trade in metals
export trade
import trade
international trade
retail trade
wholesale trade
3 (Sg., no indefinite article)
trade is bad
trade is booming
trade is brisk:
trade is declining
trade is picking up
trade is slow
a trade journal / magazine
foreign / overseas trade
1 сауда
Мемлекетаралық сауда
Металмен сауда
2 сауда саласы
Экспорттық сауда
Импорттық сауда
Халықаралық сауда
Бөлшек сауда
Көтерме сауда
3 сауда жағдайы, сауда көлемі
domestic / home trade
Сауда жүрмей жатыр
Сауда өрлеп жатыр
Сергек сауда
Сауда нашарлайды
Сауда жақсырақ жүріп жатыр
Сауда баяу жүріп жатыр
4 коммерциялық қызметінің саласы
Кәсіптік дүркіндік басылымы
Шетел серіктесімен сауда, сыртқы
Мемлекет ішіндегі сауда, ішкі сауда
do a good trade in smth.
Бір нәрсе арқылы жақсы табыс табу
5 кәсіп, қолөнер, мамандық
learn a trade
(be) in the trade
Қолөнеріне үйрену
Коммерциялық қызметінің әр түрлі
саласында жұмыс істеу
Дауыс, дауыс құқығы
Дауыс беру, таңдау, бірдеңе үшін
жақтау, пікір білдіру
vote n
vote v.
Part 2
agree v.
agree to smth.
agree with smb.
approve v.
Бірдеңеге келісу
Бірумен келісу
Дұрыс деп санау, мақұлдау
Sequel to appendix A
approve of smb. / smth.
Біреуді / бірдеңені мақұлдау
Ол маған ұнайды
branch n.
филиал, бөлім
a large branch
Ірі филиал
a local branch
Жергілікті бөлім
a main branch
Негізгі филиал
an overseas branch
Шетел филиал
a branch network
Филиалдар желі
capital n.
initial paid-in capital
Бастапқы салынған капитал
paid up capital
Төленген капитал
consolidation n.
Ұзарту, нығайту, шоғырландыру,
Бәсекелес, бәсекелесші
a leading competitor / ma- Жетекші / негізгі бәсекелесші
jor competitor
competitors on the market Нарық бәсекелесшісі
deal n.
big deal
Ірі мәміле (немесе жақсы іс!)
I approve of him.
approve a plan, a report
Сенімді мәміле
Қолма-қол есеп айырысу мәмілесі
Жаңа ой-пікір, реформалар бағамы
өзара несие беру мәмілесі
Адал мәміле
Жазықсыз қатал қатынас
Кешенді мәміле (өзара шегіну
қабылданған немесе қабылданбаған
arrange a deal
Мәмілені ұйымдастыру
clinch a deal
Мәміленің қорытындысын шешу
conclude a deal do / set up Мәмілені жасау
a deal
firm deal
cash deal
new deal
swap credit deal
fair / square deal
raw / rough deal
package deal
Sequel to appendix A
finalise a deal
get a deal
give smb. a square deal
go for / along with a deal
have a raw deal
make a deal for smth.
Істі аяқтау
Істі табу / бастау
Біреумен адал ойынды жүргізу
Мәмілені жасасауға келісім беру
өзіне әділетсіз қатынасты ескермеу
Бірдеңені сатып алуға мәмілені
no deal!
Түк те шықпайды!
sign a deal
Мәмілеге келуге қол қою
decade n..
Он жылдық, он күндік, ондық
demerger n
dispose of smth v.
Құтылу, аяқтау, сату, беру
dispose of a question
Мәселені шешу / реттеу
dispose of a matter
Істі шешу / реттеу
dispose of property
Мүлкімен иелену
dispose of goods
Тауарды сату / өткізу
dispose of rubbish
Қоқысты жинау
distribution n.
Үлестіру, тарату
effect n.
әрекет, пәрменділік, күш
take effect
Күшіне ену
with effect from...
... бастап күшіне енетін
be in effect
(заң, келісім) күшінде болу
give effect to
(заңды) іске асыру / күшіне келтіру
bring / put /carry into ef- Орындау, жүзеге асыру
in effect
to the effect that
Бірдеңе туралы; келесі мазмұнда
The buyer and the seller Сатып алушы және сатушы бірдеңе
туралы келісті
agreed to the effect that...
to that effect
Осы сияқты
equipment n.
emergency equipment
Апаттық жабдық
defective equipment
Ақаулы жабдық
standby / backup equip- Қосалқы / резервтік жабдық
test equipment
Бақылау-өлшем жабдығы
erection equipment/ facili- Монтаждық жабдық
handling / loading- un- Жүк тиеу-түсіру жабдық
loading equipment
Sequel to appendix A
sophisticated / modern
construction equipment
substandard equipment
rent of equipment
order for equipment
short-delivery of equipment
short shipment of equipment
establish v.
expand v.
headquarters n.
Қазіргі жабдық
Құрылыс жабдығы
Сапасыз жабдық
Жабдықты көтере сатып алу
Жабдыққа тапсырыс
Жабдықты кем жеткізу
Орнату, құру, жасау
Бас басқармасы, бас орган, штаб,
joint venture n.
Бірлескен кәсіпорын
set up a joint-venture
Бірлескен кәсіпорынды құру
launch v.
Бастау, ашу, іске асыру
launch a new enterprise
Жаңа кісіпорынды ашу
launch smn. into business Біреуге іскерлік мансапты бастауға
көмек көрсету
launch a campaign
Науқанды бастау
launch a scheme
Жоспарды күшіне енгізу
launch an attack
Шабуылды дайындау
loss-making business
Залалды бизнес
loss-making company/ en- Залалды фирма / кәсіорын
a producer
car / vehicle maker
Автомобиль жасау зауыты
manufacture n. (Sg, no indefinite article)
production n.
cloth manufacture
large-scale manufacture
of home / domestic, foreign manufacture
manufacture mark
өндіріс, дайындау, жасау, өндіру,
жасау үрдісі
Мауыт өндіріс
Ірі сериялық өндіріс
Отандық, шетелдік өндірістің
Фабрикалық таңба
Sequel to appendix A
manufacture v.
manufacture shoes, steel
manufacture false evidence
manufacturer n.
өндіру, дайындау, жасау, илеу, қайта
Аяқ-киімді, болатты өндіріп шығару
Айғақты құрастыру
per cent a., adv
a discount of ten per cent
per cent by volume, by
Пайыз, жүзге
Он пайызға жеңілдік
Мөлшер бойынша, салмақ бойынша
пайыздық қатынас
өндіруші, дайындаушы, жасаушы,
жеткізуші, өңдеуші өнеркәсіптің
manufacturer' s catalogue Фирмалық каталог / тізімдеме
manufactures (PL)
Бұйым, өнім, фабрикат
manufacturing n.
Өндіріс, өндіру (жиі тасқындыжаппай)
merge v.
Қосылу ( ұйымдар, фирмалар
merger n.
horizontal merger
Деңгейлес бірігу
vertical merger
Сатылас бірігу
industrial merger
өнеркәсіп бірлестігі
merger agreement
Бірігу туралы келісім
merger proposal
Бірігу үшін ұсыныс
approve a merger
Бірігуін мақұлдау
arrange a merger
Бірігуін ұйымдастыру
propose a merger
Бірігуін ұсыну
take part in a merger
Бірігуінде қатысу
withdraw from a merger
Бірлестіктен шығу
option n.
Таңдау, таңдау құқығы немесе
таңдау бойынша айырбастау
at the option of the pur- Сатып алушының қарауына
chaser /buyer
at purchaser's / buyer's
have no option but...
Амалсыз таңдау
take up the option
Таңдауды жасау
leave to smb.'s option
Біреудің қарауына қалдыру
Sequel to appendix A
percentage n.
a figure expressed as a
calculate / estimate a percentage
1 пайыздық мазмұны
Пайызда тұлғаланған сан
Пайыздық мазмұнды / пайызды
шығару, санау
2 комиссиялық сыйақы
Пайыздық аударым
What percentage is a de- Сіз жеткізу үшін қанша аласыз?
livery charge?
3 бөлік, үлес
a small percentage of Бірдеңенің аз мөлшері
a large percentage of Бірдеңенің көп мөлшері
percentage wise
Пайыздық қатынаста
rival n.
Бақталас, бәсекелес
business rivals
Бәсекелестер, бәсекелесшілер
without a rival
Бәсекеден тысқары
second largest a.
Мөлшер бойынша екінші
shareholder n.
Акционер, акция иесі
splitting off n.
unpick v. pick smth. apart Бұзылу, жою, ыдырау
subsidiary n.
Еншілес компания
(төркіндес/ходингілік компания –
оның акционерлік капиталы атаулы
капиталдың иесі немесе оның ішінде
акциялардың белгіленген мөлшерін
ұстайды және директорлар кеңесінің
құрамын бақылайды)
takeover n.
a friendly takeover
Достастық қосылу
a hostile takeover
Дұшпандықпен жұтылу / жаулап алу
an unfriendly / unwelcome Қажетсіз жұтылу
a takeover bid / offer
Жұтылу туралы ұсыныс
a takeover deal
Жұтылу / қосылу туралы мәміле
Sequel to appendix A
a takeover action
takeover talks
agree to a takeover
attempt a takeover
fight a takeover
turn into v
under adv.
under amnesty
under smb.'s advice
under smb.'s will
under agreement
under contract
under the new law
under the rules of the club
under order No.
unit n.
unproductive a.
unproductive capital
unproductive company
value v.
Value a deal at Rbl20bn.
Value a property at $lm.
value the jewellery
value stocks
vertically integrated business n.
backward integrated business
forward integrated business
Жұтылу акциясы
Жұтылу туралы келіссөздер
Жұтылуға келісу
Жұтылу әрекетін қылу
Жұтылуға қарсылық көрсету
өзгеріп кету, айналып кету
Сәйкес, бойынша
Кешірім бойынша
Біреудің кеңесімен
Біреудің өсиетнамасы бойынша
өзара шартқа сәйкес
Жаңа заң бойынша
Клубтың жарғысына сәйкес
№ тапсырысы бойынша
өлшем, бірлік, құрылымдық бөлімше
Залалды өлі / жансыз капитал
Залалды фирма
20 млрд рубльге мәмілені бағалау
Бір млн долларға мүлкін бағалау
Зергерлік бұйымдарды бағалау
Қорларды бағалау
Сатылас интеграциялық компания
view n.
with a view to smth.
with a view of smth.
with a view to do smth.
negotiations with a view to
negotiations with a view of
Жеткізушілерін бақылайтын сатылас
интеграциялық компания
proving smth.
negotiations with a view to Кеңейту мақсатымен келіссөздер
extend the trade
Appendix B
Tape scripts
p.4 Task 1
Types of business in U.K.
Most businesses in the United Kingdom operate in one of the following ways:
sole trader
limited liability company
branch of a foreign company.
The sole trader is the oldest form of business. There are many
one-man owners, for example: a farmer, doctor, solicitor, estate agsnt, garage man, jobber, builder, hairdresser etc. The partnership is a firm
where there are a few partners. They are firms of solicitors, architects, auditors, management consultants etc. The names of all the partners of the
firm are printed on the stationery of a partnership. The most common type
of company in the United Kingdom is the limited liability company. At
the end of the name of such a company the word Ltd. is used. For example:
Wilson and Son Ltd.
Many of such companies are joint-stock companies owned by shareholders.
Limited liability companies are divided into public and private
ones. Only public companies may offer shares to the public at the stock exchange. The names of such companies end in p. I.e. which stands for public
limited company. For instance: John and Michael p.l.c.
Private limited companies may not offer shares to the public.
The names of such companies end simply in Ltd. A branch of a foreign
company is a part of a company incorporated outside Great Britain but acting under the law of the U.K. Usually these companies act in the U.K.
under their normal foreign names.
Forms of business in the U.S.A
Businesses in the U.S.A. may be organized as one of the following
- individual business
- general partnership
- limited partnership
- corporation
- alien corporation
An Individual business is owned by one person.
A general partnership has got several owners. They all are liable for
debts and they share in the profits.
A limited partnership has got at least one general owner and one or
more other owners. They have only a limited investment and a limited liability.
A corporation is owned by persons, called stockholders. The stockholders usually have certificates showing the number of shares which they
own. The stockholders elect a director or directors to operate the corporation. Most corporations are closed corporations, with only a few
stockholders. Other corporations are owned by many stockholders who
buy and sell their shares at will. Usually they have little interest in management of the corporations.
Alien corporations are corporations of foreign countries. All the
corporations are to receive their charters from the state authorities. The
charters state all the powers of the corporation. Many corporations try to
receive their charters from the authorities of the State of Delaware,
though they operate in other states. They prefer the State of Delaware
because the laws are liberal there and the taxation is rather low. Such
corporations, which receive their charters from an outside state are called
foreign corporations.
All the corporations require a certificate to do business in the state
where they prefer to operate.
p.9 Task 5
Thomas Mahoney's business
During his first years in high school, Thomas Mahoney held a number of different part-time jobs after school and on Saturdays. He thought
about retailing as a career and took business courses in school. In his senior
year, he became a part-time sales trainee in the sporting goods department
of a large department store. After graduation, he accepted a full-time job
with the store.
In the next few years, Tom worked hard and was successful as a
salesman. He prepared for advancement by taking several evening school
courses. Soon he was promoted to assistant manager of the sporting goods
department. By this time he was married, earning a good salary, and saving some of it. But he wanted to own his own business. He liked the idea of
earning profits for himself while being his own boss. So in his spare time
he began planning his own business. Before too long, he resigned his job in
the department store and was on his own.
Because of his experience and his interest in selling sporting goods,
Tom wanted to open a sporting goods store. He chose the name Sportsworld. He rented a small store in a shopping center and bought showcases
and other equipment. With the help of a bank loan, he bought his stock of
merchandise. Tom had learned a lot about selling sporting goods in the department store, but he found that a one-man business required long hours
and much decision making. He ordered merchandise, built window displays, and did most of the selling and the stock work. His wife helped him
keep his business and tax records. A student was employed part-time. Tom
owned the business by himself, so it was a sole proprietorship. All the profits—or losses—were his.
Mahoney and Rubin's Partnership
Sportsworld was a success. Tom paid his bills on time and paid himself a fair salary. Each month he made payments on his bank loan until it
was paid off. Profits were put aside in a savings account.
Soon Tom felt that it was time to expand the business, but he needed
more money than he had saved. He also needed the help of someone who
knew more about advertising and bookkeeping than he did. A friend, Alex
Rubin, was a salesman in another store and had studied advertising and
other business subjects in junior college. Tom invited Alex to become a
part owner of Sportsworld.
With their combined skills, experience, money, and other property,
they could afford to offer a larger variety of sporting goods. They could also afford to add new lines of merchandise—camping supplies and sportswear—to draw trade from a larger area. They consulted an attorney, Linda
Vernon, about setting up the partnership. With her help, Tom and Alex
drew up a written agreement called the articles of partnership. Among other
things, this agreement provided that:
1 The name of the firm will be Sportsworld.
2 Mahoney will invest $30,000 in cash and property. Rubin will invest $15,000 in cash.
3 Each partner will draw a salary of $1,250 a month.
4 Profits and losses after salaries are paid will be shared in proportion to each partner's investment: two thirds to Mahoneyand one third to
5 Mahoney will have main responsibility for sales, selection and
purchase of merchandise, and customer and community relations. Rubin
will handle financial records, payroll, store maintenance, advertising and
sales promotion, and other details of operating the business.
6 In the event of the death or the necessary withdrawal of one part-
ner, the remaining partner will have the right to purchase the departing
partner's share of the business.
Before Mahoney and Rubin signed the articles of partnership, their
lawyer pointed out some of the legal responsibilities of partners. For example, each partner could be held personally responsible for all the debts of
the business. This would even include debts incurred by the other partner
without the first partner's consent. Each partner was also bound by the
agreements made for the business by the other partner. To avoid problems,
the partners agreed to talk over all important business matters, such as hiring people or buying new equipment.
At the end of the first year, the Mahoney and Rubin partnership
showed a net profit of $6,000 after the partners' salaries had been paid.
Since they had agreed to share profits in proportion to their investment in
the business, Tom received two thirds or $4,000 and Alex received one
third or $2,000.
SPORTSWORLD as a Corporation
Sportsworld continued to grow under the Mahoney and Rubin partnership, and the partners considered the possibility of expanding the business even more. A new shopping center was being built on the other side of
town. Should they open a branch store there? Should they also enlarge the
present store? Should they add new sales and storage space and also lines
of outdoor furniture and boats? Tom and Alex found themselves asking
these questions. To do these things, they needed more money, so they
thought about adding more partners. However, they decided against this.
They reasoned that they did not need partners to help them manage the
business since they could hire qualified assistant managers. Also, there
would be personal risks in being responsible for the actions of other partners.
Mrs. Vernon, their lawyer, advised them that if they formed a corporation, each member would not be personally responsible for the business's
debts. In case of a business failure, each member could lose only the
amount he had invested. Again with Mrs. Vernon's help, Tom and Alex
dissolved the partnership and drew up a plan for a corporation, Sportsworld, Incorporated. The corporation was to represent a total investment of
$90,000. Their financial records showed that the partnership was worth
$60,000, so they needed to raise another $30,000.
Tom and Alex decided to divide the $90,000 into 9,000 shares, each
with a value of $10. Based on the partnership agreement and the corporation plans, they divided the 9,000 shares this way: (1) Tom received 4,000
shares worth $40,000; (2) Alex received 2,000 shares worth $20,000; and
(3) they offered for sale 3,000 shares valued at $30,000.
The information about the division of shares of stock and other information about the corporation was put in an application submitted to the
state government. The application asked permission to operate as a corporation. After approving the application, the sate issued a certificate of incorporation authorizing the formation of Sportsworld, Inc.
Tom and Alex were no longer owners of the partnership. They had
sold their partnership to the new corporation. In return they had received
6,000 shares of stock, or a part ownership amounting to $60,000. These
6,000 shares were divided in proportion to the investment in the former
partnership. The 30,000 shares offered for sale were sold to the 30 people
who had confidence in the new corporation. The corporation then had 32
different shareholders.
Tom and Alex called a meeting of the shareholders to elect officers,
to make plans for operating a branch store, and to transact other business.
Each shareholder had one vote for each share of stock that he owned. Since
Tom and Alex together owned 6,000 of the 9,000 shares, they had enough
votes to control the operation of the business
At the stockholders’ meeting, these people were elected as directors
of the corporation: Greg Snyder, Constantine Raboly, Kenneth Voss, JoAnn McCline, Tomas Mahoney, Paulette McKenna and Alex Rubin. These
seven people made up the board of directors. The board’s responsibility
was to guide the corporation properly. The board’s first act was to elect the
executive officers of the corporation. The directors elected Tom Mahoney
as president, JoAnn McCline as vice-president, Kenneth Voss as secretary,
and Alex Rubin as treasurer. As full-time employees, the officers receive
regular salaries for managing the business.
At the end of a year, after all taxes were paid, the corporation had a
net profit of $11,200. The board of directors voted to keep $4,000 of this in
the business for expansion and to divide the other $7,200 among the stockholders. Since the corporation had issued 9,000 shares, each of the 32
stockholders received 80 cents for each share of stock that he owned
($7,200 -н 9,000 = $.80). The part of the profits that each stockholder receives is called a dividend. In addition to their salaries, Mahoney received
$3,200 ($.80 x 4,000 shares), and Rubin received $1,600 ($.80 x 2,000
Second Listening
III – 2
II – 3
IV – 1
VI – 3
VII – 3
p.23 Task 1
Hi. Here at Starbucks we manufacture coffee. Not just any coffee;
we specialize in high-quality coffee, and we go all over the world to buy it.
We sell the coffee in stores in the US and Canada - about 400 stores. Many
of our stores are located on the West Coast, but we now also have stores in
Washington DC, on the East Coast.
Our company is based in Seattle - that's where the head office is, and
that's where our first stores were. Americans drink a lot of coffee. They are
interested in quality, and that's why they drink our coffee. Our sales for this
year are $285 million, and we have an annual growth rate of more than
The President of our company is Howard Schultz. Starbucks employs
660% of them part-time. All 6,000 employees are shareholders in the company. That probably surprises you. You see, Mr Schultz's philosophy is
this: the customer and the employee both come first. If our people are happy, they make the customers happy.
p.18 Task 2
I'd just like to tell you something about how ICL is organized. As
you know, we are now a subsidiary of Fujitsu, which is an 82% shareholder
in our company. That, of course, is why you are here today, and we are
very pleased to meet you all.
ICL employs a total of 24,000 people. Following our reorganization,
the group now consists of 29 autonomous companies, each with its own
Managing Director. ICL Group is divided into three operating divisions.
The first is Industry Systems. This is the division which produces business
solutions — software — for ICL's customers. The second is Technology,
which manufactures computers and components. The third division is ICL
Services, which sells computer services, like maintenance and training.
ICL was one of the first computer companies in the world to start
producing different software products for specific markets. We now operate in six different target markets: firstly retail: that's shops, supermarkets
and so on; then financial services; local and central government;
healthcare; manufacturing; and finally, travel and transport.
Does anybody have any questions at this point?
p.25 Task 5
1 The company was incorpo4 We have more than 50 overrated in 1924, and we manufacture seas subsidiaries and affiliates in the
mainframe computers, personal Americas, Europe, and Asia.
computers, networking products and
5 Our company was founded
system software
2 The company was founded
in 1916, and we now have around
80,000 employees.
3 Our short brand name also
appears on the majority of sailboards sold in the U.S. and Canada.
in 1937. and our main R&D centers
are located in Japan, Thailand, the
U.S., and Belgium.
6 We're a privately-owned
company based in Italy, and have
over 6,000. Right now, we're concentrating on the Eastern European
and Asian markets.
p.25 Task 7
Directors and Managers
As a rule a private company has only one director. A public company must have at least two directors. Usually there is no upper limit on the
number of directors a public company may have. The company's notepaper must list either all or none of the names of its directors. A limited
liability company or a corporation is headed by the board of directors
elected by shareholders. The directors appoint one of their, number to
the position of managing director to be in charge of the day-to-day running of the company. In large organizations managing director is often
assisted by a general manager. Some companies also have assistant general
managers. Many directors have deputies who are named deputy directors.
Directors need not be shareholders. They are responsible for the management of a company's affairs. They are not subject to any residence or nationality restrictions. Big companies have many managers heading departments. They are all responsible to the managing director. Among
various departmental managers the following can be mentioned:
sales manager
personnel manager
chief manager
district manager
sales and marketing manager
industrial engineering manager etc.
There are two types of secretaries: company secretaries and private
secretaries of executives.
Every company, both in Great Britain and the United States, is required, under the law, to have a company secretary.
In the case of private companies the directors are free to appoint any
suitable person for this position. But in the case of public companies the
company secretary must be a properly qualified person, a member of a recognised institute or association. He or she may be one of the directors of
the company. But if the company has only one director, the director cannot
also be the secretary.
The company secretary is the chief administrative officer of the
company. He or she is normally responsible for the company, to comply
with company law. The correspondence of the company secretary is particularly concerned with shareholders' meetings, board meetings and various
forms that must be sent outside. The company secretary may also deal with
enquiries for information concerning other firms, although the accounts department often handles these matters. Administrative questions come into
the sphere of the company secretary, under instructions of the board of directors.
As to private secretaries of executives they are practically personal
assistants of executives. A secretary answers telephone calls, receives messages and makes telephone calls on the instruction of her boss.
A secretary also helps in organization of meetings and conferences,
entertainments of visiting customers, suppliers and other associates of the
firm. She also deals with all the correspondence of her boss.
Secretaries write letters on making appointments or travel arrangements, letters of introduction, congratulation or condolence, invitations
and replies to invitations. Secretaries use various office equipment, like microcomputers, fax machines, photocopying machines and others.
p.27 Task 9
Catering – provides meals
Customs Services – deal with after-sales service and complaints
Dispatch and Distributions – sends goods out to customers
Finance – deals with money coming in and going out of the company
Health and Safety – checks for dangers at work, monitors health
Maintenance – checks equipment regularly, carries out reports
Marketing – makes sure that products are widely known, finds out
customers’ needs
Personnel – deals with training, recruitment, staff problems
PR (Public Relations) – talks to journalists, presents the company
to the public
Production – produces goods
R &D (Research and Development) – develops new products
and new ideas
Reception – deals with visitors, takes messages
Quality control – monitors company products, tries to improve
their quality
Sales – sells goods, contacts customers, deals with inquiries about
Security – protects staff and property against crime
Switchboard – deals with telephone calls in and out of the company
p31 Task15
- Good morning, gentlemen! How are you getting along?
- Fine, thanks. And how are you getting on?
- Very well, thank you.
- Let me tell you about our company. As you know, Mrs. Klimenko, we produce process equipment. Our firm consists of 6 departments:
Production, Sales, Export, Financial, Personnel and Research& Development. The last one is the newest at the company. It was created five years
- According to your legal status, are you a PLC?
- Right we are… Our management is the Meeting of shareholders
and the Board of directors. Earlier the Chairman of the Company was one
of the senior partners, but now it is Mr. Rogers, as you know. Currently we
employ about 1,600 people. Our turnover is more than 300 million.
- You will work with our Export Department. We export our
equipment to 5 countries all over the world. Besides, we have two daughter
companies in Holland and Germany with headquarters in those countries.
- Are they tour subsidiaries or branches?
- They are subsidiaries. Each company trades under its own name.
But we are looking for new partners in Eastern Europe as well. We would
like to expand our activity. So Mrs. Cartwright went to Moscow to establish personal contacts with your company. Before we knew it only by correspondence.
Types of Business activity
Takeover and Merger
Company structure
Appendix A Vocabulary
Appendix B Tape scripts and keys
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