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Ignatkina Logacheva Metod ukaz prakt zanyatiyam angl

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1 семестр
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения,
аудирования и письма по теме «Жизнь студента: о себе, о
семье, о своих увлечениях».
2. Употребительные выражения речевого этикета (формы
обращения, приветствия и сопутствующие реплики при
встрече, прощании).
3. Устный коррективный курс по фонетике английского
4. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования
грамматическим материалом: имя существительное (число,
род), артикли
10 час.
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по теме
«Жизнь студента: о себе, о семье, о своих увлечениях».
1) Read and translate the text.
About Myself
From the very start I should say that it is not an easy thing to speak about myself as it is
hard to have a look at yourself from aside, but at the same time who knows you better than you
yourself do?
I am a girl of sixteen. When I look at myself in the mirror I see a blond girl with short
straight hair, dark eyes and a slender figure. As to my appearance I'm rather tall and slim. I have
never thought I'm a beauty, I wish I were more beautiful. I think that I'm even tempered, rather
reserved, calm and modest. But sometimes I can lose my temper and become either angry or sad. I
like staying alone and sometimes I retreat into my shell. But at the same time I like my friends, I
like to laugh and joke. I have got a sense of humour. It means I understand humour and appreciate
There are many things in our life I like and some I dislike. I like when everything is OK.
Being happy is one way of being wise. I like to study because knowledge is useful sometimes. I'm
fond of reading as it gives not only knowledge, but also wonderful moments of joy and pleasure. I
am neither short nor tall, so I like to wear high-heeled shoes, trousers or jeans.
I was born on the 25th of April 1985 in the town of Samara where I live now together with
my parents and my younger sister. My early years, which I remember badly, were typical of a child
living in a town. I was born into a family of a teacher and a doctor. I was sent to a kindergarten at
the age of three as both my parents were working. As all the children of Russia I went to school at
the age of seven. Here I should say that it was my lucky chance to study for 11 years at the school
of fine arts in the town of Samara. It turned out to be the best school in our town. There I got a
proper training in such subjects as English, Russian, literature and world culture. I usually did a lot
of home preparation for them and I liked everything I was doing in them. I really tried hard in them.
But despite my efforts I was not good at Math.
School for me was not only lessons and learning, I had a lot of friends there. We organized
extra class activities such as parties and other social activities. I actively participated in most of
I am sociable, so I have got a lot of friends among my schoolmates. As for me, I appreciate
people's honesty, kindness, sense of justice and intelligence. I don't like when people are rude and
I am stubborn at times. But to my mind being persistent is not always a bad thing. That
means if I have an aim I never leave things half done. At times I feel dissatisfied with myself,
especially when I fail to do something or can't do things the way they should be done. At the same
time I think I am hard-working and diligent. My greatest problem at school was talking in front of
the class. I always blushed.
Very soon I'll pass my final exams at school and after a farewell party at the end of June I'll
say goodbye to my teachers who are very well-educated people with broad outlook and deep
knowledge of the subjects. They encouraged me in my desire of choosing my future career. School
meant a lot to me and it wasn't just learning and studying. I made good friends there and met many
interesting people. I faced a new life without school with a mixed feeling of sadness and joy.
And now a few words about my inclinations. I haven't got any special hobby, like
collecting something, but I'm fond of reading books. They give me more knowledge of their
people's lives and feelings and broaden my outlook. In my opinion, books are a source of emotional
inspiration and romantic feeling. Besides, books help me to continue my own education. The time
spent on a good book is never wasted. Reading is a rewarding pastime.
And of course I like music! I'm fond of music of the 60-s, like the Beatles, the Rolling
Stones and Elvis Priestly. The songs of the Beatles give me a lot of delight and pleasure. Besides, I
am a great theatregoer. Whenever I have some time to spare, I go to the theatre. I'm not keen on
Sometimes I play different sport games for health and pleasure. I usually play such games
as volleyball, basketball, tennis, and sometimes football.
And finally, the things I hope to achieve in my life are: to have a very successful career, so
this year after finishing school I will try to enter the University, to build the house of my dreams
and to find someone in my life to share all that with.
2) Talk about yourself according to the following plan. Use the vocabulary from below:
1. What is your name?
2. How old are you?
3. What place are you from? (Talk about your native town (place, village) (3-4 sentences)
4. Where did you study? (Talk about your school, favorite subjects)
5. Where do you study now? (Talk about the Academy, faculty, future profession) (3-4 sentences)
6. What are your plans for the future (3-4 sentences)
7. Speak on your private life:
What are your parents?
Have you brothers or sisters? (If you do - what are they?)
Talk about your friends.
Do you keep pets?
How do you spend your leisure time?
What is your hobby?
Let me introduce myself
To be situated
Позвольте представиться
Располагаться (о городе)
Secondary school
То be a first-year student
The Povolzhsky State University of
Telecommunications and Informatics
General Engineering faculty
Mathematics, physics, engineering
To get a degree of an engineer
To work in the field of
telecommunications (radioengineering,
software engineering)
To have a large (small) family
То consist of
То take after one's father (mother)
То be communicative (buttoned up)
Favorite occupation
То be fond of (to be keen on)
To enter the High school (University)
Lover of literature (pictures,
animals/pets, music)
Средняя школа
Быть первокурсником
Поволжский Государственный
Университет Телекоммуникаций и
Общеинженерный факультет
Математика, физика, инженерная графика
Получить диплом инженера
Работать в области телекоммуникаций
(радиосвязи, программирования)
Иметь большую (небольшую) семью
Состоять из
Быть похожим на отца (мать)
Быть общительным (замкнутым)
Любимое занятие
Поступать в ВУЗ (Университет)
Любитель литературы (картин, домашних
животных, музыки)
3) Listen to the text “About My Friend” and answer the following questions:
1. What do people say about me?
2. Who is Dan?
3. What do we do together?
4. What kind of person is Dan?
5. What features do I appreciate in Dan?
About My Friend
People say that I'm a sociable person. It's true. I make friends easily and have a lot of
acquaintances. But if I had to choose among all my friends I would prefer Dan. He is the most
honest and responsible guy I've ever known. I'm sure that I can rely on him in any situation.
We got acquainted at the meeting of our chess-club two years ago and soon became close
friends. We have much in common apart from our hobby, I'm fond of jazz and so is Dan. We both
like poetry and, theatre, walking in the forest and boating.
Dan is very gifted for music and plays the piano and the guitar very well. He has made up
his mind to become a musician and dreams of the career of a pianist.
We spend a lot of time together and talk for hours about all sorts of things: art, politics,
love, family relations. We often discuss films and books. Dan starts an argument every time we
speak about human character. He seldom agrees with my judgments of people's behaviour. I should
say that I'm more tolerant than Dan. He is too frank and it's not always good of him to tell people
what he thinks about them. As for me I quite often feel offended by his words but Dan tries his best
to reconcile as soon as possible. I can forgive him easily as I know that he never really means any
Dan never breaks his word and is ready to help me whenever I have difficulties. Once we
were going to have a term test on maths. 1 was sure that I would fail as I wasn't good at the subject.
Dan knew that I was afraid to get a bad mark. He spent long hours helping me to get prepared for
the test. I was grateful to him for that. I knew how much he disliked maths though he was quite
good at it.
I hope that we'll remain friends with Dan even if we have to take different roads and part.
4) Write an essay about your friends and their influence on you.
2. Употребительные выражения речевого этикета (формы
приветствия и сопутствующие реплики при встрече, прощании).
Вежливое обращение к незнакомому человеку начинается с извинения за
причиняемое беспокойство. Затем, после извинения, можно обратиться с вопросом,
просьбой, замечанием и т.п. В качестве извинения (которое здесь служит и формой
обращения) употребляются обороты "Excuse me", "Pardon me" и "I beg your pardon".
Смысловое различие между ними приблизительно такое же, как между русскими
выражениями: "Извините", "Простите" и "Прошу прощения (Приношу Вам свои
Оборот "Pardon me", реже "I beg your pardon", употребляют в том случае, если
обращение к незнакомому человеку отрывает его от дела или прерывает его разговор с
другими людьми. Во всех остальных случаях употребляют оборот "Excuse me".
- Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the
- Извините, Вы не подскажете, как пройти к
National Gallery?
Национальной Галерее?
- Excuse me, can you please direct me the
- Извините, подскажите, пожалуйста, как мне
nearest underground station?
пройти к ближайшей станции метро?
- Excuse me, which is the way to the theatre
- Извините, как пройти отсюда к театру?
- Excuse me, could you tell me the shortest way - Извините, Вы не могли бы указать мне
to the theatre?
ближайший путь к театру?
- Excuse me, could you direct me to the nearest
- Извините, Вы не могли бы направить меня
post office?
к ближайшему почтовому отделению?
- Excuse me, how can I get to the nearest
- Извините, как мне добраться до ближайшей
underground station?
станции метро?
- Excuse me, but I wish to know where the
- Извините, мне надо узнать, где находится
Victoria Hotel is?
гостиница "Виктория"?
- Excuse me, could you tell me the correct time? - Извините, не могли бы Вы мне сказать
точное время?
- Excuse me, is this seat taken?
- Извините, это место не занято?
- Excuse me, are you getting off at the next
- Извините, Вы выходите на следующей
При некоторых обстоятельствах к незнакомому человеку обращаются не с вежливой
просьбой, вопросом и т.п., а только с извинениями. Так, например, в театре, проходя между
рядов кресел, случается побеспокоить незнакомых людей, которые уже заняли свои места,
вынуждая кого-то поджать ноги, отвести колени в сторону или даже встать. В этих и
подобных случаях, вежливое поведение заключается в том, чтобы за каждое такое
беспокойство принести извинения, сказав: - Excuse me!
В случае, когда беспокойство оказывается более существенным - толкнули, задели,
наступили на ногу и т.п. - в качестве формы извинения возможен любой из следующих
- I'm sorry! - Извините!
- I'm very sorry! - Прошу Вас, извините, пожалуйста!
- Pardon me! - Простите!
- Please pardon me! - Простите, пожалуйста!
- I beg your pardon! - Прошу прощения!
- I beg your pardon for … - Приношу свои извинения за то, что …
- I beg your pardon for bumping into you!
- Приношу Вам свои извинения за то, что
толкнул Вас!
- I'm sorry am I disturbing you?
- I'm sorry to trouble you, but could you move
up a bit?
- Извините, я Вас не беспокою?
- Извините, что приходится Вас обеспокоить,
но не могли бы Вы немного подвинуться?
Прошаясь, обычно гость, как это свойственно англичанам, старается по возможности
смягчить категоричность формулы Goodbye путем соответствующего интонационного
оформления, выражениями благодарности, сожаления о том, что нужно уходить, и .т.д., а
то и вовсе обойтись без нее: "Well, musn't keep you". "Goodbye, must dash/fly/be going." "I'll be
cutting along now."
Пожелания содержатся в прощаниях:
Goodbye (for) now.
See you (later).
Be seeing you.
Стереотип Cheers! в новом для него значении "Пока!" появился где-то в начале 80-ых
годов. Что же касается So long, Toodle-oo, Toodle-pip, Ta-ta for now), See you later,
alligator (in a while, crocodile), Ciao, Cheers, то они считаются устаревшими.
Прощание вечером, на ночь, перед сном, осуществляется в пожелании:
Спокойной ночи!
Доброй ночи!
При уходе ненадолго избирают одно из высказываний:
Я (с вами) не прощаюсь!
Мы (с вами) не
Мы еще увидимся!
Я еще увижусь с вами!
Good night. (Sleep well.)
Good night.
I'm not saying goodbye.
I'll be seeing you.
We're not saying goodbye yet.
See you (later, some time, etc.).
I'll be seeing you.
Выражения, сопровождающие прощание
Это просьбы, обращенные к уходящему, отъезжающему, но приглашения "чисто
Не забывай (нас)!
Come and see us soon.
Please call again.
Drop in and see us any time.
Come and see us again.
You're always welcome.
Rieber to telephone me.
Не забывай!
Please come and see us again.
Keep in touch!
Don't forget to keep in touch!
Please write.
Please write.
Keep in touch!
Drop us a line to say how you're.
We'll be delighted to see you again.
Не забывай писать!
Дай о себе знать!
Милости просим к нам
еще раз!
В просьбах при прощании может быть выражено внимание к близким, друзьям
Передай привет
жене (мужу,
Привет (вашим,
твоим, мужу,
жене, маме)!
(По)целуй детей
(дочь, сына)!
Please give my kind/kindest/ best/ warmest
regards to your wife (husband, parents)!
My love to the family (your husband, your
wife, your mother)!
Kiss the children (your daughter, your
son) for me!
Ответными репликами в таких случаях являются:
И вы тоже!
И вы
И вы звоните.
And you, too (come and see us)?
And you, too (come over and see us sometime).
And you, too.
3. Устный коррективный курс по фонетике английского языка.
(Сводная таблица)
a [ ei ]
o [ ou ]
e [ i: ]
[ i:]
[ a: ]
[ о: ]
i [ ai ]
y [wai]
u [ju:]
[ ai ]
[ ju: ]
[ ]
[ э: ]
[ aiэ ]
[ εэ ]
[ о: ]
[ iэ ]
[ juэ ]
Основные правила чтения буквосочетаний гласных букв
[ ei ]
[ i:]
[ ju: ]
[ оi ]
[ u: ]
[ au]
ai +r
[ εэ ]
ee +r
[ iэ ]
ou +r
[ auэ ]
oo +r
[о: ]
Упр. № 1
i : pig, lift, sit, hit, list, him, did, tip, pit, pin, fill, silk, rid, big.
e: bed, ten, left, met, help, let, desk, lend, red, text, dress.
u: must, rust, but, bug, trust.
a: map, plan, bag, lamp, cap, cat, Ann.
o: not, hot, dog, on, box, Tom.
Упр. № 2
1. it, bit, dig, rib, did, kid, bid, tip.
2. bet, bed, dress, text, rest, deck.
3. shelf, self, check, dish, chin, fresh.
4. must, rust, much, duck, us, plus, bus, fuss, such.
5. hat, had, bag, cap, chap, cash, smash, match, black.
6. met, mat, men, man, send, sand, lend, land, hen, hand, bend, band.
7. bit, bet, bat, bid, bed, bad, lick, left, lack.
8. bag, bug, hat, hut, cap, cup.
9. cup, cell, act, cent, cat, pencil.
10. yes, yell, yelp, yen, yet, yep.
11. fox, box, stop, dock, dog, got, not, hot, lock, look, cock, cook.
12. led, rid, sip, zip, sit, set, rest, left, till, tell, nut, not, bus, boss, is, us, his.
Упр. № 3
a [ei ]: name, table, take, late.
e [i:]: he, she, be, these.
i [ai ]: I, five, time, nine.
у [ai ]: type, my, by, fly.
o [оu]: no, note, go, home.
u [ju:]: student, tube, institute, pupil.
4. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования грамматическим материалом: имя
существительное (число, род), артикли.
Основные правила употребления артиклей.
Употребление артиклей с именами нарицательными.
Неопределенный артикль употребляется:
- с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе, когда имеется в виду
любой представитель данного класса лиц или предметов:
They live in a lovely house.
I’m reading a good book at the moment.
She’s expecting a baby.
- когда существительное служит в предложении именной частью составного
сказуемого и используется, чтобы описать, кем или чем является лицо или предмет, о
котором говорится в предложении:
My brother is an engineer.
That’s an instrument for measuring distance.
- когда существительное служит приложением:
John Bolton, a student of our University, took the first place in the chess
- если перед существительным, употребляемом в общем смысле, можно поставить
слово “every”
A computer can quickly make calculations, store and rearrange information.
Определенный артикль употребляется:
- перед существительными в единственном или множественном числе, когда из
ситуации или контекста ясно, какое именно лицо или предмет имеется в виду:
The room was in a mess. The books were on the floor and on the chairs…
Where is the key?
Mind the baby! She’s near the fire.
- перед существительными, являющимися единственными в своем роде или в данной
обстановке (the Queen, the Earth, the Atlantic):
The sun was getting warmer.
When goods have been loaded on a ship, the captain signs a receipt called a bill of
- перед названием определенных общественных мест, если они употребляются в
общем смысле:
I went to the theatre last night.
I’m going to the library.
I have to go to the post office.
Но: There isn't a theatre in this town. Where is a post office?
- с существительными в единственном числе для обозначения целого класса
The thermometer becomes useless if the fluid in it either freezes or boils.
The telephone was invented in the 19-th century.
The pine grows in northern countries.
Однако, в этих случаях артикль не употребляется со словом man. Слово woman
чаще употребляется с определенным артиклем, хотя может употребляться и без артикля:
Woman is man’s helpmate.
Определенный артикль может заменить указательные местоимения this и that.
Иногда его следует перевести словом “этот”:
He is going to take a post-graduate course. I like the idea.
Упр.1. Поставьте существительные во множественное число, сделав все необходимые
преобразования в предложении.
A dog is an animal.
A potato is a vegetable.
A pencil is like a pen.
A ruler is a thin rectangular wooden or plastic strip.
A test-tube is a hollow glass tube.
A writer writes a book.
The man who is sitting there is my friend.
The girl in that room is my sister.
The boy does his work well.
Упр.2. Поставьте существительные в единственное число, сделав все необходимые
преобразования в предложении.
Horses are animals.
Boots are kinds of shoes.
Watches are small clocks.
Novels are books.
Children are not always good.
Stockings are long socks.
Schools are large buildings.
Упр.3. Поставьте а/an, где необходимо.
I haven’t got computer.
Do you keep record of the results?
I am not chemist, I am biologist.
I work in theoretical research team.
You made very bad mistake.
I’ve got very good idea.
It is convincing result.
It is standard method.
Упр.4. Поставьте the , где необходимо.
Which city is ___ capital of ___your country?
What is ___largest city in ___world?
Our apartment is on ___third floor.
Help! Fire! Somebody, call ___fire brigade.
Who was ___first man to walk on ___moon?
”Where is ___your dictionary?” “ It’s on ___top shelf on ___right.”
We live in ___country, about five miles from ___nearest village.
___Prime Minister is ___most important person in ___British government.
I don’t know everybody in ___this photograph. Who is ___man on ___left?
It was a very nice hotel but I don’t remember ___name.
I didn’t like her ___first time I met her.
Упр.5. Поставьте a/an, the , где необходимо.
I turned off ___ light, opened ____ door and went out.
Excuse me, can I ask ____ question, please?
Alan is ____ best player in our football team.
How far is it from here to ____ airport?
Enjoy your holiday and don’t forget to send me ____ postcard!
f. Have you got ____ ticket for ____ concert tomorrow night?
g. Yesterday I bought ____ jacket and ____ shirt.____ jacket was cheap but ____ shirt was
a. What is ____ name of ____ director of ____ film we saw ____ last night?
i. “Where are _____ children?” “They’re in ____ garden.”
j. My sister’s _____ teacher in ____ school near Leicester. She has three children, two girls and
____ boy. ____ girls are in her class at school, but ____ boy isn’t old enough for school yet.
k. Jane and Bill are ____ very nice couple. She has ____ clothes shop, and he works in ____ office
in ____ centre of town.
l. “Where are my shoes?” “On ____ floor in ____ kitchen.”
m. “How much are the driving lessons?” “Fifteen pounds ____ hour.”
n. When you come to bed, can you put ____ cat out and turn off ____ light?
o. I went to ____ restaurant last night.
p. What’s _____ name of ____ restaurant we went to last night?
Упр. 6. Выберите правильный вариант употребления артикля the.
Potatoes / The potatoes are not expensive.
This is a good meal. Potatoes / The potatoes are very nice.
Everybody needs friends / the friends.
Jan doesn’t go to parties / the parties very often.
Children / The children learn things / the things very quickly.
I enjoy eating in restaurants / the restaurants.
I enjoy taking photographs / the photographs. It’s my hobby.
I must show you photographs / the photographs I took when I was on holiday.
Если перед такими существительными, как method, theory, effect, device и т.п. стоит
имя собственное в притяжательном падеже, то артикль не употребляется:
Seitz’s hypothesis, Whipple’s model.
Если имя собственное стоит в общем падеже, то употребляется определенный
the Holl effect, the Boltzman factor, the Gerrish drive, the Coulomb field etc.
Поставьте the, где необходимо.
a. The DNA was examined by ____ Klein-Smith method.
b. ____ Wilson’s model has been applied.
c. ____ Hodgkin-Huxley equations modified by Dodge have been solved.
d. The system is studied by ___ Smith’s method.
e. Measurements performed on Bi-Te alloys are compared with Seeback coefficients (S) using ___
Kelvin’s second relation P=ST.
Другие случаи употребления неопределенного артикля.
- В некоторых случаях неопределенный артикль сохранил значение числительного
He did not say a word.
A complete vibration or oscillation means a round trip.
The velocity of light is 186,300 miles a second.
The case weighs a (one) hundred pounds.
A stitch in time saves nine.
- Неопределенный артикль обычно стоит перед существительным или его
- в восклицательных предложениях типа: What a beautiful picture! What a clever
- перед исчисляемым существительным в единственном числе после such, quite и
It is rather a long story. She is such a clever girl!
(В последних двух случаях перед исчисляемыми существительными во
множественном числе и перед неисчисляемыми существительными артикль отсутствует.)
Однако, неопределенный артикль может стоять между прилагательным и
существительным в единственном числе, если ему предшествуют усилительные частицы и
местоимения, типа what, such, many, quite, rather, so и too:
It is not so simple a problem as it is seems.
It is too urgent a matter to postpone.
Only later was it discovered what fruitful a theory it was.
Однако: Such a laborious procedure is obviously not suitable for routine
- Неопределенный артикль используется также в ряде сочетаний и выражений:
обозначающих количество: a lot of, a great deal of, a good deal of, a great number of, a
good many, a great many; a few, a little;
с предлогами: at a time when; at a time; for a long time; in a loud voice; on a large scale;
as a result of; as a matter of fact;
в сочетании с глаголами: to be a success / in a hurry; it is a pity; to have a mind / a cold /
a good time / a look / a headache; to take a seat; to go for a walk; to make a living и др.
Упр.7. Поставьте a/an, где необходимо.
a. It is ___ pleasure to do ___ business with such ___ efficient organization.
b. I have ___ headache.
c. I have ___ pain in my shoulder.
d. You must be strong in ___ mind and body.
e. If they had ___ mind to, they could easily get it published..
f. Oh, I know there’s no danger, but I’m ____ little frightened all the same.
g. ___ Little of the equipment was standardized.
h. It is possible to make ___ very good living from being a businessman.
i. The quality of ___ urban living has been damaged by excessive noise levels.
j. He was one of ___ few men of science who never terrified me, probably because he never
behaved like ___ doctor.
Употребление артикля с именами существительными собственными.
- перед названиями океанов, морей, рек, заливов: the Pacific Ocean, the Persian
Galf, the Volga
- в названиях горных хребтов: the Alps
- перед названиями групп островов: the Bermudas
- перед названиями судов, газет: the “Titanic”, the Daily World
- перед названиями гостиниц, музеев, галерей, театров, кинотеатров: the “Savoy”,
the Palace Theatre, the Odeon, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery.
- перед названиями с of: the Bank of England, the University of Salamanca.
- перед названием исторических документов: the Constitution, the Magna Carta.
- перед названием следующих городов, стран, улиц, местностей: the Hague (Гаага),
the Netherlands, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Transvaal, the Congo, the
Argentine, the West Indies, the Reviera, the Lebanon, the High Street, the Mall, the Strand и
Если же в названиях есть имя или фамилия человека или название места, то артикль
не употребляется (Buckingham Palace, Lloyds Bank, Cambridge University, Westminster
Как общее правило, имена собственные употребляются без артикля. Это относится к именам,
названиям улиц, дорог, площадей, городов, стран, состоящих из одного слова, континентов,
озер, единичных островов и горных вершин, к названиям научных журналов, к словам,
обозначающим звания, титулы.
Определенный артикль употребляется перед ними в следующих случаях:
- перед фамилиями во множественном числе: The Browns have left London.
- если перед названием страны присутствует существительное с предшествующим
определением или имеются слова: республика, королевство, союз и пр.:
the British Empire, the United Kingdom
Упр.8. Поставьте артикли a, an и the где необходимо.
_____ Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from _____ France to _____ United States.
No one in ____ Spanish class knew _____ correct answer to _____ Mrs Perez’s question.
____ Lake Erie is one of _____ five Great Lakes in ____ North America.
On our trip to _____ Spain, we crossed ____ Atlantic Ocean.
While we were in ____ Alaska, we saw _____ Eskimo village.
David attended _____ Princeton University.
Harry has been admitted to ____ School of Medicine at ____ midwestern university.
____ Queen Elizabeth II is _____ monarch of _____ Great Britain.
____ Declaration of Independence was drawn up in 1776.
____ Florida State University is smaller than ____ University of Florida.
____ Heathrow is ____ busiest airport in Europe.
We arrived in ____ Paris on ____ third of August.
Упр.9. Поставьте the, где необходимо.
____ Kevin lives in ____ Coronation Street.
Have you ever been to ____ National Theatre and ___ British Museum?
____ Milan is a large city in ___ north of ____ Italy.
Have you ever been to _____ Hague ?
____ Brussels is the capital of ____ Belgium.
____ Manila is the capital of ____ Philippines.
There are two cinemas in our town - ____ Regan and ____ Plasa.
____ Dr.Bradbury comes from a small village in ____ west of ___ Ireland.
____ Rocky Mountains are in ____ North America.
____ Texas is famous for oil and cowboys.
”Where are you staying ?” “At ____ Intercontinental Hotel”.
____ National Gallery is in ____ Trafalgar Square in ____ London.
k. In ____ London, ____ Houses of Parliament are beside ____ River Thames.
l. ____ Panama canal joins ____ Atlantic Ocean and ____ Pacific Ocean.
m. If you sail from ____ Britain to ____ Denmark you cross ____ North Sea.
Упр.10. Поставьте артикли, где необходимо.
I. ____ (1) King Juan Carlos of ____(2) Spain arrived in ____(3) London today for ____(4) three
day visit to ____(5) United Kingdom. He was met by ____(6) Queen and drove with her to ____(7)
Buckingham Palace. Tomorrow he will have lunch with ____(8) Governor of ____(9) Bank of
England and in the evening he will have talks with businessmen.
II. On the first morning we went to ____(1) British Museum and had lunch at ____(2) MacDonalds
in ____(3) Church Street. We looked in ____(4) Evening Standard newspaper and found there was
a good film at ____(5) Odeon (cinema) near ____(6) Piccadilly Circus.
Некоторые устойчивые выражения, употребляющиеся с определенным артиклем:
in the morning (evening, afternoon), the day before yesterday, in the country, on the one
(other) hand, on the whole, to play the piano (the violin), to tell the truth, to run the risk, to catch the
bus (to catch a train), to listen to the radio (to watch TV);
Устойчивые выражения, употребляющиеся без артикля:
at home, by tram (train, bus, air), on foot, by heard, by chance, by means of, in/on time, on
sale, on credit, from morning till night и др.
Упр.11. Поставьте артикли a, an или the, где необходимо.
a. I don’t usually like staying at ____ hotels, but last summer we spent a few days at ___ very nice
hotel by___ sea.
b. ___ tennis is my favourite sport. I play once or twice ___ week if I can, but I’m not ___ very
good player.
c. I won’t be home for ___ dinner this evening. I’m meeting some friends after ___ work and
we’re going to ___ cinema.
d. ____ unemployment is very high at the moment and it’s very difficult for ___ people to find ___
e. There was ___ accident as I was going ____ home last night. Two people were taken to ____
hospital. I think ___ most accidents are caused by ____ people driving too fast.
f. Carol is ___ economist. She used to work in ____ investment department of ____ Lloyds Bank.
Now she works for ___ American bank in ___ United States.
g. “What’s ___name of ___ hotel where you’re staying?”
“____ Imperial. It’s in ___ Queen Street in ___ city centre. It’s near ___ station.
h. I have two brothers. ___ older one is training to be ___ pilot with ____ British Airways. ____
younger one is still at ___ school. When he leaves ____ school, he hopes to go to ____ university to
study ____ law.
Единственное и множественное число существительных.
Образование множественного числа существительных.
Множественное число существительных образуется: окончание -s добавляется в
конце слова: car - cars, book - books.
- Однако, если существительное оканчивается на -s, -sh, -ch, -x, то следует добавить es: bus - buses, dish - dishes, match - matches, box - boxes.
- Несколько существительных, оканчивающиеся на -o , требуют добавления
окончания -es : tomato - tomatoes, potato - potatoes, hero - heroes.
Но: photo - photos, piano - pianos.
- Если существительное оканчивается на букву -y с предшествующей согласной, то
она заменяется на -ies: baby - babies, family - families. Если букве -y предшествует гласная, то
по общему правилу добавляется -s: holiday - holidays, key - keys.
- Во многих словах, оканчивающихся на f, во множественном числе f меняется на
v+(e)s: shelf - shelves, knife = knives.
Упр.12. Образуйте множественное число от следующих существительных:
child, person, woman, tooth, wolf, sheep, mouse, foot, leaf, half.
Упр.13. Напишите следующие существительные в форме множественного числа:
boy, lady, day, potato, party, watch, glass, city, church, address, sandwich, key, video, way.
Особые случаи использования существительных в единственном и
множественном числах.
- Собирательные существительные. К ним относятся такие слова, как class, team,
police, committee, audience, family, и т.д. Они не меняют форму, если употребляются в
значении множественного числа, указывая на членов коллектива. Индикатором числа в этом
случае становится число сказуемого или местоимения.
That class has its final test on Friday.
The class are working on their individual projects today.
- Cуществительные, имеющие одинаковую форму во множественном и в
единственном числе. Часть из них оканчивается на -s: species, series, means: That species is
rare. Those species are common.
Другая часть никогда не оканчивается на -s: sheep, deer, fish. That deer is young.
Those deer are old.
Упр. 14. Заполните пропуски в следующих предложениях формами глагола is или are в
зависимости от числа подлежащего. Объясните свой выбор.
Several unusual species of birds _____ found in this area.
When a young deer ______ motionless, its coloring will hide it well.
The committee ______ ready to make its recommendations public.
Both apparatus ______ available for your use.
The family ______ fighting among themselves constantly.
The fish in the aquarium ______ waiting for their daily feeding.
All sheep ______ dipped in the spring to kill the parasites.
The press ______ requested to show their credentials to the guard.
Выражения, обозначающие количество времени, веса, объема как одно целое.
Выражения, обозначающие количество времени, веса, объема как одно целое, имея
форму множественного числа, согласуются с глаголом в единственном числе:
Two weeks is enough time for a nice vacation.
Five hundred roubles is required as an entrance fee.
Twenty gallons of gasoline costs a lot of money.
Названия книг, газет, фильмов, даже если имеют форму множественного числа,
согласуются с глаголом в единственном числе:
The New York Times is a good newspaper.
Star Wars was a good movie.
Упр.15. Найдите и исправьте ошибку в некоторых из следующих предложений.
News of the peace talks has not yet reached the island.
Politics usually attract ambitious individuals.
There were extra copies of the New York Times in all the offices.
Two weeks are ample time for a camping trip to the state park.
Two thousand dollars is a lot for him to pay for tutorial.
Jaws, a movie about sharks, was seen by a record number of people.
Both mathematics and physics are interesting.
Thermodynamics are beyond me.
Неисчисляемые существительные.
Неисчисляемые существительные согласуются со сказуемым в единственном числе.
Это существительные:
meat, tea, butter, bread, juice, weather, accommodation, advice, permission, behaviour,
chaos, damage, furniture, luggage, baggage, news, knowledge, scenery, traffic, work, luck,
research, progress, information, и ряд других.
Упр.16. Сделайте все необходимые изменения, используя слова в скобках.
Пример: There aren’t many jobs for school leavers.
There isn’t much employment for school leavers.
a. He couldn’t give me much information. (details)
b. When I moved into my flat, I had very few chairs or tables or anything. (furniture)
c. There aren’t many flats to rent in this town. (accommodation)
d. I haven’t got many bags. They’re in the boot. (luggage)
e. I had a little time to spare, so I browsed round a bookshop. (minutes)
f. Very little research has been done to find out the cause. (experiments)
g. It’s very quiet in my area. There aren’t many cars or lorries. (traffic)
Единственное и множественное число слов с латинскими и греческими
Таких слов относительно много. Они образуют множественное число по правилам,
суммированным в таблице.
дение слова
ие в
е во множественном числе
Примеры (в
единственном числе)
basis, crisis, hypothesis,
thesis, axis
criterion, phenomenon
radius, alumnus,
nucleus, genius
formula, vita
-ix / -ex
datum, medium,
index, appendix
Притяжательный падеж (The Possessive Case)
Притяжательный падеж выражает принадлежность и соответствует в русском языке
родительному падежу в том случае, когда он выражает принадлежность. В предложении имя
существительное в форме притяжательного падежа выполняет функцию определения
другого существительного и занимает место перед определяемым существительным. В
форме притяжательного падежа употребляются главным образом имена существительные,
обозначающие одушевленные предметы.
1. Притяжательный падеж существительнного в единственном числе образуется
прибавлением апостроф и буквы s (-'s) к форме существительного в общем падеже.
Окончание -'s произносится [s] после глухих согласных [z] после звонких согласных и
гласных и [iz] после шипящих и свистящих, т. е. так же, как и окончание -s при образовании
множественного числа существительных.
Единственное число
Общий падеж
Притяжательный падеж
the boy's books книги мальчика,
the student's notes записи студента,
my friend's father отец моего друг
the horse's hoof копыто лошади.
The plowman's hands fitted the miner's pick and shovel.- Руки пахаря
годились для кирки и лопаты шахтера.
Примечание. Имена собственные, оканчивающиеся на -s,-x, часто принимают в
единственном числе в притяжательном падеже только апостроф, но в произношении
сохраняется окончание [iz]:
Engels' works -- работы Энгельса;
Marx' "Capital" -- "Капитал" Маркса.
2. Притяжательный падеж существительных, во множественном числе
оканчивающихся на -s, образуется прибавлением одного апострофа:
Множественное число
Общий падеж
the boys' books -- книги мальчиков,
the students' notes -- записи студентов,
A pale yellow smoke rose over the miners' district, -- Бледно-желтый дым
подни мался над шахтерским районом.
Если существительное во множественном числе не имеет окончания -s, то
притяжательный падеж такого существительного образуется прибавлением 's, т. е. так же,
как и существительных в единственном числе: children's voices голоса детей.
Артикль в сочетании существительное в притяжательном падеже плюс
существительное чаще всего относится к первому существительному, т. е. к
существительному в притяжательном падеже. Поэтому, если в притяжательном падеже стоит
имя собственное, то артикль не употребляется:
Newton's Laws of Motion are based upon his own and Gal ileo's experiments,
-- Законы движения Ньютона основаны на его собствен ных опытах и на опытах
Примечание. Вместо формы притяжательного падежа существительных может
употребляться оборот с предлогом of:
the professor's lectures = the lectures of the professor.
Форму притяжательного падежа могут принимать некоторые существительные,
обозначающие неодушевленные предметы и понятия. К ним относятся:
1. Существительные ship, world, country, nature, earth, sun, moon, water, ocean и
некоторые другие:
The earth's resources are quite enough to meet the material needs of the
people. -- Ресурсов земли вполне достаточно, чтобы удовлетворить материальные
нужды людей.
В языке технической литературы форму притяжательного падежа иногда принимают
существительные, обозначающие движущиеся механизмы или детали машин: coil sides
стороны катушки, piston's motion движение поршня the plane's propellers пропеллеры
самолета и т. п.
2. Названия стран, городов, месяцев и времен года
September's earliest frosts had touched the forests -- Ранние сентябрьские
морозы уже тронули леса.
3. Существительные, обозначающие время и расстояние a year's absence годовое
отсутствие; a day's journey день езды; a mile's distance расстояние в одну милю и т. п. В этом
случае притяжательный падеж имеет значение меры.
Не was within five minutes' walk of Berry Street -- Он был в пяти минутах
ходьбы от улицы Бэри
Примечание. Существительные в форме притяжательного падежа могут
употребляться без последующего существительного обозначающего местонахождение. В
этом случае притяжательным падеж имеет локальное значение.
at my sister's (=в доме моей сестры) ,
at a (the) baker's (в булочной),
at the chemist's (в аптеке),
at the florist's (в цветочно: магазине) и т. д.
Упражнение 18. Перефразируйте, употребляя притяжательный падеж.
the book of this author
the room of my friend
the son of her mother
the mark of our student
the friend of Susan
the rooms of these people
the mistakes of our students
the children of my brothers
the voices of the pupils
the songs of the women
Упражнение 19 Поставьте следующие словосочетания во множественное число.
the boy’s house
the baby’s smile
the girl’s friend
the bird’s wing
the dog’s bark
the parent’s room
Имя существительное может выполнять в предложении функции:
1) Подлежащего:
The night was very dark. --- Ночь была очень темная.
Heat is the energy of the movement of molecules, --- Тепло-это энергия
двнжения молекул.
2) Именной части сказуемо'го:
His father was a miner. -- Его отец был шахтером.
Heat is a form of energy. -- Тепло-форма энергии.
3) Дополнения (прямого, косвенного и предложного):
The Soviet industry has given the miner (косвенное дополнение) the coal
cormbine (прямое дополнение). -- Советская промышленность дала шахтеру угольный
Uranium can be produced from thorium (предложное дополнение). Уран
можно получить из тория.
4) Определения
Have you any laboratory experience? -- У вас есть опыт работы в
лаборатории (букв. лабораторный опыт)?
In the radio telephone sound waves are converted into radio waves, -- В
радиотелефоне звуковые волны преобразуются в радиоволны.
The atomic reactor is encased in a jacket of steel Атомный реактор
помещается в стальном корпусе.
5) Обстоятельства:
Не walked back slowly into the room. -- Он медленно вернулся в комнату.
Bodies are lighter in water than they are in air. -- Тела легче в воде, чем в
1. Устный коррективный курс по фонетике.
2. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения,
аудирования и письма по темам: «Высшее образование»
б) Университеты Великобритании.
3. Употребление выражения речевого этикета.
4. Грамматический материал: местоимение, имя
числительное (порядковые, количественные числительные).
1. Устный коррективный курс по фонетике английского языка.
Чтение Согласных
1. Перед e, i, y
с [si:]
2. Перед a, o, u, всеми
согласными и в конце
1. Перед e, i, y
cent, pencil, icy
cap, come, cup,
g [dжi:] 2. Перед a, o, u, всеми
согласными и в конце
1. В начале слова,
перед глухими
согласными и в конце
слова после глухих
s [es]
x [eks]
page, gin,gypsy
good, green,big
sit, student, lists
please, ties, pens
2. Между гласными, в
конце слов после
гласных и звонких
1. Перед согласными и
в конце слов
2. Перед ударной
text, six
Чтение сочетаний согласных букв
10 час.
После кратных гласных
После кратных гласных
[ t∫ ]
1. В начале
знаменательных слов и в
конце слова.
2. В начале
служебных слов и
между гласными
1. В начале слова перед
всеми гласными, кроме
[ t∫ ]
thick, myth
this, bathe
2. Перед буквой o
Перед гласными
[ kw ]
В конце слова
[ ŋk ]
В начале слова перед
Чтение сочетаний гласных с согласными
1. Перед k в ударном
2. Перед остальными
согласными в ударном
Перед согласными в
ударном слоге
1. Перед конечными
согласными (кроме r)
или сочетанием
Перед r
[ о:]
[ о:l ]
wall, also
[ wэ: ]
work, word
[ wо]
[ wо:]
[ ai ]
Упр. № 1.
13. thick, thin, tenth, fifth.
14. then, them, than, that, this, thus,
15. tin, fin, thin, sin, tent, tenth, thick.
16. sing, thing, sang, long.
17. ring, rang, rung, bank, blank, thank.
18. thin, thing, think, sin, sing, sink.
19. the 'thick 'book, the 'Institute.
20. this 'plan, this 'desk.
21. that 'shelf, that 'box.
22. this is a 'box, this is an 'ink-pot.
23. plan, plane, hat, hate, rat, rate, less, lace.
24. me, mete, he, Pete, be, these, scene, met, mete, pet.
25. side, Jine, rise, rice, dry" style, sty, type, lick, like, pick, pike.
26. no, note, go, tone, rose, close, not, note, rod, rode,
27. tune, cute, tub, tube, cube, use, fuse, must, muse.
28. big, bag, got, page, gel, gem, lag, rug, slag, plug, gin, edge, hedge, lodge, jug, gin, job, gem,
Упр. № 2
29. wish, wit, with, well, swell, wet, went, win, twin, wig, watch.
30. what, when, while, why, white, which.
31. wall, waltz, war, warm, ward, warp, wart.
32. word, worn, world, worth, worse.
33. who, whom, whose, whoop.
34. 'bandage, 'village, 'cottage, 'usage, 'comrade, 'climate.
35. re'trace, res'pite, de'vote, en'close, en'trap, iri'vent, 'dryness, 'thickness, 'latest, 'illness, 'music,
36. a'buse, a'muse, ad'mire, col'lect, con'nect, suc'cess, sup'press, 'soda, 'extra, 'seldom, 'carrot,
'bottom, 'dictum,
37. hopping, hoping, crossing, closing, backing, baking,, planning, planing, fussing, fusing, bitting,
38. far, car, star, farm, card, start.
39. for, nor, or, form, north, short, re'port, ab'sorb, sup'port, de'part, de'port, im'part, im'port.
40. fur, her, fir, turn, term, firm, shirt, hurt, curve, re'turn, dis'turb.
41. all, hall, fall, ball, small, wall, stall, call, talk, walk, chalk, stalk, salt, halt, false, mail.
2. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по темам:
«Высшее образование»
1) Read and translate the text.
Education in Great Britain: Higher Education
For seven hundred years Oxford and Cambridge universities dominated the British
education. Scotland had four universities, all founded before A. D. 1600. Wales only acquired a
university in the 20th century; it consisted of four university colleges located in different cities
(Cardiff, Swansea, Bangor, and Aberystwith). The first English university after Oxford and
Cambridge (sometimes referred to as Oxbridge) was Durham, in the North of England, founded in
1832. The University of London was founded a few years later in 1836.
During the nineteenth century institutions of higher education were founded in most of
the biggest industrial towns, like Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield (sometimes called the
Redbrick Universities). At first they did not have full university status but were known as
university colleges; since 1945, however, all have become independent universities, and in recent
years a number of other universities have been founded: Sussex, Essex, Warwick, and others.
In the middle 60s there was a further new development. Some of the local technical colleges
maintained by local authorities had gained special prestige. By 1967 ten of these had been given
charters as universities. Many of them are in the biggest cities where there were already
established universities; so now we have the University of Aston (Birmingham), Salford (close to
Manchester), Strathclyde (Glasgow), Herriot-Watt University (Edinburgh), Brunei University
When we add all these together we find that the number of universities in England
increased within ten years from nineteen to thirty-six, and in Scotland from four to eight.
Oxford university is a federation of colleges, and it is impossible to understand its
structure unless one first understands the nature and function of these colleges, which have no
resemblance whatever with the institutions called "colleges" in America.
Oxford has twenty-three ordinary colleges for men, five for women. All these are
parallel institutions, and none of them is connected with any particular field of study. No matter
what subject a student proposes to study he may study at any of the men's colleges.
Each college has a physical existence in the shape of a dining-hall, chapel, and
residential rooms (enough to accommodate about half the student membership, the rest living in
lodgings in the town). It is governed by its Fellows (commonly called "dons"), of whom there are
usually about twenty or thirty. The dons are also responsible for teaching the students of the
college through the tutorial system. The Fellows elect the Head of the college (whose title varies
from college to college).
The colleges vary very much in size and extent of grounds and buildings.
Colleges choose their own students, and a student only becomes a member of the
University by having been accepted by a college. Students are chosen mainly on academic merit,
but the policy of colleges in this respect varies from college to college. Some tend to be rather
keen to admit a few men who are very good at rugby or some other sport, or sons of former
students or of lords, or of eminent citizens, or of millionaires.
The colleges and university buildings are scattered about the town, mostly in the central
area, though the scientific laboratories and the women's colleges are quite a long way out.
The university teachers are mostly Fellows of colleges, who may at the same time hold
university appointments as lecturers or professors. Part of the teaching is by means of lectures and
any student- may attend any university lecture. At the beginning of each term (there are three
terms in the Oxford academic year) a list is published showing all the lectures being given during
the term within each faculty, and every student can choose which lectures he will attend, though
his own college tutor will advise him which lectures seem likely to be more useful. Attendance at
lectures is not compulsory, and no records of attendance are kept.
Apart from lectures, teaching is by means of the "tutorial" system, which is a system of
individual tuition organized by the colleges. Each Fellow in a college is tutor in his own subject to
the undergraduates who are studying it. Each student goes to his tutors room once every week to
read out an essay which he has written, and for an hour he and the tutor discuss the essay. A
student does not necessarily go only to his own tutor but may be assigned to another don in his
own college or in another college when he is studying some particular topic which is outside the
special interest of his own tutor.
2) Read the text and retell it, using the questions given below
The Povolzhsky State University of Telecommunications and Informatics
Having Finished secondary school I entered the Povolzhsky State University of
Telecommunications and Informatics. . Now I’m a first-year student.
Our University was founded in 1956 as one faculty Institution. It was the faculty of Radio
Communications and Radio Broadcasting with a number of students 208. In 1961 the faculty of
Telephone and Telegraph Communication was set up, which later was reconstructed in the faculty
of Automatic and Multichannel communication.
Up till 1991 the University had the name of Kuibushev Telecommunication Institute and
then it was renamed as the Povolzhsky Telecommunications Institute of Informatics and Radio
engineering. In 1997 it was reorganized as The Povolzhskaya State Academy of
Telecommunications and Informatics. In 2008 it has got its present day name.
Now there are the following faculties in the University: Radio engineering and
Telecommunications Faculty, the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies, the Faculty of
Basic Telecommunication Education and Extramural one (EF).
The Academy has more than 20 chairs, computer center, library and rest camp. Besides
there are several subsidiaries of the Academy chairs in research institutions and enterprises.
The graduates of me Academy become Bachelors and Masters of Telecommunications
as well as Engineers of telecommunications in various fields.
I study at the …. My speciality is …
Being just beginners we study general education subjects necessary for future engineers
such as mathematics, physics, engineering drawing. Besides we study humanitarian subjects which
will broaden our outlook.
The Academic year in our University runs from September 1 to the end of June. The tests
at the end of each term are obligatory. In January we take exams in four or five subjects.
The course for engineers lasts for 5 years. In senior grades we shall study the subjects on
our speciality. In the 5th year we are to submit a diploma project.
Представить (на рассмотрение)
1. When was the University founded?
2. What was the only faculty of the Institution?
3. What was the second faculty and when was it set up?
4.What faculties are there in the University?
5. ow many chairs has the University?
6 What degrees do the graduates obtain?
7.What faculty do you study at and what is your speciality?
8 What subjects do you study now?
9 What subjects will you study in senior grades?
3) Skim the text, trying to understand what it is about.
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 62.
4) Read the text to find answers to the given questions.
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 63.
3. Употребление выражения речевого этикета.
Наиболее употребительны нейтральные формы благодарности:
Спасибо, да.
Спасибо, нет.
Спасибо вам за...
Спасибо тебе за подарок.
Thank you.
Yes, please.
No, thank you.
Thank you for...
Thank you for the present.
Обороты с кратким прилагательным "благодарен":
Я благодарен вам.
I'm grateful to you.
Я благодарен вам за... Я
I'm gratful/ obliged/ indebted you
благодарен вам за то,
for (sth./doing smth..)...
Следует отметить, что grateful является предпочтительным в тех случаях, когда
необходимо подчеркнуть значительность оказанной кому-либо услуги, a thankful - в
контексте, когда нужно подчеркнуть силу испытываемого чувства облегчения от того, что
все обошлось. (You ought to be thankful that you got off so lightly.)
Выражения усиленной благодарности:
Большое спасибо!
Большое спасибо вам
(тебе) за...
Большое спасибо вам за
поздравления с Первым
Спасибо за то, что...
Спасибо, что навестили
Спасибо за то, что не
забываешь меня.
От души ...
От всей души (сердечно)
благодарю вас за...
От всей души благодарю
вас за
вашу заботу.
Спасибо (благодарю) за
Thank you (so) very much.
Thank you (ever) so much.
Many thanks. Thanks a lot. Thanks
Thank you so much for...
Thank you so very much for your
First of May greetings.
Thank you for...
Thank you for coming to see me.
Thanks for the visit.
Thank you for remembering me.
Thank you for keeping in touch.
Thank you so much for...
I'm so grateful to you for...
Thank you from the bottom of my
heart for...
My most heartfelt thanks to you for...
I want to thank you from the bottom
of my heart for all your trouble in
helping me.
Thank you for all that you have done
то (за все), что вы
сделали для меня.
Я очень (так, как я)
Я очень благодарна вам
за <книгу.
for me.
Thank you so much.
I'm (so) very/most grateful to you.
If only you knew how grateful I am!
Thank vou ever so much for the
Эмоционально-экспрессивные выражения благодарности:
Я так благодарна вам. что нет слов
(что нет слов выразить это, что не
могу высказать)!
Я до такой степени благодарна вам,
что мне трудно найти слова.
Нет слов выразить вам мою
I don't know how to
thank you.
I can never thank you
My gratitude cannot
he expressed in
Words cannot tell
you how grateful I
Стилистической повышенностью и официальностью обладают обороты с кратким прилагательным "признателен":
Я вам очень
(так, глубоко,
Как я вам
Я вам крайне
Я признателен
нам за...
Я признателен
вам за то,
Я очень
вам за
Я очень
нам за то, что
вы прочитали
I'm very/most grateful to you/ so (very)
grateful to you/ most grateful/ much obliged/
deeply indebted to you/ extremely/exceedingly/
ever so grateful to you!
I'm so grateful/much obliged/ deeply indebted
to you.
I can never thank you enough.
Thank you. Much obliged.
I'm grateful/ obliged/ indebted to you for...
Thank you for...
Much obliged to you for the favour.
Thank you so much fur taking the trouble to
read my article.
Оттенок официальности имеют следующие высказывания:
Разрешите вас
Позвольте выразить
вам благодарность.
Позвольте выразить
благодарность всем
присутствующим на
моем юбилее и
поздравившим меня с
Позвольте пожелать
вам успешно защитить
Разрешите пожелать
вам, чтобы защита
прошла удачно!
Я приношу свою
благодарность комулибо за...
Я выражаю свою
благодарность комулибо за...
Выражаем вам
благодарность за ваш
Я хочу (хотел бы)
поблагодарить вас за...
Мне хочется (хотелось
бы) вас поблагодарить
Я хочу поблагодарить
вас за эту большую
Я хочу (я хотел бы, мне
хочется, мне хотелось
бы) выразить (вам)
свою благодарность/
I would like to thank you.
I would like to express my
I find great pleasure in expressing my
gratitude to all of you who have
honoured me by attending my jubilee
and who have sent their
congratulations on my 60th birthday.
I wish you every success in defending
your thesis!
I wish you all the luck in the world in
defending your thesis!
I would like to thank sb. for...
I would like to express my gratitude/
appreciation to sb. for...
We would like to express our gratitude
to you for your noble effort.
I wish/would like to thank you for...
I wish/would like to express my
gratitude (to you) for...
I would like to thank you/say how
grateful I am for the great service
you've done me.
I wish/I would like to express my
Оттенок долженствования содержится в выражениях:
Я должен
поблагодарить вас
Я должен выразить
вам благодарность
Спасибо за добрые
I (really) must thank you for...
I (really) must say how grateful I am
for.../express my gratitude for...
Thank you for your kind wishes.
Эмоционально-экспрессивные выражения благодарности:
Как я вам благодарен!
Я вам так признателен!
Вы не представляете, как
я вам благодарен!
Вы не можете себе
представить, как я вам
Если бы вы знали, как я
вам благодарен!
Тысяча благодарностей!
I'm sure it's hard/ impossible for
you to imagine how grateful I am!
If you only knew how grateful I am!
A thousand thanks!
Продолжением благодарности может быть выражение комплимента за услуги, а также
уверения в своих ответных обязательствах:
Спасибо, вы очень (так)
Вы очень (так)
Вы так много сделали для
Я вам многим (так, очень)
I am so grateful to you!
Thank you, it's really very kind of
You're very obliging.
I'm deeply indebted to you.
You've saved my life!
I am deeply indebted to you.
Благодарностью аудитории за внимание является выражение:
Спасибо (Благодарю) за
Thank you for your kind
Иногда вместе с просьбой заранее выражается благодарность за будущую услугу:
Заранее благодарю (вас, тебя)!
Заранее благодарен вам!
Я буду вам очень благодарен
(признателен, обязан)!
I would like to thank you
in advance.
Thank you in advance.
I'll be very grateful to
I'll be much obliged.
Ответные реплики
В английском языке нет однозначного эквивалента для русского "пожалуйста". Ответная
реплика зависит от содержания высказывания. Например: Спасибо тебе за интересную
книгу. - Thanks for the interesting book. Пожалуйста. - I'm glad you liked it.
Распространенными являются следующие варианты:
Не стоит.
Не за что.
Don't mention it.
It's nothing.
Think nothing of it.
Не стоит благодарности!
Мне было нетрудно это
Мне это не составило
Мне было приятно это
Спасибо вам большое за эту
редкую книгу.
Не за что.
Эмоционально-экспрессивными выражениями <протеста против
благодарности могут быть выражения:
Какие могут быть
Ну (Да) что вы.
Не стоит!
He за что!
Вы не можете себе
представить, как я вам
благодарна за помощь. - Ну
что вы, мне это было
И вас тоже.
Спасибо за чудесную
прогулку! - Это я должен
тебя благодарить
Don't mention it.
That's all right.
It's nothing.
I can never thank you enough
for your help. -- Oh, it's
nothing. I was happy to oblige
Thank you!
Thank you!
The pleasure is entirely mine.
Thank you for (the pleasure of)
your company.
It is I who should thank you.
The pleasure was entirely mine.
Thank you for this lovely walk. Why, the pleasure was entirely
Ответ хозяйки дома на благодарность за угощение:
На здоровье!
Think nothing of it.
Услуги могут быть взаимными, тогда следует взаимное выражение
И вам тоже спасибо!
И вас тоже (благодарю)!
Это я должен вас
Благодарю за компанию!
That's really nothing! Don't
mention it.
It was no trouble at all/
It was no bother. It was a
It was a real pleasure for me to
do it.
My pleasure.
Thank you so very much for this
rare book.
I was happy to oblige you.
My pleasure.
I'm glad you enjoyed it. You're welcome!
Благодарность может сопровождаться жестом. Это, главным образом, рукопожатие.
Существуют специфические выражения благодарности, словесно описывающие жест
и обычно им сопровождаемые. Это обычно стилистически повышенное выражение
благодарности за какой-либо благородный поступок.
Я хочу (Разрешите,
позвольте) пожать
вашу руку!
Дай пожать твою
Дай пожму твою руку!
Дай пожму твою руку!
Ты сказал ему всю
правду в глаза.
Дай пожать твою руку,
ты честный парень.
I want to shake your hand.
May I shake your hand?
Let me shake your hand!
Let me shake your hand!
Let me shake your noble hand. You
told him the whole truth and to his
face, too.
Let me shake your noble/honest hand.
4. Грамматический материал: местоимение, имя числительное (порядковые,
количественные числительные).
Личные местоимения
Personal Pronouns
I я
you (ты) вы
we мы
he он
you вы
she она
он, она, оно (о they они
Как видно из приведенной таблицы, в современном английском языке нет
местоимения, соответствующего русского ты. Оно вышло из употребления. Вместо него
употребляется местоимение you вы.
Местоимения первого лица единственного числа I всегда пишется с прописной
буквы. Когда местоимение I является одним из однородных подлежащих, оно ставится после
других подлежащих перед глаголом-сказуемым:
My sister and I are students.
Моя сестра и я студенты.
Обратите внимание на то, что в подобных случаях в русском языке можно
сказать мы с сестрой, они с Петром и т.д. Подобного оборота в английском языке нет, и его
следует переводить
Peter and I are friends.
Мы с Петром друзья.
Jack and he are students.
Они с Джеком студенты.
Личные местоимения 3-го лица единственного в английском языке различаются
по роду:
he—местоимение мужского рода - заменяет, как правило, существительные,
обозначающие существа мужского пола,
she—местоимение женского рода - заменяет, как правило, существительные,
обозначающие существа женского пола,
it — местоимение среднего рода - заменяет существительные, обозначающие
неодушевленные предметы, животных, если их пол не имеет значения для говорящего, а
также существительное baby маленький ребенок, дитя.
Nick is my friend. He's a doctor.
Ник мой друг. Он доктор.
Kate is not a teacher. She's а student. Катя не преподаватель.
Она - студентка.
This is a dog. It's a nice dog. Это собака. Она хорошая.
Во множественном числе различий по роду нет. Местоимение they заменяет
как одушевленные существительные мужского и женского рода, так и неодушевленные
Peter and Jack are friends. Петр и Джек — друзья. Они
They are good friends.
хорошие друзья.
"Are these pens or are they pencils?"
- Это ручки или карандаши?
"They're pens."
-Это ручки.
Личные местоимения в именительном падеже употребляются в функции
а)’ подлежащего:
Не is my friend.
Он мой друг.
б) именной части составного сказуемого:
It is he.
Это он.
Следует отметить, что это правило не относится к личному местоимению I. В
функции именной части составного сказуемого употребляется соответствующая форма в
объектном падеже—me.
It's me.
Это я.
Притяжательные местоимении
Possessive Pronouns
Притяжательные местоимения отвечают на вопрос whose? чей? и обозначают
принадлежность. Они имеют форму, соотносящуюся с личными местоимениями.
Притяжательные местоимения
YOUR [J :, J ] ВАШ
YOUR [J :, J , J :R, J R] ВАШ
Эта форма притяжательных местоимений называется присоединяемой, поскольку
она употребляется только в функции определения к существительному и всегда стоит перед
ним. Артикль в этом случае не употребляется.
This is my bag.
Это моя сумка.
That is his pen.
Это его ручка
Please give me your
Дайте мне вашу тетрадь,
Если перед существительным стоят другие определения, то притяжательное
местоимение предшествует всему словосочетанию:
Where's your new
Где ваш новый красный
red pencil?
Указательные местоимения.
Demonstrative Pronouns
1. Указательное местоимение "this" означает "этот", "эта", "это" и употребляется при
указании на один предмет, находящийся вблизи говорящего:
Give me this book, please.
Примечание: Не следует употреблять указательное местоимение "this" в тех случаях,
когда констатируется факт, а не указывается на предмет:
This is an English book.
It is a good book.
2. Указательное местоимение "that" означает "тот", "та", "то" и употребляется при указании
на один предмет, находящийся вдали от говорящего:
Don't give me that book.
3. Указательное местоимение "these" означает "эти" и употребляется при указании на
предмет, находящийся вблизи говорящего:
These books are mine.
4. Указательное местоимение "those" означает "те" и употребляется при указании на
предметы, находящиеся вдали от говорящего:
Those books aren't mine.
В предложении указательные местоимения могут являться:
1. Подлежащим:
This is a flower.
2. Определением:
That house is very old.
3. Дополнением:
Don't show me these books, show those, please.
Вопросительные местоимения
Interrogative Pronouns
К вопросительным местоимениям относятся местоимения what (что), who (кто), whom
(кого, кому), whose(чей), which (который). Вопросительные местоимения употребляются для
построения специальных вопросов:
What can you see there?
Who knows his address?
Whom did you see there yesterday?
Whose son is this boy?
Which room is bigger, this or that one?
Местоимения "what, who, whom" могут являться в предложении:
1. Подлежащим:
Who likes tea in your family?
2. Предикативом:
What is your sister? (по профессии)
3. Дополнением:
Whom are you looking at?
Местоимения "what, which, whose" могут являться в предложении определением:
Which book is yours?
Whose flat is this?
What colour are those flowers?
What kind of sweets do you like?
Неопределенные местоимения.
Indefinite pronouns
1. Местоимение "some" (несколько, немного) и его производные "something" (чтото, что-нибудь, что- либо, кое-что), "somebody, someone" (кто-то, кто-нибудь, кто-либо, коекто) употребляются в утвердительных предложениях. Местоимение "some", как правило,
безударно и имеет редуцированную форму [sam]:
1 have some Spanish books in my library.
There is something on the table.
Somebody wants to see you.
We saw someone running to us.
Местоимение "any" (сколько-нибудь, какой-нибудь) и его производные
"anything" (что-нибудь), "anybody, anyone" (кто-нибудь) употребляются в вопросительных
предложениях, а также в отрицательных предложениях (с предшествующей отрицательной
частицей "not"). Местоимение "any" имеет всегда одну и ту же форму произношения [‘зni]:
Have I any books at home?
I have not any books at home. (никаких)
Is there anything on the table?
Does anybody remember his address?
We don't know anyone who remembered him well.
Местоимение "any" в утвердительных предложениях означает любой:
Give me any book you like.
Местоимение "many" (много) употребляется только с исчисляемыми
существительными во множественном числе:
/ have many books on the table.
4. Местоимение "much" (много) употребляется
I have much free time.
только с неисчисляемыми
Местоимение "little" (мало) и "a little" (немного) употребляются с
неисчисляемыми существительными:
I have got little free time.
He has got a little money with him.
6. Местоимения "few" (мало) и "a few" (немного) употребляются с исчисляемыми
существительными во множественном числе:
/ have few French books.
He has a few German books at home.
7. Местоимения "each" и "every" употребляются в значении "каждый". "Each" имеет
значение "каждый (в отдельности)", а "every" - "всякий, любой". Оба местоимения
употребляются с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе:
Each book was translated into Russian.
Every student can take books in the library.
8. Местоимения "everything" (все), "everybody" (каждый, любой, все) и "everyone"
(каждый) согласуются с глаголом в единственном числе:
Everything is ready for our trip.
Everybody came in time and the meeting began.
Everyone must be careful while crossing the road.
Местоимение "one" употребляется
вместо упомянутого исчисляемого
существительного в единственном числе:
Have you any Spanish books at home? Yes, I have one.
Местоимение "one" имеет форму множественного числа "ones", которая
употребляется вместо упомянутого ранее исчисляемого существительного во
множественном числе:
/ haven’t any German books at home.
I have some English ones.
Отрицательные местоимении.
Negative Pronouns
Местоимение "nо" (нисколько, никакой) употребляется в отрицательных
/ have no brothers.
Если после местоимения "nо" стоит исчисляемое существительное в единственном
числе, то артикль перед ним не употребляется:
1 have no sister.
Если в предложении есть "nо", то никакие другие отрицательные формы не
/ see no books on the table.
Я не вижу никаких книг на столе.
2. Местоимения "nobody" и "no one" (никто) употребляются вместо одушевленного
существительного, а местоимение "nothing" (ничто) вместо неодушевленного
/ see nobody in the street.
No one was ready to answer my question.
There is nothing on the table.
Возвратные Местоимения.
Reflexive Pronouns
Число. Number
Множественное. Plural
себе, ourselves (себя, себе, собой,
собой, я сам, сама)
мы сами)
yourself (себя, себе,
собой, ты сам, Вы сами)
himself (себя, себе,
собой, он сам)
собой, она сама)
itself (себя, себе, собой,
сам, сама, само)
собой, вы сами)
themselves (себя,
собой, они сами)
Возвратные местоимения на русский язык не переводятся. Они ставятся
непосредственно после глагола, который переводится возвратным глаголом с частицей ся(сь):
She always dresses herself very slowly. (одевается)
The doctor recommended the girls to wash themselves with cold water to be healthier.
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Вставьте some, any или по.
1.There are ... pictures in the book. 2. Are there ... new students in your group? 3. There are ... old
houses in our street. 4. Are there ... English textbooks on the desks? - - Yes, there are ... . 5. Are
there ... maps on the walls? —No, there aren't ... . 6. Are there ... pens on the desk? - - Yes, there
are.... 8. Are there ... sweets in your bag? - - Yes, there are ... . 9. Have you got ... English books at
home? -- Yes, I have ... . 10. There are ... beautiful pictures in the magazine. Look at them. 11.
There is ... ink in my pen: I cannot write.
Упр. 2. Вставьте something, anything, nothing или everything,
1. ... is all right, the patient is much better today! 2. Is there ... interesting in the program of the
concert? 3. I could see ... : it was quite dark. 4. Give me ... to drink. 5. I didn't take any money with
me so I couldn't buy ... . 6. My new eyeglasses are very good, I can see ... now. 7.1 saw ... near the
wood that looked like a tent.
Упр. 3. Вставьте something, anything, nothing или everything.
1. Give me ... to read, please. - - With pleasure, 2. I don't know ... about your town. Tell me .., about
it. 3. Please give me ... warm: it is cold here. 4. I understand ... now. Thank you for your
explanation. 5. There is ... white in the box. 'What is it? 6. Is there ... that you want to tell me? 7.
Where is the book? — It is on the table. - No, there is . . there.
Упр. 4. Вставьте somebody, anybody, nobody или everybody.
1. Has ... in this group got a dictionary? 2. ... left a magazine in our classroom yesterday. 3. The
question was so difficult that ... could answer it. 4. I am afraid I shan't be able to find ... in the office
now: it is too late. 5. ... knows that water is necessary for life. 6. Is there ... here who knows French?
7. You must find ... who can help you. 8. ... knew anything about America before Columbus
discovered it. 9. I saw ... in the train yesterday who looked like you. 10. There is ... in the next
room. I don't know him. 11. Please tell us the story. ... knows it. 12. Is there ... in my group who
lives in the dormitory? 13. Has ... here got a red pencil? 14. ... can answer this question. It is very
Упр. 5. Заполните пропуски, вставив одно из слов, данных в скобках.
1. We haven't ... black stockings (no, any). 2 They have ... red boots, Kate (any, no). 3. I don't
want... today, thank you (nothing, anything). 4. "I haven't got ... clean exercise-books, Mother," said
the boy (any, no). 5. "We shall not buy ... in this shop, children," said the mother (nothing,
anything). 6. Didn't you buy ... potatoes yesterday (any, no)?
7.1 didn't see ... in the street when I went out (anybody, nobody). 8. We did not play ... games in the
yard because it was raining all day long (no, any). 9. There is ... at home (anybody, nobody). 10.
How much did you pay for these boots? - I didn't pay ...
(nothing, anything). They are a present from my grandmother. 11. Have you lost ... (anything,
nothing)? - - No, nobody here has lost .. (nothing, anything).
Упр. 6. Вставьте одно из местоимений, данных в скобках.
1. What colour is the shirt? It is so far that I can't see (it's/its/it) colour. 2. They rarely drive to
(their/them/ theirs) office. They live near (it's/it/its). 3. Look at (me/ mine/my) new watch. Do you
like (it/them/its)? 4. These books are (her/hers). Give (them/their/theirs) to (hers/ her). 5. Do you
like (you/your/yours) new car? — Oh, (it's/it/its) has never let me down yet. 6. (Theirs/Their/
Them) work is much more difficult than (you/yours/ your) or (me/mine/my). 7. Why are
(you/your/yours) sitting here? It is not (you/your/yours) desk, it is (me/ mine/my). 8. This tape
recorder of (her/hers/she) is always out of order. — But so is (you/your/yours)! 9. She has not read
a line of (you/your/yours), how can she criticize (you/your/yours) books? 10. The clock has
stopped. Something may be wrong with (it's/it/its) spring. 11. (We/Our/Ours) was the last turn. 12.
(Their/Theirs/ Them) knowledge of French is not much more superior to (we/our/ours). 13. He is a
friend of (us/our/ours). (He/ His/Him) house is opposite (us/our/ours). 14. If these gloves are neither
(she/her/hers) nor (you/your/yours), then they should be (me/my/mine). 15. He can live without
(me/my/mine) help but not without (them/their/theirs).
Упр. 7. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Кто там? — Откройте, это я. 2. Мой дом на правой стороне улицы, а их — на левой. 3. Их
лодка была быстрее нашей. 4. Как зовут вашу собаку? — Ее зовут Квин. 5. В этом районе
построена нсвая дорога. Ее длина более трехсот километров, 6. Это ваша ручка, а это его, но
где же моя? 7. Она взяла мои ключи вместо своих. 8. Самый лучший план — ваш. 9. Чью
работу будут npоверять(clieek up) — Джона и in Кэт? 10. Его автомобиль небольшой, но
мотор (engine) у него мощный.
Упр. 8. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate reflexive pronouns and translate the sentences into
1.1 opened the door and found___facing a stranger. 2. Go and see it for___if you like. 3. The
newcomers built the houses___„ 4. Would you mind keeping your words to ___? 5. He has injured
______ 6. During the breaks they amused _____ in the bar. 7. We protect.___from the cold with
warm things. 8. She settled___in the armchair as comfortably as she could. 9, You can trust him. He
is honesty __. 10. He cut____shaving this morning. 11 She burnt
___ironing a dress. 12. Don't blame___. It is not your fault. 13. Did you cut your hair___or did you
go to the hairdresser's? 14. Aren't you hungry? Help___to the meat. It's delicious. 15. How did you
enjoy___? 16. We must discuss everything to find the way out. Pull___together.
17. She dried__„with a blue towel. 18. He felt___getting angry. 19. They had to excuse ___ for
their strange behaviour. 20.1 want to insure___against any losses.
Упр. 9.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate reflexive pronouns where necessary.
1. Have a good time. Try to relеx___and enjoy___. 2. She decided to excuse___his bad behavior. 3.
Why don't you want to concentrate___? Pull___together and start work. 4. She did not know where
to hide___. 5. Though it was rather cold in the room he felt__„hot. 6. Have you shaved___today? 7.
She found___in an awkward situation. 8. Did the children behave___? 9. We protected___against
damage. 10. She stopped crying, washed___, and decided to go downstairs.
Упр. 10. Replace the words in bold type by expressions with reflexive pronouns.
1.1 saw it with my own eyes. 2. You needn't come in person. 3. He left us alone. 4. She lives on
her own. 5. Did you study English without a teacher? 6. The girl apologized for her behaviour.
7. We were quite alone in the room. 8. Take the cake, please. 9. They divided the work between
each other. 10. It is your own fault.
Упр. 11. Translate the sentences into English using reflexive pronouns where necessary.
1. Я сам узнаю, лучше ли он себя чувствует. 2. Мы не ожидали, что он сам сделает работу так
хорошо. 3. Мы провели выходные за городом и получили большое удовольствие, собирая
грибы (mushrooms). 4. Вы должны взять себя в руки. Посмотрите на себя в зеркало.
Побрейтесь, примите холодный душ, разотритесь полотенцем (towel) и поешьте, наконец. 5.
Наконец мы очутились в городе и решили немного расслабиться. 6. Не ходи сегодня в
школу, если ты плохо себя чувствуешь. 7. Посмотрите, сколько вкусных вещей на столе!
Угощайтесь. 8. Может быть, она объяснит все сама. 9. Почему ты прячешься? 10. «Ведите
себя как следует!» — строго (strict) сказал учитель.
Упр. 12. Fill in the blanks with some, any, no.
1. Unfortunately, they have got___money, 2. She wanted___stamps, but there were not___in the
machine. 3. Is there___salt on the table? — No, there isn't. 4. I'd like to buy___new clothes, but I
haven't___money, 5. When would you like to come? —___day would suit me. 6. If you
had___sense you wouldn't have left your car unlocked. 7. She did not answer all the letters because
she had___time. 8. Do you have___small change? — Hardly ___. 9. He returned home
without___money. 10. Could you help me? I have___problems with my research.
Упр. 13. Make sentences interrogative and negative.
1. He lives somewhere near here. 2. Something fell on the floor in the kitchen. 3. Somebody from
the Department of Education is here. 4. There is something in what he says. 5. They knew
something about it. 6. There is someone in the room. 7.1 want to tell you something. 8. Someone is
knocking at the door. 9.1 saw this man somewhere. 10. Something has happened to her.
В английском языке, так же как и в русском числительные делятся
количественные числительные (Cardinal Numerals) и порядковые числительные (Ordinal
a (one) hundred
a (one) hundred and one
a (one) hundred and two
two hundred
two hundred and fifty-three
a (one) thousand
a (one) thousand and one
a (one) hundredth
a (one) hundred and first
a (one) hundred and second
two hundredth
two hundred and fifty-third
a (one) thousandth
a (one) thousand and first
two thousand two hundred and fifty
three thousand
100,000 a (one) hundred thousand
1,000,000 a (one) million
2,000,000 two nutlion
two thousand two hundred and fiftieth
three thousandth
a (one) hundred thousandth
a (one) millionth
two millionth
Образование количественных числительных:
1. Количественные числительные от 13 до 19 включительно образуются прибавлением
суффикса -teen к соответствующим названиям единиц первого десятка: four- fourteen, sevenseventeen.
Примечание. Числительные с суффиксом -teen имеют два ударения ('four'teen, 'fifteen и т. д.),
причём ударение на последнем слоге сильнее, чем на первом. Когда эти числительные
употребляются с существительными, ударение падает на первый слог, а второй слог
становится неударным: 'fourteen 'pens, 'fifteen 'pencils.
2. Названия количественных числительных, обозначающих десятки, образуются
добавлением суффикса -ty к названиям единиц: six-sixty, seven-seventy.
Некоторые числительные образуются со следующими склонениями от общего
two-twelve-twenty three-thirteen-thirty
five—fifteen—fifty eight—eighteen—eighty
Числительное forty отличается в написании от four fourteen.
3. Десятки с единицами образуются таким же способом, как и в русском языке:
22 twenty-two; 48 forty-eight
4. При обозначении количественных числительных разряды многозначных чисел
разделяются запятой: 7,000 5,550,000.
5. Между сотнями (или тысячами и миллионами) следующими за ними десятками
(или единицами, если нет десятков) в любом разряде всегда ставится союз and:
246 two hundred and forty-six 206 two hundred and six
5,050 five thousand and fifty 5,005 five thousand and five
8,525,250 three million five hundred and twenty-five thousand two hundred and fifty
6. Числительные 100; 1,000; 1,000,000 употребляют с неопределенным артиклем а
или с числительным оne
100 a hundred \ one hundred
1,002 a thousand and two \one thousand and two
7. Числительные hundred, thousand, million не принимают окончания -s во
множественном числе:
three hundred
four thousand
five million
8,005,240 three million five thousand two hundred and forty
Примечание. Числительные hundred, thousand и million переходят в разряд
существительных и принимают окончание если они употребляются для обозначения
неопределенного количества сотен, тысяч или миллионов. В этом случае за ними следует
существительное с предлогом of.
Thousands of workers were streaming out of tlie plants. -- Тысячи рабочих
потоками выходили из заводов.
8. Существительное, которое следует за числительным, употребляется без предлога
и соответствует в русском языке существительному в родительном падеже:
three thousand books три тысячи книг
ten students десять студентов
Образование порядковых числительных:
I. Порядковые числительные образуются прибавлением суффикса -th к
количественным числительным:
four—fourth thirteen —thirteenth seven—seventh fifteen—fifteenth
Образование трех первых числительных составляет исключение из этого правила:
one —first two —second three—third
При образовании порядковых числительных fifth пятыйi и twelfth двенадцатый
буква v в названиях количественных числительных (five, twelve) меняется на f и опускается
буква е; в числительном eight выпадает буква t, а в числительном nine опускается буква е:
five -fifth twelve—twelfth eight —eighth nine —ninth
При образовании порядковых числительных, обозначающих десятки, начиная с 20,
конечная буква у меняется на i и добавляется е перед суффиксом -th для обозначения
дополнительного звука [i]:
thirty —thirtieth
2. При образовании составных порядковых числительных, состоящих из двух или
более чисел, только последнее число приобретает форму порядкового числительного, а
предшествующие числа выражаются количественными Числительными, так же как и в
русском языке:
twenty-third —двадцать третий five hundred and eighty-seventh —пятьсот
восемьдесят седьмой
Имена существительные, определяемые порядковым числительным, употребляются
с определенным артиклем. Артикль сохраняется перед порядковым числительным, если даже
существительное не выражено, а лицо подразумевается.
The second basket was the same size as the first. - Вторая корзина была такого же
размера, как и первая.
В английском языке при обозначении номера страниц, глав, частей книг,
аудиторий, домов, трамваев и т. п. обычно употребляются количественные числительные. В
этом случае количественное числительное следует за определяемым им существительным,
причем существительное употребляется без артикля: chapter one глава первая, part two часть
вторая, lesson three урок третий page fifteen страница пятнадцатая.
Open your books at page 23 - Откройте книги на 23 странице (на странице 23)
Read paragraph 5 (five). - Читайте пятый параграф
При употреблении порядкового числительного в аналогичных случаях оно
ставится перед существительные с определенным артиклем: the first chapter, the second part
первая глава, вторая часть, the third lesson третий урок.
Года обозначаются количественными числительными. При чтении обозначений года
хронологическая дата делится пополам, причем каждая половина читается как отдельное
число: 1917 nineteen seventeen (букв.: девятнадцать семнадцать), 1848 eighteen forty-eight
A. S. Pushkin was born in 1799 (seventeen ninety-nine) and died in 1837 (eighteen
thirty-seven). -- А. С. Пушкин родился в 1799 году и умер в 1837 году.
Примечание. Обозначение года читается также следующим образом:
1917—nineteen hundred and seventeen
1848—eighteen hundred and forty-eight
Даты обозначаются порядковыми числительными:
7th November, 1917 (the seventh of November, nineteen seventeen)
November 7th, 1917 \ November 7, 1917 \ November the seventh, nineteen
При обозначении арифметических действий глагол, выражающий результат
действия, может стоять как в единственном, так и во множественном числе;
Five and four is (are) nine.
Nine minus five is (are) four.
Three times four is (are) twelve.
Количественные числительные свыше единицы употребляются с существительными
в форме множественного числа:
There are three classes of reactors: slow, intermediate and fast. - Имеются три вида
реакторов: реакторы на медленных, промежуточных и быстрых нейтронах.
В английском языке двузначные и многозначные числа, оканчивающиеся на
единицу, употребляются с существительными в форме множественного числа:
There are thirty-one days in January. - В январе тридцать один день.
Простые дроби выражаются посредством количественных числительных в
числителе и порядковых в знаменателе:
1/3 a (one) third
1/5 a (one) fifth
1/6 a (one) sixth
1/100 a (one) hundredth
Дробные величины 1/2 и 1/4 передаются особыми словами: a (one) half (l/2), a (one)
quarter (1/4).
Примечание. Если имени существительному предшествует слово half, то артикль
ставится непосредственно перед существительным:
half a kilometre полкилометра,
half an hour полчаса,
half the distance половина расстояния.
Но: a kilometre and a half полтора километра,
an hour and a half полтора часа.
Если в числителе стоит число более единицы, то к слову, обозначающему
знаменатель, прибавляется окончание -s:
2/3 two thirds
4/9 four ninths
3/5 three fifths
9/10 nine tenths
Существительное, которое следует за дробным числительным, стоит в
единственном числе:
5/8 inch -- 5/8 дюйма (читается: five eighths of an inch);
3/5 foot -- 3/5 фута (читается: three fifths of a foot).
Существительное, которое следует за смешанным числом, стоит во множественном
2 1/4 metres 2 1/4 метра (читается: two and a quarter metres или two metres and a
Десятичные дроби отделяются от целого числа точкой, а не запятой, как в русском
языке: 1.34; 0.8 (или .8).
Десятичные дроби читаются следующим образом:
0.8 или .8 point eight (точка восемь) или nought point eight (ноль точка восемь)
или о [ou] point eight (ноль точка восемь)
0.006 point nought nought six или nought point two oes [ouz] six или о [ou] point
two oes six
1.02 one point nought two или one point о [ou] two
4.25 four point twenty-five или four point two five
Существительное, которое следует за десятичной дробью, стоит в единственном
числе, если в дробном количестве нет целых единиц, и во множественном числе, если в
дробном количестве есть целые единицы:
0.5 centimetre читается: nought point five of a centimetre 5.2 centimetres читается:
five point two centimetres.
Примечание. При чтении десятичных дробей между числительным, обозначающим
целое число, и словом point делается короткая пауза,
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Answer the questions. Write the numbers in full.
1. How many minutes are there in two hours? 2. How many kilometers are there in a mile? 3. What
is your normal temperature? 4. How much do you weigh? 5. How many cents are there in $2,5? 6.
How many days are there in a year? 7. When were you born? 8. What is your telephone number? 9.
What is the number of your flat? 10. What is the approximate population of Russia?
Упр. 2. Write these numbers in English.
1) 567
11) 3 August
12) 969 64 85
2) 6 1/2
3) 3,267
13) 13 Centigrade
4) 8.93
14) (In) 1907
5) 0.34
15) 33
6) 7 1/2
16) 3,000,000,000
7) 2,359,000
17) 7,082
8) 11.06
18) 40-0 (the result in a tennis game)
9) 58%
19) 37%
10) 9 May
20) 4-1 (the result in a
football match)
Упр. 3. Write the answers to these sums and read them aloud.
1) 47 and 34 is___ 2) 33 multiplied by 4 is___ 3) 45 times 4 is___ 4) 314 plus 216 is___
5) 112 minus 45 is___ 6) Add 12 and 4, multiply by 8, then subtract 40 and divide by 11. You have
got___. .7) 90 divided by 6 is___ 8) Divide 66 by 11, multiply by 5, add 20,and subtract 18. You
have got___.
Упр. 4. Correct the mistakes (if any) in these sentences.
1 The radio said that there were more than ten thousands people taking part in the meeting. 2. She
bought two dozens eggs. 3. My birthday is on the twenty-one of March. 4. His telephone number is
four six seven, five nought, nine two. 5. There are two hundred fifteen pages in this book. 6, Write
down the following: zero point six hundred and twelve plus six point nought two. 7. This is twentyfive per cents of the total. 8. The game ended with the score three nought. 9. The temperature is two
degrees below oh. 10. He was born in nineteen eighty-first.
Упр. 5. Translate into English. Write the numbers in full.
1. Он заплатил за это ожерелье (necklace) пятнадцать с половиной тысяч долларов. 2.
Подождите полчаса, пожалуйста. Документы скоро будут готовы. 3. Нам нужно спешить.
Самолет улетает через полтора часа. 4. Сколько безработных (unemployed) в этом городе? —
На сегодняшний день 2338 человек. Джейн купила три дюжины яиц. 6. Он родился 3
октября 1979 года. 7. На митинге присутствовало три тысячи студентов. 8. Тысячи студентов
заканчивают колледжи Оксфорда к Кембриджа ежегодно. 9. Миллионы звезд ярко мерцали
(sparkled) на черном южном небе. 10, Если тебе нужно вызвать пожарную команду (fire
brigade), звони 01. 11. Его состояние (fortune) составляет три миллиона долларов. 12. Одна
четверть равна 25-ти процентам. 13. Этот замок (castle) был построен во времена Генриха V.
14. Один дюйм (inch) равен двум с половиной сантиметрам. 15. Эти дома были построены в
девяностые годы девятнадцатого века.
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения,
аудирования и письма по теме: «Россия».
2. Развития навыков чтения и перевода. Тексты:
А) История образования в России
Б)Ученые (Мария Кюри)
В) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения
3. Развития навыков говорения (парная работа студентов)
4. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования
грамматическим материалом: предлоги, имя прилагательное
(степени сравнения).
10 час
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по
теме: «Россия».
1) Read and translate the text. Answer the questions given below. Retell the text.
In the early days of history Russia was known as Kievan Russia, because its capital was the
city of Kiev. In 988 under the reign of Prince Vladimir, Kievan Russia embraced Christianity. In the
12th century Kievan Russia disintegrated into small principalities and was conquered by the TartarMongols. After two centuries of Tartar-Mongolian yoke Russia rose against the invaders. The
Battle of Kulikovo (1380) was the beginning of the country’s liberation. During the 14th – 16th
centuries the integration of the country resulted in the formation of a centralized state with a new
capital – Moscow.
In the 12th century Moscow was known as a small estate of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky on the
bank of the Moscva River. In 1156 it was walled and thus became a town, or rather a fortress.
Moscow developed due to its favourable geographical position and after liberation of the country
from the Tartar yoke it gradually became the political, economical and cultural center of Russia.
In the 16th century, under the reign of Ivan the Great, the Russian State began to develop
rapidly. Peter the Great (the end of the 17th – the beginning of the 18th centuries) undertook
fundamental reforms of the state, extended the Russian frontiers and announced the Russian
Empire. Catherine the Great (the second half of the 18th century) continued Peter’s policy.
Nicholas II was the last Russian emperor: in 1917 the revolution took place in Russia and
the monarchy was overthrown. Since then a new history of Russia began – there was an attempt to
build up a socialist state. In 1941–1945 Russia had to defend its independence, in the Great Patriotic
Mow Russia tries to find its own way of developing with the help of reforms.
Today the Russian Federation is the largest country in the world: its total area is about 17
million square kilometers. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia and stretches from
the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Russia borders on Norway and Finland in the northwest,
Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and Ukraine in the west, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west, and
Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China in the south. Twelve seas and three oceans wash the shores of our
The land of Russia varies from thick forests to barren deserts, from high mountains to deep
valleys. Russia is located on two plains, the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland.
The longest mountain chain is the Urals, separating Europe from Asia. Russians most important
rivers are the Volga, Europe’s biggest river, the Lena, the Ob and the Enisey.
Russia is rich in natural resources. It has considerable reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, iron
ore and non-ferrous metals (copper, lead, zinc, nickel) diamonds and other minerals.
The climate of Russia varies from arctic in the North to continental in the central part and
subtropical in the South.
The current population of Russia is about 150 million people, it has more than a hundred
nationalities. According to the constitution (which was adopted in 1993, December) Russia is a
federation and includes the subjects of federation: republics, regions and territories.
Russian Federation is a parliamentary republic. Its government consists of three branches:
the legislative power, exercised by the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Council of Federation
and the State Duma; – the executive power, which belongs to the Cabinet of Ministers, headed by
the Prime Minister; – the judicial power, which belongs to the Constitutional Court, the Supreme
Court and other courts.
The President, who is the Head of the State controls each of them.
Привести к …
Земельное владение
Таким образом
Бесплодная пустыня
To result in …
Due to
Barren desert
To vary
To exercise
When was the Christianity embraced in Russia?
When and how was the centralized state of Russia formed?
What do you know about the history of Moscow?
What Russian tzars do you know?
Talk about a new history of Russia.
What do you think about present-day Russia?
What is the total area of the Russian Federation?
What countries does Russia border on?
Talk about the geology of Russia.
What can you say about the climate of Russia?
How many nationalities are there in the Russian Federation?
What kind of state is Russia?
What are the three branches of the Russian government?
2) Give a short summary in written form
The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of
the earth’s surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area
is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific,
the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan,
Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia,
the Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There’s hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be
found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the
north, highlands and deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian
Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus,
the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe’s biggest river, the Volga, flows into the
Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers — the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena — flow from the south
to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world’s deepest lake (1,600 metres) is Lake Baikal. It’s
much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there’s much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The
water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
Russia has one-sixth of the world’s forests. They are concentrated in the European north of
the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the
north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers
are exercised by the Duma.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It’s its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial
centre. It’s one of the oldest Russian cities.
At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated. The
industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is rather
high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.
But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for
this country to become one of the leading countries in the world. I’m sure that we, the younger
generation, can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.
the Russian
the Pacific Ocean
the Atlantic Ocean
the Arctic Ocean
[‘ju: әrәp]
[pa,sifik 'әuƒn]
[ә,tlæntik ‘әuƒn]
['a:ktik ‘әuƒn]
the Baltic States
Российская Федерация
Тихий океан
Атлантический океан
Северный Ледовитый
the Ukraine
the Great Russian
the West Siberian
the Urals
the Caucasus
the Altai
the Volga
the Caspian Sea
the Ob
the Yenisei
Lake Baikal
The Baltic Sea
the Far East
to occupy
total area
to wash
to border on
There’s hardly a
country in the
[,tәutl 'eәriә]
to separate
to flow into
to count
Русская (ВосточноЕвропейская) равнина
Уральские горы
Каспийское море
озеро Байкал
Балтийское море
Дальний Восток
общая площадь
граничить с
морская граница
Едва ли найдется
пейзаж, ландшафт
средняя полоса
to concentrate
климатический пояс
железная руда
каменный уголь
глава государства
снижаться, падать
уровень инфляции
несмотря на
молодое поколение
iron ore
mineral resources
head of state
the legislative
to exercise
to decrease
the rate of inflation
to go bankrupt
in spite of
the younger
['aiәn ,o:]
1. Where is the Russian Federation situated?
2. What is the total area of the country?
3. What countries does Russia border on?
4. What mountain chain separates Europe from Asia?
5. How many rivers are there in Russia?
6. Which is the longest river in Europe?
7. What do you know about Lake Baikal?
8. Do you know what strait separates Russia from America?
9. What mineral resources is the Russian Federation rich in?
10. What is the climate like in Russia?
11. What can you say about the present economic situation in Russia?
12. What great Russians do you know?
2. Развития навыков чтения и перевода. Тексты:
А) История образования в России Учебник «Английский
язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю.
Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 34
Б)Ученые (Мария Кюри) Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова.
Высшая школа 2000, с. 106.
В) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения Учебное пособие по обучению
профессионально-ориентированному чтению. Electrical Power. Кушникова Г.К., Москва, изд-во
«Флинт», «Наука». 2006 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
3. Развития навыков говорения (парная работа студентов)
Рабочий День”
“Working Day”
Dialogue No 1
1) Read the dialogue in pairs. Try to reproduce it.
– Donald, you look so tired. You do not feel well, do you?
– It is not that. I am tired. I need а rest.
– Take а holiday.
– I cannot do it now. We have got а lot of work to do.
– Excuse my curiosity what do you usually do at your office?
– You'd better ask me what I do not do at my office. As soon as I come to my office I have to
answer telephone calls, sign documents, participate in the talks, discuss the terms of the agreements,
send letters and telegrams and do many other things.
– How long does you working day last?
– It depends… I come to my office at а quarter to nine and at 5 p.m. our working day is over. But if
we have got many things to do, we stay there until everything is done.
– I see. I suppose, you have got а break for lunch.
– Sure. At 11 p.m. we have got а break for lunch which lasts for an hour.
– Do you sometimes go on business trips?
– Our employees go to various cities and towns in this country and abroad.
– Have you been abroad?
– Yes, several times. I have already been to Canada, Australia and Germany.
–. Have you been to the USA?
– Not yet, I am planning to go there next year. And you, have you been to the USA?
– Yes, I returned from the USA last month. I spent а fortnight there and visited New York,
Washington, Boston, and Chicago.
– Was it а business trip?
– Sure, it was.
Translation No 1
Переведите на английский язык, используя Речевые модели. Список незнакомых слов
находится ниже.
– Как могли бы вы мне помочь?
– I would if I could… I have got a lot of work to do.
– Чем вы заняты?
– I have got to answer a few business letters and translate two texts from English into Russian.
– Сколько времени вам понадобится, чтобы это сделать?
– It is hard to say. I believe I will be busy till the end of the working day.
– В котором часу вы освободитесь?
– I will be free at 6 o’clock in the evening.
– Можно, я подвезу вас домой?
– It will be very kind of you.
– That is settled. Till 6 o’clock.
– Good-bye.
Translation No 2
Переведите на английский язык, используя Речевые модели.
– Your colleague told me you have just returned from а business trip to Switzerland. Is it true?
– Да. На прошлой неделе я приехал из Швейцарии. Я пробыл там два месяца.
– Did you learn to speak French?
– Я знаю несколько слов. Очень трудно научиться свободно говорить на иностранном языке
за два месяца.
– Do you really think so?
– Да, когда я ехал в Швейцарию, я не знал ни одного слова по-французски. У меня был
переводчик (an interpreter). Он отлично знает язык.
Translation No 3
Переведите на английский язык, используя Речевые модели
– Послушай, Майк, для тебя есть записка.
– Yes, what is it?
– Эта записка от господина Миллера. Он звонил, когда тебя не было.
– Thank you very much. Mr. Miller wants us to help him with the contract.
– Мы можем это сделать?
– I think so. I will have to talk it over with our chief. Is he in?
– Да, но он очень занят. В данный момент он принимает представителей одной из
иностранных фирм.
Word list
1. a quarter to nine – без пятнадцати минут девять
2. a.m. – c 12 ночи до 11 утра
3. abroad – за рубежом
4. accepted – принято
5. agreement – соглашение
6. answer – ответ
7. article – статья
8. as soon as… – как только…
9. break – перемена, перерыв
10. break for lunch – перерыв на обед
11. business – дело
12. business trip –командировка
13. busy – занятый
14. can – мочь, быть в состоянии
15. colleague – коллега
16. departure – отъезд, отбытие
17. discussion – обсуждение, дискуссия
18. employee – служащий
19. excuse – извинение
20. excuse me = sorry = I beg your pardon – извините
21. excuse my curiosity – прошу простить мое любопытство
22. five minutes past nine – пять минут десятого
23. five minutes to nine – без пяти девять
24. fortnight = two weeks – две недели
25. free – свободный
26. half past nine – половина десятого
27. I am going to the USA. – Я собираюсь в США.
28. I have a lof of books to read. – Мне нужно прочесть много книг.
29. I suppose – я полагаю, я думаю
30. I will be free at 6 p.m. – Я освобожусь к 6 часам вечера.
31. in the country – в стране
32. it depends – когда – как, по разному, для кого – как
33. it is hard to say – трудно сказать
34. it is very kind of you – как мило с Вашей стороны
35. last month – прошлый месяц
36. loud – громкий
37. loudly – громко
38. Mind your (own) business! – Не суй нос в чужие дела!
39. next year – следующий год
40. not yet – еще нет
41. offer – предложение (кофе, стула, помощи)
42. p.m. – c 12 дня до 11 вечера
43. participation – участие
44. pride – гордость
45. quarter pas nine – девять пятнадцать
46. reader – читатель
47. several times – несколько раз
48. shame – стыд
49. sign – знак
50. sometimes – иногда
51. suggestion – предложение (идеи)
52. sure = of course = sertainly – конечно
53. take а holiday – возьмите отгул (выходной)
54. talks – переговоры
55. telegram – телеграмма
56. that is settled = settled – договорились
57. theater (AmE) – театр
58. theatre (BrE) – театр
59. till 6 p.m. = till 6 o’clock – до 6 часов вечера
60. to accept – принимать
61. to agree – соглашаться
62. to answer – отвечать
63. to attend – посещать (уроки, лекции, курсы)
64. to be ashamed of smth./smb. – стыдиться чего-либо, кого-либо
65. to be laughed at – быть посмешищем
66. to be proud of smth./smb. – гордиться чем-либо, кем-либо
67. to be tired – быть уставшим
68. to call on – заходить
69. to call up – звонить по телефону
70. to depart – отъезжать, отбывать
71. to depend – зависеть
72. to discuss – обсуждать
73. to discuss the terms of the agreement – обсуждать условия договора
74. to excuse – извинять
75. to feel well – хорошо себя чувствовать
76. to get ready – готовиться
77. to give smb. a lift – подвозить кого-либо домой
78. to have a lot of work to do – иметь много работы, которую нужно сделать
79. to have a rest – отдыхать
80. to have many things to do – иметь много дел
81. to hear – слышать
82. to hurry – торопиться
83. to hurt – повреждать
84. to invite – приглашать
85. to last – продолжаться
86. to laugh – смеяться
87. to lay the table – накрывать на стол
88. to learn to speak – научиться говорить
89. to listen – слушать
90. to look – смотреть, разглядывать
91. to need rest – нуждаться в отдыхе
92. to offer – предлагать (кофе, стул, помощь)
93. to participate – участвовать
94. to plan – планировать
95. to print – печатать (в типографии)
96. to read – читать
97. to return – возвращаться
98. to see – видеть, понимать
99. to send – отправлять
100. to send by mail – отправлять почтой
101. to settle – улаживать (дело)
102. to show – показывать
103. to sign – подписывать
104. to spend – проводить
105. to stay – останавливаться
106. to suggest – предлагать (идею)
107. to suppose – предполагать
108. to talk smth. over with smb. – обговорить (обсудить) что-либо с кем-либо
109. to translate from Russian into English – переводить с русского на английский
110. to type – печатать (нажимать на клавиши)
111. to visit – посещать (город, достопримечательности)
112. to wait – ждать
113. to write – писать
114. translation – письменный перевод
115. various – различный
116. various – различный
117. wait a minute – подождите минуточку
118. writer – писатель
119. you’d better ask… - Вы бы лучше спросили…
4. Грамматический материал: предлоги, имя прилагательное (степени
Так как в современном английском языке падежные окончания почти полностью
отсутствуют, то предлоги играют важную роль, являясь одним из главных средств
выражения отношения существительного (или местоимения) к другим словам в
предложении. Предлоги выражают пространственные, временные, причинные и др.
отношения. Многие предлоги имеют несколько значений: at the table, at 5 o’clock, to laugh at
Некоторые глаголы могут употребляться с различными предлогами, меняя свое значение в
зависимости от предлога: to look at smb. – смотреть на кого-то; to look for smb. – искать
кого-то; to look after smb.- присматривать за кем-то.
Предлоги также входят в состав большого числа словосочетаний и выражений.
Некоторые глаголы в английском языке требуют после себя предлога, в то время как после
соответствующих им русских глаголов предлог не употребляется: to wait for smb.- ждать
кого-то; to listen to smb.- слушать кого-то. С другой стороны, в английском языке есть ряд
глаголов, которые не требуют после себя предлога, тогда как соответствующие им русские
глаголы употребляются с предлогами: to follow smb. - следовать за кем-то; to enter smth.входить в.
Предлоги бывают простые (of, for, on), сложные (below, between), составные (in front
of, out of).
Предлоги обычно ставятся перед существительными, к которым они относятся,
однако в ряде случаев могут стоять после них, а также в конце предложения:
This is a picture on the wall.
What street do you live in?
This novel is much spoken about.
Можно выделить три относительно большие группы предлогов: предлоги времени,
предлоги места, предлоги направления.
Предлоги времени.
Основные предлоги времени:
on – on Sunday, on the tenth of February
in – in two days, in September
at – at 7 o'clock, at noon
by – by 3 o'clock, by noon
from … till – from early morning till late at night
since – since 5 o'clock, since midnight
for – for an hour, for ages
during – during the lecture, during the break
before – before the bell, before winter
after – after the break, after classes
till (until) – till May, till the end of the year
between - between one and two o’clock
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Заполните пропуски правильным предлогом in, at или on.
a. I get up early ____ the morning and go to bed late ____ night.
b. I’m so bored. There’s nothing to do ___ weekends.
c. He went swimming ___ Sunday morning, and ____ the evening he play squash.
I love going for walks ____ summer. It’s still light ___ nine o’clock.
I take my annual holiday ____ June, but I have a few days off ____ Christmas.
He usually starts work ____ 9.30, but ____ Friday he starts ____ 8.30.
I was born ____ 18 January, 1954.
People exchange presents ____ Christmas Day.
This house was built ____ the nineteenth century.
Упр.2. С какими выражениями времени используются эти предлоги? Продолжите список на
сколько вы сможете.
In the morning
at night
on Sunday morning
Упр. 3. Все предложения этого упражнения касаются прошедшего времени. Заполните
пропуски подходящими словами из данных ниже. В некоторых случаях предлог не
ago last in for at when on.
Пример: I arrived home at six o’clock last night.
I saw Jane - yesterday.
a. I was born in Africa _____ 1970.
b. My parents moved back to England ____ I was five.
c. We lived in Bristol ____ three years.
d. I went to college three years ___ .
e. I found a flat on my own ____ last year.
f. I usually go home ____ the weekend.
g. I didn’t go home ____ weekend because some friends come to stay.
h. They arrived ____ three o’clock ____ the afternoon.
i. ____ Saturday evening we went out to a concert.
j. ____ we got home we listened to some music.
k. We got up late ____ Sunday morning.
l. ____ the afternoon we went for a walk.
m. I bought a car a few weeks ____ .
n. I had an accident ____ last night.
o. It happened ____ 7.00 ____ the evening.
p. I took my car to the garage ____ this morning.
Предлоги места и направления.
Основные предлоги места:
on – on the desk, on the wall
in – in the room, in the street
at – at the window, at the meeting, at the table
near – near the door, near the wall
by – by the river
over – over the table, over the sea
above – above the sofa
beyond - beyond the lake, beyond the forest
across – across the street
under – under the table, under the bed
between – between two chairs, between the doors
among – among the students, among them
behind – behind the house, behind the tree
across – across the street, across the river
in front of – in front of the house, in front of the column
through – through the window, through the glass
Предлоги направления:
to – to the library, to the south, to the park
towards – towards the forest, towards the house
from – from the table, from the north
along – along the street
into – into the room, into the box
out of – out of the house, out of the drawer
off –off the table, off the wall
Упр. 4. Выберите правильные предлоги.
1. a train ____ Moscow
5. ____ the ten o’clock show
A to
B for C on
A on
B in
C at
2. a ticket ____ the plane
6. a visit ____ a college
A on
B to
C for
A on
B at C in D to
3. the plans ____ the future
7. ____ John’s birthday
A for B on C to
A on B at C in
4. He is ____ his sister’s
8. What are the office hours ____ you?
A by B near C at
A at B by C near D with
Упр.5. Поставьте правильные предлоги места.
____ the South; ___ the stadium; __ the corner; ___the post-office; __ the factory; ____ the
meeting; __ the sky; __ the hostel; __ the station; __ the fifth floor; ____ the concert; ____ the
picture; ____ the apple-tree; __ the forest; ___the newspaper; __ Ottava; __ the chemist’s; ____ the
USA; ____ the air.
Упр. 6. Заполните пропуски одним из предлагаемых предлогов.
above across
towards below
out of
a. The cowboy leant _____ the bar in the saloon, drinking a beer.
b. She took her purse _____ her bag and paid the taxi driver.
c. Our cat just loves to curl up ________ the fire and go to sleep.
d. The view from the top of the mountain was breathtaking. We could see the town and the river
______ us, and people who looked like ants.
e. Last night the temperature fell to three degrees _____ zero.
f. The burglar heard a noise coming from upstairs, so he hid _____ the curtains.
g. The dog jumped _____ my lap, and settled down for a good sleep.
h. The hunter froze as the tiger started running ____ him. He had nowhere to hide.
i. She has beautiful works of art all ____ her house, even in the kitchen and the bedroom.
j. These days, politicians like to walk ____ the crowds, shaking hands and saying one or two
k. He climbed _____ the wall and ran _____ the field.
l. The plane took off and was soon flying _____ the clouds.
Предлоги, которые используются, когда речь идет о способе путешествия.
Это предлоги by, on и in . При использовании предлога by между предлогом и словом,
определяющим способ путешествия (air, sea, car, bus и т.д.), нет ни артикля, ни
притяжательного местоимения. Предлог on употребляется, если есть артикль или
притяжательное местоимение (on the train, on my bicycle, on his horse) (Исключение - on foot
). Предлог in используется так же, как и on, но только с автомобилем, как средством
передвижения (in the taxi, in your car).
Упр. 7. Выберите соответствующий предлог.
1. I saw him riding into town on / by his bicycle yesterday.
2. He’d rather go on / by bus than drive there himself.
3. She sent him home in / by a taxi.
4. That’s much too far to travel on / in foot.
5. Did you take the tunnel to France, or did you go on / in the ferry?
6. She rode through town on / by her horse.
7. Let’s go home in / by taxi - I can’t be bothered to walk.
8. She sometimes gets sick when travelling on / by sea.
9. He flies round the world in / by his own private jet.
10. The quickest way to get there is on / by air.
Упр. 8. После многих прилагательных в составном сказуемом с глаголом to be используются
предлоги. Выберите нужный вариант.
a. Who isn’t present ____ the lesson?
A on
B at
C from
b. Why are you afraid ____ him?
A of
B C with
c. Are you angry ___ her?
A on
B at
C with
d. What is John ill ____ ?
A with B by
C e. John Smith is proud ____ his progress in Russian.
A with B of
C by
f. I am quite sure ____ good results of our research.
A in
B with
C of
g. The old woman is seriously ill. All are afraid ____ her.
A of
B for
C h. I am sorry ___ the girl. She isn’t able to pass the exam.
A for
B about
C Упр.9. Переведите следующие выражения на английский язык:
Решение проблемы; наоборот; в общем; в среднем; в конце концов; сам по себе;
случайно; намеренно; отвечать (быть ответственным за что-либо); в пользу чего-либо;
навсегда; в теории и на практике; отличаться от; иметь много общего; быть в цейтноте;
хорошо уметь (что-либо сделать), заранее.
Устойчивые выражения с предлогами.
В зависимости от используемого предлога меняется значение словосочетания.
Например, выражение at the beginning (of the story) означает в начале с хронологической
точки зрения. А выражения in the beginning и at first подразумевают противопоставление,
то, что обстоятельства позднее изменятся.
Выражение at the end (of the story) означает в конце с хронологической точки зрения. А
выражение in the end подразумевает разрешение некой проблемы или неопределенности, о
которой речь шла ранее.
Когда используются наречия finally и eventually, то это означает долгое ожидание
результата, положительного или отрицательного.
Выражение at last предполагает долгое ожидание положительного результата.
Сравните следующие пары предложений.
a. John and Anita got married at the beginning of May.
In the beginning, the marriage worked well, but problems soon began to emerge.
b. At the end of the war, the soldiers all went home.
We had a long and bitter argument, but in the end I realized he was right after all.
c. I burnt the meat and dropped the vegetables, but the meal turned out all right in the end.
At last the waiter brought them their meal, but by then it was cold.
Упр.10. Заполните пропуски соответствующим словом или выражением из тех, о которых
шла речь выше в этом параграфе.
a. After the operation, he went home to recuperate. ______ he made good progress, but his
condition soon began to deteriorate.
b. ____ of the film, we are introduced to the two main characters, Bill and Sarah Cunningham.
c. Damain told me the other day that he wants to be an astronaut. I didn’t believe him ______ , but
then I realized he was serious!
d. She spent days trying to decide what to do. She _______ decided that the best course of action
was to do nothing.
e. I’ve spent thousand of pounds trying to get my driving licence, and now, after seventeen goes,
I’ve got it ________!
f. They tried hard to make the marriage work, but their hearts weren’t in it, and they got divorced
________ .
g. The story jumps around from place to place, and there are characters introduced who don’t seem
to be connected. ________ , you have very little idea of what it was all about.
h. I had to wait weeks for the cheque to come, but it arrived ________ .
Имена прилагательные в английском языке не изменяются по
родам, числам и падежам:
a new book
a new building
a new house
new houses
новая книга
новое здание
новый дом
новые дома
Имена прилагательные в английском языке изменяются только по степеням сравнения.
По своему составу имена прилагательные могут быть: простыми, производными и
Простые -это такие имена прилагательные, в исходной (основной) форме которых нет
Производные -имена прилагательные, в составе которых есть суффикс или префикс или тот и
другой одновременно: reasonable разумный, useful полезный, unreal нереальный, international
интернациональный, международный.
Сложные - имена прилагательные, состоящие двух и более основ, образующих одно слово с
единым значением: red-hot раскаленный докрасна, double-edge обоюдоострый.
Имена прилагательные в английском языке имеют три степени сравнения:
положительную (the Positive Degree), сравнительную (the Comparative Degree) превосходную
(the Superlative Degree).
Сравнительная и превосходная степени в английском языке образуются двумя
способами: а) посредством прибавления суффиксов и б) с помощью специальных слов.
1. Степени сравнения односложных прилагательных образуются путем прибавления
суффиксов к прилагательным в положительной степени: в сравнительной степени
прибавляется суффикс -еr, в превосходной степени -суффикс -est.
Таким же способом образуются степени сравнения двусложных прилагательных,
simple простой, humble скромный и т. п.; на -у: happy счастливый, heavy тяжелый и т. п.; на еr: clever умный, bitter горький, резкий и т. п.; на -ow: narrow узкий, shallow мелкий и т. п., и
некоторых других двусложных прилагательных.
Сравнительная степень
короткий Shorter
high высокий
higher выше
Превосходная степень
shortest кратчайший,
highest высочайший,
При образовании степеней сравнения прилагательных путем прибавления суффиксов -еr и est соблюдаются следующие правила правописания:
1) В написании удваивается конечная согласная буква, если односложное прилагательное
оканчивается на одну согласную с предшествующим кратким гласным звуком:
hot горячий
big большой
flat плоский, ровный
hotter hottest
bigger biggest
flatter flattest
2) Конечная гласная у меняется на i перед суффиксами -еr и -est, если гласной у
предшествует согласная буква
но: grey
happier happiest
greyer greyest
3) Конечная гласная е (немое е) опускается перед фиксами -еr, -est:
2. Второй способ образования степеней сравнения заключается в прибавлении специальных
слов к прилагательному в положительной степени: в сравнительной степени прибавляется
Этим способом образуются степени сравнения большинства двусложных и всех
многосложных прилагательных:
Положительная степень
Сравнительная степень
Превосходная степень
useful most
более полезный, полезнее самый полезный, наиболее полезный
difficult most
более трудный,труднее
самый трудный труднейший
numerous most
более многочисленный
самый многочисленный
Для выражения степеней сравнения, указывающих
уменьшение качества или свойства предмета, употребляются слова less в сравнительной
степени и least в превосходной степени:
Положительная степень Сравнительная степень
Превосходная, степень
трудный less difficult менее трудный less least difficult наименее трудны
менее least
Некоторые прилагательные образуют степени сравнения от других корней, так же
как и соответствующие слова в русском языке:
many more
Превосходная степень
Общие замечания по употреблению степеней сравнения
Имя существительное, определяемое прилагательным в превосходной степени,
употребляется с определенным артиклем:
- Байкал - самое большое пресноводное озеро в Европе и Азии.
- Наиболее обычное ускорение-это ускорение свободно падающих тел.
Артикль сохраняется перед именем прилагательным превосходной степени, даже если
существительное не выражено, а лишь подразумевается:
At present he was just one of the mechanics, the youngest and least experienced.
- В настоящее время он был просто одним из механиков, самым молодым и наименее
1. Сочетание most с прилагательным в положительной степени может обозначать не высшую
степень качества предмета по сравнению с другими предметами, а просто очень высокую
степень качества безотносительно к другим предметам. В этом случае определяемое
a most difficult problem - очень трудная проблема.
2. Слово most может употребляться перед именем существительным во множественном
числе в функции определения этого существительного. В этом случае most переводится на
русский язык словом большинство. Сочетание most of переводится большинство из:
- He так давно межпланетный перелет казался большинству людей фантастической идеей,
Even today we cannot directly measure the dimensions of most molecules.
- Даже в настоящее время мы не можем непосредственно измерить размеры большинства
Most of them were factory girls aged from twelve to twenty,
-- Большинство из них были фабричные работницы в возрасте от 12 до 20 лет.
При сравнении употребляется союз than чем. Для того чтобы при сравнении
избежать повторения одного и того же имени существительного, употребляется слово
заместитель one (мн. ч. ones). Это слово переводится на русский язык тем существительным,
которое оно заменяет, или совсем не переводится.
-- Маленькая лампа имеет большее сопротивления, чем большая (лампа).
Для замены ранее упомянутого существительного употребляется также местоимение that в
единственном числе во множественном числе these, those .
Для усиления сравнительной степени перед прилагательными и наречиями
употребляются слова more значительно, гораздо (by) far значительно, гораздо; still еще; ever
еще и др.:
much more
much less
much shorter
much more useful
значительно (гораздо) больше
значительно (гораздо) меньше
значительно (гораздо) короче
значительно (гораздо) более полезен
still (yet) colder еще холоднее
still (yet) more
еще более важный
far better
значительно (гораздо) лучше
ever closer
еще теснее
The devouring flames were repelled by the yet more powerful wind.
- Всепоглощающее пламя пожара отбрасывалось еще более мощным ветром.
При сравнении одинакового качества употребляется двойной союз as... as такой (же) ...
как (и), так (же) ... как (и). При отрицании одинакового качества употребляется двойной союз
not so... as не такой... как:
The land was flat-as flat as a table. - Земля была плоской - такой же плоской, как стол.
Molecules of gas are moving as fast as bullets. - Молекулы газа движутся так же быстро, как
The bottom of the Arctic Ocean is not so smooth as old charts indicated. (N.)
- Дно Северного Ледовитого океана не такое гладкое, как показывали старые морские карты.
Если перед прилагательным в положительной степени, (стоящим между союзом, употребляются счетные наречия half в два раза меньше, twice в два раза больше или
количественное числительное со словом time раз, то такие сочетания переводятся
следующим образом:
half as much as...
в два раза меньше, чем...
twice as much as...
в два раза больше, чем...
three times as long as... в три раза длиннее, чем...
four times as high as... в четыре раза выше, чем...
Примечание. При переводе на русский язык можно употребить конструкцию без союза чем.
Thе ice in the camp melted five times as fast as the ice on the floe. - Лед в лагере таял в пять раз
быстрее, чем лед на плавучей льдине. При сравнении союз as... as может быть опущен. В
этом случае прилагательное также опускается.
Helium has four times the mass, and twice the charge of a proton. - Масса гелия больше массы
протона в четыре раза, а заряд - в два раза.
Имена прилагательные выступают в предложении в функции
определения и именной чисти сказуемого;
He had dark living eyes and straight black hair. - У него были темные живые глаза и прямые
черные волосы.
Не was standing and his eyes seemed very dark. - Он стоял, и его глаза казались очень темными.
Имя прилагательное в функции определения обычно занимает место перед
существительным. Если имя существительное имеет артикль, то имя прилагательное
ставится между артиклем и существительным.
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Переведите на английский язык.
Старый, старше, самый старый, самый старший, мой старший брат, мой старый друг, дальше,
самый дальний, самый длинный, короче, счастливый, счастливее, самый счастливый, самый
лучший, самый черный, длиннее, хуже, лучше, теплее, ее лучший друг, ее младший сын, его
старший сын
Упр. 2. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
1. а. Я знаю интересную историю. б. Он знает более интересную историю. в. Она знает
самую интересную историю. 2. а. Это длинный путь. б. Это более длинный путь. в. Это
самый длинный путь. 3. а. Ее работа очень важна. б. Его работа важнее. в. Моя работа
самая важная. 4. а. Это плохая песня. б. Это еще более плохая песня. в. Это самая плохая
песня. а. Он хороший инженер. б. Он более хороший инженер. в. Он самый лучший
инженер. а. Он принес ей красивый цветок. б. Он принес ей более красивый цветок. в. Он
принес ей самый красивый цветок. 7, а. Он рассказал нам о счастливом человек б. Он
рассказал нам о более счастливом человеке. в. Он рассказал нам о самом счастливом
человеке. 8. Это были самые счастливые дни в ее жизни. 9. Это очень легкая задача. Дайте
мне боле трудную задачу. 10. Летом дни длинные, а ночи короткие. 11. 22 июня - самый
длинный день. 12. В июле дни короче. 13. В декабре дни сами короткие. 14. «Четверка» —
хорошая отметка но «пятерка» лучше. 15. «Пятерка» —лучшая отметка. 16. Самая плохая
отметка — «двойка». 17. Твое платье, конечно, очень красивое, но мое платье красивее. 18.
Мой папа - высокий мужчина. 19. Это более теплое пальто.
Упр. 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму прилагательного.
1. Which is (large): the United States or Canada? 2. What is the name of the (big) port in the United
States? 3. Moscow is the (large) city in Russia. 4. The London underground is the (old) in the
world. 5. There is a (great) number of cars and buses in the streets of Moscow than in any other city
of Russia. 6. St. Petersburg is one of the (beautiful) cities in the world. 7. The rivers in America are
much (big) than those in England. 8. The island of Great Britain is (small) than Greenland. 9. What
is the name of the (high) mountain in Asia? 10. The English Channel is (wide) than the straits of
Gibraltar. 11. Russia is a very (large) country.
as ... as -- такой же ... как not so .„. as — не такой... как
Упр. 4. Вставьте as ... as или so ... as.
1. Mike is ... tall ... Pete. 2. Kate is not ... nice ... Ann. 3. My room is ... light ... this one. 4. This
book is not ... thin ... that one. 5. Sergei is... old ... Michael. 6. She is ... young ... Tom's brother. 7.
This woman is ... good ... that one. 8. Nick's English is not ... good ... his friend's. 9.1 am not ... tall
... Pete. 10. This woman is ... young ... that one. 12. I am ... thin ... you. 13. Kate is ... lazy ... her
brother. 14. This child is not . . small . . that one.
Упр. 5. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
Этот дом такой же высокий, как тот. 2. Сегодня вода в реке не такая теплая, как вчера.
3. Ты не такой умный, как папа. 4. Индия не такая большая, как Китай. 5. Темза такая же
красивая, как Нева. 6. Его бабушка не такая старая, как дедушка. 7 Яблоки такие же вкусные,
как сливы, но не такие вкусные, как груши. 8. Русский музей такой же богатый, как
Эрмитаж? 9. Державин не такой знаменитый, как Пушкин. 10. Днепр не такой длинный, как
Волга. 11. В прошлом году август был такой же жаркий, как июль.
10 час.
1. Устный коррективный курс по фонетике.
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения, аудирования и письма
по текстам:
А) «Изобретения и изобретатели)»
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
3. Развития навыков говорения (парная работа студентов)
4. Систематизация пройденного грамматического материала.
1. Устный коррективный курс по фонетике.
Упр.1. Напишите транскрипцию гласных звуков следующих слов. Прочитайте
а) be, feel, we, me, see, meet, deed, feet, need
b) it, is, in, ill, sit, fill, live, win, till, mill
c) bed, pen, ten, tell, set, let, met
d) tie, lie, my, pie, die, life, time, five, nine, smile
e) man, bad, hat, lamp, glad, fat, cat, black, sack
f) day, late, tale, main, pain, rain, male, fail
g) park, mark, arm, are, car, farm, large
h) air, chair, care, fair, rare, parent
i) there, where
j) here, near, mere, clear, fear, bear
k) hire, fire, tyre, buyer, flyer
l) our, flour, power, flower, down, town
m) her, term, bird, firm, burn, turn, fur, learn
n) sorry, story, warm, word, door, all, taught, talk
Упр.2. Напишите транскрипцию согласных звуков следующих слов:
a ) think, thing, thin, thought, death, threat.
b) sing, song, bang, long, something, going, hung, wrong.
c) this, that, those, the, these, there, other, another.
d) ship, shop, she, clash, sharp, shine, shame, shape.
e) chess, chop, chamber, charm, charity, future.
f) phone, photo, phenomenon, phantom, pharos, philharmonic, phase.
g) knife, know, knock, knit, knight, knee, knack.
h) what, where, when, wheel, whiff, whig, whip, whim.
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения, аудирования и письма по текстам:
А) «Изобретения и изобретатели)»
1) Read the text. Translate the paragraphs 6, 7 in written form
By Mary Bellis
No, Steve, I think its more like we both have a rich neighbor named Xerox, and you broke
in to steal the TV set, and you found out I'd been there first, and you said. "Hey that's no fair! I
wanted to steal the TV set! - Bill Gates' response after Steve Jobs accused Microsoft of borrowing
the GUI (Graphical User Interface) from Apple for Windows 1.0*
The Lisa - The Personal Computer That Works The Way You Do - Apple promotional
A GUI (pronounced GOO-ee) is a graphical user interface to a computer. Most of you are
using one right now. Take a look at your computer screen, the GUI provides you with windows,
pull-down menus, clickable buttons, scroll bars, icons, images and the mouse or pointer. The first
user interfaces to computers were not graphical or visually oriented; they were all text and keyboard
commands. MS-DOS is an example of a text and keyboard method of computer control that you can
still find on many PCs today.
The very first graphical user interface was developed by the Xerox Corporation at their
Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the 1970s, but it was not until the 1980s when GUIs became
widespread and popular. By that time the CPU power and monitors necessary for an effective GUI
became cheap enough to use in home computers.
Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple Computers, visited PARC in 1979 (after buying Xerox
stock) and was impressed by the "Alto", the first computer ever with a graphical user interface.
Several PARC engineers were later hired by Apple and worked on the Apple Lisa and Macintosh.
The Apple research team contributed much in the way of originality in their first GUI computers,
and work had already begun on the Lisa before Jobs visited PARC. Jobs was definitely inspired and
influenced from the technology he saw at PARC, however, enough for Bill Gates to later defend
Microsoft against an Apple's lawsuit over Windows 1.0 having too much of the "look and feel" of a
Apple MacIntosh. Gates' claim being, "hey, we both got it from Xerox." The lawsuit ended when
Gates finally agreed that Microsoft would not use MacIntosh technology in Windows 1.0, but the
use of that technology in future versions of Windows was left open. With that agreement, Apple lost
its exclusive rights to certain key design elements.
In 1978, Apple Computers started on a business system to complement their successful
Apple II/III line of home computers. The new project was code named Lisa, unofficially after the
daughter of one of its designers and officially standing for Local Integrated Software Architecture.
Steve Jobs was completely dedicated to new project, implementing feature after feature and
delaying the release of Lisa, until he was finally removed as project manager by then Apple
president Mark Markkula. The Lisa was finally released in January 1983.
Side Note: Don't worry about Jobs. He then turned his attention to the Macintosh.
The Lisa was the first personal computer to use a GUI. Other innovative features for the
personal market included a drop-down menu bar, windows, multiple tasking, a hierarchal file
system, the ability to copy and paste, icons, folders and a mouse. It cost Apple $50 million to
develop the Lisa and $100 million to write the software, and only 10,000 units were ever sold. One
year later the Lisa 2 was released with a 3.5" drive instead of the two 5.25" and a price tag slashed
in half from the original $9,995. In 1985, the Lisa 2 was renamed the Macintosh XL and bundled
with MacWorks system software. Finally in 1986, the Lisa, Lisa 2 and Macintosh XL line was
scrapped altogether, literally ending up as landfill, despite Steve Jobs saying, "We're prepared to
live with Lisa for the next ten years."
2) Skim through the texts and say in Russian or in English what they are about
By Mary Bellis
Cellular: A type of wireless communication that is most familiar to mobile phones users.
It's called 'cellular' because the system uses many base stations to divide a service area into multiple
'cells'. Cellular calls are transferred from base station to base station as a user travels from cell to
cell. - definition from the Wireless Advisor Glossary.
The basic concept of cellular phones began in 1947, when researchers looked at crude
mobile (car) phones and realized that by using small cells (range of service area) with frequency
reuse they could increase the traffic capacity of mobile phones substantially. However at that time,
the technology to do so was nonexistent.
Anything to do with broadcasting and sending a radio or television message out over the
airwaves comes under Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulation. A cell phone is a
type of two-way radio. In 1947, AT&T proposed that the FCC allocate a large number of radiospectrum frequencies so that widespread mobile telephone service would become feasible and
AT&T would have a incentive to research the new technology. We can partially blame the FCC for
the gap between the initial concept of cellular service and its availability to the public. The FCC
decided to limit the amount of frequencies available in 1947, the limits made only twenty-three
phone conversations possible simultaneously in the same service area - not a market incentive for
Almost everybody knows a little about electricity. Very often on a cold day, if one rubs his
feet on a carpet and then touches another person, a crackling sound will be heard, and the person
touched will receive a shock. Something like this happens when a cat's back is rubbed briskly.
Despite these and other interesting things that have long been known, not much interest was taken
in electricity so that it was not until very recently that much was really understood about it. Men did
not begin to study electricity with care until about two hundred years before Washington became
Otto von Guericke, a German, was one of the first to study it carefully. He made the first
machine to generate or produce electricity. His machine was merely a globe of sulphur supported so
that he could turn it by a crank. When he placed his dry hand on the moving globe, it would attract
bits of paper like a magnet. A similar machine was made later by placing a glass disk so that it
could be easily turned, and by fixing a number of rubber or silk brushes so that they would rub
against the revolving glass.
Alexander Volta, an Italian, was also a pioneer. He discovered in 1800 that two different
metals in contact with each other would produce an electric current. From this discovery, he
invented an electric battery. It consisted of a number of cups piled on top of each other. In each cup
he placed a disk of copper and a disk of zinc, covered with a brine of common table salt. The copper
disk of the first cup was connected by a copper wire with the zinc disk of the second cup, and so on.
A copper wire was also fastened to the copper disk of the first cup and one to the zinc disk of the
last cup. On taking hold of these last two connecting wires a strong electric shock was felt, and the
current continued to flow regularly. A battery like Volta's can be made without the cups by using a
glass jar. It should be remembered, however, that the strength of the battery does not depend upon
the size, but upon the number of the disks or plates.
Volta's battery was the first easy way found to produce electricity in quantities. Years of
study and experiment have shown also that the metals used by Volta, copper and zinc, are the very
best to employ in batteries. The so-called "dry battery," for example, used to work doorbells, was
made until lately of copper and zinc disks covered with sand or sawdust, soaked in acid and sealed.
The battery is to-day the most common of electrical appliances. There are one or two in almost
every home.
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
Учебное пособие по обучению профессионально-ориентированному чтению. Electrical Power.
Кушникова Г.К., Москва, изд-во «Флинт», «Наука». 2006 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
3. Развития навыков говорения (парная работа студентов)
“Назначение Встречи”– “Making an Appointment”
Dialogue No 1
2) Read the dialogues in pairs. Try to reproduce them.
– Hello. Is that Mr. Smith? Sable is speaking.
– Hello. How are you?
– Fine. Thanks. Pretty busy. How are you?
– OK. Cannot complain.
– Glad to hear it. There is something I would like to talk over with you. How about having а chat
early next week?
– It suits me ОК. When and where do we make it?
– Let us make it Monday morning at my office.
– Just а moment… Let me consult my diary… Yes, I guess it will be all right. What time do you
– Let us make it 10 a.m. Will that suit you?
– Yes, quite.
– Fine. I will be looking forward to seeing you.
– See you on holiday. Good-bye.
– Good-bye.
Dialogue No 2
– Hello, is that Mr. Snow?
– Yes, this is Snow.
– Mr. Snow. John Mitchell is speaking. Good evening!
– Good evening, Mr. Mitchell! How are you?
– Pretty much the same. Thanks. How are you?
– I am doing fine. Thanks. Are you engaged on Saturday?
– No, I am not. Why?
– Will you come and dine with us? We shall be delighted.
– Thank you for the invitation. What is the occasion?
– It will be my wife’s birthday.
– The occasion calls for celebration! I should be pleased to come.
– We expect you and your wife at 7.00 p.m.
– Thank you. So, till Saturday. Good-bye!
– Good-bye.
Word list
1. all right – все в порядке
2. appointment – деловая встреча
3. at once – немедленно
4. behaviour – поведение
5. birthday – день рождения
6. busy – занятый
7. by all means – в любом случае
8. cannot complain – не могу жаловаться
9. chat – беседа, разговор
10. chief – шеф, начальник
11. congratulation – поздравление
12. delight – восторг
13. diary – записная книжка, дневник
14. discussion – обсуждение
15. fine – хорошо, отлично
16. I am doing fine – у меня все в порядке
17. invitation – приглашение
18. invite – приглашать
19. It suits me OK. – Меня это устраивает.
20. make it 10 a.m. – договоримся на 10 утра
21. manager – управляющий, менеджер
22. My congratulations! – Мои поздравления!
23. occasion – событие
24. polite – вежливый
25. politeness – вежливость
26. pretty busy – очень занят
27. pretty much the same = very much the same – все так же
28. request – запрос
29. rude – грубый
30. rudeness – грубость
31. see you tomorrow, on holiday, Monday – увидимся завтра, на праздник, в понедельник
32. telegram – телеграмма
33. terms – условия
34. The occasion calls far celebration. – Это надо отметить
35. till Saturday – до субботы
36. to apologise – извиняться
37. to appoint – назначать
38. to be busy – быть занятым
39. to be delighted – быть в восторге
40. to be engaged – быть занятым
41. to be late – опаздывать
42. to be pleased to do smth – приятно сделать что-либо
43. to call for celebration – стоит того, чтобы отпраздновать
44. to complain – жаловаться
45. to congratulate – поздравлять
46. to consult the diary – посмотреть в календарь
47. to consult the doctor – прийти на прием к доктору
48. to consult the lawyer – проконсультироваться у адвоката
49. to decline – отклонять
50. to dine with smb – ужинать (обедать) с кем-либо
51. to discuss – обсуждать
52. to fail to do smth – не суметь сделать что-либо
53. to fulfil – выполнить
54. to guess – угадывать, догадываться
55. to have a chat – беседовать
56. to insist – настаивать
57. to keep smb doing smth – заставить (вынудить) кого-либо делать что-либо
58. to keep the appointment – прийти на деловую встречу
59. to look forward to doing smth – ждать чего-либо
60. to receive = to get – получать
61. to send – посылать
62. to suit smb – подходить кому-либо (по времени, условиям)
63. to talk over with smb – переговорить с кем-либо
64. to wake smb up – будить кого-либо
65. What is the occasion? – По какому поводу?
66. Where do we make it? – Где мы встретимся?
4. Систематизация пройденного грамматического материала.
Упр. 1. Образуйте множественное число от следующих существительных.
A story, play, glass, flag, photo, name, match, knife, bush, chief, page, radio, roof, prize, set, key,
factory, wolf, piano, class, cup, city
В child, goose, man, foot, mouse, woman, sheep, person, deer, tooth, ox
criterion, datum, formula, crisis, stimulus, index, phenomenon, medium, oasis, nucleus,
memorandum, basis, radius, analysis, symposium, hypothesis
Упр. 2. Выпишите: a) - исчисляемые существительные
b) - неисчисляемые существительные
Furniture, coffee, leaf, food, computer, list, blood, job, work, language, country, advice,
information, money, progress, permit, permission, baggage, luggage, beach, traffic, weather,
window, knowledge, air, water, holiday, damage, accommodation, scenery, scene, pigeon, bread,
mountain, kick, news, accident, laugh, flour, laughter
Упр. 3. Выберите правильный вариант:
1 . Physics is/are a very difficult subject. 2. Three miles is/are a long way to walk to work.
3. Measles is/are quite a serious illness. 4. Her clothes were/was very smart. 5. Two pounds is/are
not enough to buy a CD. 6. The class was/were all on a school outing. 7. The stairs is/are very
slippery. 8. His advice was/were that I take it to a garage. 9. The weather was/were wonderful. 10 .
You should buy a new pair. 11. We opened up two more branches. 12. Two years is/are a long time
to be away from home
Упр. 4. Выпишите имена существительные, которые употребляются только во
множественном числе (25 слов)
Athletics, cattle, scissors, taxes, pyjamas, economics, police, news, means, goods, pants,
subjects, billiards, darts, outskirts, premises, mechanics, spectacles, clothes, stairs, maths, shorts,
tights, gymnastics, congratulations, crossroads, patience, scales, lodgings, foundations, equipment,
research, authorities, soap, contents, looks, countryside, traffic-lights, tongs, toothpaste,
headphones, delays, binoculars, electronics, eyes, trousers
Упр. 5. Раскройте скобки, выберите нужную форму глагола
I feel that the jury already (have/has) thought that you are innocent. 2. The government
(was/were) not able to pursue the policy which had been promised before the elections. 3. The
police (is/are) investigating the case now. 4. The crew of the plane (consist/consists) of four people.
5. His company (was/were) founded in 1996. 6. The party (was/were) in full swing. The music was
playing, the company (was/were) eating and drinking. 7. My family (is/are) early risers, so at 11
o'clock p.m. the family (is/are) always in bed. 8. The cattle (is/are) in the field next to it. 9. The
committee (is/are) full of enthusiasm. 10. Such an organization as the board of directors (is/are)
elected by stockholders. 11. The ship turned out to be a good ship, the crew (was/were) skilled
seamen. 12. The government usually (consist/consists) of the prime minister and several ministers.
13. The average American family (have/has) three children. 14. The jury (is/are) represented by
twelve people. 15. The crops (is/arc) good this summer.
Упр. 6. Раскройте скобки, выберите нужную форму глагола to be
1. The crew (to be) rescued by our boat. 2. Her clothes (to be) very fashionable. 3. Your
advice (to be) always welcome. 4. The information he gave us (to be) very useful. 5. A little money
(to be) better than nothing. 6. That species of spiders (to be) commonly seen in deserts of North
Africa. 7. I think her hair (to be) dyed. 8. No news (to be) good news. 9. I don't want to work here.
The equipment (to be) too complicated. 10. There (to be) a lot of sheep in the field. 11. I think this
(to be) detailed research. 12. Where (to be) my spectacles? 13. The phenomena (to be) unusual. 14.
Mathematics (to be) difficult, but physics (to be) more difficult to my mind.
Тест 1 .
Choose the correct variant
Выберите правильный вариант для подстановки
1.Our two … are crying all the time.
2.No news … good news.
b)are c) am
3. … usually fly not very high.
a)flyes b)flys c)flies
4. These potatoes weigh five … .
a)kilos b)kilo c) kiloes
5. I don’t like going by car. If I have a chance, I always go on … .
6. What do you need these … for?
a)box b)boxes c) boxs
7. My new Swiss watch … 3 minutes slow.
b)are c) am
8. Those were the happiest days of our … .
b)lives c)live
9.Leaves usually … trees in autumn.
b) leaves
10. Rock music of the 1970s is an extremely interesting cultural … .
b)phenomena c)phenomenon
11. Big … don’t cry.
a)boys b)boyes c) boy
12. I prefer natural … when I want to change my hair style.
b)dyes c)dys
13.It is rather dangerous to walk on … after the rain.
a)roofs b)roofes
14. Dentists recommend using … twice a day: in the morning and in the evening.
a)tooth`s paste b)toothpaste
c) teethpaste
15. … are flowers of life.
16.The naughty kid likes throwing rotten … at passers-by.
b)tomatoes c) tomato
17. 50 … of oil leaked out of the tanker into the sea.
b)Tons c)Tonns
18.There is no piano in the … .
b)bushs c) bush
19. … in our house are so annoying. We definitely need a cat.
20.My little son is afraid of grey … (волков) that come at night.
Упр. 7. Отройте скобки, используя прилагательные в нужной форме:
1. Did you enjoy the film? Yes. It was … (funny) film I've ever seen. 2. James is..... (tall) boy in
our class. 3. Did you like the black dress? Yes, but it was .... (expensive) than the blue one. 4. It's
..... (good) job I've ever had. 5. My teacher is ...... (intelligent) woman I've ever met. 6. Dinosaurs
were ..... (big) than houses. 7. How much did you pay for that bag? - £5. It was ......(cheap) one I
could find. 8. That exam was really difficult. It was a lot .....(difficult) than I had expected.
Упр. 8. Раскройте скобки
Pete was the (more talented/most talented) of the two brothers. 2. My dog is the
(prettier/prettiest) of the two. 3. This summary is the (better/best) of the two presented. 4. There are
nine planets in our solar system and Pluto is the (farther/farthest). 5. Mary is (tallest/ taller) than
those girls.
Упр. 9. Вставьте as ... as, so ... as или than.
1. Our house is not ... big ... yours. 2. The new cinema in our district is much bigger ... the old one.
3. We are ... proud of our district ... you are of yours. 4. The house I live in is ... old ... the one my
sister lives in. 5. Exercise No.6 is easier ... Exercise No.3. 6. My composition is not ... long ...
yours. 7. I am not … lazy … she. 8. This story is … interesting … I thought. 9. He speaks English
better … I do.
Упр. 10. Отройте скобки, используя прилагательные в нужной форме:
1. The Pan-American Highway is (long) road in the world. 2. The Beatles were (successful)
pop group. 3. Japan has (crowded) railways in the world. 4. This is our (old) national airline. 5. New
districts of Moscow are (beautiful) than the old ones. 6. Is English (useful) language to learn? 7.
Are expensive things (good) than cheap ones? 8. The Queen must be (rich) woman in the world. 9.
Unfortunately, I haven't heard (late) news. I think it was very interesting. 10. Is the Mona Lisa
(valuable) painting in the world? 11. His house is (far) in the street. 12. February is (snowy) and
(cold) month of the year here. 13. (dangerous) spider is the black widow, whose bite can kill a man
in a few minutes.14. The world's (expensive) perfume costs $550 per bottle. 15. (deep) part of the
Pacific Ocean is 11 kilometers below the sea-level.
Тест 2.
1.My wife is … than your wife.
a)the most beautiful b)beautifuller c)more beautiful
2. Their flat is … than ours.
a)more large
c)the largest
3. You are … person that I know.
b)the luckiest c)the luckyest
4. Cats are not so clever … dogs.
5. The situation is … than I thought.
a)more bad
b)bad c)worse
6. Today the weather is … than yesterday.
a)nicer b)more nicer
c)much nicer
7. For me mathematics is … physics.
a)more easy as
b)easy than c)easier than
8. This car is … of all.
a)an expensive
b)the least expensive c) less expensive
9. Concord was … plane in the world.
c)the fastest
10. The new teacher is … than the previous one.
a)many good b)a lot better
c)many better
11. This room is not so … as that one on the first floor.
a)the most comfortable
b)more comfortable c)comfortable
12. The more you learn … you become.
b) smart
c)the smartest
13. These jeans are too small. I need … size.
a)a large
b)a larger
c)the largest
14. We left … way possible.
a) quicker
b)a quick
c)the quickest
15. It is … to go for a walk, than to watch TV at home.
a)good b)the best
16. What sea is … The Black or the Red?
a)less salty b)little saltier c)less saltier
17.The band will play on … stage.
a)a new
b)a newer
c)the newest
18. Oh! This dress is … expensive than I expected!
a)far much
b)far more
c)far a lot
19. It will do you … if you start doing your homework.
a)good b)better
c)the best
20. It is … dog that I have ever seen!
a) big
c)the biggest
Упр. 11. Вставьте предлоги in или to.
1. We did not want to stay ... town on such a hot day, so we went ... the country. 2. It is very late:
Go ... bed at once. 3. Where is your little sister? - - She is ... bed. Mother always puts her ... bed at
eight o'clock. 4. In summer my mother does not go ... work and I don't go ... school. We live ... the
country. My father goes ... work every day, so he stays ... town. But sometimes he comes ... the
country after work and goes back ... town early in the morning, when I am still ... bed. 5. In winter I
usually go ... bed at ten o'clock because I learn ... school and have to get up early.
Упр. 12. Вставьте предлоги at или on.
1.1 get up ... seven o'clock or ... a quarter past seven. 2. ... Sunday I usually get up ... nine o'clock
or half past nine. But last Sunday I slept very long and got up only ... noon. 3. Lev Tolstoy liked to
get up... sunrise. 4. Our lessons are usually over ... twenty minutes to two. 5. They returned from the
wood... sunset. 6. I began writing my composition ... seven o'clock and finished only ... midnight. 7.
My birthday is ... the ninth of July. 8. The school [ year begins ... the first of September. 9. ... the
twen-ty-fifth of December people celebrate Christmas.
10.... Wednesday I usually have a lot of homework.
Упр. 13. Вставьте предлоги to или of.
1. Не bought a book ... English poems and gave it... his sister. 2. I wrote ... him asking to send me a
box ... chocolates. 3. The roof ... the house is very old. 4. There is a monument ... Pushkin in the
Square ... Arts. 5. One wheel ... my car must be changed. 6. He was standing outside the door ... his
house and explaining ... the mechanic what was wrong with his car. 7. He gave her a big bunch ...
flowers. 8. I sent a letter ... my friend. 9. The streets ... St. Petersburg are straight. 10. Many pages ...
this book are torn. 11. The young scientist was trying to prove ... the professor the necessity ... the
experiment. 12. London is the capital ... Great Britain. 13. The embankments ... the Neva are faced
with granite. 14. It is clear ... me that you don't know your lesson. 15. He was devoted ... his friend.
16. I explained ... the teacher that by the end ... the lesson I had not finished the translation ... the
text and that's why I had not handed it ... him. The surprise ... the teacher was great. My explanation
seemed strange ... the teacher.
Упр. 14. Вставьте предлоги, где необходимо.
1. My mother is afraid ... rats. 2. "What do you complain ...?" asked the doctor. 3. Don't enter ... the
room. 4. What are you laughing ... ? 5. They did not want to listen ... me. 6. Wait ... me. I'll be back
... a few minutes. 7. Yesterday the teacher spoke ... us about the architecture ... St. Petersburg. 8. My
grandmother often complains ... headache. 9. I am sorry, Г cannot speak ... you now, the professor
is waiting ... me. I must go ... the institute and explain ... him some details ... our work. Come ... the
evening, I shall listen ... you very attentively and answer ... all your questions. 10. ... nine o'clock
the lecturer entered ... the hall, walked up ... the table, put his bag ... it, looked .... everybody and
began his lecture. The lecture, as all the lectures ... this professor, was very interesting, and the
students listened ... him with great attention. 11. Turn ... the corner ... the house and look ... the
flowers grown ... my mother: aren't they beautiful? 12. He was an excellent pupil, and the teachers
never complained ... him. 13. She complained ... feeling bad and could not answer ... the questions
... the teacher. 14. We tried to speak ... him, but he did not want to listen ... us. He did not even look
... us and did not answer ... our questions. 15. Your brother complains ... you. He says you always
laugh ... him, never speak ... him and never answer ... his questions. 16. When I entered ... the room,
everybody looked ... me with surprise: they had not waited ... me. 17. At the end ... the street she
turned ... the corner, walked ... the bus-stop and began waiting ... the bus.
Упр.15. Назовите и напишите номера по порядку.
1 - ____________
2 - ____________
3 - ____________
4 - ____________
5 - ____________
6 - ____________
7 - ____________
8 - ____________
9 - ____________
10 - ___________
11 - ___________
12 - ___________
13 - ___________
14 - ___________
15 - ___________
16 - ___________
17 - ___________
18 - ___________
19 - ___________
20 - ___________
10 - ____________
20 - ____________
30 - ____________
40 - ____________
50 - ____________
60 - ____________
70 - ____________
80 - ____________
90 - ____________
100 - ___________
11 - ____________
21 - ____________
32 - ____________
43 - ____________
54 - ____________
65 - ____________
76 - ____________
87 - ____________
98 - ____________
109 - ___________
Упр. 16. Переведите на английский язык.
25 км; 163 тысячи рублей; 90 картин; 200 миллионов людей; 3500 автомобилей; 4
тысячи машин;
сотни автомобилей; десятки журналов; тысячи студентов; миллионы людей.
30 марта;
1 ноября;
15 сентября;
2 июля;
к 3 августа;
к 14 апреля;
к 29 ноября;
к 24 февраля.
2 семестр
1.Развитие умений и навыков говорении, чтения,
аудирования и письма по теме: «Великобритания (география,
население, экономика, традиции)».
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и письма по текстам:
А) Альфред Нобель
Б)Александр Белл
В) Альберт Эйнштейн
Г) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
3.Грамматический материал: словообразование
12 час
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорении, чтения, аудирования и письма по
теме: «Великобритания (география, население, экономика, традиции)».
1) Read the text and retell it, using the questions given below
Great Britain
The full name of the country the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large
islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 314
000 sq. km.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English
Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish
Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders on the Irish
Republic in the south.
The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the southern and
middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the West) and Scotland (the
northern part of the island).
There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots separate England
from Scotland, the Penninee stretch down North England along its middle, the Cambrian
mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the
British mountains. There is very little flat country except in the region known as East Anglia.
Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest and the longest of
the British rivers. Some of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames,
Mersey, Trent, Tyne, Clyde and Bristol Avon.
Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources, it has some deposits of coal and iron
ore and vast deposits of oil; and gas that were discovered in the North Sea.
The warm currents of the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. Winters
are not severely cold and summers are rarely hot.
The population of the United Kingdom is over 58 million people. The main nationalities
are: English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish. In Great Britain there are a lot of immigrants from
former British Asian and African colonies.
Great Britain is a highly industrialized country. New industries have been developed in
the last three decades. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds,
Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol.
The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy.
1. Where is the United Kingdom situated?
2. What islands do the British Isles consist of?
3. What ocean and seas are the British Isles washed by?
4. How
of and what are they called?
5. What country does Northern Ireland border on?
6. Are there any high mountains in Great Britain?
7. What sea do most of the rivers flow into?
8. What mineral resources is Great Britain rich in?
9. What is the climate like in Great Britain?
10. What is the population of Great Britain?
11. What city is the capital of the U. K.?
12. What kind of state is Great Britain?
to separate
the English Channel
to be washed by
to border on
to consist of
mountainous peninsula
to stretch
iron ore
to discover
граничить с...
состоять из...
гористый полуостров
устье реки
железная руда
2) Listen to the text and answer the questions
England is the largest and the richest country of Great Britain. The capital of England
is London but there are other large industrial cities, such as Birmingham, Liverpool,
Manchester and other famous and interesting cities such as York, Chester, Oxford and
Stonehenge is one of the most famous prehistoric places in the world. This ancient circle
of stones stands in Southwest England. It measures 80 metres across and made with massive
blocks of stone up to four metres high. Why it was built is a mystery.
Not far from Stonehenge stands Salisbury Cathedral. It is a splendid example of an
English Gothic Cathedral; inside there is one of four copies of Magna Charta and the oldest
clock in England.
Chester is very important town in the north-west of England. In the past it used to be a
Roman fort; its name comes from the Latin word castra, meaning "fortified camp". In Chester
there is a famous museum which contains over 5000 ancient and modern toys.
Oxford is the home of the oldest university of England. The most famous college is
Christ Church. It has a great hall which was built during the reign of Henry VIII and its chapel
has become the Cathedral of Oxford.
Cambridge is the home of Britain's second oldest university.
York was the capital of Northern England. It is one of the best preserved medieval
cities of Europe. It was built by Romans, conquered by Anglo-Saxons and ruled by the
Birmingham is often called the "City of 1,500 trades" because of the great variety of its
1. What are large industrial cities of England?
2. What is one of the most famous prehistoric place in the world?
3. Where are the oldest clock in England and a copy of Magna Charta now?
4. What is Chester interesting for?
5. What are two oldest universities in England?
6. What was the capital of Northern England?
7. Why is Birmingham called the "City of 1,500 trades"?
to measure
3) Read and translate the text.
Scotland is a country in the north of Great Britain. It is a part of the United Kingdom.
Scotland is divided into three natural regions: the Southern Uplands, the Central Lowlands and
the Highlands and islands. A lot of places in Scotland are a natural paradise, still untouched by
The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, well known for its castle. Glasgow is the industrial
capital of Scotland. It is the third largest city in Great Britain. The typical products of Scotland
are timber, whisky, salmon. Golf is the Scottish natural sport and it seems to have originated in
this country.
Scotland is also the land of myths and mysteries; every castle has its ghost. Glamis
Castle is said to have nine of them. And of course everyone knows about the Loch Ness
Monster. "Nessie" is said to be about six meters long, with a long, thin neck. The first report of
the monster in Loch Ness was in 565 A.D. Since 1934 thousands of people claimed to they had
seen the monster. Scientists have investigated the Loch and taken pictures but no scientific
explanation of the mystery has been given.
1. Where is Scotland situated?
2. How many regions are there in Scotland?
3. What is the capital of Scotland?
4. What is the industrial capital of Scotland?
5. What are typical products of Scotland?
6. What are Scottish castles famous for?
7. What is Loch Ness Monster?
to claime
призрак, привидение
4) Answer the questions in written form
Wales is the country in the west of Great Britain. It is mainly a mountainous land with a
chiefly agricultural economy and an industrial and coal-mining area in the south. The landscape
is beautiful. Many English people move to Wales when they retire.
Cardiff, a large city in the south, was chosen as the capital of Wales in 1955, mainly
because of its size. Since 1536, Wales has been governed by England and the heir to the
throne of England has the title of Prince of Wales, but Welsh people have strong sense of identity.
There is a Welsh National party which wants independence from the United Kingdom and the
Welsh language is still used in certain parts of the country.
Welsh is an ancient Celtic language, similar to Breton, spoken in Brittany, France. In
the 60's Welsh was given equal status with English as an official language and is used in the
law courts. It is taught in school and some TV program are broadcast in Welsh. However, only
about 20% of the population speaks Welsh.
1. Where is Wales situated?
2. What is the capital of Wales?
3. Has it always been governed by England?
4. What language is used in the country?
5. How many people speak Welsh?
главным образом
добыча угля
5) Skim through the text and say in Russian or in English what it is about
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland, also known as Ulster, is still a part of the United Kingdom. It is made
up of six countries: Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Tyrone. One third of the
population lives in and around the capital, Belfast. Belfast is also the most important port and
commercial and industrial centre. Some parts of the territory, those that are not close to the
capital, have remained mainly rural.
The Ir ish populat io n is divided int o t wo groups: the Protestants and the Catholics.
The Protestants are of British origin. They are descendants of British settlers who came to
Ireland in the 16 th and 17th centuries, during and after the Reformation. The Catholics are
mostly natives of Ireland.
The Protestants were the majority and dominated the Catholics with strong
discrimination. In 1968 the Catholics began the movement for equal civil rights.
The fightings between the two groups of the population continue to this day.
Northern Ireland has a strong cultural tradition: songs, dances, literature and festivals.
It has its own Art Council, and there are orchestras, theatres, ballet and opera companies.
1. How many countries are there in Northern Ireland?
2. What is the capital of Northern Ireland?
3. Into what parts is the Irish population divided?
4. Who are the Catholics?
5. Who are the Protestants?
6. Has the Catholics-Protestants problem been solved?
7. Does Northern Ireland have strong cultural traditions?
civil rights
поселенец, переселенец
гражданские права
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и письма по текстам:
А) Альфред Нобель
Б)Александр Белл
В) Альберт Эйнштейн
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 133 – Alfred
Nobel – a man of contrasts. Упражнения после текста.
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 135 – Alexander
Graham Bell. Упражнения после текста.
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 137 – Littleknown facts about well-known people
Г) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
Учебное пособие по обучению профессионально-ориентированному чтению. Electrical Power.
Кушникова Г.К., Москва, изд-во «Флинт», «Наука». 2006 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
3. Грамматический материал: словообразование
В английском языке есть три продуктивных способа образования новых слов:
аффиксация, конверсия и словосложение.
1. АФФИКСАЦИЯ - способ образования слов посредством аффиксов, т.е. префиксов и
суффиксов. Знание аффиксов позволяет правильно определить принадлежность слова к той
или иной части речи, установить синтаксическую роль этого слова и в итоге - правильно
перевести предложение.
При помощи суффиксов образуются существительное, прилагательное, глагол и наречие.
Наиболее употребительными суффиксами существительных являются:
А) суффиксы, которые образуют существительные, обозначающие действующее лицо или
предмет, при помощи которого производится действие:
- er - or : reader, inventor; condencer, insulator;
-ant - ent: assistant, student;
суффиксы, которые образуют существительные, обозначающие профессию лица,
принадлежность к политическому направлению:
- ist: specialist, communist;
- ian: electrician, technician;
в) суффиксы, образующие абстрактные существительные, которые обозначают состояния,
свойства, действия:
-ism: magnetism;
-ness: exactness;
-ment: equipment;
- ance: conductance;
-ence: influence;
- ship: relationship;
-ty: property;
- ity: conductivity;
-hood: neighbourhood;
- dom: freedom;
-ure: pressure;
- th: strength;
-ion: connection;
- tion: description;
-ation: organization;
- sion: subdivision.
К основным суффиксам прилагательных относятся:
-able: reliable;
-less: wireless;
-ish: greenish;
- ic: scientific;
-ical: electrical;
-ly: daily;
-ing: alternating;
-ful: powerful;
-ant: distance;
-ent: different;
-ous: various;
-ive: extensive;
-al: central;
-ate: accurate.
Из суффиксов глаголов наиболее распространены:
-ize: utilize;
-ise: organize;
-fy: verify;
-ify: classify;
-ate: calculate;
-en: shorten.
Самыми продуктивными среди суффиксов наречий является суффикс
consequently, readily.
- ly:
Английские префиксы редко используются для образования других частей речи.
К префиксам с такой функцией относятся:
De - : to deform; en- : to enlarge.
В этом случае из существительного и прилагательного посредством префиксов
образованы глаголы.
Большую группу составляют префиксы, образующие новые слова в пределах
одной части речи:
Over- (сверх)
Post- (после)
Super- (сверх)
Counter- (против)
Inter- (между)
Under- (под)
Dis(противоп. знач.)
Non- (отрицание)
2. КОНВЕРСИЯ заключается в образовании глагола от существительного или
прилагательного, или, наоборот существительного от глагола (что наблюдается гораздо
реже) без каких-либо изменений в форме слова. Принадлежность такого слова к
определенной части речи устанавливается по его морфологической форме и синтаксической
функции в предложении. Посредством конверсии можно образовать глагол от любого
существительного с конкретным значением:
a charge - to charge;
an effect - to effect;
- to equal;
- to free.
Глаголы, образованные от существительного, особенно широко используются в
разговорном стиле речи.
Radio is one of the modern means of communication.
He radioed the message to the centre in the morning.
3. СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ - это соединение двух слов (без соединительной гласной),
которые пишутся слитно или через дефис. Наиболее широко словосложение используется в
системе существительного и прилагательного. Особенно часто сложные существительные и
прилагательные употребляются в технических текстах. Ударение в английских сложных
словах, как правило, падает на первую часть слова:
network, feedback, lead-in, moving-coil, push-pull, cross-section, red-hot, high-level.
Гораздо меньше в языке сложных глаголов, местоимений, наречий:
To fulfill, to broadcast;
Something, anybody;
Sometimes, nowhere.
К непродуктивным словообразовательным средствам относятся чередование
ударения и чередование согласных и гласных. В современном английском языке они
являются лишь средством отграничения одной части речи от другой, например, глаголов от
а) при чередовании ударения последние с первого слова в существительном или
прилагательном переходят на второй слог в глаголе:
`record - to re`cord; `increase - to in`crease; `abstract - to abst`ract.
б) при чередовании согласных и гласных глухое произношение последнего звука в
существительном сменяется звонким его звучанием в глаголах:
half - to halve; proof - to prove; use - to use [z];
в) иногда чередование согласных сопровождается изменением звучания корневого гласного
life - to live
Упр. 1. Из предложенного списка слов выберите
а) слова, которые всегда являются глаголами;
б) слова, которые никогда не являются глаголами;
в) слова, которые могут выступать и в качестве глагола, и в качестве любой другой части
речи (существительного, прилагательного и т.д.)
1.Dream 2. Window 3. Seem 4. Live 5. Cigarette 6. House 7. Become 8. Eat 9. Can 10. Below
11. Laugh 12. Advice 13. Migrate 14. Passenger 15. Begin 16. Large 17. Continue 18. Trip 19.
Smoke 20. Warm 21. Air 22. Dress 23. Must 24. Long 25. Water
Упр. 2. Определите из контекста является подчеркнутое слово глаголом или нет:
mittens warm the hands
the smoke rose to the ceiling
those dormitories house the men
her laugh hurt my ears
the will interests the lawyer
his cries fell on deaf ears
one can fell on the floor
the experiments require live organs
secretaries book appointments
her dreams came true
Упр.3. Определите, являются подчеркнутые слова глаголом или существительным в
зависимости от их функции в предложении.
In the desert the need for water is of primary importance.
Out of darkness came a woman’s cry for help.
On a dark night dreams can seem larger than life.
A safe place for a will is in a bank deposit box.
Since few classrooms have clocks, instructors time exercises with a watch.
After a day on the slopes, skiers warm their feet by the fire.
An opossum mothers her young carefully during their first weeks.
At the last minute, a swift kick by one player tied the game.
For the engineering student recent studies are the most relevant .
Near the living room windows were stands for the houseplants.
When the weather turns warm, youngsters spring from their beds early.
When they are unable to reach an agreement, committee members table motion.
A country’s military might determines its international policies.
Although it takes more money, highway engineers bank sharp curves on all new roads.
To ensure maximum growing time for young rosebushes, plant them in early spring.
Unless you place a flat stone under one leg, the picnic table will rock.
Упр.4. Образуйте существительные от глаголов, добавляя соответствующие суффиксы.
1 depend
2 infer
3 accept
4 exist
5 correspond
6 prefer
7 occur
8 resist
9 appear
10 assist
11 accord
12 refer
13 perform
14 persist
1 press
2 expose
3 please
4 fail
5 erase
6 disclose
- ment
1 conceal
2 move
3 agree
4 judge
5 advertise
6 encourage
7 require
8 measure
9 arrange
10 manage
11 state
12 improve
13 develop
14 retire
Упр.5. Образуйте глаголы от прилагательных и существительных, используя
соответствующие суффиксы.
black politic false tight character sharp sympathy loose local short pure wide normal
Упр.6. Заполните пропуски, образовав от приведенной в скобках основы нужный глагол.
Don’t ______ on things which will hardly save you any money. (economy)
With the aid of a screwdriver, _____ the two screws at each end. (loose)
The final division of Germany was _______ by the completion of the Berlin Wall. (simbol)
This mathematical function is used to ______ the wave functions of elemantary particles.
It is a systematic attempt to ______ our competitive ability. (strength)
I ______ with the philosophy students. (social)
The only way we are going to compete with the West is to ______ .(industry)
The subject is immensely complex, and hard to _____ . (simple)
The chalcopyrite structure compounds can _____ either in the ordered or disordered states.
71 % of emploees are _____ in Belgium. (union)
Упр.7. Определите, какое из двух подчеркнутых слов в предложении употреблено в
неправильной форме. Исправьте ошибку.
1. Useful (A) prizes will be awarded to students writing the most imagination (B) essays.
2. Those who answer the questions successfully (A) will be moved into a more rapidly (B) class.
3. Courses in comparison (A) linguistics are frequently (B) offered at the university.
4. After several years of unhappiness (A) the couple finally separation (B).
5. The firemen’s decision (A) action averted total destruction (B) of the building.
6. The family reported the mystery (A) disappearance (B) of their child to the police immediately.
7. All poisonous (A) wastes from the chemicals (B) plant were disposed of safety.
8. The builder’s (A) last house is a repetitive (B) of his first one.
9. The agriculture (A) development (B) of a country is a good measure of its progress.
10. Fortunately (A), the mayor has comparative (B) few friends in the business community.
11. The author of this book is also a well-respected (A) lecture (B).
12. The troupe gave satisfactorily (A) performances of some classic (B) plays.
Упр.8. Соотнесите слово, содержащее латинскую или греческую приставку, с его значением.
worker in the same occupation
actively in opposition to
showing ill will
a choice between equally unacceptable alternatives
a long speech by one person
refusing to live within the established norms of society
affecting both sides mutually
Упр.9 Образуйте слова, соединив приставку с корнем. Переведите их на русский язык.
1. uni
a. versity
2. com
b. logy
3. super
c. media
4. sym
d. sphere
5. hemi
e. abundant
6. multi
f. metrical
7. tri
g. passion
Упр.10 Образуйте антонимы с помощью префиксов in-, im- и un- и запишите их в виде трех
колонок в соответствии с использованным префиксом.
Схемы словообразования.
Посмотрите на схемы, иллюстрирующие разные способы словообразования. При чтении
текстов обращайте внимание на составные части особенно длинных слов.
unimagine -ative
taste -less
to form
to form
to form adjective
the opposite word the adjective
meaning “without”
Упр.11. Заполните пропуски в следующем задании, предварительно образовав от
приведенной в скобках основы нужную форму слова.
Пример: Artists are creative people. (create)
a. John is ___________________ hardworking. (extreme)
b. I did not like the food. I found it most _____________ .(pleasant)
c. She was arrested because she was driving _____________ .(care)
d. It was very ________________ of him not to help you.(kind)
e. My wife likes the colour blue, but I find it _____________ . (attract)
f. He’s a lucky man. He’s been _______ married for eight years. (happy)
g. I bought a new car because the old one was so __________ . (rely)
h. The dancer was superb. She gave a ____________ performance . (fault)
i. The passengers were frightened when the pilot flew _________ close to a building. (danger)
12 час
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения,
аудирования и письма по теме: «Родной город. Самара ».
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по
А) Москва
В) Лондон
Г) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
3. Развитие навыков диалогической и монологической речи.
4. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования
грамматическим материалом: система времен в активном
Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по
теме: «Родной город. Самара ».
1) Read and translate the text. Give a short summary in written form. Retell the text.
The name “Samara” was mentioned for the first time in the Embassy decree of 1586. The
foundation of the city dates back to the 15th century.
In 1586 Grigoriy Zasekin and his detachment found the fortress “Samara” on the left bank
of the Volga river. It was set up to defend Russia frontiers from the invaders. When the first settlers
camе to the place near the crossing of the Volga and Samara rivers they were excited by the beauty
of the place. One of them exclaimed: “It is Rah – itself”, the name of the God – the Sun and river in
ancient Egypt that was in Russian “Sama – Rah”. That is the story of our town’s name – Samara.
As the Volga river was an important trade route at that time, a small fortress turned
gradually into a providential town of merchants and craftsmen.
In the middle of the 19th century (1851) it bеcame the centre of Samarskaya Province. At the
beginning of the 20th century Samara was a small provincial town with one or two – storeyed
wooden houses. But it was famous for its beautiful orthodox churches and of course Vladimirskiy
Cathedral (ruined in 1935). Unfortunately most of them were destroyed during the 20s and 30s.
There still remain some places of interest in the historical centre of the city. The building of
the Drama theatre was set up in 1888. Today it is one of the finest pieces of architecture in the city.
The so-called “Gothic Church” (in Kuibyshevskaya Street) and the building of Local
Museum (in Frunse street) were constructed in the classical style. At the beginning of the 20th
century the former theatre “Olymp” (today it’s the Philarmonic Society) was built. “Strukovskiy
Park” (now it’s “Gorky’s Park”) was the favorite place of rest and entertainment for Samara
Going around the city you’ll be particularly impressed by the Embankment of the Volga
river. The view opening before your eyes is marvelous and picturesque.
Modern Samara is an industrial, scientific and cultural centre of Samarskaya Province of
Russia. It has a territory of 330 square kilometers and a population of nearly 2 million people.
Traditionally, in Samara there used to be such industries as handicrafts, flour-mill, metal
production, beer-making, vodka-producing, metal press building; Samara Volga shipping
companies were among the first in Russia, аs well as brick-making. Enormous resources of lamber
and minerals made middle Volga areа one of the richest parts of central Russia.
Many industrial enterprises, big plants and factories were moved from Western and Central
parts of the country during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). The new housing development is
concentrated and being developed in the North-East part of the city. During the last 40 years blocks
of new building appeared along the Volga, covering former suburbs, engulfing the river.
Samara is a large scientific and educational centre, there are ten schools of higher learning:
Samara State University, Pedagogical University, Airspace University, Medical Institute,
Telecommunication Institute and the others.
Pre-soviet period of Samara’s history is closely connected with the names of famous
Russian writers: A. Checkov, A. Tolstoy, M. Gorkiy, Garin-Michalovskiy. Several theatres are
situated mainly in the old part of the city. The Drama theatre is one of the oldest in Russia and
located very close to the bank of the Volga. The Puppet theatre and the theatre for junior viewers
are in L. Tolstoy street. The Opera House, built on the site of the ruined Vladimirskiy Cathedral is
at the central square of our town. The Philharmonic Society is in a new hall where it historically
used to be, (Frunse street) it was built anew and put into action in 1990.
Surely Samara Drama theatre is not only one of the oldest but also one of the most popular
among the viewers in the city and in the country. It travels a lot, gaining the popularity of Russian
and former USSR viewers.
to be mentioned
to defend
important trade
[im’po:tәnt ‚treid
to be built anew
['bi 'bilt ә'nju:]
gaining the
[‘geinin ðә
важный торговый
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Москва
В) Лондон
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 157– Moscow,
the capital of Russia. Упражнения после текста.
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 159 – New York.
Упражнения после текста.
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 161 – London
Г) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения Учебное пособие по обучению
профессионально-ориентированному чтению. Electrical Power. Кушникова Г.К., Москва, изд-во
«Флинт», «Наука». 2006 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
3. Развитие навыков диалогической и монологической речи.
“Разговор о Литературе”
“Talk on Literature”
1). Read the dialogue in pairs. Try to reproduce it
– What are you reading?
– It is а book, as you see.
– Of course, I see it is а book. What is the title of the book?
– It is “А Farewell to Arms” by Hemingway.
– I have read this book and enjoyed it. What do you think of it?
– As а matter of fact Hemingway is one of my favourite writers. I have read all of his novels and
stories in Russian. Now I am reading his book in the original.
– Any language problems?
– Sometimes I have to look up some words in the dictionary. That is all. If fact I have quite a lot
of problems with slang expressions in his books.
– Frankly speaking, Ernest Hemingway is not among my favourite writers. I prefer detective stories
and thrillers.
– Tastes differ. Do not you like John Updike?
– Now you have mentioned it I remember… Not long ago I finished his novel “Run, Rabbit, Run”.
– What do you think of it?
– It produced а great impression on me. Updike is а very talented satirical writer.
– I fully agree with you. If you are interested in John Updike, I advise you to read his books: “The
Centaur” and “The Beam in the Eye”.
– I will follow your advice. Speaking of literature what Russian writers are popular nowadays?
– There are a lot of talented Russian writers who are popular both in this country and abroad.
– You mean Solzhenitzin, Nabokov, and Bulgakov. Am I right?
– Yes, you are. If you ask, me, my favourite Russian writer is Bulgakov.
– And what about Russian classics?
– Dostoyevsky and Tolstoу are beyond comparison. While we are on the subject… do you like
– Yes, I do. I am fond of Pasternak and Akhmatova.
Speech Patterns
Вам следует использовать следующие Речевые Модели для перевода.
1. I am fond of short stories.
I am fond of adventure stories.
I am fond of thrillers.
I am fond of science fiction.
I am fond of historical novels.
2. The language is simple.
The language is primitive.
The language is colourful.
The language is complicated.
3. The author of the book depicts the life of farmers.
The author of the book depicts the life of aristocracy;
The author of the book depicts the events of World War II.
The author of the book depicts the life of soldiers.
The author of the book depicts the life of teenagers.
4. The style is impressive.
The style is poor.
The style is unforgettable,
The style is simple.
The style is vivid.
The style is realistic.
5. I consider the book to be a masterpiece.
I consider the book to be worth reading.
I consider the book to be worth translating.
I consider the book to be worth publishing.
I consider the book to be worth discussing.
Speech Patterns
1. Я люблю короткие рассказы.
Я люблю приключенческие рассказы…
Я люблю сенсационные романы (боевики).
Я люблю научно-фантастическую литературу.
Я люблю исторические романы.
2. Язык простой
Язык примитивный.
Язык красочный.
Язык сложный.
3. Автор описывает жизнь фермеров.
Автор описывает жизнь аристократии.
Автор описывает события Второй Мировой войны.
Автор описывает жизнь солдат.
Автор описывает жизнь подростков.
4. Стиль (манера, язык) впечатляющий.
Стиль (манера, язык) бедный.
Стиль (манера, язык) незабываемый.
Стиль (манера, язык) простой.
Стиль (манера, язык) живой.
Стиль (манера, язык) реалистический.
5. Я считаю книгу шедевром.
Я считаю, книгу стоит почитать.
Я считаю, книгу стоит перевести.
Я считаю, книгу стоит опубликовать.
Я считаю, книгу стоит обсудить.
2). Переведите на английский язык, используя Речевые модели
Translation No 1
– I wonder if you have read the book I gave you.
– Нет еще. Я закончу ее читать послезавтра.
– What do you think of it?
– Это исторический роман. Писатель описывает события в Европе в конце XVIII столетия.
– I was carried away by the plot. What about you?
– Я тоже. Язык прекрасный. Книгу стоит почитать.
– You have said it.
Translation No 2
– Is the name of Erskinе Caldwell familiar to you?
– Конечно. Эрскин Колдуэл один из самых известных американских писателей.
– Are his novels translated into Russian?
– Да. Я читал его книги в переводе.
– Do you mean “Tobacco Road”?
– Не только. Есть другие романы.
I would like to read his books in the original.
Translation No 3
– What do you think of Agatha Christie?
– Это известная английская писательница.
– Are her detective stories popular among the Russian people?
– Я бы сказал да, хотя они немного старомодны.
– I fully agree with you here.
– Агата Кристи остается очень популярной писательницей.
– Yes, as far as I know her stories are translated into many languages.
Word list
1. abroad – за границей
2. adventure stories – приключенческий рассказ, повесть или роман
3. aristocracy – аристократия
4. arms – оружие
5. as a matter of fact… – на самом деле…
6. as you see – как видите
7. beam in the eye – бревно в глазу
8. both in … and … - и … и …
9. centaur – кентавр
10. classics – классика
11. colourful – красочный
12. complicated – сложный
13. detective story – детектив
14. dictionary – словарь
15. enjoy – наслаждаться
16. event – событие
17. expression – выражение
18. farewell – прощай
19. farmer – фермер
20. favourite – любимый
21. forget – забывать
22. frank – честный
23. frankly speaking – честно говоря
24. Hemingway is not among my favourite writers. – Хэмингуэй не входит в число
моих любимых авторов.
25. historical novel – исторический роман
26. I fully agree with you. – Полностью с тобой согласен.
27. impressive – впечатляющий
28. in fact – на самом деле
29. in the original – в оригинале
30. interpret – переводить устно
31. interpretation – устный перевод
32. interpreter – переводчик
33. language – язык
34. literature – литература
35. not long ago – недавно
36. novel – роман
37. old-fashioned – старомодный
38. on the subject – по теме
39. one of… – один из…
40. plot – содержание, сюжет
41. poetry – поэзия
42. poor – бедный
43. prefer – предпочитать
44. primitive – примитивный
45. problem – проблема
46. publication – публикация
47. publish – публиковать
48. quite – достаточно
49. realistic – реалистический
50. rich – богатый
51. satirical – сатирический
52. science fiction – научно-фантастическая литература
53. short novel – новелла
54. short story – короткий рассказ
55. simple – простой
56. slang – разговорный
57. soldier – солдат
58. speak of smth – говорить о чем-либо
59. story – рассказ
60. style – стиль, манера, язык
61. talent – талант
62. talented – талантливый
63. tastes differ – на вкус и цвет – товарища нет
64. teenager – подросток (от 13 до 19 лет)
65. thriller – триллер
66. title – заглавие, название
67. title page – титульная страница
68. to be beyond comparison – быть вне всякого сравнения
69. to be carried away by… - быть увлеченным…
70. to be familiar – быть знакомым
71. to be fond of… – увлекаться…
72. to be interested in smth = to take great interest in smth – интересовать чем-либо
73. to finish – заканчивать
74. to look up words in a dictionary – смотреть слова в словаре
75. to mention – упоминать
76. to produce a (great) impression on smb – производить (большое) впечатление на кл
77. to read in the original – читать на языке оригинала
78. to think of smth – думать о чем-либо
79. to translate from Russian into English – переводить с русского на английский
80. to translate into many languages – переводить на много языков
81. translate – переводить письменно
82. translation – письменный перевод
83. unforgettable – незабываемый
84. vivid – живой, красочный
85. while – в то время, как
3). Speak on your favourite writer and books
4. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования грамматическим материалом:
система времен в активном залоге
Глаголы в формах Indefinite относят действие к настоящему, прошедшему или
будущему времени, не уточняя, как оно протекает во времени. Времена Indefinite Active
образуются от инфинитива.
Формы глагола в Present Indefinite совпадают с инфинитивом без частицы to. Лишь
в 3-м лице единственного числа добавляется суффикс -s.
Это время употребляется для выражения действия, происходящего обычно,
регулярно, или для обозначения вневременных фактов и явлений:
I get up at seven every day except Sunday
Я встаю в семь утра каждый день, кроме
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west Солнце всходит на востоке и заходит на западе.
Стандартные глаголы образуют формы в Past Indefinite путем прибавления к
инфинитиву (без частицы to) суффикса -ed (-d) для всех лиц единственного и
множественного числа. Например: to ask (спрашивать) — asked to translate (переводить) translated
Нестандартные глаголы образуют формы в Past Indefinite различными способами.
to go ходить - went
to take брать - took
to write писать — wrote
to come приходить — came
to give давать — gave
Past Indefinite употребляется
а) для выражения ряда последовательных действий в прошлом:
Не stood up, came up to the winОн встал, подошел к окну и
dow and saw an endless stream of увидел бесконечный поток
cars running along the street.
машин, едущих по улице.
б) когда действие соотносится с обстоятельственными словами, точно
обозначающими прошедшее время (к ним относятся наречия ago тому назад, yesterday
вчера, last month/week/year в прошлом месяце/на прошлой неделе/в прошлом году и т.п.):
My friends came to see me on Saturday. Мои друзья приходили ко мне в субботу.
We didn’t get home until midnight. Мы добрались домой только в полночь.
в) когда интересуются временем совершения действия в прошлом, т.е. в
вопросительном предложении, начинающемся с when, what time:
When did you see her last?
Когда вы видели ее в последний раз?
What time did you arrive home?
Когда вы добрались домой?
Формы глагола в Future Indefinite образуются при помощи вспомогательного
глагола will и инфинитива глагола без частицы to. Например:
They will go to the country tomorrow.
Завтра они поедут за город.
С 1-м лицом единственного и множественного числа в британском варианте
английского языка часто употребляется также глагол shall. В разговорной речи используется
форма – ’ll:
He’ll make his report next week. Он сделает доклад на следующей
I shall be twenty-one next year. В будущем году мне будет 21 год.
Таблица времен группы Indefinite Active
Present Indefinite
Past Indefinite
Утверди- My friends
My friends studied
тельная study French.
French at school.
He speaks English. He spoke English at the
Вопроси- Do your friends Did your friends
тельная study French?
study French at school?
Does he speak
Did he speak English at
the conference?
Отрица- My friends don’t My friends did not
тельная study French.
study French.
He doesn’t speak He didn’t speak
English at the conference.
Future Indefinite
My friends will study French
at the Institute.
The teacher will speak about
our English exam.
Will your friends study
French at the Institute?
Will the teacher speak about
our English exam?
My friends won’t study
French at the Institute.
The teacher won’t speak
about our English exam.
Глаголы в формах Continuous употребляются, когда требуется подчеркнуть, что
действие продолжается, продолжалось или будет продолжаться в то время, о котором идет
речь, т.е. когда нужно выразить действие в процессе его совершения.
Present Continuous
употребляется для выражения длительного действия,
совершаемого в момент речи. Эти форма образуются следующим образом:
to be в настоящем времени (am, is, are)
+Participle I смыслового глагола
Глаголы в формах Present Continuous переводятся на русский язык глаголами
несовершенного вида, иногда с добавлением слова сейчас:
They are translating the new
Они переводят эту article now.
новую статью сейчас.
Past Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, которое продолжало
совершаться в определенный момент или отрезок времени в прошлом, обозначаемом либо
точным указанием момента или отрезка времени, либо другим действием, выраженным
глаголом в Past Indefinite.
Эта форма образуются следующим образом:
to be в прошедшем времени (was, were)
+ Participle I смыслового глагола.
We were working in the lab from 5 till 7 o’clock.
He was translating the article when I came.
Future Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, которое будет
совершаться в определенный момент или отрезок времени в будущем. Образуется из
сочетания вспомогательного глагола to be в будущем времени
(shall be, will be) + Participle I смыслового глагола.
I shall be reading the book all day
Я буду читать эту книlong tomorrow.
гу завтра целый день.
Утверди- They
тельная having an
English class.
He is still
Вопроси- Are
тельная having
English class?
Is he still
Отрица- They aren’t
тельная having
class, they are
Russian class.
exercise, he’s
Таблица времен группы Continuous Active
Past Continuous
Future Continuous
They were having an They will be having an English class
English class when I came tomorrow at 9 o’clock.
to see them.
He will be writing an exercise from 6 till 8
He was writing an o’clock tomorrow.
exercise from 6 till 8
Were they having an Will they be having an English class
English class when I came tomorrow at 9 o’clock?
to see them?
Will he be writing an exercise from 6 till 8
Was he writing an o’clock tomorrow?
exercise from 6 till 8
They weren’t having
They will not be having an English class
an English class when I tomorrow at 9 o’clock; they will be having
came to see them, they a Russian class.
were having a Russian
He won’t be writing an exercise from 6 till
He wasn’t writing an 8 o’clock tomorrow, he’ll be reading a
exercise from 6 till 8 book.
o’clock, he was reading a
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.
(USUALLY) 1. My sister (to get) up at eight o'clock. 2. She (to be) a school-girl. She (to go) to
school in the afternoon. 3. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day.
4. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 5. After breakfast she (to go)
to school. 6. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 7. She (to speak) French well. 8, My
working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my
morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes, At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a
doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living-room. We (to
watch) TV and (to talk).
Упр. 2. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.
(ОБЫЧНО) 1. Я работаю. 2. Мы работаем. ' 3. Они не работают. 4. Вы работаете? - - Да. | 5.
Он работает? - - Нет. Он учится. 6. Мой брат | не учится. Он работает. 7. Моя сестра не
читает книг. 8. Наша бабушка любит спать на диване. 9. Вы любите отдыхать в кресле? 10.
Мы едим и пьем в кухне. 11. Мой брат не любит читать газеты. 12. Мы спим в спальне. 13.
Мой брат спит на диване в жилой комнате. 14. Моя сестра одевается перед зеркалом. 15. Мой
дядя пишет книги. 16. Мы пишем упражнения в школе.
Упр. 3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.
Когда вы встаете? - Я встаю без четверти семь. 2. Когда встает твой брат? - Он встает
без двадцати восемь. — А твоя сестра тоже встает без двадцати восемь? - Нет. Мой брат
ходит в школу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять
часов. 3. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает двадцать минут восьмого. Он
работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает. Вечером он отдыхает. 4. Твоя сестра говорит
по-французски? - Нет. Она говорит по-немецки, а ее муж говорит по-английски.
Упр. 4. Переведите на английский язык,! употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.
Мой дядя инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в
семь часов. Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он
работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена врач. Она работает в
больнице. Вечером она изучает французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка.
Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говорит по-русски и по-немецки.
Упр. 5. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Simple.
1. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 3. My brother
(to wash) his face every morning. 4. Yesterday he (to wash) his face at a quarter past seven. 5. I (not
to have) history lessons every day. 6. We (not to rest) yesterday. 7. My brother (not to drink) coffee
yesterday. 8. My mother always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus.
Yesterday she (to walk) to her office. 9. You (to talk) to the members of your family every day? Yes, I .... But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to be) very busy yesterday. 10. You (to come)
home at six o'clock yesterday? - - No, I .... Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past
eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After dinner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to
drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest). 11. Your sister (to go) to school every day? - - Yes, she ....
Упр.6. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Simple,
1. My friend (to know) Spanish very well. 2. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago? 3. He (to live) on
the third floor. 4. It (to take) you long to find his house yesterday? 5. When your lessons (to be)
over on Monday? 6. I (to have) dinner with my family yesterday. 7. Her friends (to be) ready at five
o'clock. 8. One of her brothers (to make) a tour of Europe last summer. 9. Queen Elizabeth II (to be)
born in 1926. She (to become) Queen of England in 1952. 10. You always (to get) up at seven
o'clock? — No, sometimes I (to get) up at half past seven.
Сравните употребление Present Simple, Past Simple и Future Simple
Упр. 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple.
1.1 (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 2.1 (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 3. I (to go) to
bed at ten o'clock tomorrow. 4. I (not to go) to the cinema every day. 5. I (not to go) to the cinema
yesterday. 6. I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. 7. You (to watch) TV every day? 8. You (to
watch) TV yesterday? 9. You (to watch) TV tomorrow? 10. When you (to leave) home for school
every day? 11. When you (to leave) home for school yesterday? 12. When you (to leave) home
for school tomorrow? 13. My brother (to go) to work every day. He (to leave) home at a quarter
past eight. As the office he (to work) at (to be) near our house, he (to walk) there. He (not to take) a
bus. Yesterday he (riot to go) to work. Yesterday he (to get) up at nine o'clock, 14. You (to have) a
PT lesson yesterday? — No, I..., 15. What you (to buy) at the shop yesterday? -I (to buy) a book.
16. Yesterday my father (not to read) newspapers because he (to be) very busy. He (to read)
newspapers tomorrow.
Упр. 8. Закончите следующие предложения, употребив каждый глагол дважды: один раз в
Present Simple, а другой - в Present Continuous.
a. He ______ four cars, all of them Rolls-Royces.
b. I _______ lunch with my mother tomorrow.
a. What ________ you _______ of Stephen Spielberg's latest film?
b. You're day-dreaming. What ___________ you __________ about?
a. I ______ an important phone call from America. Could you tell me when it comes?
b. I _____ you're hungry after so much hard work. Shall I get you something?
a. He _________ to understand what you say to him, but when you ask him a question, he isn't so
b. Roy Pond _________ at Her Majesty's Theatre in the role of King Lear.
a. Something ___________ good in the kitchen. What's cooking?
b. Why __________ you __________ the meat? Do you think it's gone off?
a. I need to know how much the meat _____ to know how long to cook it for.
b. Why _____ you _____ yourself? Do you think you've put on weight?
a. I _________ what you mean, but I don't agree.
b. She ________ a solicitor about her aunt's will.
a. I usually pick up languages quickly, but I ____ difficulties learning Chinese.
b. He __________ more clothes than a department store.
a. It ________ as if it's going to rain.
b. What are you doing on your hands and knees? ______ you ______ for something?
a. What _________ you ________ of doing when you leave here?
b. How much ________ you _________ it would cost to fly to Australia?
Упр. 9. Вставьте один из глаголов: hear, listen to, see, look at, watch в правильной форме. С
глаголами hear и see часто употребляется can или can't.
1. I have a lovely view from my room. I _________ the whole city.
2. A. What's Peter doing?
B. He ________ music in his bedroom.
3.In winter I like ___________ the photographs of my summer holiday.
4. In the evening I usually __________ the news on television.
Упр. 10. Выберите правильное грамматическое время.
Пример: The flight lasted / was lasting three hours.
1. It was 8.00 in the morning. A lot of people stood / were standing at the bus stop, waiting to go
to work.
2. A magnificent oak tree stood / was standing in the middle of the garden.
3. I studied / was studying politics at university.
4. He studied / was studying the effects of radiation when he suddenly died.
5. When I woke up this morning it rained / was raining.
6. It rained / was raining every single day of the holidays.
7. I asked him what he thought / was thinking about.
8. I thought / was thinking the play was extremely good.
9. A. What did you do / were you doing with that electric drill?
B. I was putting up some book shelves in my bedroom.
10. A. What did you do / were you doing with that electric drill?
B. I put it back in its box in the tool cupboard.
11. A. What did you do / were you doing before you took this job?
B. Nothing, actually. I only left school a few months ago.
12. A. What did you do / were you doing in my bedroom just now?
B. The light was on, so I just went in to turn it off.
13. The poor chap died / was dying. All we could do was comfort him.
14. The poor chap died / was dying early last morning.
Упр. 11. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильное грамматическое время (Past Simple or
Past Coutinuons).
I _______ (watch) TV when Mark ______ . (phone).
What _____________ (you/do) at the time of the murder?
She _____________ (jump) into the river and ___________ (rescue) the drowning boy.
I _____ (see) my first baseball game while I _______ (live) in New York.
Where __________ (you/go) when you ___________ (get off) the train?
We ________ (ring) the police because the neighbours _________ (play) their music too
7. He ____________ (write) the whole composition during the lunch hour.
8. She ___________ (write) to her brother when he ____________ (walk) through the front
9. ___________ (you/work) in Spain this time last year? Yes, I ___________ (go) out there in
10. Mum and Dad ______ (sleep) when I _________ (get) home last night.
11. What _____ (that news reader / say) just then? I don't know. I _______ (not / listen).
12. Someone ________ (take) a photo of me while I ___________ (have) a bath.
13. “__________ (you / see) the match last night?” “No. I ________ (try) to get some work
14. We ________ (not/know) what to do when the сomputer ______ (break down).
15. It __________ (rain) outside and the children __________ (cry), so we ___________
(decide) to play a game.
Упр. 12. Определите, в правильном ли грамматическом времени употреблены глаголы.
1. The kitchen caught fire while we were having dinner.
2. The sun shone so we decided to go for a walk.
3. I'm afraid I wasn't hearing what you said.
4. Alan read a newspaper when he heard a strange noise.
5. She was knowing she was being followed.
6. The boss walked in while I played a computer game.
7. I was walking home from work when a dog attacked me.
8. He was reading the entire book, from start to finish, in two hours.
9. What did you do when you saw someone trying to steal your car?
10. I didn't see the last goal because I looked at the sky at the time.
Упр. 13. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из будущих времен: Future
Simple, Future Continuous .
1. I (to do) my homework tomorrow.
2. I (to do) my homework at six o'clock tomorrow.
3. When I come home tomorrow, my family (to have) supper.
4. When you come to my place tomorrow, I (to read) your book.
5. Don't come to my place tomorrow. I (to write) a composition the whole evening. 6.1 (not to go)
to the cinema tomorrow. I (to watch) TV the whole evening.
7. What you (to do) tomorrow?
8. What you (to do) at eight o'clock tomorrow?
9. You (to play) volley-ball tomorrow?
10. When you (to go) to see your friend next time?
11. Tomorrow I (to begin) doing my homework as soon as I come from school. I (to do) my
homework from three till six. My father (to come) home at seven o'clock tomorrow.
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по
А) Проблемы экологии
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
2. Развитие навыков диалогической и монологической речи.
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования
грамматическим материалом: система времен в активном
12 час.
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Проблемы экологии
Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 163 - Air
pollution and smog are the problems of modern cities. Упражнения после текста.
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
Учебное пособие по обучению профессионально-ориентированному чтению. Electrical Power.
Кушникова Г.К., Москва, изд-во «Флинт», «Наука». 2006 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
2. Развитие навыков диалогической и монологической речи.
1) Discuss the text using the questions given below
Ecological Problems
Since ancient times Nature has served Man, being the source of his life. For thousands of
years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were
unlimited. But with the development of civilization man's interference in nature began to increase.
Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world
today. The by-products of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we
grow grain and vegetables on.
Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust
and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire.
Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds,
fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up.
The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of
man's careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crises.
The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its people after the Chernobyl
tragedy in April 1986. About 18 percent of the territory of Byelarus were also polluted with
radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the agriculture, forests and people's
health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power-station are tragic for the
Ukrainian, Byelorussian and other nations.
Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to
create a system of ecological security should be taken.
Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries —
members of the UNO — have set up environmental protection agencies. Numerous conferences
have been held by these agencies to discuss problems facing ecologically poor regions including
the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatinsk and Chernobyl.
An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The
international organisation Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.
But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to
save life on the planet not only for the sake of the present but also for the future generations.
1. How did people live for thousands of years?
2. What cities appear all over the world today?
3. What pollutes the air we breathe?
4. What is the result of the pollution the atmosphere?
5. Why is environmental protection of a universal concern?
6. What are the initial steps in this direction?
ancient — древний
harmony — гармония
environment — окружающая среда
riches — богатства
unlimited — неограниченный
to interfere — вмешиваться
to increase — увеличиваться, возрастать
smoky — дымный
enterprises — предприятия
by-product — побочный продукт
activity — деятельность
to pollute — загрязнять
substances — вещества
oxigen — кислород
rare — редкий
destruction — разрушение
ozone — озон
layer — слой
interaction — взаимодействие
horrible — ужасный
disaster — катастрофа
to befall — пасть (на что-то)
2) Read the text and give a summary
Environmental Protection
Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place
where we can live.
People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a
serious problem. People lived in rural areas and did not produce such amount of polluting agents
that would cause a dangerous situation in global scale.
With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed cities, which put huge
amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more and more dangerous. Today
our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and
overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on the Earth.
In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, we must understand exactly
what this pollution is. The pollutants that harm our respiratory system are known as particulates.
Particulates are the small solid particles that you can see through rays of sunlight. They are
products of incomplete combustion in engines, for example: internal-combustion engines, road
dust and wood smoke.
Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. When these
fuels are burnt, they produce smoke and other by-products, which is emitted into the atmosphere.
Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke, given off by power plants and
automobiles, but it is not enough.. These chemical compounds undergo a series of chemical
reactions in the presence of sunlight; as a result we have smog, mixture of fog and smoke. While
such pollutants as particulates we can see, other harmful ones are not visible. Among the most
dangerous to bur health are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and ozone or active
If you have ever been in an enclosed parking garage or a tunnel and felt dizzy or
lightheaded, then you have felt the effect of carbon monoxide (CO). This odourless, colourless,
but poisonous gas is produced by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel
Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences
for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.
Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues,
one day we won't have enough oxygen to breathe, we won't see a beautiful green forest at all.
The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear wastes,
chemical fertilizers and pesticides. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live
in our seas.
Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done
about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct.
And even greater threats are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the
consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.
Fortunately, it's not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and
even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and
create parks for endangered animals.
We can recycle our wastes; persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities, because it is
apparent that our careless use of fossil fuels and chemicals is destroying this planet. And it is now
more than ever apparent that at the same time we are destroying our bodies and our future.
1. When did the problem of pollution become dangerous?
2. What problems threaten human lives on the Earth?
3. Why is air pollution harmful?
4. Is it dangerous to breathe polluted air?
5. What does the burning of fuel and fossil fuels produce?
6. What are the most dangerous pollutants?
7. What is the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains on our planet?
8. Can we solve the problem of environmental protection?
tiny part — крошечная часть
to pollute — загрязнять
rural area — сельский район
polluting agents — загрязняющие компоненты
global scale — глобальный масштаб
acid rains — кислотные дожди
overpopulation — перенаселение
to threaten — угрожать
to affect — воздействовать
respiratory system — дыхательная система
particulates — макрочастице
solid particles — твердые частицы
ray of sunlight — зд. солнечный свет
combustion — сжигание, сгорание
internal-combustion engine — двигатель внутреннего сгорания
wood smoke — зд. сгорание древесины
by-products — побочные продукты
power plants — силовые установки
chemical compounds — зд. химические элементы
to undergo — подвергаться воздействию
smog — смог
fog — туман
carbon monoxide — угарный газ
nitrogen oxides — окислы азота
sulfur dioxide — сернистый газ
dizzy — головокружение
odourless — без запаха
fossil fuels — органическое топливо
gasoline — бензин
to emit — испускать, выбрасывать
disastrous consequences — гибельные последствия
greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект
to breathe — дышать, вдыхать
chemical fertilizers — удобрения
pesticide — пестицид
plant — растение
insect — насекомое
extinct — исчезнуть, вымирать
to persuade enterprises — зд. убедить предпринимателей
wastes — отходы
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования грамматическим материалом:
система времен в активном залоге
Глаголы в формах Perfect указывают, что действие закончено или закончится к
определенному моменту времени в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем.
Глаголы в формах Perfect обычно (хотя и не всегда) переводятся на русский язык
глаголами в форме прошедшего или будущего времени совершенного вида, чем
подчеркивается завершенность действия.
Present Perfect употребляется:
1) Для выражения завершившегося действия, когда время действия не указано.
I have seen a new film.
Я видел новый фильм.
2) С обстоятельствами, выражающими период времени, не закончившийся до момента
речи (today, this week, this month, thisyear).
They have completed the work this week. Они закончили работу на этой неделе.
3) С наречиями неопределенного времени:
always всегда
seldom редко
already уже
только что
never никогда
not yet еще не
В этом случае глагол в форме Present Perfect обычно переводится на русский
язык глаголом несовершенного вида:
I have never read that book.
Я никогда не читал той книги.
Не has been to London many times. Он много раз бывал в Лондоне.
4) Для обозначения действия, начавшегося в прошлом и продолжающегося в настоящем,
со словами since с, с тех пор как и for в течение; в этом случае глагол в форме Present
Perfect обычно переводится на русский язык глаголом в настоящем времени:
I have known him since 1970.
Я знаю его с 1970 года.
Не has lived here for many years. Он живет здесь уже много лет.
Формы глагола в Present Perfect образуются следующим образом:
to have в настоящем времени (have, has) + Participle II
смыслового глагола.
Past Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, закончившегося до начала
другого действия или до указанного момента в прошлом:
Не had already sent the letter when I came to see him. Он уже отправил письмо, когда я
пришел к нему.
Формы глагола в Past Perfect образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to
have в прошедшем времени (had) и Participle II смыслового глагола.
Future Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое закончится до
начала другого действия или до указанного момента в будущем:
They will have returned before you come home. Они возвратятся до того, как
вы придете домой.
Формы глагола в Future Perfect образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в
будущем времени – will have (shall have) + Participle II смыслового глагола.
Таблица времен группы Perfect Active
Past Perfect
Утверди- I have sent I had already sent the letter
the letter.
by 6 o’clock yesterday.
Вопроси- Have you
Had you sent the letter by 6
sent the
o’clock yesterday?
Отрица- I have not
I had not sent the letter by 6
sent the letter o’clock yesterday.
Future Perfect
I shall have sent the letter by
tomorrow evening.
Will you have sent the letter by
tomorrow evening
I shall not have sent the letter by
tomorrow evening.
Упр. 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме, так чтобы
получить Present Continuous или Present Perfect.
1. What are you (to talk) about? 2. We have just (to talk) about it. 3. He has just (to say) something
about it. 4. She is (to tell) them some interesting story. 5. He has (to tell) us nothing about it, 6. She
has (to tell) them some stories about dogs. 7. We have (to have) two lessons today. 8. They are (to
have) a meeting. 9. She has not (to speak) yet. 10. They have (to ask) me several questions. 11. He
has already (to learn) the rule. 12. I am (to write) an exercise. 13. What is he (to do)? , — He is (to
read) a newspaper. 14. Have you (to | read) any stories by Jack London? 15. What are you (to do)
here? — I am (to write) a letter to my friends. 16. Who has (to write) this article? 17. What
language are you (to study)? 18 We have already (to learn) a lot of English words. 19. What is she
(to teach) them? 20. Who has (to teach) you to do it? 21. He has just (to do) something for us. 22.
Have you (to find) the book? 23. What are you (to look) for?
Упр. 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 2. My father knows so much because he (to travel) a lot.
3.1 (to see) Pete today, 4. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 5. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours
ago. 6.1 just (to meet) our teacher. 7. The children already (to decide) what to do with the books. 8.
Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 9. Helen speaks French so well because she
(to live) in France. 10. She (to live) there last year. 11. The rain (to stop) and the sun is shining in
the sky again. 12. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 13. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 14.1 (to buy) a
pair of gloves yesterday. 15. The wind (to blow) off the man's hat, and he cannot catch it. 16. The
weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 17. The wind (to change) in the morning.
Упр. 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect, Present Continuous,
Present Simple или Past Simple.
Please give me a pencil, I (to lose) mine. 2. I (not to meet) Peter since Monday. 3. Nina just
(to finish) work. 4. Where Sergei (to be)? — He (to go) home. He (to leave) the room a minute ago.
5. What you (to read) now? — I (to read) "Jane Eyre" by Charlotte Bronte. 6. They (to read)
"Ivanhoe" by Walter Scott a month ago. What about you? You (to read) "Ivanhoe"? 7. My watch (to
stop). There (to be) something wrong with it. 8. You (to see) Jack today? — Yes, I (to see) him at
the institute. 9. You (to hear) the new symphony by M.? — Yes, I... . — When you (to hear) it? — I
(to hear) it last Sunday. 10. You (to change) so much. Anything (to happen)? 11. What you (to do)
here at such a late hour? You (to write) your composition? — No, I (to write) it already. I (to work)
at my report. — And when you (to write) your composition? — I (to finish) it two days ago. 12. I
say, Tom, let's have dinner. — No, thank you, I al-I ready (to have) dinner. 13. What the weather
(to be) like? It still (to rain)? — No, it (to stop) raining.
Упр. 4. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из будущих времен: Future
Simple, Future Continuous или Future Perfect.
1. I (to do) my homework tomorrow. 2. I (to do) my homework at six o'clock tomorrow. 3. I (to do)
my homework by six o'clock tomorrow. 4. When I come home tomorrow, my family (to have)
supper. 5. When you come to my place tomorrow, I (to read) your book. I (to do) my homework by
the time you come. 6. Don't come to my place tomorrow. I (to write) a composition the whole
evening. 7.1 (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. I (to watch) TV the whole evening. 8. What you
(to do) tomorrow? 9. What you (to do) at eight o'clock tomorrow? 10. You (to play) volley-ball
tomorrow? 11. You (to do) this work by next Sunday? 12. When you (to go) to see your friend next
time? 13. How many pages you (to read) by five o'clock tomorrow? 14. Tomorrow I (to begin)
doing my homework as soon as I come from school. I (to do) my homework from three till six. My
father (to come) home at seven o'clock tomorrow. I (to do) all my homework by the time he comes,
and we (to go) for a walk together.
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по
А) Компьютеры
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
2. Развитие навыков диалогической и монологической речи.
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования
грамматическим материалом: система времен в пассивном
12 час.
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Компьютеры
1. Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 298 - Gateway
2000. Упражнения после текста.
2. Учебник «Английский язык для инженеров.» Т.Ю. Полякова. Высшая школа 2000, с. 304 Windows. Упражнениe 3 стр.304
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
Учебное пособие по обучению профессионально-ориентированному чтению. Electrical Power.
Кушникова Г.К., Москва, изд-во «Флинт», «Наука». 2006 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
2. Развитие навыков диалогической и монологической речи.
1) Discuss the text using the questions given below
Computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instructions called program and
then carry out them. The modern world of high technology could not be possible without
computers. Different types and sizes of computers find uses throughout our society. They are used
for the storage and handling of data, secret governmental files, information about banking
transactions and so on.
Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing and they have enhanced modern
communication systems. They are essential tools in almost every field of research, from
constructing models of the universe to producing tomorrow's weather reports. Using of different
databases and computer networks make available a great variety of information sources.
There are two main types of computers, analog and digital, although the term computer is
often used to mean only the digital type, because this type of computer is widely used today. That
is why I am going to tell you about digital computers.
Everything that a digital computer does is based on one operation: the ability to determine:
on or off, high voltage or low voltage or — in the case of numbers — 0 or 1 or do-called binary
code. The speed at which the computer performs this simple act is called computer speed.
Computer speeds are measured in Hertz or cycles per second. A computer with a «clock speed» of
2000 MHz is a fairly representative microcomputer today. It is capable of executing 2000 million
discrete operations per second. Nowadays microcomputers can perform from 800 to over 3000
million operations per second and supercomputers used in research and defense applications attain
speeds of many billions of cycles per second.
Digital computer speed and calculating power are further enhanced by the amount of data
handled during each cycle. Except two main types of computers, analog and digital there are eight
generations of digital computers or processing units. The first generation was represented by
processing unit Intel 8086.
The second generation central processing unit was represented by processing unit Intel
80286, used in IBM PC AT 286. The third generation is Intel 80386, used in IBM PC AT 386.
The microprocessors of the fourth generation were used in computers IBM PC AT 486. There are
also central processing units of the fifth generation, used in Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66,
central processing units of the sixth generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75, 90,100 and
133. Few years ago appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations. They are
much more powerful and can perform from 2000 to over 3000 million operations per second.
1. What is computer?
2. What is the main purpose of all computers?
3. Where are computers used?
4. What is the index of computer speed?
5. What speeds do modern computers have?
6. How many generations of digital computer are there?
7. What is the first generation processing unit?
electronic device — электронное устройство
to receive — получать, принимать
set of instructions — набор/свод инструкций
to carry out — выполнять
society — общество
storage — хранение
handling — обработка
transaction — операция
to enhance — повышать, увеличивать
essential — существенный
tool — инструмент, орудие
network — сеть
source — источник
analog — аналоговый
digital — цифровой
ability — способность, возможность
to determine — определять
voltage — напряжение
discrete operation — дискретное действие
to perform — выполнять, осуществлять
defense — оборона, защита
to attain — достигать
amount of data — объем данных
except — за исключением, кроме
processing unit — вычислительное устройство
2) Read the text and give a summary
Computers in my life
Computer addicts are the minority of computer users but there is no doubt that more and
more young people are computer literate. Computer studies is a subject in many schools and many
young people have personal computers. About one in three hundred computer owners spend
almost all their time using computers.
Ninety six per cent of them are males of all ages. All of them spend an average of twenty
hours per week on home computers. The majority of the adults also use computers at work. All the
computer addicts are very intelligent. They have been interested in science and technology from a
very early age and they are usually very shy people who like being alone.
A survey in a school showed that fewer girls are interested in computers because girls are
less likely to have a computer. Even if they have one, they use then less frequently than boys.
Possibly it is because we think of computers as something to do with maths and science, which are
traditionally 'male' subjects. Possibly it is because most of the computer teachers are men, who
give the girls less attention. Possibly parents think it is less important for girls to have computer
Computer addicts are usually very shy people. Using computers gives them confidence.
They love debugging and solving problems, develop programs and love learning programming
languages. They learnt to communicate with other users through computer networks and the
people they met in school and work think of them as experts who could help and advise when they
had problems with their machines. A few spend their time 'hacking' and one addict left a message
on a computer of Buckingham House. Very few computer addicts play computer games, but many
people use a computer exclusively for games.
Some parents worry about computer games because they think their children won't be able
to communicate with real people in the real world. But parents do not need to worry. According to
research computer addicts usually do well after they have left school. Parents also do not need to
worry that computer addiction will make their children become unfriendly and unable to
communicate with people.
It is not the computer that makes them shy. In fact, what they know about computers
improves their social lives. They become experts and others come to them for help and advice.
For most children computer games are a craze. Like any other craze, such as skateboarding, the craze is short-lived. It provides harmless fun and a chance to escape.
If we didn't have these computer addicts, we wouldn't have modern technology. They are
the inventors of tomorrow.
1. What are computer addicts like?
2. Have you ever used a computer?
3. Why are computers used?
4. Why are more boys than girls interested in computers?
5. Is computer addiction harmful?
6. Do you use computers at school/university/work? What do you use them for?
7. Would you say you are computer-literate? Why?
addict — сильно увлеченный чем-либо, наркоман
minority — меньшинство
owner — владелец
male — мужчина; мужской
average — средний
majority — большинство
survey — исследование, обзор, опрос
confidence — уверенность
debugging — finding and removing problems in computers and computer programs; отладка
(программы); наладка (машины или механизма); устранение неполадок, устранение
'hacking' — gaining acess to computers when it is not allowed
to do well — преуспевать
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования грамматическим материалом:
система времен в пассивном залоге
Passive Voice. Страдательный залог
Действительный и страдательный залоги в английском языке совпадают со
значением соответствующих залогов в русском языке. Глагол в действительном залоге
(Active Voice) показывает, что действие совершает лицо или предмет, выраженный
He often asks questions. Он часто задаёт вопросы.
Глагол в страдательном залоге (Passive Voice) означает, что действие направлено на
предмет или лицо, выраженное подлежащим.
He is often asked questions. Ему часто задают вопросы.
Формы страдательного залога образуются при помощи глагола to be в
соответствующей форме и Participle II (Причастие II) смыслового глагола.
he (she)
Continuous I
he (she)
I (he, she) was
we (you, asked
is asked they)
I (he, she) was
we (you, being
is being
I, we, have
I (he, she, had been
we, you, asked
he (she) has been
(we) will
(she, asked
you, they)
I, we he, will have
she, you, been
Indefinite Passive (to be + Participle II).
1.The newspapers are delivered every morning. (Present Indefinite Passive) Газеты
доставляются каждое утро.
2.This book was bought a month ago. (Past Indefinite Passive) Эта книга была куплена месяц
3.The letter will be mailed tomorrow. (Future Indefinite Passive) Письмо будет оправлено
Continuous Passive (to be + being + Participle II).
1. The house is being repaired. (Present Continuous Passive) Дом ремонтируется.
2. When John was ill he was being taught at home. (Past Continuous Passive) Когда Джон
болел, его обучали дома.
Perfect Passive (to have + been + Participle II).
1. This letter has been brought by the secretary. (Present Perfect Passive) Секретарь принёс
письмо. (Письмо принесено секретарём)
He decided to become a writer only when his first story had been published. (Past
Perfect Passive) Он решил стать писателем, только когда его первый рассказ был напечатан.
3. By the 1st of July you will have passed the last exam. (Future Perfect Passive) К 1ому июля
вы сдадите последний экзамен.
Сказуемое в страдательном залоге может переводиться на русский язык: а) кратким
страдательным причастием; б) глаголом на -ся; в) неопределённо-личным глаголом.
The house is built. а) Дом построен. б) Дом строится. в) Дом строят.
Следует обратить особое внимание на перевод глаголов с предлогом в
страдательном залоге. Наиболее распространённые из этих глаголов:
hear of - слышать о
laugh at - смеяться над
look after - присматривать за (кем-либо)
look at - смотреть на
rely on - полагаться на
send for - посылать за
speak of (about) - говорить о
pay attention to - обращать внимание на
take care of - заботиться о
He can't be relied on. На него нельзя положиться.
В русском переводе не все глаголы сохраняют предлог:
to listen to - слушать что-либо, кого-либо
to look for - искать что-либо
to provide for - обеспечить кого-либо, чем-либо
to explain to - объяснять кому-либо
He was listened to with great attention. Его слушали с большим вниманием
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple
1. Bread (to eat) every day. 2. The letter (to receive) yesterday. 3. Nick (to send) to Moscow
next week. 4. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. 5.1 (to give) a very interesting book at the library
last Friday. 6. Many houses (to build) in our town every year. 7. This work (to do) tomorrow. 8.
This text (to translate) at the last lesson. 9. These trees (to plant) last autumn. 10. Many interesting
games always (to play) at our PT lessons. 11. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow. 12. We (to
invite) to a concert last Saturday. 13. My question (to answer) yesterday. 14. Hockey (to play) in
winter. 15. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn. 16. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of
London. 17. His new book (to finish) next year. 18. Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets. 19.
St. Petersburg (to found) in 1703.
Упр. 2. Раскройте скобки, выбирая требующуюся форму глагола.
1. The porter will (bring, be brought) your luggage to your room. 2. Your luggage will (bring, be
brought) up in the lift. 3. You may (leave, be left) your hat and coat in the cloak-room downstairs.
4. They can (leave, be left) the key with the clerk downstairs. 5. From the station they will (take, be
taken) straight to the hotel. 6. Tomorrow he will (take, be taken) them to the Russian Museum. 7. At
the station they will (meet, be met) by a man from the travel bureau. 8. She will (meet, be met) them
in the hall upstairs.
Упр. 3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple Active или
Present Simple Passive.
1. Он каждый день рассказывает нам что-нибудь интересное. 2. Ему каждый день рассказывают что-нибудь интересное. 3. Я часто посылаю письма друзьям. 4. Меня часто посылают
на юг. 5. Я всегда хвалю моих друзей. 6. Меня всегда хвалят дома. 7. Каждую субботу папа
показывает дедушке мои оценки. 6. Каждую субботу папе показывают мои оценки. 9. Мы
часто вспоминаем вас. 10. Нас часто вспоминают в деревне. 11. Мне дают сок каждое утро.
12. Каждое утро я даю кошке молоко. 13. Меня часто приглашают в кино. 14. Моей сестре
часто помогают в школе. 15. Я иногда забываю взять дневник. 16. Он пишет много писем. 17.
Книги А. Кристи читают с интересом. 18. Собаки любят кости. 19. Собак любят во многих
семьях. 20. Когда в вашей семье пьют чай? 21. Где хранят старые письма? 22. Почему эти
правила всегда забывают? 23. Почему вы всегда забываете эти правила? 24. Где живут ваши
друзья? 25. Где покупают хлеб? 26. Когда задают вопросы?
Упр. 4. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple Active или
Past Simple Passive.
1. Вчера я попросил учителя помочь мне. 2. Вчера меня попросили помочь однокласснику.
3. Прошлым летом я научил сестру плавать. 4. Прошлым летом меня научили плавать. 5. Я
посоветовал моему другу поступить в спортивную секцию. 6. Мне посоветовали поступить в
спортивную секцию. 7. Я показал доктору мои зубы. 8. Меня показали доктору. 9. Я дал
своей собаке кусок сахара. 10. Мне дали на обед суп. 11. Вчера нам задавали много вопросов
на уроке. 12 Я ответил на все вопросы. 13. Учитель поставил мне хорошую оценку. 14. Дома
меня похвалили. 15. Эти письма принесли утром. 16. Мой портфель купили в прошлом году.
17. Эти орехи съели вчера. 18. Где вы купили эту книгу? 19. Где купили эту книгу? 20. Когда
сварили обед? 21. Когда разбили чашку? 22. Когда ты разбил чашку? 23. Что ему обещали?
24. Когда починили машину? 25. Когда исправили ошибку?
Упр. 5. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple Active или
Future Simple Passive.
1. Завтра я принесу новый фильм. 2. Завтра принесут новый фильм. 3. Мой друг поможет мне
с математикой. 4. Моему другу помогут с немецким. 5 Я куплю мороженого. 6. Новые
коньки купят завтра. 7. Миша попросит меня помочь ему. 8. Мишу попросят рассказать о
своем путешествии. 9. Доктор попросит меня открыть рот. 10. Доктора попросят вылечить
меня. 11. Билеты принесут завтра. 12. Диктант будут писать в следующий вторник. 13. Маму
попросят не беспокоиться. 14. Маме дадут чашечку кофе. 15. Мама поблагодарит доктора.
16. Телеграмма будет отправлена сейчас же. 17. Ковер повесят на стену. 18. Книги положат
на полку. 19. Когда пошлют письмо? 20. Когда проверят контрольную работу? 21. Как будут
делать эту работу?
The doctor was sent — Доктора послали The doctor was sent for — За доктором послали
Запомните этот шуточный мини-рассказ:
Не was talked about. Не was sent for. He was waited for. He was looked at. He was listened to. He
was laughed at.
Запомните эти предложения:
The house wasn't lived in. The bed wasn't slept in.
Упр. 6. Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice, обращая внимание на место
E.g. We often speak about her. — She is often spoken about.
1. We thought about our friend all the time. 2. The doctor will operate on him in a week. 3. The
teacher sent for the pupil's parents. 4. They looked for the newspaper everywhere. 5. Nobody slept
in the bed. 6. The neighbour asked for the telegram. 7. Everybody listened to the lecturer with great
attention. 8. The senior students laughed at the freshman. 9. The group spoke to the headmistress
yesterday. 10. The young mothers looked after their babies with great care. 11. Nobody lived in that
old house. 12. They sent for Jim and told him to prepare a report on that subject.
Упр. 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Passive Voice.
1. I am sure I (to ask) at the lesson tomorrow. 2. They told me that the new student (to speak) much
about. 3. The hostess said that one more guest (to expect). 4. The newspaper said that an interesting
exhibition (to open) in the Hermitage the next week. 5. This new dictionary (to sell) everywhere
now. 6. All the texts (to look) through yesterday and not a single mistake (to find). 7. Two reports
on Hemingway's stories (to make) in our group last month. Both of them were very interesting. 8.
He said that Grandmother's letter (to receive) the day before. 9. Two new engineers just (to
introduce) to the head of the department. 10. Don't worry, everything will be all right: the children
(to take) to the theatre by the teacher and they (to bring) back to school in the evening.
3 семестр
12 часов
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения,
аудирования и письма по теме «США».
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по
А) Передача сообщений при помощи электричества
Б) Электрический телеграф
В)технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования
грамматическим материалом: согласование времен.
4. Структура письма.
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по
теме «США».
1) Read and translate the text. Give a short summary in written form. Retell the text.
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada
and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the
Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area
of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in
the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where
the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is more than 270
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest
mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is
Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia.
The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate
of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical
climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the
Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It's the world's leading producer of
copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important
manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture
and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up from nearly all
races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.
The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, SanFrancisco, Washington and others.
The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The
seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the
powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the
legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the
House of Representatives.
There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic, though
there's hardly any difference between their political lines.
The United States of
North America
the Pacific Ocean
the Atlantic Ocean
District of Columbia
the Rocky Mountains
the Cordillera
the Sierra Nevada
Mount McKinley
the Mississippi
the the Rio Grande
the Columbia
the Great Lakes
the Gulf of Mexico
Los Angeles
the Congress
the Senate
the Republican and
the Democratic
Соединенные Штаты Америки
Северная Америка
Тихий океан
Атлантический океан
округ Колумбия
[pa,sifik 'әuƒn]
[ә,tlæntik 'әuƒn]
[ә 'læska]
[,distrikt әv
[si,erә ni'vædә]
[,maunt mә'kinli]
[ri: ә (u)'grænd]
[,g/\lf әv
[los 'ændzәli:z]
Скалистые горы
гора Мак-Кинли
Великие озера (5 озер:
Онтарио, Гурон, Верхнее озеро и Эри)
Мексиканский залив
Палата представителей
Республиканская и Демократическая
to occupy
to stretch
to include
total area
to border on
to be located
to vary
highly developed
iron ore
according to
the executive
the legislative
the judicial
тянуться, простираться
[,tәutl 'eәriә]
общая площадь
граничить с
[,mænju'fæktƒәrin] промышленный
морская граница
низменность, долина
меняться, варьировать
['aiәn ,o:]
железная руда
каменный уголь
китайский; китаец
в соответствии с, по
исполнительная власть
законодательная власть
судебная власть
1. Where is the USA situated?
2. What's the total area of the country?
3. What countries does the USA border on?
4. How many states does the USA consist of?
5. What is the capital of the country?
6. Can you name any other cities in the USA?
7. What is the population of the United States?
8. What mountains in the USA do you know?
9. What are the largest rivers?
10. What can you say about the climate of the country?
11. What does the USA produce?
12. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches.
What are they?
13. How many chambers does the Congress of the USA consist?
14. What are the main political parties in the USA?
15. Who is the US President now?
“Вашингтон”– “Washington D.C.”
Dialogue No 1
1) Read in pairs. Translate
– Well, Donald, could you do me a favour?
– Yes, what а it, Ronald?
– I know you have been living in Washington for about five years. You must know it very well.
Could you tell me something about the capital of the USA?
– With great pleasure, Ronald. George Washington, the first President of the USA, after whom the
city was named selected the area for the capital. А hundred square miles were taken from the states
of Maryland and Virginia. It was called the District of Columbia (D.C.)
– Is the city well planned?
– Yes, it is. The city is divided into four sections: “NW” (Northwest), “NE” (Northeast), “SW”
(Southwest) and “SE” (Southeast). Numbered streets run north and south: First Street, Second
Street… Lettered streets such as А-street, В-street run east and west.
– I will try to remember it.
– Bear it in mind that every section has an independent street division. If you are looking for Third
Street, you should know in what section of the city it is.
– What is the heart of Washington?
– The Capitol is. All the tourists begin sightseeing from the Capitol and see the Senate Chamber, the
Representative Hall, the Statuary Hall and so on.
– Are there any monuments in the city?
– Of course. The Washington Monument, which is 555 feet tall, is called “Pencil” because of its
shape. It is three blocks south of the White House. There is an elevator, which will carry you to 500
feet level observation windows. You should also see the Lincoln memorial, which is west of the
Washington monument, and the Jefferson memorial, which is south of the Washington monument
near the Potomac River.
– I will follow your advice. I hear the Library of Congress is worth seeing.
– That is right. It contains millions of books and manuscripts. Are you interested in churches and
– Yes, I am.
– You should see the Washington Cathedral in Massachusetts Avenue, the Arlington National
Cemetery, which is outside the city limits. John F. Kennedy was buried there. The famous Tomb of
the Unknown Soldier is worth seeing too.
– Is it far from the centre?
– Just across the Potomac River near the Pentagon in Virginia.
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Передача сообщений при помощи электричества
Учебное пособие по английскому языку. Телекоммуникации. Судовцев В.А.Москва «Высшая
школа». Text - Messages by electricity, стр. 5. Упражнения после текста
Б) Электрический телеграф
Учебное пособие по английскому языку. Телекоммуникации. Судовцев В.А.Москва «Высшая
школа». Text – The electric telegraph, стр. 11. Упражнения после текста
В) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
The first commercially available radio and telephone system, known as improved mobile
telephone service (1MTS), was put into service in 1946. This system was quite unsophisticated - but
then there was no solid state electronics available.
With IMTS, a tall transmitter tower was erected near the center of a metropolitan area.
Several assigned channels were transmitted and received from the antenna atop this tower. Any
vehicle within range could attempt to seize one of those channels and complete a call.
Unfortunately, the number of channels made available did not come even close to satisfying the
need. To make matters worse, as the metropolitan area grew, more power was applied to the
transmitter or receiver, the reach was made greater, and still more subscrib¬ers were unable to get
dial tone.
The solution to this problem was cellular radio. Metropolitan areas were divided into cells
of no more than a few miles in diameter, each cell operating on a set of frequencies (send and
receive) that differed from the frequencies of the adjacent cells. Because the power of the
transmitter in a particular cell was kept at a level just high enough to serve that cell, these same sets
of frequencies could be used at several places within the metropolitan area. Beginning in 1983, two
companies, one called a wireline company and the other called a nonwireline carrier, were given a
franchise to operate in each major territory.
Two characteristics of cellular systems were important to their usefulness. First, the
systems controlled handoff. As subscribers drove out of one cell and into another, their automobile
radios, in conjunction with sophisticated electronic equipment at the cell sites (also known as base
stations) and the telephone switching offices (also known as mobile telephone switching office
[MTSO]), transferred from one frequency set to another with no audible pause. Second, systems
were also designed to locate particular subscribers by paging them in each of the cells. When the
vehicle in which a paged subscriber was riding was located, the equipment assigned sets of
frequencies to it, and conversation could begin.
The initial transmission technology used between the vehicle and the cell site was analog
in nature. It is known as advanced mobile phone service (AMPS). The analog scheme used was
called frequency division multiple access (FDMA).
But the age of digital transmission was upon us, and many companies operating in this
arena concluded that a digital transmission scheme would be preferred. The result was time division
multiple access (TDMA). In Europe, the selected scheme was an adaptation of the TDMA used in
the United States, and it was called groupe special mobile. Since then, the name has been changed
to global system for mobile communications (GSM).
As if that was not enough, a third group of companies determined that a special spreadspectrum or frequency-hopping scheme would be even better, and this also was developed and
trialed. This is called code division multiple access (CDMA). Thus, there are at least four schemes
that may be used for communications between a vehicle and the cell site. Communications between
the cell site and the MTSO utilized more conventional techniques, such as microwave, copper pairs,
or fiber optics.
The continuing growth of cellular communications (there are presently about 20,000 new
subscribers signing on each day), led government and industry in the United States to search for
additional ways to satisfy the obvious need not only for ordinary telephone service but also for
special services and features, smaller telephones, and cellular phone use. This search led to the PCS
industry. Additional frequency bands were allocated for their use, and rather than assign them to the
first comers or by way of a lottery, the FCC auctioned them off through a sophisticated bidding
contest that brought the US treasury billions of dollars.
Geosynchronous satellites represent yet another way of providing wireless
communications. These satellites, located 22,300 miles above the earth, revolve around the earth
once each twenty-four hours - the same as the earth itself. Consequently they appear to be
stationary. Communications between two places on earth can take place by using these satellites;
one frequency band is used for the uplink, and another for the downlink. Such satellite systems are
excellent for the transmission of data, but they leave something to be desired for voice
communications. This is a result of the vast distance and the time it takes for an electrical signal to
make an earth-satellite-earth round trip. That time amounts to one quarter of a second. A reply from
the called subscriber takes another quarter of a second, and the resultant half a second is definitely
noticeable. Consequently, voice communications is seldom carried via geosynchronous satellites.
Yet another wireless telecommunications technology is the low earth orbit (LEO) satellite
system. LEOs are satellites that communicate directly with handheld telephones on earth. Because
these satellites are relatively low - less than 900 miles - they move across the sky quite rapidly.
In a LEO system the communications equipment on a satellite acts much like the cell site
of a cellular system. It catches the call from earth and usually passes it to an earth-based switching
system. Because of the speed of the satellite, it is frequently necessary to hand off a particular call
to a second satellite just rising over the horizon. This is akin to a cellular system, except that in this
case it is the cell site that is moving rather than the subscriber.
Several systems are now in the planning stage, and in fact many satellites have already
been launched. The most noted is Iridium, created by Motorola, which would utilize sixty-six
satellites. A second system, called Globalstar, would employ forty-eight satellites. There are at least
two or three others that are well advanced in terms of preparations to launch.
Code Division Multiple Access
Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a wireless communications technology that uses
the principle of spread spectrum communication. The intent of CDMA technology is to provide
increased bandwidth in a limited frequency system, but has also other advantages including
extended range and more secure communications. In a CDMA system, a narrowband message
signal is multiplied by a spreading signal, which is a pseudo-noise code sequence that has
a rate much greater than the data range of the message. CDMA uses these code sequences as a
means of distinguishing between individual conversations. All users in the CDMA system use the
same carrier frequency and may transmit simultaneously.
CDMA is a driving technology behind the rapidly advancing personal communications
industry. Because of its greater bandwidth, efficiency, and multiple access capabilities, CDMA is
becoming a leading technology for relieving the spectrum congestion caused by the explosion in
popularity of cellular mobile phones, fixed wireless telephones, and wireless data terminals. Since
becoming an officially recognized digital cellular protocol, CDMA is being rapidly implemented in
the wireless communications networks of many large communications corporations.
CDMA stands for "Code Division Multiple Access". It is a form of spread-spectrum, an
advanced digital wireless transmission techniques Instead of using frequencies or time slots, as do
traditional technologies, it uses mathematical codes to transmit and distinguish between multiple
wireless conversations. Its bandwidth is much wider than the required for simple point- to-point
communications at the same data rate because it uses noise-like carrier waves to spread the
information contained in a signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth.
However, because the conversations taking place are distinguished by digital codes, many
users can share the same bandwidth simultaneously. The advanced methods used in commercial
CDMA technology improve capacity, coverage and voice quality, leading to a new generation of
wireless networks.
Old-fashioned radio receivers separate stations and channels by filtering in the frequency
domain. CDMA receivers, conversely, separate communication
channels by a pseudo-random modulation that is applied and removed in the digital
domain. Multiple users can therefore occupy the same frequency band. This universal frequency
reuse is crucial to CDMA's distinguishing high spectral efficiency. CDMA has gained international
acceptance by cellular radio system operators as an upgrade because of its universal frequency and
noise-like characteristics. CDMA systems provide operators and subscribers with significant
advantages over analog and conventional TDMA-based systems. The main advantages of CDMA
are as follows:
increased capacity;
improved voice quality, eliminating the audible effects for multipath fading;
enhanced privacy and security;
improved coverage characteristics which reduce the number of cell sites;
simplified system planning reducing deployment and operating costs;
reduced average transmitted power, thus increasing talk time for portable devices;
reduced interference to other electronic devices;
reduction in the number of calls dropped due to handoff failures;
development of a reliable transport mechanism for wireless data communications;
coexistence with previous technologies, due to CDMA and analog operating in
two spectras with no interference.
To understand why there is a demand for CDMA, it is necessary to understand the
technology that existed prior to its introduction and to know the background behind previous
spread-spectrum systems. Spread spectrum communications have been used for encrypting military
communication for many years. Its strengths in the military arena lie in its ability to resist enemy
jamming and to provide secure communication. It is difficult to interfere with or intercept a CDMA
signal because of its use of a spread signal. The great attraction of CDMA technology from the
beginning was its inherent ability to boost communications capacity and reuse frequencies to a
degree unheard of in narrowband multiple access wireless technology. Its civilian mobile radio
application was proposed theoretically in the late 1940's, but its practical application in the market
did not take place until 40 years later due to the many technical obstacles that still needed to be
overcome. The viability of CDMA technology was dismissed by TDMA (Time Division Multiple
Access) supporters as a technology that worked fine in theory but would never work in practice.
The rapid development of high density digital ICs, however, combined with the realization that
regulating all transmitter powers to the lowest level required for a link would achieve optimal
multiple access communication, allowed CDMA to materialize as a working technology. In 1991,
the promising results of the first field trials demonstrated that CDMA could work as well in practice
as it did in theory. Commercial CDMA was introduced, tested, standardized, and initially deployed
in less then seven years, a relatively rapid maturation cycle compared to other technologies such as
TDMA. The first commercial CDMA service was launched in Hong Kong in 1995, followed by a
launch in Korea and Pennsylvania. It has rapidly become the primary choice of carriers in the US
Now 11 of the top 14 cellular carriers, 10 of the top 17 PCS carriers, the 2 largest PCS С block
bidders and 60% of POPs have selected CDMA for their new digital network.
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования грамматическим
материалом: согласование времен.
Sequence of Tenses.
Согласование времен.
Характерная особенность английского языка заключается в согласовании времён:
время глагола придаточного предложения зависит от времени главного предложения. Это
правило " согласования времён " представляет особую трудность, когда сказуемое главного
предложения выражено глаголом в одной из форм прошедшего времени. В этом случае в
придаточных предложениях не могут употребляться формы настоящего и будущего времени
глаголов, хотя речь идёт о действиях, которые совершаются в настоящем или будут
совершаться в будущем.
Если глагол в главном предложении стоит в одном из прошедших времен, то и
глагол придаточного предложения должен стоять в
одном из прошедших времен.
Пользуйтесь следующей схемой:
Время, требующееся по
ситуации (в прямой речи)
и Время, фактически употребляемое в
придаточном предложении (в косвенной речи)
Present Simple (“I live”)
Present Contin. (“I am living”)
Present Perfect (“I have lived”)
Present Perfect Contin.(“I have been
Past Simple (“I lived”)
Past Contin. (“I was living”)
Past Simple (He said he lived)
Past Contin. (He said he was living)
Past Perfect (He said he had lived)
Past Perfect Contin. (He said he had been living)
Past Perfect (He said he had lived)
Past Perfect Contin. (He said he had been living)
Was going (He said he was going to live)
Going to (Future) (“I am going to live”)
Will Future (“I will live”)
Can (“I can live”)
May (“I may live”)
Must (“I must live”)
Would (He said he would live)
Could (He said he could live)
Might (He said he might live)
Had to (He said he had to live)
В подобных случаях возможны три основных варианта:
1. Действие придаточного предложения происходит одновременно с действием главного
предложения: в этих случаях глагол придаточного предложения стоит в Simple Past либо в
Past Continuous. (одновременность)
Я знал, что он ежедневно играет в теннис. I knew (that) he played tennis every day.
Я знал, что он играет в теннис, и мне не хотелось его беспокоить. I knew (that) he was playing
tennis and I didn't want to disturb him.
2. Действие придаточного предложения предшествует действию главного предложения: в
подобных случаях в придаточном предложении употребляется Past Perfect.
Я знал, что Билл ещё не успел прочесть моё письмо. I knew (that) Bill had not time to read my
3. Действие придаточного предложения относится к будущему времени, а действие главного
предложения - к прошедшему; при наличии подобной ситуации в придаточном предложении
употребляется т.н. будущее в прошедшем Future in the Past.
Я знал, что Билл придёт ко мне после 10 часов вечера. I knew (that) Bill would come to see me
after 10 P.M.
Следует иметь в виду, что модальные глаголы can и may в прошедшем времени имеют
формы: could, might. Формы прошедшего времени названных модальных глаголов следует
употреблять в составе сказуемого придаточного предложения, если глагол главного
предложения также стоит в прошедшем времени.
Он сказал, что не может прийти на вечеринку. He said (that) he could not promise to come to the
Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:
I knew that she worked at the factory.
He said that he travelled much.
All of us knew that she had studied French at school.
She said that she would take her exam in June.
We didn't know where she had lived before.
He asked us if we knew his address.
He told me that his father was a teacher.
He told me that his father had been a teacher.
Jack thought l was singing аn Italian song.
He told me he would go to the South in summer.
My sister wrote to me that she had left school.
He told me that he had bought the book in London.
He said that he had been to the theatre two days before.
She said that she lived in Moscow.
He said that he would be back the next day.
Oтклонения от правила согласования времен.
Случаи отклонения от правила согласования времен:
в определительных придаточных предложениях, а также придаточных причинных и
сравнительных предложениях глагол может употребляться во временах Present и Future: My
brother told me about the book which you are reading. He was not able to translate the article
because he does not know English well enough. He refused to go to the theatre as he will have an
examination in Economy in a few days. It was not so cold yesterday as it is today.
глаголы must (в случае выражения приказания или совета), should и ought употребляются в
придаточном предложении независимо от того, в каком времени стоит глагол главного
предложения: He tells (told) us that we mustn’t cross the road against the red light. He says (said)
that I ought to send her a telegram at once. I tell (told) him that he should consult a doctor.
форма Present сослагательного наклонения употребляется независимо от того, в каком
времени стоит глагол главного предложения: It is (was) necessary that he send us the
глагол в дополнительном придаточном предложении выражает общеизвестный факт: Galileo
proved that the earth moves (moved) round the sun.
в научной и технической литературе после глаголов типа to believe, to assume, to suggest, to
express, to maintain, и т.д., которые по своему значению не констатируют общеизвестную
истину, а указывают на предположительные факты: The author suggested that the main valency
chains of lignin are built up by a repeating 2-ring system.
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени.
Henry! Good Lord! I forgot you _____________ (come) for supper. I haven’t bought
anything to eat at all! Never mind. Come in.
The start of the film was dreadful. I hoped it ___________ (get) better, but in fact it got
worse as it went on.
I went to bed early as I ___________ (leave) for New York the next day, and I wanted to
feel refreshed when I arrived.
She didn’t worry about her son, Tom. He was a sensible boy, and she knew he __________
(take) care of himself.
I had invited Pat and Peter for supper at 8.00, but I didn’t start getting things ready until 7.30
because I knew they __________ (be) late. They always were.
Aren’t you Annie Beecroft? Do you remember me? Last time I saw you, you ___________
(emigrate) to Canada! Did you?
Упр.2. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени.
1. They held that this observation _____ (show) the reaction to be intermolecular.
2. Kelner discovered that visible light ____ (have) the remarkable ability of restoring viability.
3. It was noticed that some water ____ (distill) at the beginning of the distillation.
4. It was supposed that hydrate formation ____ (play) a part in the aqueous polymerization.
5. He was modeling the simplest possible chemical reaction – hydrogen exchange, in which a
hydrogen atom ____ (slam) into a hydrogen molecule and _____ (replace) one of its two atoms.
6. It was found that other derivatives ____ (not result) in higher yields.
7. He established the formula of the alcohol and suggested that saponification of the ester (under
rather drastic conditions) _____ (proceed) as follows.
8. It was shown that the velocity constant ____ (be) unaffected by an increase in viscosity of the
reacting mixture of over 2,000 fold.
9. Gauss deduced the fundamental theorem from Proposition 30 in Book 7 of Euclid’s Elements,
which ____ (state) that if a prime ____ (divide) a product of two integers, then the prime must also
divide at last one of the factors.
Упр. 3. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление времен в русском и английском языках.
1. I knew that you were ill. 2. I knew that you had been ill. 3. We found that she left home at
eight o'clock every morning. 4. We found that she had left home at eight o'clock that morning. 5.
When he learnt that his son always received excellent marks in all the subjects at school, ho was
very pleased. 6. When he learnt that his son had received an excellent mark at school, he was very
pleased. 7. We did not know where our friends went every evening. 8. We did not know where our
friends had gone. 9. She said that her best friend was a doctor. 10. She said that her best friend had
been a doctor. 11. I didn't know that you worked at the Hermitage. 12. I didn't know that you had
worked at the Hermitage.
Упр. 4. Перепишите следующие предложения в прошедшем времени. Обратите
внимание на .зависимость времени придаточного дополнительного предложения от
времени главного.
1. My uncle says he has just come back from the Caucasus. 2. He says he has spent a
fortnight in the Caucasus. 3. He says it did him a lot of good. 4. He says he feels better now. 5. He
says his wife and he spent most of their time on the beach. 6. He says they did a lot of sightseeing.
7. He says he has a good camera. 8. He says he took many photographs while travelling in the
Caucasus. 9. He says he will come to see us next Sunday. 10. He says he will bring and show us the
photographs he took during his stay in the Caucasus.
Упр. 5. Перепишите следующие предложения в прошедшем времени. Обратите
внимание на зависимость времени придаточного дополнительного предложения от
времени главного.
1. Nick says he is going to the hotel to see his friends, who have just arrived in St.
Petersburg from the United States of America. 2. He says they have not been here for a long time. 3.
He says they were friends at school. 4. He says he will take them to the theatre on Sunday. 5. They
say they will write me a letter when they return home. 6. Mike says he is sure Ann and Kate will be
excellent guides. 7. He says they have made good progress in English. 8. Oleg says that in a day or
two several English students will come to pay a visit to their school and he will probably have to act
as interpreter. 9. Ann says she has just met Boris in the street. 10. She says Boris told her a lot of
interesting things about his travels in the south.
Упр. 6. Раскройте скобки, выбирая требующееся время глагола.
1. Не said he (is staying, was staying) at the "Ritz" Hotel. 2. They realized that they (lost, had lost)
their way in the dark. 3. He asked me where I (study, studied). 4. I thought that I (shall finish,
should finish) my work at that time. 5 He says he (works, worked) at school two years ago. 6.
Victor said he (is, was) very busy. 8. My friend asked me who (is playing, was playing) the piano in
the sitting-room. 9. He said he (will come, would come) to the station to see me off. 10. I was sure
he (posted, had posted) the letter. 11. I think the weather (will be, would be) fine next week. I hope
it (will not change, would not change) for the worse. 12. I knew that he (is, was) a very clever man.
13.1 want to know what he (has bought, had bought) for her birthday. 14. I asked my sister to tell
me what she (has seen, had seen) at the museum.
Упр. 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующемся времени.
1. Не said he (to leave) tomorrow morning. 2. She says she already (to find) the book. 3. He stopped
and listened: the clock (to strike) five. 4. She said she (can) not tell me the right time, her watch (to
be) wrong. 5. I asked my neighbour if he ever (to travel) by air before. 6. The policeman asked
George where he (to run) so early. 7. The delegates were told that the guide just (to go) out and (to
be) back in ten minutes. 8. I knew they (to wait) for me at the metro station and I decided to hurry.
9. I didn't know that you already (to wind) up the clock. 10. I was afraid that the little girl (not to be)
able to unlock the front door and (to go) upstairs to help her. 11. He says that he (to know) the laws
of the country. 12. Sarie understood why Lanny (not to come) the previous evening. 13. She abked
me whether I (to remember) the legend about a faithful lion. 14. He understood that the soldiers (to
arrest) him. 15. He could not understand why people (not to want) to take water from that well. 16.1
suppose they (to send) a dog after the burglar immediately.
Упр. 8. Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли
главных используя предложения, данные к скобках. Сдвигайте времена в соответствии
г правилом согласования времен.
1. The children are playing in the yard. (She thought) 2. Her friend will come to see her. (She
hoped) 3. Father has repaired his bicycle. (He thought) 4. She knows English very well. (I sup
posed) 5, Our sportsmen will win the game. (We were sure) 6. She made no mistakes in her dicta
tion. (She was glad) 7. He works at his English hard. (I knew) 8. She dances better than anybody
else, (I was told) 9. My cousin has received a very interesting offer from his firm. (I learnt) 10. She
will come to stay with us. (My aunt wrote in her letter) 11. He is painting a new picture. (We heard)
12. His new picture will be a masterpiece. (We were sure) 13. You will fall and break your leg. (I
was afraid) 14. My friend has never been to Washington. (I knew) 15. She never drinks milk. (I was
told) 16. He is a very talented singer. (We were told) 17. They live a happy life. (We knew) 18. He
does not know German at all. (I found out)
Упр. 9. Переведите на английский язык, соблюдая правило согласования времен.
1. Мы вчера узнали, что она больна. 2. Он думал, что она не придет в школу. 3. Я знал, что
моя сестра изучает французский язык, и думал, что она поедет в Париж. 4. Мне сказали, что
ты мне звонил. 5. Я думал, что ты в Москве. 6. Я не знал, что ты уже вернулся в СанктПетербург. 7. Я боялся, что заблужусь в лесу. 8. Она знала, что мы никогда не видели ее
картины. 9. Ученый был уверен, что найдет решение проблемы. 10. Я знал, что ты приехал в
Санкт-Петербург, и полагал, что ты навестишь меня. 11. Мы не думали, что он так
рассердится. 12. Мы надеялись, что поедем в Лондон. 13. Учитель сказал, что наши друзья
прислали письмо из Лондона. 14. Она сказала, что ее подруга пригласила ее в театр. .15. Мы
боялись, что не купим билета в театр. 16. Мы увидели, что дети играют в песке. 17. Она
сказала, что больше не будет купаться, потому что вода холодная. 18. Мой дедушка сказал,
что в молодости он любил кататься на коньках. 19. Моя двоюродная сестра сказала, что
любит оперу и будет рада пойти с нами в театр, хотя уже дважды слушала "Травиату."
Упр. 10. Переведите на английский язык, соблюдая правило согласования времен.
1. Все были уверены, что Борис хорошо сдаст экзамены. 2. Он говорил, что Лев
Толстой его любимый писатель. 3. Я знал, что вы живете в Москве, но не знал вашего адреса.
4. Он сказал, что бросит курить. 5. Все знали, что она поедет в Рим. 6. Простите, мы не
думали, что вы ждете нас. 7. Я не знал, что вы тоже любите футбол. 8. Я был уверен, что он
будет выдающимся артистом. 9. Я боялся, что вы не последуете моему совету. 10. Я думал,
что он подождет меня. 11. Я не знал, что ты будешь работать в читальном зале. 12. Он
боялся, что ему будет трудно сделать доклад. 13. Он сказал нам, что когда он вошел в
комнату, его друг уже сидел на диване. Он читал газету. 14. Мы надеялись, что она скоро
придет. 15. Он сказал, что не знает, когда начнется конференция. 16. Я был уверен, что если
мы поспешим, мы не опоздаем на поезд. 17. Он спросил меня, что я буду делать вечером. Я
ответил, что не знаю, буду ли я свободен вечером, но сказал, что если буду свободен, то
позвоню ему часов в восемь.
Упр. 11. Переведите на английский язык, соблюдая правило согласования времен.
1. Сестра сказала, что хочет приехать к нам сама. 2. Я знала, что она очень занята. 3.
Никто не знал, что вы ждете здесь. Пойдемте в дом. 4. Гид предупредил нас, что в этой части
города движение довольно сильное. 5. Секретарь не заметил, что директор с кем-то
разговаривает. 6. Все мы знали, что ее семья опять в Санкт-Петербурге. 7. Лена сказала, что
она дарит нам эту картину. 8. Я знала, что она работает на заводе, что у нее есть муж и двое
детей, что семья у нее очень дружная и она счастлива. 9. Она сказала, что ее коллеги всегда
дают ей прекрасные советы. 10. Он сказал, что любит эту пьесу. 11. В прошлом году они
думали, что никогда не будут хорошо читать по-английски, но вчера они увидели, что
читают тексты довольно хорошо.
12. Он сказал мне вчера, что его отец — профессор и живет в Москве. 13. Он сказал мне
вчера, что раньше он учился в университете. 14. Мы решили на прошлой неделе, что
будущим летом мы все поедем в Крым.
Как и всякое творение человеческого разума, письмо имеет соответствующую
структуру, включающую определенные части. В деловом, официальном письме их больше. В
личном, неофициальном письме — меньше. Данная книга посвящена в основном
неофициальным письмам на английском языке, поэтому мы остановимся именно на их
В общем и наиболее полном виде структура неофициального письма на английском
языке может быть представлена следующим образом:
1. Адрес отправителя (sender's address).
2. Дата (date).
3. Адрес получателя (inside address).
4. Обращение (salutation).
5. Зачин, или первая фраза (opening sentence).
6. Текст письма (body of the letter).
7. Заключительная фраза (closing sentence).
8. Заключительная формула вежливости (complimentary close).
9. Подпись отправителя (signature).
10. Постскриптум, т.е. приписка к оконченному письму (P.S. или Postscript).
Конечно, в каждом письме вовсе не обязательно должны присутствовать все, без
исключения, перечисленные выше 10 частей. Некоторые из них можно опустить. Тем не
менее, основные или, по усмотрению отправителя, самые важные части должны присутствовать в каждом письме, ибо они являются необходимыми элементами английского
письменного этикета.
Расположение на странице стандартного размера указанных выше частей письма
можно представить в виде схемы.
Наполним приведенную выше схему неким содержанием.
1. Имя/ фамилия отправителя, номер
квартиры/ дома, название улицы,
город, штат/ район, почтовый
индекс и страна отправителя
2. Месяц, число, год
3. Имя/ фамилия получателя, номер
квартиры/ дома, название улицы, город,
штат/ район, почтовый индекс и
страна получателя
4. Дорогой Джон!
5. Я давно хотел тебе написать, но все не было времени.
6. ________________________________________________________________
7. Итак, жду твоего ответа и желаю всего самого наилучшего.
8. Всегда твой
9. Юра
10. P. S. Да, забыл тебе сказать, что вчера встретил Веру.
После того как мы установили общую структуру и форму письма, перейдем к
краткому описанию его отдельных частей.
1. Адрес отправителя.
Как видно из схемы, адрес отправителя в английском письме пишется в правом
верхнем углу страницы, хотя часто его можно видеть и в левом верхнем углу.
Специально подчеркнем, что (в отличие от русского) в английском письме номер
дома в адресе ставится перед названием улицы, а название города — после названия улицы.
Между номером дома и названием улицы запятая не ставится. Например:
25 North Road, Apt. 5
London W2 4RH
England Michigan
5 Green Street, Apt. 3
Ann Arbor48104
До последнего времени было принято оканчивать каждую строчку адреса запятой, а
весь адрес точкой. В настоящее время эта практика несколько устарела, и адрес пишется без
запятых в конце строчек и без точки в конце.
2. Дата.
Дата отправления чаще всего указывается в правом верхнем углу, сразу же под
адресом отправителя (если он есть).
Существует несколько вариантов написания даты:
September 7, 1996
September 7th, 1996
7 September, 1996
7th September, 1996
Первый вариант в настоящее время наиболее употребителен.
В дате не ставятся ни предлоги, ни определенный артикль (за исключением
официальных писем и деловых документов). После даты точка, как правило, опускается.
Думается, нелишним будет напомнить и об особенностях написания окончаний
порядковых числительных в английском языке.
1 st, 21 st, 31 st — first 'первый'
2nd, 22nd — second 'второй'
3rd, 23rd - third 'третий'
Во всех остальных случаях порядковые числительные имеют окончание th: 5th, 11th,
17th, 24th, 30th. Однако, как правило, при обозначении даты в письме эти окончания в
настоящее время не употребляются.
Названия месяцев часто пишутся сокращенно:
— Jan.,
— May,
— Feb.,
— Jun.,
— Apr,
— Aug./ Ag., November
March — Mar.,
— Jul., December — Dec.
— Sept.,
— Nov.,
Дату можно указывать и цифрами, однако при этом следует помнить, что в
американском варианте на первое место ставят месяц, на второе — число и на третье — год.
Например, дата 22 декабря 1996 года цифрами в американском варианте будет представлена
следующим образом: 12.22.96 или 12/ 22/ 96. В британском варианте на первое место
ставится число, а на второе — месяц, как и в русском языке: 22.12.96 или 22/ 12/ 96.
3. Адрес получателя.
Адрес получателя пишется так же, как и адрес отправителя, и располагается в левой
части страницы, несколько ниже строки с датой.
Перед фамилией лица, которому вы направляете письмо (если, конечно, это не ваш
родственник или хорошо знакомый), должна обязательно ставиться одна из трех форм: Mr.,
Mrs., Miss. Без фамилии эти формы не употребляются, а после форм Mr., Mrs., как правило,
ставится точка.
Mr. Richard Smith
господину/ мистеру Ричарду Смиту
Mrs. Lucy Long
госпоже/ миссис Луси Лонг
Miss Agatha Brown
госпоже/ мисс Агате Браун
Misses Helen and Agnes
госпожам Хелен и Агнес
Форма Mr. употребляется по отношению к мужчине, Mrs. — к замужней женщине,
Miss — к незамужней.
В качестве синонима формы Mr. в Англии иногда употребляют форму Esq. Однако
она ставится не перед именем, а после него, и, естественно, в этом случае форма Mr.
отсутствует. Например:
Michael S. Johnson, Esq.
Эта форма восходит к слову esquire 'эсквайр'. В средневековой Англии эсквайр был
оруженосцем рыцаря, впоследствии же это слово стало означать один из низших дворянских
титулов. Некоторое время эта форма использовалась в письмах, однако теперь она
встречается все реже и реже.
В настоящее время в письмах можно встретить новую форму Ms., которая читается [miz] или
[mis]. Эта форма, по сути дела, является языковым эквивалентом формы Mr., так как она употребляется по отношению к женщине безотносительно к факту ее замужества. Данная форма
была рекомендована ООН в 1974 году в результате кампаний различных организаций за
равноправие женщин. Следует, однако, отметить, что в повседневной жизни эта форма
употребляется не так часто, как в официальной переписке, ибо большинство женщин
предпочитают использовать форму Mrs. (замужняя) или Miss (незамужняя). Тем не менее
современная официальная и даже полуофициальная корреспонденция имеет строгую
тенденцию к использованию формы Ms. Например:
Ms. S. Park госпоже С. Парк
Часто после инициалов имени точки опускаются.
Если вы направляете письмо в фирму или организацию, владельцев или
руководителей которой может быть несколько, то вы пишете:
Messrs.* Bullman, Carey, and
господам Булману, Кэри и
*Чит. [`mesәrz]
Mesdames** Brooks and Coleman
госпожам Брукс и КоулMmes. Brooks and Coleman
Здесь нелишне кратко пояснить несоответствие русского и английского имени.
Как известно, у большинства народов, живущих в Европе и Америке (в том числе у
англичан и американцев), исторически сложилась двуименная система: личное имя и
фамилия. Например: Jack London. В то же время у русских и некоторых других народов
именования людей имеют трехкомпонентную структуру: личное имя, отчество, фамилия.
Например: Михаил Илларионович Кутузов.
Будучи в принципе двуименной, английская система именования людей часто
разрастается до трех и даже четырех компонентов. Всем знакомы такие английские и
американские имена, как William Makepeace Thackeray, Herbert George Wells.
Первое из этих имен (first name) в английской системе именования людей выбирается
из числа общепринятых: John, Mary, Jack.
Второе имя (middle name), с точки зрения русского человека, по существу не является
именем, так как в качестве его могут выступать не только личные имена, но и фамилии
родственников, девичья фамилия матери или же любое слово вплоть до сочетания звуков, не
имеющего никакого значения, но почему-то понравившегося родителям. Например:
Charles John Huffman Dickens
Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe
Последней в ряду английских имен ставится фамилия (last name, surname, family
Как правило, в англоязычных странах первое и последнее имена пишутся и
произносятся полностью, в то время как второе
и/ или третье имена могут обозначаться только начальной буквой или даже вовсе не
Сложности с употреблением английских имен русскими возникают еще и в связи с
тем, что среди знакомых и друзей в англоязычных странах принято обращение просто по
имени и только, т. е. по первому компоненту. Для русских же, привычных к употреблению в
этих случаях имени и отчества, такое употребление несколько странно и неловко. Но не надо
забывать, что обращение по имени среди американцев и англичан вовсе не означает близкой
дружбы или панибратства. Это лишь обычное обращение друг к другу достаточно хорошо
знакомых людей, друзей, родственников и т. п.
С другой стороны, по фамилии (точнее — по последнему компоненту имени)
обращаются к официальным лицам или к недостаточно знакомым людям. В таких случаях,
как уже указывалось, фамилия человека употребляется только в сочетании с формами Mr.,
Mrs., Miss, Ms. Без фамилии эти формы не используются (напоминаем, что точки после форм
Mr., Mrs., Ms., как правило, ставятся).
Mr. Brown
господин/ мистер Браун
Mrs. Green
госпожа/ миссис Грин
Miss White
госпожа/ мисс Уайт
Ms. S. Smith
госпожа С. Смит
4. Обращение.
Форма обращения в письме зависит от степени знакомства или родственных связей с
лицом, которому вы адресуете письмо. Так, к друзьям или хорошо знакомым вы
Dear John,
Дорогой Джон!
My dear John,
Мой дорогой Джон!
My darling,
Мой дорогой!
К малознакомым или незнакомым людям:
Dear Mr. Smith,
Уважаемый господин/ мистер Смит!
Dear Miss Smith,
Уважаемая госпожа/ мисс Смит!
Dear Mrs. Wilson,
Уважаемая госпожа/ миссис Уилсон!
Dear Ms. Green,
Уважаемая госпожа Грин!
Dear Messrs. Smith
Уважаемые господа Смит и Джоунз!
and Jones,
В строго официальных по тону и содержанию письмах вы пишете:
My dear Sir:
Глубокоуважаемый сэр/ господин!
My dear Madam:
Глубокоуважаемая мадам/ госпожа!
В официальных письмах незнакомым людям, фамилий которых вы не знаете,
используются следующие формы:
Сэр/ Господин!
Dear Sir,
Уважаемый сэр/ господин!
Dear Sirs,
Уважаемые господа!
Dear Sir or Madam:
Уважаемый сэр/ господин или
мадам/ госпожа!
Мадам/ Госпожа!
Dear Madam,
Уважаемая мадам/ госпожа!
Последние два обращения употребляются как по отношению к замужним, так и к
незамужним женщинам. Сочетание Dear Miss в качестве обращения в английском языке не
Обращения My dear Sir, My dear Madam, Sir, Madam являются строго официальными.
Dear Sir, Dear Madam менее официальны. Однако все эти формы употребляются в официальных ситуациях.
Кроме того, в менее официальной и полуофициальной переписке можно встретить и
такие формы:
Dear Colleague,
Дорогой коллега!
Dear Reader,
Уважаемый читатель!
Dear Editor,
Уважаемый редактор!
Dear Publisher,
Уважаемый издатель!
В неофициальных же ситуациях, т.е. при обращении к знакомым, родственникам,
друзьям, используются только имена.
В отличие от русского языка в англоязычных письмах после обращения ставится не
восклицательный знак, а запятая или двоеточие. Запятую принято ставить в соответствии с
британской традицией, а двоеточие — в соответствии с американской, однако в настоящее
время это отличие почти не соблюдается.
Все сказанное об обращениях можно представить в виде общей схемы.
Формально и строго
Строго официально
Ед. число
My dear Sir / Sir
My dear Madam / Madam
Sir/ My dear
Mr. Smith
Madam/ My dear
Mrs. Smith
Dear Sir
Dear Madam
Менее формально (при
наличии предыдущей
Dear Mr. Jones
Dear Mrs. Jones
Dear Jack/ Jack
Мн. число
Dear Sirs/ Sirs
Dear Mesdames/
Dear Messrs. Jones
and Smith
Dear Mmes. Jones
and Smith
Зачин письма обычно состоит из слов благодарности за полученное ранее письмо или
из каких-либо других фраз в зависимости от ситуации. Список наиболее часто
употребляемых фраз приводится в Приложении, и читатель легко может выбрать из него
необходимую фразу.
6. Текст письма. (Образцы писем приведены в основной части.)
7. Заключительная
8. Заключительная формула вежливости.
Как и форма обращения, заключительная формула вежливости зависит от того, кому
вы пишете письмо. Однако в английском письменном этикете в настоящее время
используется более или менее общая формула Sincerely yours, которая в зависимости от тона
всего письма может восприниматься и как строго официальная, и как менее официальная, и
как совершенно неофициальная. На русский язык эта формула переводится в зависимости
от ситуации как 'С уважением' или 'Искренне Ваш/ Искренне твой'. Эта формула может
иметь несколько вариантов:
Sincerely yours,
Very sincerely yours,
Yours sincerely,
Yours very sincerely,
Always sincerely yours и т.д.
Наряду с приведенными выше, в официальной и деловой переписке используются
Yours truly/ Yours very truly,
Преданный Вам
(формально и официально)
Truly yours/ Very truly yours,
Преданный Вам
(несколько менее формально, но также официально)
Менее официальными являются:
Faithfully yours,
Cordially yours,
С уважением/ С совершенным почтением
Искренне Ваш
Подчиненные обычно обращаются к своему начальству:
Respectfully yours,
С уважением
В письмах родственникам или хорошо знакомым могут использоваться те же формы:
Yours cordially,
Very cordially yours,
Сердечно твой / Ваш
Faithfully yours,
Yours (always) faithfully,
Всегда преданный тебе/ Вам
Yours ever,
Ever yours,
As ever,
Yours as always,
Всегда твой/ Ваш
Yours affectionately,
Lovingly yours,
Любящий тебя / Вас
Devotedly (yours),
Yours truly,
Your very sincere friend,
Преданный тебе/ Вам
Твой/ Ваш искренний друг
Заключительная формула вежливости в письме может иметь и более интимный
характер. Так, например, близким друзьям и родственникам можно написать:
Affectionately (yours),
Yours affectionately,
Yours with love,
Любящий тебя
(Lots of) love,
(Lots of) kisses,
Your loving son/ daughter,
Твойлюбящий сын / дочь
Your devoted niece,
Преданная тебе племянница
После заключительной формулы вежливости ставится запятая, на следующей строке
пишется имя или фамилия.
Итак, мы рассмотрели структуру и содержание основных частей письма. Конечно,
написание письма — это глубоко творческий процесс, который не может быть ограничен
какими-либо жесткими инструкциями или оборотами. Однако соблюдение приведенных
выше правил поможет вам успешнее и эффективнее вести переписку на английском языке.
12 часов
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения,
аудирования и письма по теме: «История
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода
по текстам:
А) Телефон
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального
3. Грамматический материал: модальные глаголы и
их эквиваленты.
4. Оформление конверта.
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по
теме: «История телекоммуникаций».
1) перевести письменно параграф 2
2) Составить смысловые вопросы к тексту
3) Пересказать текст
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to
communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as
beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio
messages via coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, or sent by loud whistles, for example. In the
modern age of electricity and electronics, telecommunications now also includes the use of
electrical devices such as telegraphs, telephones, and teleprinters, the use of radio and microwave
communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plus the use of the orbiting
satellites and the Internet.
A revolution in wireless telecommunications began in the first decade of the 20th century
with pioneering developments in wireless radio communications by Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo
Marconi. Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his efforts. Other highly notable
pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications
include Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell (telephone),
Edwin Armstrong, and Lee de Forest (radio), as well as John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth
The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication
networks grew from 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, to 471 petabytes
in 1993, to 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, and to 65 (optimally compressed)
exabytes in 2007. This is the informational equivalent of 2 newspaper pages per person per day in
1986, and 6 entire newspapers per person per day by 2007. Given this growth, telecommunications
play an increasingly important role in the world economy and the worldwide telecommunication
industry's revenue was estimated to be $3.85 trillion in 2008. The service revenue of the global
telecommunications industry was estimated to be $1.7 trillion in 2008, and is expected to touch $2.7
trillion by 2013.
4) Составить хронологическую таблицу:
5) Перевести из Computer networks and the Internet 1 абзац
Ancient systems
Greek hydraulic semaphore systems were used as early as the 4th century BC. The hydraulic
semaphores, which worked with water filled vessels and visual signals, functioned as optical
telegraphs. However, they could only utilize a very limited range of pre-determined messages, and
as with all such optical telegraphs could only be deployed during good visibility conditions.
During the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of
relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of
information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed
upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon
chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London that signaled the arrival of the Spanish warships.
Systems since the Middle Ages
In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system (or
semaphore line) between Lille and Paris. However semaphore systems suffered from the need for
skilled operators and the expensive towers at intervals of 10–30 kilometers (6–20 mi). As a result of
competition from the electrical telegraph, Europe's last commercial semaphore line in Sweden was
abandoned in 1880.
The telegraph and telephone
The first commercial electrical telegraph was constructed by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir
William Fothergill Cooke, and its use began on April 9, 1839. Both Wheatstone and Cooke viewed
their device as "an improvement to the [already-existing, so-called] electromagnetic telegraph" not
as a new device.
The businessman Samuel F.B. Morse and the physicist Joseph Henry of the United States
developed their own, simpler version of the electrical telegraph, independently. Morse successfully
demonstrated this system on September 2, 1837. Morse's most important technical contribution to
this telegraph was the rather simple and highly efficient Morse Code, which was an important
advance over Wheatstone's complicated and significantly more expensive telegraph system. The
communications efficiency of the Morse Code anticipated that of the Huffman code in digital
communications by over 100 years, but Morse and his associate Alfred Vail developed the code
purely empirically, unlike Huffman, who gave a detailed theoretical explanation of how his method
The first permanent transatlantic telegraph cable was successfully completed on 27 July
1866, allowing transatlantic electrical communication for the first time. An earlier transatlantic
cable had operated for a few months in 1859, and among other things, it carried messages of
greeting back and forth between President James Buchanan of the United States and Queen Victoria
of the United Kingdom.
However, that transatlantic cable failed soon, and the project to lay a replacement line was
delayed for five years by the American Civil War. Also, these transatlantic cables would have been
completely incapable of carrying telephone calls even had the telephone already been invented. The
first transatlantic telephone cable (which incorporated hundreds of electronic amplifiers) was not
operational until 1956.
The conventional telephone now in use worldwide was first patented by Alexander Graham
Bell in March 1876. That first patent by Bell was the master patent of the telephone, from which all
other patents for electric telephone devices and features flowed. Credit for the invention of the
electric telephone has been frequently disputed, and new controversies over the issue have arisen
from time-to-time. As with other great inventions such as radio, television, the light bulb, and the
digital computer, there were several inventors who did pioneering experimental work on voice
transmission over a wire, and then they improved on each other's ideas. However, the key
innovators were Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who created the first
telephone company, the Bell Telephone Company in the United States, which later evolved into
American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T).
The first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the
Atlantic in the cities of New Haven, Connecticut, and London, England.
Radio and television
In 1832, James Lindsay gave a classroom demonstration of wireless telegraphy via
conductive water to his students. By 1854, he was able to demonstrate a transmission across the
Firth of Tay from Dundee, Scotland, to Woodhaven, a distance of about two miles (3 km), again
using water as the transmission medium. In December 1901, Guglielmo Marconi established
wireless communication between St. John's, Newfoundland and Poldhu, Cornwall (England),
earning him the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1909, one which he shared with Karl Braun. However
small-scale radio communication had already been demonstrated in 1893 by Nikola Tesla in a
presentation before the National Electric Light Association.
On March 25, 1925, John Logie Baird of Scotland was able to demonstrate the transmission
of moving pictures at the Selfridge's department store in London, England. Baird's system relied
upon the fast-rotating Nipkow disk, and thus it became known as the mechanical television. It
formed the basis of experimental broadcasts done by the British Broadcasting Corporation
beginning September 30, 1929. However, for most of the 20th century, television systems were
designed around the cathode ray tube, invented by Karl Braun. The first version of such an
electronic television to show promise was produced by Philo Farnsworth of the United States, and it
was demonstrated to his family in Idaho on September 7, 1927.
Computer networks and the Internet
On 11 September 1940, George Stibitz was able to transmit problems using teleprinter to his
Complex Number Calculator in New York and receive the computed results back at Dartmouth
College in New Hampshire. This configuration of a centralized computer or mainframe computer
with remote "dumb terminals" remained popular throughout the 1950s and into the 60's. However, it
was not until the 1960s that researchers started to investigate packet switching — a technology that
allows chunks of data to be sent between different computers without first passing through a
centralized mainframe. A four-node network emerged on December 5, 1969. This network soon
became the ARPANET, which by 1981 would consist of 213 nodes.
ARPANET's development centred around the Request for Comment process and on 7 April
1969, RFC 1 was published. This process is important because ARPANET would eventually merge
with other networks to form the Internet, and many of the communication protocols that the Internet
relies upon today were specified through the Request for Comment process. In September 1981,
RFC 791 introduced the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and RFC 793 introduced the
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) — thus creating the TCP/IP protocol that much of the
Internet relies upon today.
However, not all important developments were made through the Request for Comment
process. Two popular link protocols for local area networks (LANs) also appeared in the 1970s. A
patent for the token ring protocol was filed by Olof Soderblom on October 29, 1974, and a paper on
the Ethernet protocol was published by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs in the July 1976 issue of
Communications of the ACM. The Ethernet protocol had been inspired by the ALOHAnet protocol
which had been developed by electrical engineering researchers at the University of Hawaii.
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Телефон
Учебное пособие по английскому языку. Телекоммуникации. Судовцев В.А.Москва «Высшая
школа». Text - Telephone, стр. 18. Упражнения после текста
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
Учебное пособие: Достижения науки и техники XX века. Т.Ю. Полякова, Е.В. Синявская,
Г.А. Селезнева, Москва «Высшая школа», 2004 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
3. Грамматический материал: модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.
Модальные глаголы - это такие глаголы, которые выражают не действие или
состояние, а отношение лица, обозначенного местоимением или существительным, несущим
в предложении функцию подлежащего, к действию или состоянию, выраженному
инфинитивом. Модальный глагол в сочетании с инфинитивом образует в предложении
составное глагольное сказуемое. Модальные глаголы выражают значение возможности,
необходимости, вероятности, желательности и т. п.
К модальным глаголам относятся глаголы can, may, must, ought, need. Инфинитив, с
которым сочетаются модальные глаголы, употребляется без частицы to, кроме инфинитива,
который следует за глаголом ought.
Модальные глаголы отличаются от других глаголов тем, что они не имеют ряда
1. Глаголы can и may имеют формы настоящего и прошедшего времени (could и might), а
глаголы must, ought и need имеют только одну форму - настоящего времени
2. Модальные глаголы не имеют неличных форм - инфинитива, герундия и причастия.
3. Модальные глаголы не имеют окончания -s в 3-м лице единственного числа:
Не can do it.
He must do it.
He may do it.
He ought to do it.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы модальных глаголов в Present и Past
Indefinite образуются без вспомогательного глагола to do. В вопросительной форме
модальный глагол ставится перед подлежащим:
Can you do it?
Need he do it?
May you do it?
Ought she to do it?
Must you do it?
В отрицательной форме частица not ставится сразу же после модального глагола. Глагол can
и отрицательная частица not в настоящем времени пишутся слитно: cannot.
You may not smoke here. Здесь курить не разрешается.
Модальные глаголы имеют следующие сокращенные отрицательные формы: can't, mayn't,
couldn't, mightn't, needn't, mustn't
Глагол can имеет значение обладать физической или умственной способностью,
умением выполнить действие, выраженное инфинитивом глагола, с которым can сочетается.
Глагол саn в сочетании с Indefinite Infinitive Active переводится на русский язык словом
может, в сочетании с Indefinite Infinitive Passive глагол can переводится словом можно с
последующим инфинитивом:
The burden will fall on me but I can carry it. - (Вся) тяжесть падет на меня, но я могу вынести
When a body сап do work it is said to possess energy -- Когда тело может производить работу,
говорят, что оно обладает энергией.
How can the motion be explained? -- Как можно объяснить движение? (Как может быть
объяснено движение?)
Глагол can в отрицательной форме с последующим Indefinite Infinitive Passive обычно
переводится на русский язык словом нельзя:
It cannot be done. Это нельзя сделать. (Это не может быть сделано.)
Глагол can (could) в сочетании с глаголами, обозначающими чувства и восприятия (to
see, to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste и т. д.), на русский язык не переводится.
В этом употреблении глагол can придает оттенок усилия в выполнении действия,
выраженного глаголами, обозначающими чувства и восприятия:
Look over there, can you see that house in the distance? -- Посмотрите туда. Видите вы этот дом
Can you hear that strange noise? -- Вы слышите этот странный шум?
В значении глагола can, а также взамен его недостающих форм употребляется
сочетание to be able быть в состоянии с последующим инфинитивом с частицей to.
Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:
I саn swim very well.
Саn he speak English? Yes, he саn.
He саn speak English well.
May I come in? - Yes, you may. You may come in.
Саn she play tennis? - No, she can't. She can't play tennis.
You should speak English.
May I smoke here? No, you shouldn't.
They must do exercise 11 at home.
Саn you see flowers in this picture? - No, I can't.
Глагол may имеет следующие значения:
1) Разрешение:
You may use dictionaries. -- Вы можете (вам разрешается) пользоваться словарями.
May I 'ask you a question? -- Можно (разрешите) задать вопрос?
В этом значении взамен глагола may (might) и взамен недостающих форм глагола may
употребляется сочетание to be allowed с последующим инфинитивом с частицей to:
Не has been allowed to stay here -- Ему разрешили остаться здесь.
Форма прошедшего времени от глагола may—might - употребляется в значении
разрешения только в косвенной речи. Во всех других случаях в этом значении в прошедшем
времени употребляется сочетание to be allowed.
В этом употреблении глагол can придает оттенок усилия в выполнении действия,
выраженного глаголами, обозначающими чувства и восприятия:
Примечание. В ответах на вопрос May I . . .? (Можно мне ...?) русскому слову ложно
you may, а русскому слову нельзя соответствует
No, you must not. Нет, нельзя.
2) Возможность:
The answer may give the key to the whole problem. -- Ответ (на этот вопрос) может дать ключ
ко всей проблеме.
A body may be divided into separate tiny particles -- Тело может быть разделено (можно
разделить) на отдельные мельчайшие частицы.
3) Предположение, сомнение, неуверенность со стороны говорящего в возможности
действия, выраженного последующим инфинитивом. May (might) в сочетании с Indefinite
Infinitive употребляется в отношении настоящего и будущего времени; may (might) в
сочетании с Perfect Infinitive употребляется в отношении прошедшего времени.
Разница в значении между may и might в данном употреблении состоит в том, что might
выражает более сильную степень сомнения, неуверенности со стороны говорящего, чем may:
Не may (might) come today or tomorrow. -- Он, может быть, приедет сегодня или завтра.
So you say he may have been one of those two passengers? -- Итак, вы говорите, что он, может
быть, был одним из тех двух пассажиров?
4) Выражение упрека, замечания. В этом значении употребляется только глагол might. Might
в сочетании с Indefinite Infinitive относится к настоящему, прошедшему и будущему
времени; в сочетании с Perfect Infinitive might выражает упрек, сожаление о невыполненном
действии и относится только к прошедшему времени:
You might do it yourself. -- Вы могли бы сделать это сами.
You might have told me about it long ago.-- Вы могли бы давно сказать мне об этом.
Глагол must выражает необходимость, моральную обязанность и соответствует в
русском языке словам должен, нужно, надо.
I must hurry, I must warn him of the danger -- Я должен торопиться, я должен предупредить его
об опасности.
Must употребляется в отношении настоящего и будущего времени. В отношении
прошедшего времени глагол must употребляется только в косвенной речи:
Не decided he must speak to Doctor Page himself -- Он решил, что должен поговорить с самим
доктором Пейджем.
Наряду с глаголом must и взамен его недостающих форм употребляется глагол to have с
последующим инфинитивом с частицей to.
Примечание. В ответах на вопрос, содержащий глагол must, в утвердительном ответе
Must I go there? Yes, you must. No, you needn't. Нужно мне идти туда? Да, нужно. Нет, не
Mustn't означает нельзя и употребляется в отрицательном ответе на вопрос May I ...? Можно?
Глагол must может иметь значение вероятности, возможности действия. В этом
значении глагол must переводится на русский язык должно быть, вероятно. В сочетании с
Perfect Infinitive глагол must обычно употребляется в указанном значении в отношении
действия, которое относится к прошлому.
Wait a little, the rain must stop soon. -- Подождите немного, дождь, вероятно, скоро
It occurred to Bert that he must have said the wrong thing. -- Берту пришло на ум, что он, должно
быть, сказал не то, что нужно.
Глагол ought в сочетании с Indefinite Infinitive выражает моральный долг,
желательность действия, относящегося к настоящему и будущему времени. На русский язык
ought переводится следовало бы, следует, должен.
Инфинитив после глагола ought употребляется с частицей to:
You ought to do it at once. Вам следует (следовало бы, вы должны) сделать это сейчас же.
His brother has measles. He ought to be isolated. -- У его брата корь. Его следует изолировать.
Глагол ought в сочетании с Perfect Infinitive употребляется в отношении прошедшего
времени и указывает на то, что действие не было выполнено:
You ought to have done it at once -- Вам следовало бы сделать это сразу же (но вы не сделали).
Глагол ought может выражать вероятность, предположение, возможность действия,
обозначенного последующим инфинитивом, и в этом случае переводится на русский язык
словами должно быть или должен. В данном значении глагол ought в сочетании с Perfect
Infinitive указывает на то, что действие относится к прошлому.
The weather ought to be fine tomorrow -- Завтра, должно быть, будет хорошая погода.
The train ought to have left. -- Поезд, должно быть, уже ушел.
Глагол need в качестве модального глагола в сочетании с Indefinite Infinitive выражает
необходимость совершения действия в отношении настоящего и будущего времени. Need
употребляется в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях, а также в утвердительных
предложениях, содержащих такие наречия с отрицательным значением, как hardly, scarcely и
Need you go there so soon? -- Нужно ли вам (должны ли вы) ехать туда так скоро?
You need hardly remind me of it. -- Вам едва ли надо напоминать мне об этом.
I need not tell you how important that is. - Мне не нужно говорить вам, как это важно.
Глагол needn't в сочетании с Perfect Infinitive употребляется в отношении прошедшего
времени и означает, что лицу, о котором идет речь, не было необходимости совершать
You needn't have done it. -- Вам не нужно было этого делать.
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Переведите на русский язык.
1. Mike can run very fast. 2. They can understand French. 3. Kate can speak English well. 4. My
brother can come and help you in the garden. 5. Can you speak Spanish? 6. Can your brother help
me with mathematics? 7. His little sister can walk already. 8. The children cannot carry this box: it
is too heavy. 9. My friend cannot come in time. 10. This old woman cannot sleep at night. 11. His
sister can cook very well. 12. I can sing, but I cannot dance.
Упр. 2. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол can (could).
1. Я умею говорить по-английски. 2. Мой папа не умеет говорить по-немецки. 3. Ты умеешь
говорить по-французски? 4. Моя сестра не умеет кататься на коньках. 5. Ты можешь
переплыть эту реку? 6. Я не могу выпить это молоко. 7. Она не может вас понять. 8. Ты умел
плавать в прошлом году? 9. В прошлом году я не умел кататься на лыжах, а сейчас умею. 10.
Вы не можете мне сказать, как доехать до вокзала? 11. Не могли ли бы вы мне помочь? 12. Я
не могу перевести это предложение. 13. Никто не мог мне помочь. 14. Где тут можно купить
хлеб? 15. Твоя бабушка умела танцевать, когда была молодая? — Да, она и сейчас умеет.
Эквивалент глагола CAN
Не is able to do it. (может, в состоянии)
Не was able to do it yesterday, (мог)
He will be able to do it tomorrow, (сможет)
He has been able to swim since childhood.
(умеет с детства)
Упр. 3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя выражение to be able to.
1. Ты сможешь сделать эту работу завтра? 2. Я думаю, она не сумеет решить эту задачу. 3.
Завтра я буду свободен и смогу помочь тебе. 4. Мы сможем поехать в Нью-Йорк в будущем
году? 5. Ты сможешь починить мой магнитофон? 6. Вчера я не смог повидать директора, так
как он был на конференции, но сегодня после работы я смогу это сделать.
Упр. 4. Перепишите следующие предложения, добавляя слова, данные в скобках.
Замените модальный глагол can (could) выражением to be able to, где это необходимо.
1. I can give you my book for a couple of days (after I have read it). 2. He can ski (for ten years). 3.
We knew that she could swim (since a child). 4. You cannot take part in this serious sport competition (until you have mastered good skills). 5. I could not solve the problem (before he explained it
to me). 6. They can (never) appreciate your kindness. 7. I was sure you could translate that article
(after you had translated so many texts on physics). 8. You can go to the country (when you have
passed your last examination). 9. We can pass to the next exercise (when we have done this one).
Разрешение (можно)
You may take my pen. (можете) You may not touch it. (нельзя) May I come in? (можно?)
В косвенной речи: Mother said that
I might play, (сказала, что можно)
Предположение (может быть)
It may rain soon, (может быть, пойдет дождь) Take care: you may fall, (можешь упасть)
Упр. 5. Переведите на русский язык.
1. May I go to the post-office with Mike? 2. May I take Pete's bag? 3. Don't give the vase to the
child: he may break it. 4. May we take notes with a pencil? 5. You may not cross the street when the
light is red. 6. May I shut the door? 7. May I invite Nick to our house? 8. You may go now. 9. If
you have done your homework, you may go for a walk. 10. Don't go to the wood alone: you may
lose your way. 11. It stopped raining, and mother told us that we might go out. 12. May children
play with scissors?
Упр. 6. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол may,
1. Можно мне войти? 2. Можно, я пойду гулять? 3. Если твоя работа готова, можешь идти
домой. 4. Учитель сказал, что мы можем идти домой. 5. Доктор говорит, что я уже могу купаться. 6. Папа сказал, что мы можем идти в кино одни. 7. Я думал, что мне можно смотреть
телевизор. 8. Если ты не наденешь пальто, ты можешь заболеть. 9. Не уходи из дома: мама
может скоро прийти, а у нее нет ключа. 10. Будь осторожен: ты можешь упасть. 11. Не
трогай собаку: она может укусить тебя. 12. Мы, может быть, поедем за город в воскресенье.
13. Он может забыть об этом. 14. Скоро может пойти дождь.
Эквивалент глагола MAY
We are allowed to stay at home.
(нам разрешают) We were allowed to stay at home.
(нам разрешили) We shall be allowed to stay at home.
(нам разрешат)
Упр.7. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя выражение to be allowed to.
1. Мне разрешают пользоваться папиным магнитофоном. 2. Дети уже большие. Им
разрешают ходить в школу одним. 3. Ему не разрешают купаться в этой реке. 4. Вчера ей
позволили прийти домой в десять часов. 5. Нам не позволяют разговаривать на уроках. 6.
Тебе позволили взять эту книгу? 7. Я думаю, мне не разрешат поехать с тобой за город. 8.
Тебе разрешат пойти гулять, когда ты сделаешь уроки. 9. Тебе разрешали ходить на озеро,
когда ты был маленький? 10. Когда мне разрешат есть мороженое?
Упр. 8. Вставьте модальный глагол may (might) или выражение to be allowed to. Вставляйте to be allowed to только в тех случаях, где may (might) употребить нельзя.
1. ... I bring my sister to the party? 2. He asked if he ... bring his sister to the party. 3. After they had
finished their homework, the children ... watch TV. 4. He ... join the sports section as soon as he is
through with his medical examination. 5. Becky's mother said that everybody ... take part in the
picnic. 6. He ... go homo if ho likes. 7. As sооn as the boy ... leave the room, ho smiled a happy
smile and ran out to join his friends outside. 8. The doctor says I am much better. I ... get up for a
few hours every day.
Упр. 9. Вставьте модальные глаголы may, must или need.
1.... we hand in our compositions tomorrow? — No, you ... not, you ... hand them in after Sunday.
2. ... John really do this today? — No, he ... not, he ... do it tomorrow if he likes. 3. You ... not let
this cup fall: it ... break. 4. ... I help you with your coat on? 5. ... I take this book for a little while?
— I am sorry, but I ... return it to the library at once. 6. Alec ... practise this sound specially, but the
other pupils ... not: they all pronounce it properly. 7. They ... come at any time they like between ten
and twelve in the morning, but they ... not come if they don't want to. 8. ... I go there right now? —
Yes, you ....
Упр. 10. Вставьте модальные глаголы can, may, must или need.
1. I ... not go out today: it is too cold. 2. ... I take your pen? — Yes, please. 3. We ... not carry the
bookcase upstairs: it is too heavy. 4. We ... not carry the bookcase upstairs ourselves: the workers
will come and do it. 5. When ... you come to see us? — I ... come only on Sunday. 6. Shall I write a
letter to him? — No, you ... not, it is not necessary. 7. ... you cut something without a knife? 8.
Peter ... return the book to the library. We all want to read it. 9. Why ... not you understand it?
it is so easy. 10. ... we do the exercise at once? Yes, you
do it at once. 11. ... you pronounce
this sound? 12. You ... not have bought this meat-we have everything for dinner.
В настоящее время в США, да, пожалуй, и во всей Европе (включая Англию),
существует единый стандарт оформления конвертов. Согласно этому стандарту информация
располагается в строго определенном месте и в строго определенном порядке. Основной
принцип этого расположения: от частного к общему, от индивидуума к стране. В нашей
стране информация на конверте располагается в обратном порядке: от страны к
индивидууму. Представим общую схему оформления американского и европейского
Наполним эту схему содержанием.
1. Имя, фамилия отправителя,
номер квартиры/ дома,
название улицы, город,
штат/ район, почтовый
2. Марка,
указание на способ
3. Имя,фамилия получателя,
номер квартиры/ дома, название улицы,
город, штат/ район, почтовый индекс,
Образец оформления конверта
J. Wilhelm
410 Lawrence Street, Apt. 5
Ann Arbor MI 48105
Mr. J. R. Smith
400 S 5th Avenue, Suite # 80
Detroit, MI, 48202-2831
Как видно из схемы и образца, основное отличие российского конверта от
американского состоит в том, что в обоих адресах (отправителя и получателя) на английском
языке вначале пишется фамилия, затем номер дома, улица, номер квартиры или апартаментов, город, страна, что фактически противоположно тому, что мы привыкли видеть на
российских конвертах.
Еще одно существенное и очень важное различие состоит в размещении адресов на
конверте. На нашем конверте оба адреса пишутся справа: адрес получателя в правом верхнем
углу, а адрес отправителя — под ним, также справа. На американском или европейском
конверте адрес отправителя пишется в левом верхнем углу, а адрес получателя — почти
посередине конверта, несколько справа и немного книзу. Иногда, правда (особенно в
частных письмах), адрес отправителя пишется на обратной стороне конверта, но адрес
получателя всегда на лицевой стороне правее от центра, немного книзу.
Почтовая служба США придает большое значение правильному оформлению
конверта и рассылает своим клиентам специальную памятку-схему How to Address Envelopes
Completely and Correctly (см. с. 17). Именно соблюдение установленных правил обеспечивает
быструю и точную доставку корреспонденции адресату. Мы также советуем читателям
строго придерживаться именно этой схемы оформления конверта, иначе ваше письмо
возвратится к вам, пройдя весь круг обработки на почтовых машинах Европы и США.
Несколько замечаний, подводящих итоги.
Прежде всего необходимо еще раз подчеркнуть, что информация, представленная на
конверте, должна быть по существу такой же, как и информация во внутреннем адресе, т. е. в
самом письме.
Адрес получателя начинается с его полного имени и фамилии, перед которыми
обязательно ставится одна из форм: Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms.
Далее следует указание на номер дома, название улицы, переулка и т.п. (Street,
Avenue, Drive, Lane, Place, Road, Circle). При этом обычно указывается, где находится данная
улица по отношению к странам света: N, S, W, Е (север, юг, запад, восток). Номер дома
ставится перед названием улицы, затем следует номер квартиры или апартаментов (Apt.,
Suite). Например:
350 West Forty-Second Street, Apt. 10
85 N Gower Street, Apt. # 5
39 S Alexandra Road, Suite 8
В приведенных примерах отметим следующее. Слова Street, Apt., Suite (улица,
квартира, апартаменты) чаще всего пишутся с заглавной буквы. Знак # обозначает 'номер'
(правда, он может и не ставиться).
Далее в адресе следует название города, штата (чаще всего сокращенное) или
графства — в Великобритании (тоже сокращенное).
Затем идет почтовый индекс (ZIP Code = Zone Improvement Plan). В США этот индекс
состоит из пяти цифр, в Великобритании — из букв и цифр. За почтовым индексом в США
может стоять еще один (местный) код, состоящий из четырех цифр. Наконец, следует
название страны, которое может как-то выделяться или подчеркиваться. Например:
Mr. John S. Smith
Mr. Giles S. Leman
25 High Street, Petersfleld
3500N 29th Street, Apt. 7
Hants., GU 31 4LN
Waco TX 76708-2642
Great Britain
Как видно из примеров и как обычно принято в настоящее время, в конце строчек
адреса запятые не ставятся, а весь адрес не оканчивается точкой. Кроме того, как уже было
отмечено, названия штатов в США и графств в Великобритании часто обозначаются
сокращенно (MI = Michigan; Hants = Hampshire). Почтовые индексы в США цифровые
(76708-2642), а в Англии буквенные и цифровые (GU 31 4LN; WC2 ЗАВ).
Таким же образом оформляется и адрес отправителя, с той лишь разницей, что в нем,
как правило, не ставится форма Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms. перед именем и фамилией отправителя.
Иногда в адресе получателя могут встретиться слова саге of или сокращенно с/о, с.о.
Эти слова означают, что письмо направляется конкретному лицу, однако или отправителю
вообще неизвестен адрес этого лица, или это лицо временно находится не по своему адресу.
Соответственно письмо направляется другому лицу или в организацию для передачи
указанному лицу. Это может быть, например, отель, в котором остановился получатель
письма, или его друзья и знакомые, которые могут передать письмо по назначению.
Mr. R. Jones
с/ о Hotel Savoy
несколько общих советов:
Адрес получателя на конверте всегда следует писать полностью и, по возможности,
печатными буквами — это обеспечит его надежную доставку адресату.
Не старайтесь вместить адрес в две строки, пишите его на трех или четырех строчках.
Различные указания о способах доставки письма делаются, как правило, почтовым
отделением в правой верхней части конверта под маркой, однако иногда они могут быть
сделаны и вами лично от руки. Например:
Registered (mail)
Air mail/ Via air mail
Express (delivery)
If notdelivered please
В случае недоставки
просьба вернуть
8 часов
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода
по текстам:
А) Телефон
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального
3. Грамматический материал: причастие, его
формы, самостоятельный причастный оборот.
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Телефон
1) Составить план.
2) Перевести 2 и 3 абзацы
3) Пересказать 1 абзац
A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device
which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide
geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network
operator. The calls are to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and
fixed-line phones across the world. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short
range of a single, private base station.
In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other
services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications
(infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography. Mobile phones that offer
these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.
The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in
1973, using a handset weighing 2 1/2 lbs (about 1 kg). In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to
be commercially available. In the twenty years from 1990 to 2010, worldwide mobile phone
subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 4.6 billion, penetrating the developing economies and
reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid.
History of mobile phones
Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention
and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War with military
use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s.
The first mobile telephone call made from a car occurred in St. Louis, Missouri, USA on
June 17, 1946, using the Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service. The equipment weighed 80
pounds (36 kg), and the AT&T service, basically a massive party line, cost US$30 per month (equal
to $337.33 today) plus 30–40 cents per local call, equal to $3.37 to $4.50 today.
In 1956, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA),
was launched in Sweden. MTA phones were composed of vacuum tubes and relays, and had a
weight of 40 kg. In 1962, a more modern version called Mobile System B (MTB) was launched,
which was a push-button telephone, and which used transistors to enhance the telephone’s calling
capacity and improve its operational reliability, thereby reducing the weight of the apparatus to 10
kg. In 1971, the MTD version was launched, opening for several different brands of equipment and
gaining commercial success.
Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is considered to be the inventor of the
first practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle setting, after a long race against Bell
Labs for the first portable mobile phone. Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset,
Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973 to his rival, Dr. Joel S.
Engel of Bell Labs.
The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G) was launched in Japan by
NTT in 1979, initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo. Within five years, the NTT network had
been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan and became the first nationwide 1G network.
In 1981, this was followed by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT)
system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.[9] NMT was the first mobile phone network
featuring international roaming. The first 1G network launched in the USA was Chicago-based
Ameritech in 1983 using the Motorola DynaTAC mobile phone. Several countries then followed in
the early-to-mid 1980s including the UK, Mexico and Canada.
The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular
technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM
standard, which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja
challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network.
In 2001, the launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the
WCDMA standard.
One of the newest 3G technologies to be implemented is High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications
protocol in the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, also coined 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which
allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher
data transfer speeds and capacity.
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
Mobile phone features and Smartphone
All mobile phones have a number of features in common, but manufacturers also try to
differentiate their own products by implementing additional functions to make them more attractive
to consumers. This has led to great innovation in mobile phone development over the past 20
years.The common components found on all phones are:
A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions.
An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. The most common input
mechanism is a keypad, but touch screens are also found in some high-end smartphones.
Basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text messages.
All GSM phones use a SIM card to allow an account to be swapped among devices. Some
CDMA devices also have a similar card called a R-UIM.
Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely identified
by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number.
Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, and offer basic telephony,
as well as functions such as playing music and taking photos, and sometimes simple applications
based on generic managed platforms such as Java ME or BREW. Handsets with more advanced
computing ability through the use of native software applications became known as smartphones.
The first smartphone was the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which added PDA functionality to
the basic mobile phone at the time. As miniaturization and increased processing power of
microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phones, the concept of the smartphone
has evolved, and what was a high-end smartphone five years ago, is a standard phone today.
Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment, such as the
RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the SonyEricsson
Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of cameraphones; the Nokia Nseries of
multimedia phones, the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone.
Other features that may be found on mobile phones include GPS navigation, music (MP3)
and video (MP4) playback, RDS radio receiver, alarms, memo recording, personal digital assistant
functions, ability to watch streaming video, video download, video calling, built-in cameras (1.0+
Mpx) and camcorders (video recording), with autofocus and flash, ringtones, games, PTT, memory
card reader (SD), USB (2.0), dual line support, infrared, Bluetooth (2.0) and WiFi connectivity,
instant messaging, Internet e-mail and browsing and serving as a wireless modem. Nokia and the
University of Cambridge demonstrated a bendable cell phone called the Morph. Some phones can
make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes or through contactless payments if the
phone and point of sale support Near Field Communication (NFC). Some of the largest mobile
phone manufacturers and network providers along with many retail merchants support, or plan to
support, contactless payments through NFC-equipped mobile phones.
Some phones have an electromechanical transducer on the back which changes the
electrical voice signal into mechanical vibrations. The vibrations flow through the cheek bones or
forehead allowing the user to hear the conversation. This is useful in the noisy situations or if the
user is hard of hearing.
Software and applications
The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. The
first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the
first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.
Other non-SMS data services used on mobile phones include mobile music, downloadable
logos and pictures, gaming, gambling, adult entertainment and advertising. The first downloadable
mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, when Radiolinja (now Elisa)
introduced the downloadable ringtone service. In 1999, Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo
introduced its mobile Internet service, i-Mode, which today is the world's largest mobile Internet
The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000.
Mobile news services are expanding with many organizations providing "on-demand" news
services by SMS. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS.
Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending
machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in
1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on the mobile
operators Globe and Smart. Today, mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit
cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and Africa, and in selected European
Power supply
Mobile phones generally obtain power from rechargeable batteries. There are a variety of
ways used to charge cell phones, including USB, portable batteries, mains power (using an AC
adapter), cigarette lighters (using an adapter), or a dynamo. In 2009, the first wireless charger was
released for consumer use.
Various initiatives, such as the EU Common External Power Supply have been announced
to standardize the interface to the charger, and to promote energy efficiency of mains-operated
chargers. A star rating system is promoted by some manufacturers, where the most efficient
chargers consume less than 0.03 watts and obtain a five-star rating.
The world's five largest handset makers introduced a new rating system in November
2008 to help consumers more easily identify the most energy-efficient chargers
A popular early mobile phone battery was the nickel metal-hydride (NiMH) type, due to its
relatively small size and low weight. Lithium ion batteries are also used, as they are lighter and do
not have the Voltage depression due to long-term over-charging that nickel metal-hydride batteries
do. Many mobile phone manufacturers use lithium–polymer batteries as opposed to the older
Lithium-Ion, the main advantages being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a
shape other than strict cuboid. Mobile phone manufacturers have been experimenting with
alternative power sources, including solar cells.
Typical mobile phone SIM card
GSM mobile phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM
Card, to function. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually
placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The SIM securely stores the service-subscriber
key (IMSI) used to identify a subscriber on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and
computers). The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from
one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device.
A SIM card contains its unique serial number, internationally unique number of the mobile
user (IMSI), security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the
local network, a list of the services the user has access to and two passwords (PIN for usual use and
PUK for unlocking).
SIM cards are available in three standard sizes. The first is the size of a credit card (85.60
mm × 53.98 mm x 0.76 mm, defined by ISO/IEC 7810 as ID-1). The newer, most popular miniature
version has the same thickness but a length of 25 mm and a width of 15 mm (ISO/IEC 7810 ID000), and has one of its corners truncated (chamfered) to prevent misinsertion. The newest
incarnation known as the 3FF or micro-SIM has dimensions of 15 mm × 12 mm. Most cards of the
two smaller sizes are supplied as a full-sized card with the smaller card held in place by a few
plastic links; it can easily be broken off to be used in a device that uses the smaller SIM.
The first SIM card was made in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient
for the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja. Giesecke & Devrient sold the first 300 SIM
cards to Elisa (ex. Radiolinja).
Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to their
memory. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name"
or number programming menu. From there, information can be added, including a new number for
the phone, new Service Provider numbers, new emergency numbers, new Authentication Key or AKey code, and a Preferred Roaming List or PRL. However, to prevent the phone being accidentally
disabled or removed from the network, the Service Provider typically locks this data with a Master
Subsidiary Lock (MSL). The MSL also locks the device to a particular carrier when it is sold as a
loss leader.
The MSL applies only to the SIM, so once the contract has expired, the MSL still applies
to the SIM. The phone, however, is also initially locked by the manufacturer into the Service
Provider's MSL. This lock may be disabled so that the phone can use other Service Providers' SIM
cards. Most phones purchased outside the U.S. are unlocked phones because there are numerous
Service Providers that are close to one another or have overlapping coverage. The cost to unlock a
phone varies but is usually very cheap and is sometimes provided by independent phone vendors.
A similar module called a Removable User Identity Module or RUIM card is present in
some CDMA networks, notably in China and Indonesia.
Multi-card hybrid phones
A hybrid mobile phone can take more than one SIM card, even of different types. The SIM
and RUIM cards can be mixed together, and some phones also support three or four SIMs.
From 2010 onwards they became popular in India and Indonesia and other emerging
markets, attributed to the desire to obtain the lowest on-net calling rate. In Q3 2011, Nokia shipped
18 million of its low cost dual SIM phone range in an attempt to make up lost ground in the higher
end smartphone market.
Mobile phones have a display device, some of which are also touch screens. The screen
size varies greatly by model and is usually specified either as width and height in pixels or the
diagonal measured in inches.
Some mobiles have more than one display, for example the Kyocera Echo, an Android
smartphone with a dual 3.5 inch screen. The screens can also be combined into a single 4.7 inch
tablet style computer.
Central processing unit
Mobile phones have central processing units (CPUs), similar to those in computers, but
optimised to operate in low power environments.
Mobile CPU performance depends not only on the clock rate (generally given in multiples
of hertz) but also the memory hierarchy also greatly affects overall performance. Because of these
problems, the performance of mobile phone CPUs is often more appropriately given by scores
derived from various standardized tests to measure the real effective performance in commonly
used applications.
Use of mobile phones
In general
Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch with family
members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency.
Some people carry more than one cell phone for different purposes, such as for business and
personal use. Multiple SIM cards may also be used to take advantage of the benefits of different
calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international
calls, or roaming. A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second
phone that often is kept secret from other family members. These phones may be used to engage in
activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings. The mobile phone has also
been used in a variety of diverse contexts in society, for example:
Organizations that aid victims of domestic violence may offer a cell phone to potential
victims without the abuser's knowledge. These devices are often old phones that are donated and
refurbished to meet the victim's emergency needs.
The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel; the first
literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects the
novels as a whole. Paul Levinson, in Information on the Move (2004), says "...nowadays, a writer
can write just about as easily, anywhere, as a reader can read" and they are "not only personal but
Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters
and Yahoo! and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka.
Mobile phones help lift poor out of poverty. The United Nations has reported that mobile
phones—spreading faster than any other information technology—can improve the livelihood of the
poorest people in developing countries. The economic benefits of mobile phones go well beyond
access to information where a landline or Internet is not yet available in rural areas, mostly in Least
Developed Countries. Mobile phones have spawned a wealth of micro-enterprises, offering work to
people with little education and few resources, such as selling airtime on the streets and repairing or
refurbishing handsets.
In Mali and some African countries, villagers sometimes had to go from village to village
all day, covering up to 20 villages, to let friends and relatives know about a wedding, a birth or a
death, but such travel is no longer necessary if the villages are within the coverage area of a mobile
phone network. Like in many African countries, the coverage is better than that of landline
networks, and most people own a mobile phone. However, small villages have no electricity,
leaving mobile phone owners to have to recharge their phone batteries using a solar panel or
motorcycle battery.
The TV industry has recently started using mobile phones to drive live TV viewing
through mobile apps, advertising, social tv, and mobile TV. 86% of Americans use their mobile
phone while watching TV.
In March 2011, a pilot project experimenting with branchless banking was launched by the
International Finance Corporation, a member of the World Bank, and Bank Harapan Bali, a
subsidiary of Bank Mandiri—the biggest bank in Indonesia and one of the cellular operators in Bali.
Its aim is to increase the amount of bank customers. In Indonesia, only 60 million people have a
bank account even though banks have existed for more than a hundred years, whereas 114 million
people have become users of mobile phones in only two decades. Branchless banking has been
successful in Kenya, South Africa and Philippines.
Mobile phone radiation and health
The effect mobile phone radiation has on human health is the subject of recent interest and
study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. Mobile
phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful
to human health. A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in nonhuman animals and in humans, of which the majority shows no definite causative relationship
between exposure to mobile phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often
paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from mobile phones,
although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are
inconclusive. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar
On 31 May 2011, the World Health Organization confirmed that mobile phone use may
represent a long-term health risk, classifying mobile phone radiation as a "carcinogenic hazard" and
"possibly carcinogenic to humans" after a team of scientists reviewed peer-review studies on cell
phone safety. One study of past cell phone use cited in the report showed a "40% increased risk for
gliomas (brain cancer) in the highest category of heavy users (reported average: 30 minutes per day
over a 10‐year period)." This is a reversal from their prior position that cancer was unlikely to be
caused by cellular phones or their base stations and that reviews had found no convincing evidence
for other health effects. Certain countries, including France, have warned against the use of cell
phones especially by minors due to health risk uncertainties.
At least some recent studies have found an association between cell phone use and certain
kinds of brain and salivary gland tumors. Lennart Hardell and other authors of a 2009 meta-analysis
of 11 studies from peer-reviewed journals concluded that cell phone usage for at least ten years
“approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same ('ipsilateral')
side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use.”
In addition, a mobile phone can spread infectious diseases by its frequent contact with
hands. One study came to the result that pathogenic bacteria are present on approximately 40% of
mobile phones belonging to patients in a hospital, and on approximately 20% of mobile phones
belonging to hospital staff.
3. Грамматический материал: причастие, его формы, самостоятельный
причастный оборот.
Причастие I (Participle I) - неличная форма глагола, обладающая свойствами глагола,
прилагательного и наречия. Соответствует формам причастия и деепричастия в русском
Participle I Indefinite обозначает действие, одновременное с действием глаголасказуемого.
While translating difficult texts we use a dictionary. Переводя трудные тексты, мы
пользуемся словарём.
Participle I Perfect обозначает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголомсказуемым.
Having read the book I returned it to the library. Прочитав книгу, я вернул её в
Функции причастия I
В предложении причастие I (Participle I) может быть:
Определением. В этой функции употребляется только Participle I Indefinite, которое
соответствует русскому причастию настоящего времени в той же функции.
A smiling girl. Улыбающаяся девочка.
A swimming man. Плывущий человек.
The men building our house with me are my friends. Люди, строящие наш дом вместе со
мной, - мои друзья.
The house being built in our street is a new building of school. Дом, строящийся на нашей
улице - это новое здание школы.
Обстоятельством. В этой функции Participle I Indefinite Active чаще всего стоит в начале
предложения и переводится на русский язык деепричастием несовершенного вида.
Translating the article he consulted the dictionary. Переводя статью, он пользовался
Перед таким причастием в функции обстоятельства часто стоят союзы when или while. Такие
словосочетания переводятся либо деепричастным оборотом (или деепричастием) с
опущением союза, либо придаточным предложением, которое начинается с союзов "когда",
"в то время как".
While translating the article the student consulted the dictionary. Переводя статью, студент
пользовался словарём. / Когда студент переводил статью, он пользовался словарём.
Participle I Indefinite Passive переводится на русский язык обстоятельственным придаточным
Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads. Так как мост был построен из
дерева, он не мог выдержать больших нагрузок.
Participle I Perfect Active переводится деепричастием совершенного вида.
Having built a house he began building a greenhouse. Построив дом, он начал строить
Participle I Indefinite Passive в функции обстоятельства (времени, причины) переводится
обстоятельственным придаточным предложением. При этом в качестве подлежащего
русского придаточного предложения употребляется подлежащее английского предложения.
Having been built of concrete, the house was cold in winter. Так как дом был построен из
бетона, зимой в нём было холодно.
Частью сказуемого. Participle I Indefinite Active может быть частью сказуемого.
They are playing chess. Они играют в шахматы.
Причастие II
Причастие II (Participle II) - неличная форма глагола (III основная форма глагола),
имеет одну неизменяемую форму со страдательным значением и обозначает действие,
которое испытывает на себе лицо или предмет. Оно соответствует в русском языке
причастию страдательного залога.
Причастие II правильных глаголов имеет ту же форму, что и Past Indefinite, и
образуется при помощи прибавления суффикса -ed к основе глагола to ask - asked, to help helped.
Подобно причастию I, причастие II обладает свойствами глагола, прилагательного и
наречия. Как и глагол, оно обозначает действие. Время действия, обозначаемое причастием
II, определяется временем действия глагола-сказуемого или контекстом.
The book discussed yesterday was interesting. Книга, обсуждавшаяся вчера, была
The books discussed at the lessons are always interesting. Книги, обсуждаемые на
уроках, всегда интересны.
Функции причастия II
В предложении причастие II может быть:
Lost time is never found again. Потерянное время никогда не вернёшь (дословно - не
A written letter lay on the table. Написанное письмо лежало на столе.
They are reconstructing the house built in the 18th century. Они реставрируют здание,
построенное в 18 веке.
Обстоятельством. Перед причастием II в функции обстоятельства могут стоять союзы if,
unless, when. В таком случае английское причастие переводится обстоятельственным придаточным
предложением, в котором подлежащее то же, что и в главном предложении.
If built of the local stone, the road will serve for years. Если построить дорогу (Если дорога
построена) из местного камня, она будет служить долгие годы.
Конструкции с причастием
Конструкция "объектный падеж с причастием I" состоит из личного местоимения в
объектном падеже или существительного в общем падеже и причастия.
I saw her crossing the street. Я видел, как она переходит улицу.
Эта конструкция "объектный падеж с причастием I" - the Objective - with - the Participle I Construction - употребляется тогда, когда говорящий хочет подчеркнуть, что
действие, выраженное причастием, на завершено и протекает в момент речи. В этой
конструкции употребляется только одна форма причастия I - Participle I Indefinite Active.
В этой конструкции местоимение в объектном падеже или существительное в общем
падеже называют лицо или предмет, производящее действие. Она употребляется после
глаголов чувственного восприятия to see, to hear, to watch, to feel и др. Переводится
придаточным предложением.
They watched him entering the house. Они наблюдали за тем, как он входит в дом.
I saw John passing our house. Я видел, как Джон проходил мимо нашего дома.
Конструкция "объектный падеж с причастием II" - the Objective - with - the Participle II отличается от аналогичной конструкции с причастием I, тем, что в ней причастие
II называет действие, направленное на лицо или предмет, выраженные личным
местоимением в объектном падеже или существительным в общем падеже. Эта конструкция
переводится на русский язык в основном придаточным предложением. Она употребляется:
После глаголов чувственного восприятия to see, to hear, to feel, to watch и др.;
После глаголов, выражающих желание to want, to wish и др.;
После глаголов to have, to get.
We head his name mentioned. Мы слышали, как упомянули его имя.
I want the work done. Я хочу, чтобы работа была сделана.
I have my photo taken. Я сфотографировался.
Такие предложения с данной конструкцией переводятся простым предложением.
Независимый причастный оборот.
В состав независимого причастного оборота, также называемого абсолютным
причастным оборотом, (the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction) может входить как
Participle I, так и Participle II.
Независимый причастный оборот с причастием I. В этой конструкции причастие I выражает
действие, не связанное с действием, обозначенным глаголом-сказуемым предложения. Сам оборот
состоит из существительного в общем падеже (реже местоимения в именительном падеже) и
причастия I. Действие, выраженное причастием, относится к этому существительному (или
местоимению). Этот оборот характерен для письменной речи и почти не употребляется в
разговорной. В предложении этот оборот выступает в роли различных обстоятельств и на письме
всегда отделяется запятой от остального предложения. На русский язык переводится придаточным
The weather permitting, we shall go to the country. Если погода позволит, мы поедем за
город. (обстоятельство условия)
It being very cold, we could not go for a walk. Так как было холодно, мы не смогли пойти
на прогулку. (обстоятельство причины)
The sun having risen, we continued our way. После того, как солнце взошло, мы
продолжили свой путь. (обстоятельство времени)
The article having been translated, the student showed it to the teacher. После того как
(когда) статья была переведена, студент показал её преподавателю. (обстоятельство времени)
Независимый причастный оборот с причастием II. Этот оборот также состоит из двух
частей: личного местоимения в именительном падеже или существительного в общем падеже,
которые претерпевают действие, выраженное причастием II. Этот оборот употребляется в функции
различных обстоятельств и переводится на русский язык соответствующим обстоятельственным
His work finished, he went home. Когда его работа была закончена, он пошёл домой.
Тренировочные упражнения.
Упр. 1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на причастия.
1. Everybody looked at the dancing girl. 2. The little plump woman standing at the window is my
grandmother. 3. The man playing the piano is Kate's uncle. 4. Entering the room, she turned on the
light. 5. Coming to the theatre, she saw that the performance had already begun. 6. Looking out of
the window, he saw his mother watering the flowers. 7. Hearing the sounds of music we stopped
talking 8. She went into the room, leaving the door open.
Упр. 2. Замените придаточные определительные предложения причастными
1. All the people who live in this house are stu dents. 2. The woman who is speaking now is oui
secretary. 3. The apparatus that stands on the table in the- corner of the laboratory is quite new. 4.
The young man who helps the professor in his experiments studies at an evening school for la bo
ratory workers. 5. People who take books from the library must return them in time. 6. There are
rnany pupils in our class who take part in all kinds of extra-curricular activities.
Упр. 3. Замените придаточные предложения причины причастными оборотами.
1. As he now felt more at ease, the man spoke in a louder voice. 2. Since he knew who the man was,
Robert was very pleased to have the chance of talking to him. 3. As he thought that it was his
brother at the window, Steve decided to open it. 4. As the people were afraid of falling into a ditch
in the darkness at any moment, they felt their way about very carefully. 5. Since he needed a shelter
for the night, Peter decided to go to the neighbours' house.
Упр. 4. Замените придаточные предложения времени причастными оборотами (не опускайте союз when).
1. When you speak English, pay attention to the order of words. 2. Be careful when you are crossing
a street. 3. When you are leaving the room, don't forget to switch off the light. 4. When you begin to
work with the dictionary, don't forget my instructions. 5. When they were travelling in Central
Africa, the explorers met many wild animals. 6. When you are copying English texts, pay attention
to the articles. 7. You must have much practice when you are learning to speak a foreign language.
Past Participle = Participle II
III форма глагола
broken — сломанный, разбитый written — написанный eaten — съеденный
Упр. 5. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Past Participle.
1. My sister likes boiled eggs. 2. We stopped before a shut door. 3. Tied to the tree, the goat could
not run away. 4. They saw overturned tables and chairs and pieces of broken glass all over the
room. 5. This is a church built many years ago. 6. The books written by Dickens give us a realistic
picture of the 19th century England. 7. She put a plate of fried fish in front of me. 8. The coat
bought last year is too small for me now. 9. Nobody saw the things kept in that box.
Упр. 6. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle 1 и Participle II.
1. a) A fish taken out of the water cannot live.
b) A person taking a sun-bath must be very careful.
c) Taking a dictionary, he began to translate
the text.
2. a) A line seen through this crystal looks double.
b) A teacher seeing a mistake in a student's dictation always corrects it.
c) Seeing clouds of smoke over the house, the girl cried: "Fire! Fire!"
3. a) The word said by the student was not correct.
b) The man standing at the door of the train carriage and saying goodbye to his friends is a wellknown musician.
c) Standing at the window, she was waving her hand.
4. a) A letter sent from St. Petersburg today will be in Moscow tomorrow.
b) He saw some people in the post-office sending telegrams.
С)When sending the telegram she forgot to write her name.
5. a) Some of the questions put to the lecturer yesterday were very important.
b) The girl putting the book on the shelf is the new librarian.
c) While putting the eggs into the basket she broke one of them.
6. a) A word spoken in time may have very important results.
b) The students speaking good English must help their classmates.
c) The speaking doll interested the child very much.
d) While speaking to Nick some days ago I forgot to ask him about his sister.
Упр. 7. Выберите из скобок требующуюся форму причастия.
1 . a) The girl (writing, written) on the blackboard is our best pupil.
b) Everything (writing, written) here is quite right.
2. a) The house (surrounding, surrounded) by tall trees is very beautiful.
b) The wall (surrounding, surrounded) the house was very high.
3. a) Who is that boy (doing, done) his homework at that table?
b) The exercises (doing, done) by the pupils were easy.
4. a) The girl (washing, washed) the floor is my sister.
b) The floor (washing, washed) by Helen looked very clean.
5. a) We listened to the girls (singing, sung) Russian folk songs.
b) We listened to the Russian folk songs (singing, sung) by the girls.
6. Do you know the girl (playing, played) in the garden?
7. The book (writing, written) by this scientist is very interesting.
8. Translate the words (writing, written) on the blackboard.
9. We could not see the sun (covering, covered) by dark clouds.
10. The (losing, lost) book was found at last.
11 (Going, gone) along the street, I met Mary and Ann.
12. Read the (translating, translated) sentences once more.
13. Name some places (visiting, visited) by you last year.
14.1 picked up the pencil (lying, lain) on the floor.
15. She was reading the book (buying, bought) the day before.
16. Yesterday we were at a conference (organizing, organized) by the pupils of the 10th form.
17. (Taking, taken) the girl by the hand, she led her across the street.
18. It was not easy to find the (losing, lost) stamp.
19.1 shall show you a picture (painting, painted) by Hogarth. '
20. Here is the letter (receiving, received) by me yesterday.
21. Look at the beautiful flowers (gathering, gathered) by the children.
22. His hat (blowing, blown) off by the wind was lying m the middle of the street.
23. «How do you like the film?» he asked, (turning, turned) towards me.
24. When we came nearer, we saw two boys (coming, come) towards us.
25.1 think that the boy (standing, stood) there is his brother.
Упр. 8. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Participle или Perfect Participle.
1. (to do) his homework, he was thinking hard. 2. (to do) his homework, he went for a walk. 3 (to
sell) fruit, he looked back from time to time, hoping to see his friends. 4. (to sell) all the fruit, he
went to see. his friends. 5. (to eat) all the potatoes, she drank a cup of tea. 6. (to drink) tea, she
scalded her lips. 7. (to run) in the yard, I fell and hurt my Knee. 8. (to look) through some
magazines, I came across an interesting article about UFOs. 9. (to write) out and (to learn) all the
new words, he was able to translate the text easily. 10. (to live) in the south of our country, he
cannot enjoy the beauty of St. Petersburg's White Nights in summer. 11. (to talk) to her neighbour
in the street, she did not notice how a thief stole her money. 12. (to read) the story, she closed the
book and put it on the shelf. 13. (to buy) some juice and cakes, we went home. 14. (to sit) near the
fire, he felt very warm.
Упр. 9. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на причастия.
1. The boy lay sleeping when the doctor came. 2. The broken arm was examined by the doctor. 3.
While being examined, the boy could not help crying. 4. Having prescribed the medicine, the doctor
went away. 5. The medicine prescribed by the doctor was bitter. 6. The dress bought at the
department store was very beautiful. 7. While using a needle you should be careful not to prick your
finger. 8. While crossing the street one should first look to the left and then to the right. 9. People
watching a performance are called an audience. 10. Being very ill, she could not go to school. 11.
The first rays of the rising sun lit up the top of the hill. 12. The tree struck by lightning was all black
and leafless. 13. Being busy, he postponed his trip. 14. The door bolted on the in side could not be
opened, 15. Having been shown the wrong direction, the travellers soon lost their way, 16. The
room facing the garden is much more comfortable than this one. 17. Having descended the mountain they heard a man calling for help. 18. Flushed and excited, the boy came running to his mother.
19. He stood watching the people who were coming down the street shouting and waving their
4 семестр
12 часов
1. Развитие умений и навыков
говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по теме:
«Изобретение радио в России».
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по
А) Радио
Б) Поколения компьютеров
В) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
грамматическим материалом: инфинитив и его формы,
инфинитивные обороты.
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и письма по
теме: «Изобретение радио в России».
1) Read and translate the text. Give a short summary in written form. Retell the text.
The Invention of Radio in Russia
Wireless transmission is one of the most remarkable achievements of humanity and an
indispensable feature of present-day life. We owe this to a Russian genius, Alexander Popov.
Alexander Popov was born March 16th 1859 into a priest’s family with many kids and he
developed a rare ability for inventing things at the age of 12, when he produced an “electric alarm”
by connecting a chain and a weight from an old clock to a galvanic battery. Years later he would
introduce an electric bell into the first radio receiver as a “bell relay”.
Alexander Popov, an honors graduate of the physics and mathematics department of St.
Petersburg University, continued training for doctoral degree after graduation. As he studied
electromagnetic waves, Popov invented a device that employed electromagnetic radiation to
transmit an electric signal with information over a distance without a wire.
Addressing a meeting of marine officers in Kronstadt in January 1896 Alexander Popov
suggested the possibility of establishing wireless ship-to-shore communication and from then on
wireless radio was used to rescue ships and people.
Alexander Popov repeatedly demonstrated his radio to the public and reports of his
invention were published in five Russian editions and won high acclaim from foreign experts.
Unfortunately, the scientist did not apply for a patent for his invention.
“I was lucky to study at a school that bore the name of radio inventor Alexander Popov,”
Alexei Ruchkin said. In senior grades we were trained in general knowledge and in technical skills.
We were trained to be radio operators and we worked at radio stations. Naturally, we all knew
Alexander Popov’s biography and never questioned who the invention belonged to, because we
knew it belonged to our fellow countryman.”
Alexander Popov was the first to demonstrate a radio receiver on May 7th 1895, and this day
is marked in Russia as Radio Day. And Popov was the first to demonstrate wireless telegraphy by
sending a radiogram on March 24th 1896. Both happened before Guglielmo Marconi applied for a
patent for a similar device on June 2nd 1896. This pushed the Russian scientist into making a
statement about his priority in domestic and foreign press. Popov’s invention was marked with a
gold medal at the Electrotechnical Congress in Paris in 1900.
Unfortunately, Alexander Popov died quite unexpectedly at 46, having fulfilled so few of his
daring projects.
2. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Радио
Учебное пособие по английскому языку. Телекоммуникации. Судовцев В.А.Москва «Высшая
школа». Text - Radio, стр. 24 . Упражнения после текста
Б) Поколения компьютеров
Read the text and answer the questions given below
In the beginning ...
A generation refers to the state of improvement in the development of a product. This term is
also used in the different advancements of computer technology. With each new generation, the
circuitry has gotten smaller and more advanced than the previous generation before it. As a result
of the miniaturization, speed, power, and memory of computers has proportionally increased. New
discoveries are constantly being developed that affect the way we live, work and play.
The First Generation: 1946-1958 (The Vacuum Tube Years)
The first generation computers were huge, slow, expensive, and often undependable. In
1946two Americans, Presper Eckert, and John Mauchly built the ENIAC electronic computer which
used vacuum tubes instead of the mechanical switches of the Mark I. The ENIAC used thousands
of vacuum tubes, which took up a lot of space and gave off a great deal of heat just like light bulbs
do. The ENIAC led to other vacuum tube type computers like the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete
Variable Automatic Computer) and the UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer).
The vacuum tube was an extremely important step in the advancement of computers. Vacuum
tubes were invented the same time the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison and worked very
similar to light bulbs. It's purpose was to act like an amplifier and a switch. Without any moving
parts, vacuum tubes could take very weak signals and make the signal stronger (amplify it).
Vacuum tubes could also stop and start the flow of electricity instantly (switch). These two
properties made the ENIAC computer possible.
The ENIAC gave off so much heat that they had to be cooled by gigantic air conditioners.
However even with these huge coolers, vacuum tubes still overheated regularly. It was time for
something new.
The Second Generation: 1959-1964 (The Era of the Transistor)
The transistor computer did not last as long as the vacuum tube computer lasted, but it was no
less important in the advancement of computer technology. In 1947 three scientists, John Bardeen,
William Shockley, and Walter Brattain working at AT&T's Bell Labs invented what would replace
the vacuum tube forever. This invention was the transistor which functions like a vacuum tube in
that it can be used to relay and switch electronic signals.
There were obvious differences between the transisitor and the vacuum tube. The transistor
was faster, more reliable, smaller, and much cheaper to build than a vacuum tube. One transistor
replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. These transistors were made of solid material, some of
which is silicon, an abundant element (second only to oxygen) found in beach sand and glass.
Therefore they were very cheap to produce. Transistors were found to conduct electricity faster and
better than vacuum tubes. They were also much smaller and gave off virtually no heat compared to
vacuum tubes. Their use marked a new beginning for the computer. Without this invention, space
travel in the 1960's would not have been possible. However, a new invention would even further
advance our ability to use computers.
The Third Generation: 1965-1970 (Integrated Circuits - Miniaturizing the Computer)
Transistors were a tremendous breakthrough in advancing the computer. However no one
could predict that thousands even now millions of transistors (circuits) could be compacted in such
a small space. The integrated circuit, or as it is sometimes referred to as semiconductor chip, packs
a huge number of transistors onto a single wafer of silicon. Robert Noyce of Fairchild Corporation
and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments independently discovered the amazing attributes of integrated
circuits. Placing such large numbers of transistors on a single chip vastly increased the power of a
single computer and lowered its cost considerably.
Since the invention of integrated circuits, the number of transistors that can be placed on a
single chip has doubled every two years, shrinking both the size and cost of computers even further
and further enhancing its power. Most electronic devices today use some form of integrated circuits
placed on printed circuit boards-- thin pieces of bakelite or fiberglass that have electrical
connections etched onto them -- sometimes called a mother board.
These third generation computers could carry out instructions in billionths of a second. The
size of these machines dropped to the size of small file cabinets. Yet, the single biggest
advancement in the computer era was yet to be discovered.
The Fourth Generation: 1971-Today (The Microprocessor)
This generation can be characterized by both the jump to monolithic integrated
circuits(millions of transistors put onto one integrated circuit chip) and the invention of the
microprocessor (a single chip that could do all the processing of a full-scale computer). By putting
millions of transistors onto one single chip more calculation and faster speeds could be reached by
computers. Because electricity travels about a foot in a billionth of a second, the smaller the
distance the greater the speed of computers.
However what really triggered the tremendous growth of computers and its significant impact
on our lives is the invention of the microprocessor. Ted Hoff, employed by Intel (Robert Noyce's
new company) invented a chip the size of a pencil eraser that could do all the computing and logic
work of a computer. The microprocessor was made to be used in calculators, not computers. It led,
however, to the invention of personal computers, or microcomputers.
It wasn't until the 1970's that people began buying computer for personal use. One of the
earliest personal computers was the Altair 8800 computer kit. In 1975 you could purchase this kit
and put it together to make your own personal computer. In 1977 the Apple II was sold to the
public and in 1981 IBM entered the PC (personal computer) market.
The Forth generation computers was also designed to suite a small piece of space and its mode of
operation was based on silicon of very large silicon integrated circuit ( VLSI) and ultra large silicon
integrated circuit.(ULSI). Today we have all heard of Intel and its Pentium® Processors and now
we know how it all got started.
The Fifth generation of computer is the development of softwares to enhances computer works
and its robotic applications They say, the fifth generation will use new technologies, optical fibers,
videodisks and artificial intelligence.There is no end in sight for the computer movement.
Answer each of the questions after reading the article above. Write in complete sentences. You
must think and be creative with your answers.
In each of the 4 generations what was the cause for the increase of speed, power, or
Why did the ENIAC and other computers like it give off so much heat? (Be very specific)
What characteristics made the transistors better than the vacuum tube?
How was space travel made possible through the invention of transistors?
What did the microprocessor allow the computers to do? and What was the microprocessor's
original purpose?
When was the first computer offered to the public and what was its name?
What was Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby known for?
Intel was started by who?
What is monolithic integrated circuits?
How do you think society will be different if scientists are able to create a chip that will
perform a trillion operations in a single second?
В) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
Учебное пособие: Достижения науки и техники XX века. Т.Ю. Полякова, Е.В. Синявская,
Г.А. Селезнева, Москва «Высшая школа», 2004 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования грамматическим
материалом: инфинитив и его формы, инфинитивные обороты.
Инфинитив имеет следующие формы:
Perfect Continuous
to write
to be writing
to have written
to have been writing
to be written
to have been written
Только Indefinite Infinitive Active является простой формой инфинитива. Остальные
формы являются сложными и образуются с помощью вспомогательных глаголов to be или to
have и причастия.
Continuous Infinitive Active образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be и
Participle I.
Perfect Infinitive Active образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола tc have и
Participle II.
Perfect Continuous Infinitive Active образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to
be в форме Perfect Infinitive (to have been) и Participle I.
Indefinite Infinitive Passive образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be и
Participle II.
Perfect Infinitive Passive образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в
форме Perfect Infinitive (to have been) и Participle II.
Отрицательная форма инфинитива образуется с помощью отрицательной частицы not,
которая ставится перед инфинитивом:not to write; not to be written
Функции инфинитива в предложении
Инфинитив или инфинитивная группа (т. е. инфинитив с зависимыми от него
словами) может выполнять в предложении функцию какого-либо члена предложения или
входить в состав какого-либо члена предложения.
Функции инфинитива (или инфинитивной группы) в предложении следующие:
1) Подлежащее:
То smoke is bad for health. - Курить вредно для здоровья.
Примечание. Инфинитив или инфинитивная группа, которая следует после безличных
оборотов типа it is necessary, it is possible, выполняет функцию подлежащего:
It was necessary to do something.- Необходимо было что-то сделать.
2) Часть простого сказуемого в сочетании с вспомогательными глаголами:
The chairman said, "I'll open the discussion myself." - Председатель сказал: “Я открою
обсуждение своим выступлением”.
"I do not know anything about it. When did you hear that." - “Я ничего не знаю об этом. Когда
вы это слышали?”
If the wire were of a smaller diameter, its resistance would be increased.- Если бы проволока была
меньшего диаметра, ее сопротивление увеличилось бы.
3) Часть составного глагольного сказуемого в сочетании с модальными глаголами и с такими
глаголами, как to begin, to start, to continue, to end, to stop, to want, to decide, to intend и т. п.,
выражающими начало, продолжение или конец действия, или отношение лица, выраженного
подлежащим, к действию, выраженному инфинитивом:
We can actually begin the experiment. - Теперь мы действительно можем начать опыт.
You are to live here for the next six months. - Вы должны жить здесь в течение ближайших
шести месяцев.
My watch began to gain, it gained faster and faster day by day. - Мои часы начали идти вперед и
спешили все больше и больше с каждым днем.
Инфинитив является частью составного глагольного сказуемого в предложениях,
содержащих “Субъектный инфинитивный оборот”:
As least one radioactive isotope is known to exist for all known elements. - Известно, что по
крайней мере один радиоактивный изотоп существует для всех известных элементов.
4) Именная часть составного сказуемого:
"I think," he said, "that to prolong this discussion is to waste time." - “Я думаю, - сказал он, - что
продолжать это обсуждение - значит попусту терять время”.
5) Дополнение (после переходных глаголов to help, to assist, to like, to prefer, to forget, to ask,
to beg, to promise, to recommend и др.):
He forgot to wind the watch when he went to bed. - Он забыл завести часы, когда ложился спать.
6) Часть сложного дополнения :
Everyone watched him walk across the garden. - Все смотрели, как он шел через сад.
We know the atomic weight of a hydrogen atom to be 1.008. - Мы знаем, что атомный вес
водорода равен 1,008
7) Определение:
Не was the first to come. - Он первым пришел сюда.
Energy is defined as the ability to do work. - Энергия определяется как способность
производить работу.
Инфинитив в функции определения после слов the first, the second, the last и т. д.
переводится на русский язык глаголом в личной форме в том времени, в каком стоит глаголсказуемое английского предложения:
Не will be the last to leave. -- Он уйдет последним
George was the first to recover. - Джордж первым пришел в себя.
Инфинитив, определяющий существительное, часто приобретает модальное значение
и переводится на русский язык определительным придаточным предложением с модальным
глагольным сказуемым, выражающим возможность или долженствование. Иногда
инфинитив переводится глаголом в будущем времени:
We intended to camp in one of the inlets to be found round that tiny shore. - Мы предполагали
заночевать в одном из заливчиков, которые можно найти у этого островка.
Примечание. Если к инфинитиву в функции определения примыкает предлог, то перевод
инфинитива следует начинать с предлога. Поскольку инфинитив в функции определения
переводится чаще всего определительным придаточным предложением, в русском
предложении предлог займет место перед относительным местоимением, вводящим
придаточное предложение:
The things that you see here, are things to be seen and not to be spoken of. - Вещи, которые вы
видите здесь, являются тем, что можно видеть, но о чем нельзя говорить.
8) Обстоятельство:
а) цели. При переводе на русский язык инфинитива в функции обстоятельства цели перед
инфинитивом употребляется союз чтобы, для того чтобы:
То reach the lecture hall he had to walk almost half a mile. - Чтобы дойти до лекционного зала,
ему пришлось идти почти полмили.
We have come to the station to see them off. - Мы пришли на станцию, чтобы проводить их.
Примечание. Перед инфинитивом в функции обстоятельства цели часто употребляется союз
in order для того чтобы:
In order to measure the resistance of a conductor it is necessary to have some fixed standard. Для
того чтобы измерить сопротивление проводника, необходимо иметь какую-то принятую
стандартную единицу.
6) следствия:
I was too young to think of such things at the time. - В то время я был слишком молод, чтобы
думать о таких вещах.
Употребление инфинитива с частицей to
Инфинитив обычно употребляется с частицей to: to write, to work, to do.
Если в предложении употребляются два инфинитива, соединенные союзом and или or,
частица to перед вторым инфинитивом обычно опускается:
The aim of the budget is to develop our economy and raise the living standard of the people. - Цель
бюджета - развивать нашу экономику и поднимать жизненный уровень народа.
Иногда, чтобы не повторять один и тот же глагол, вместо полной формы инфинитива
этого глагола употребляется только частица to:
I seem to have hurt her though I never meant to (hurt her). - Я, кажется, обидел ее, хотя я совсем
не хотел этого (ее обидеть).
Употребление инфинитива без частицы to
Инфинитив без частицы to употребляется:
1. В сочетании с вспомогательными и модальными глаголами
Примечание. После модального глагола ought всегда употребляется инфинитив с частицей
2. В "Объектном инфинитивном обороте" после глаголов to see видеть, to hear слышать, to
feel чувствовать, to watch, to observe наблюдать
3. После глаголов to make заставлять, to let разрешать, допускать:
What made you come so early? - Что заставило вас прийти так рано?
Don't let the fire go out. - Не давайте огню погаснуть.
Примечание. Если глаголы, перечисленные в пунктах 2 и 3, стоят в страдательном залоге, то
после них употребляется инфинитив с частицей to:
Не was heard to lock the door. Слышали, как он запирал дверь.Не was made to do it. Его
заставили сделать это.
4. После выражений: had better лучше бы, would rather, would sooner предпочел бы и
некоторых других:
Не said he would rather stay at home. - Он сказал, что он предпочел бы остаться дома.
George said we had better get the canvas up first. - Джордж сказал, что нам лучше сначала
натянуть парусину.
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Вставьте частицу "to" перед инфинитивом, где необходимо.
1. I like ... play the guitar. 2. My brother can ... speak French. 3. We had ... put on our overcoats
because it was cold. 4. They wanted ... cross the river. 5. It is high time for you ... go to bed. 6. May
I ... use your telephone? 7. They heard the girl ... cry out with joy. 8. I would rather ... stay at home
today. 9. He did not want ... play in the yard any more. 10. Would you like ... go to England? 11.
You look tired. You had better ... go home.
12. I wanted ... speak to Nick, but could not... find his telephone number. 13. It is time ... get up. 14.
Let me ... help you with your homework. 15. I was planning ... do a lot of things yesterday. 16. I'd
like ... speak to you. 17. I think I shall be able ... solve this problem. 18. What makes you ... think
you are right? 19. I shall do all I can ... help you. 20. I like ... dance. 21. I'd like ... dance. 22. She
made me ... repeat my words several times. 23. I saw him ... enter the room. 24. She did not let her
mother ... go away. 25. Do you like ... listen to good music? 26. Would you like ... listen to good
music? 27. That funny scene made me ... laugh.
Упр. 2. Замените части предложений инфинитивными оборотами.
E.g. The boy had many toys which he could play with. The boy had many toys to play with.
1. I have no books which I can read. 2. Is there anybody who will help you with your spelling? 3.
Don't forget that she has a baby which she must take care of. 4. Have you got nothing that you want
to say on this subject? 5. There was nothing that he could do except go home. 6. I have only a few
minutes in which I can explain these words to you. 7. I have an examination which I must take
soon, so I can't go to the theatre with you. 8. King Lear decided to have a hundred knights who
would serve him after he had divided up his kingdom. 9. Here is something which will warm you
up. 10. Here is a new brush which you will clean your teeth with. 11. Here are some more facts
which will prove that your theory is correct. 12. Here is something which you can rub on your
hands. It will soften them. 13. Here are some screws with which you can fasten the shelves to the
wall. 14. Here are some tablets which will relieve your headache. 15. Here are some articles which
must be translated for tomorrow. 16. Who has a pen or a pencil to spare? I need something I could
write with. 17.1 have brought you a book which you can read now, but be sure and return it by
Saturday. 18. Soon we found that there was another complicated problem that we were to consider.
19. The girl was quite young when both her parents died and she remained alone with two younger
brothers whom she had to take care of.
Упр. 3. Замените придаточные предложения инфинитивными оборотами.
E.g. He is so old that he cannot skate. He is too old to skate.
1. The problem is so difficult that it is impossible to solve it. 2. The box is so heavy that nobody
can carry it. 3. The baby is so little that it cannot walk. 4. He is so weak that he cannot lift this
weight. 5. She is so busy that she cannot talk with you. 6. She was so inattentive that she did
not notice the mistake. 7. The rule was so difficult that they did not understand it. 8. He was so
stupid that he did not see the joke. 9. She has got so fat that she cannot wear this dress now.
10. The accident was so terrible that I don't want to talk about it. 11. They were so emptyheaded that they could not learn a single thing. 12. The window was so dirty that they could
not see through it. 13. She was so foolish that she could not understand my explanation. 14. I
have very little wool: it won't make a sweater.
Запомните следующие застывшие словосочетания с инфинитивом:
to cut a long story short — короче говоря to tell (you) the truth — сказать (вам) по
to say nothing of — не говоря уже о to put it mildly — мягко выражаясь to say the least of it —
по меньшей мере to begin with — начнем с того что
Запомните следующие предложения:
The book leaves much to be desired. — Книга оставляет желать лучшего.
Не is difficult to deal with. — С ним трудно иметь дело.
Не is hard to please. — Ему трудно угодить.
She is pleasant to look at. — На нее приятно смотреть.
Упр.4. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя застывшие словосочетания с инфинитивом.
1. Мягко выражаясь, она была невежлива. 2. Ваша работа оставляет желать лучшего. 3. Сказать по правде, я не люблю бокс. 4. Вашей сестре трудно угодить. 5. Начнем с того, что я
занят, б. На него было приятно смотреть. 7. Короче говоря, он не сдал экзамен. 8. Мы все
были рады, не говоря уже о маме: она сказала, что это самый счастливый день в ее жизни. 9.
Твое сочинение оставляет желать лучшего. 10. Это очень странно, по меньшей мере. 11. Для
начала, она открыла все окна. 12. С моим соседом трудно иметь дело. 13. По правде говоря, я
очень устал. 14. Его поведение оставляет желать лучшего. 15. Мягко выражаясь, вы меня
удивили. 16. На этих детей приятно посмотреть. 17. Короче говоря, они поженились. 18.
Самая известная книга Джерома — "Трое в лодке, не считая собаки." 19. Вам трудно
угодить. 20. По меньшей мере, мы были удивлены.
Упр. 5. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя застывшие словосочетания с
1. Чтобы получить хорошую оценку, вы должны упорно поработать. 2. С ней трудно иметь
дело. 3. Что делать? 4. Начнем с того, что он болен. 5. Чтобы читать Диккенса в оригинале,
вы должны хорошо знать язык. 6. Мягко выражаясь, он не прав. 7. Она была не виновата. 8.
Ребенку не с кем играть. 9. Видеть значит верить. 10. Чтобы успеть на этот поезд, вы должны
поторопиться. 11. Не может быть и речи о покупке машины в этом году. 12. Книга оставляет
желать лучшего. 13. Сказать по правде, мне это не нравится. 14. Им было нечего есть. 15. Кто
виноват? 16. Короче говоря, он не сделал урок. 17. В нашей семье мама всегда встает первая.
18. На нее приятно смотреть. 19. Чтобы перевести эту статью, вы должны воспользоваться
словарем. 20. Мне некуда ехать летом. 21.0 том, чтобы купаться в этой реке, не могло быть и
речи. 22. Ему было не с кем обсудить эту проблему. 23. Вчера Катя пришла в школу
Упр.6. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Active Infinitive и Passive
Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet. 2. To improve your phonetics you should
record yourself and analyse your speech. 3. This is the book to be read during the summer holidays.
4. To be instructed by such a good specialist was a great advantage. 5. To play chess was his
greatest pleasure. 6. The child did not like to be washed. 7. Isn't it natural that we like to be praised
and don't like to be scolded? 8. Which is more pleasant: to give or to be given presents? He is very
forgetful, but he doesn't like to be reminded of his duties.
Упр. 7. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Perfect Infinitive.
1. I am awfully glad to have met you. 2. Sorry to have placed you in this disagreeable situation. 3. I
am very happy to have had the pleasure of making your acquaintance. 4. I am sorry to have kept
you waiting. 5. Clyde was awfully glad to have renewed his acquaintance with Sondra, 6. Sorry not
to have noticed you. 7.1 am sorry to have added some more trouble by what I have told you. 8.
When Clyde looked at the girl closely, he remembered to have seen her in Sondra's company. 9. I
remembered to have been moved1 by the scene I witnessed. 10. The child was happy to have been
brought home. 11. Jane remembered to have been told a lot about Mr. Rochester. 12. The children
were delighted to have been brought to the circus. 13. I am sorry to have spoilt your mood. 14.
Maggie was very sorry to have forgotten to feed the rabbits.
Упр. 8. Замените выделенные части предложений инфинитивными оборотами.
E.g. He is sorry that he has said it. He is sorry to have said it.
1. She was sorry that she had missed the beginning of the concert. 2. I am glad that I see all my
friends here. 3. I was afraid of going past that place alone. 4. My sister will be thrilled when she is
wearing a dress as lovely as that. 5. We must wait till we hear the examination results. 6. She is
happy that she has found such a nice place to live in. 7. I should be delighted if I could join you.
8. He hopes that he will know everything by tomorrow. 9. It is certain that it will rain if you don't
take your umbrella. 10. Don't promise that you will do it, if you are not sure that you can.
11. He was happy that he was praised by everybody. 12. He was very proud that he had helped
his elder brother.
Упр. 9. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму инфинитива.
1. Не seems (to read) a lot. 2. Не seems (to read) now. 3. He seems (to read) since morning. 4. He
seems (to read) all the books in the library. 5. I want (to take) you to the concert. 6.1 want (to take)
to the concert by my father. 7. She hoped (to help) her Mends. 6. She hoped (to help) by her friends.
9. I hope (to see) you soon. 10. We expect (to be) back in two days. 11. He expected (to help) by the
teacher. 12. The children seem (to play) since morning. 13. I am glad (to do) all the homework
yesterday. 14. She seems (to work) at this problem ever since she came here. 15 I am sorry (to
break) your pen.
12 часов
1. Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения,
аудирования и письма по темам: «Телекоммуникации».
2 . Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по
А) Теория связи
Б) Фотоника
В) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
грамматическим материалом: герундий, формы герундия.
Развитие умений и навыков говорения, чтения, аудирования и
письма по теме: «Телекоммуникации».
1) Read and translate the text. Give a short summary in written form. Retell the text.
Society and telecommunication
Telecommunication has a significant social, cultural. and economic impact on modern
society. In 2008, estimates placed the telecommunication industry's revenue at $3.85 trillion or just
under 3 percent of the gross world product (official exchange rate). Several following sections
discuss the impact of telecommunication on society.
Economic impact
On the microeconomic scale, companies have used telecommunications to help build global
business empires. This is self-evident in the case of online retailer but, according to
academic Edward Lenert, even the conventional retailer Wal-Mart has benefited from better
telecommunication infrastructure compared to its competitors. In cities throughout the world, home
owners use their telephones to organize many home services ranging from pizza deliveries to
electricians. Even relatively-poor communities have been noted to use telecommunication to their
advantage. In Bangladesh's Narshingdi district, isolated villagers use cellular phones to speak
directly to wholesalers and arrange a better price for their goods. In Côte d'Ivoire, coffee growers
share mobile phones to follow hourly variations in coffee prices and sell at the best price.
On the macroeconomic scale, Lars-Hendrik Röller and Leonard Waverman suggested a
causal link between good telecommunication infrastructure and economic growth. Few dispute the
existence of a correlation although some argue it is wrong to view the relationship as causal.
Because of the economic benefits of good telecommunication infrastructure, there is
increasing worry about the inequitable access to telecommunication services amongst various
countries of the world—this is known as the digital divide. A 2003 survey by the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) revealed that roughly a third of countries have fewer than one
mobile subscription for every 20 people and one-third of countries have fewer than one land-line
telephone subscription for every 20 people. In terms of Internet access, roughly half of all countries
have fewer than one out of 20 people with Internet access. From this information, as well as
educational data, the ITU was able to compile an index that measures the overall ability of citizens
to access and use information and communication technologies. Using this measure, Sweden,
Denmark and Iceland received the highest ranking while the African countries Nigeria, Burkina
Faso and Mali received the lowest.
Social impact
Telecommunication has played a significant role in social relationships. Nevertheless
devices like the telephone system were originally advertised with an emphasis on the practical
dimensions of the device (such as the ability to conduct business or order home services) as
opposed to the social dimensions. It was not until the late 1920s and 1930s that the social
dimensions of the device became a prominent theme in telephone advertisements. New promotions
started appealing to consumers' emotions, stressing the importance of social conversations and
staying connected to family and friends.
Since then the role that telecommunications has played in social relations has become
increasingly important. In recent years, the popularity of social networking sites has increased
dramatically. These sites allow users to communicate with each other as well as post photographs,
events and profiles for others to see. The profiles can list a person's age, interests, sexual preference
and relationship status. In this way, these sites can play important role in everything from
organising social engagements to courtship.]
Prior to social networking sites, technologies like short message service(SMS) and the
telephone also had a significant impact on social interactions. In 2000, market research group Ipsos
MORI reported that 81% of 15 to 24 year-old SMS users in the United Kingdom had used the
service to coordinate social arrangements and 42% to flirt.
Other impacts
In cultural terms, telecommunication has increased the public's ability to access to music and
film. With television, people can watch films they have not seen before in their own home without
having to travel to the video store or cinema. With radio and the Internet, people can listen to music
they have not heard before without having to travel to the music store.
Telecommunication has also transformed the way people receive their news. A survey by
the non-profit Pew Internet and American Life Project found that when just over 3,000 people
living in the United States were asked where they got their news "yesterday", more people said
television or radio than newspapers. The results are summarised in the following table (the
percentages add up to more than 100% because people were able to specify more than one source).
Telecommunication has had an equally significant impact on advertising. TNS Media Intelligence
reported that in 2007, 58% of advertising expenditure in the United States was spent on mediums
that depend upon telecommunication.
2 . Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Теория связи
Учебное пособие по английскому языку. Телекоммуникации. Судовцев В.А.Москва «Высшая
школа». Text - Communication, стр. 44 . Упражнения после текста
Б) Фотоника
The Science of Fotonics. Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса
специальности «Фотоника и оптоинформатика». Сост. Абрамов В.Е., Игнаткина И.В.,
Савосина Е.А. Самара ИУНЛ ПГУТИ, 2011
Text: Photonics And Related Sciences, стр. 4 . Упражнения после текста
В) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
1). Учебное пособие: Достижения науки и техники XX века. Т.Ю. Полякова, Е.В. Синявская,
Г.А. Селезнева, Москва «Высшая школа», 2004 (каждому студенту по 3 т.п.з.)
2). The Science of Fotonics. Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса
специальности «Фотоника и оптоинформатика». Сост. Абрамов В.Е., Игнаткина И.В.,
Савосина Е.А. Самара ИУНЛ ПГУТИ, 2011
Развитие умений и навыков оперирования
материалом: герундий, формы герундия.
Герундий - это неличная форма глагола, соединяющая в себе свойства
существительного и глагола. В этом отношении герундий сходен с инфинитивом, но
отличается от него тем, что передает оттенок процесса действия.В русском языке нет формы
глагола, соответствующей английскому герундию.
Герундий обладает следующими свойствами существительного:
1. Герундий может быть в предложении подлежащим, частью сказуемого, прямым
2. Герундию может предшествовать предлог, и в этом случае герундий может быть в
предложении предложным дополнением, определением или обстоятельством.
3. Герундий может иметь в качестве определения существительное в притяжательном
или общем падеже или притяжательное местоимение.
Герундий обладает следующими свойствами глагола:
1. Герундий выражает залог.
2. Герундий выражает соотнесенность во времени, т. е. одновременность или
предшествование времени действия, выраженного глаголом в личной форме.
3. Герундий может иметь прямое дополнение.
4. Герундий может определяться обстоятельством, выраженным наречием.
Примечание. В различных употреблениях герундия может выступать его именные и
глагольные свойства одновременно:
The energy of a body is its сараcity for doing work. Энергия тела—это его способность
совершать работу.
В приведенном примере герундии doing выполняет функцию определения существительного
capacity (именное свойство герундия и в то же время имеет прямое дополнение work
(глагольное свойство герундия).
Герундий имеет следующие формы:
being written
having written having been
Только Indefinite Gerund Active является простой формой герундия. Она образуется путем
прибавления cyффикса -ing к основе глагола: to write - writing, to read - reading.
Правила образования простой формы герундия такие же, как правила образования формы
причастия I.
Indefinite Gerund Passive образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в форме
простого герундия и причастия II смыслового глагола: being written.
Perfect Gerund Active образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to have в форме
простого герундия и причастия II смыслового глагола: having written.
Perfect Gerund Passive образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в форме
перфектного герундия и причастия II смыслового глагола: having been written.
Отрицательная форма герундия образуется с помощью отрицательной частицы not, которая
ставится перед герундием: not writing, not being written.
Функции герундия в предложении
1. Подлежащее:
Герундий в функции подлежащего обычно переводится на русский язык именем
существительным или неопределенной формой глагола:
Skating is a favourite sport with the youth. - Катание на коньках -любимый вид спорта
Walking, riding, flying, dancing and so on are all familiar examples of motion. -- Ходить,
ездить, летать, танцевать и т. д.- все это хорошо знакомые примеры. движения.
2. Часть составного сказуемого:
Герундий в функции именной части составного именного сказуемого или части составного
глагольного сказуемого обычно переводится на русский язык существительным или
неопределенной формой глагола:
Corder didn't realize there was a war on. All he thought of reading. books. - Кордер не
представлял ясно, что идет война. Он думал только о чтении книг.
The snow had ceased falling, and the patrols might easily find his tracks. - Снег перестал
идти, и патруль мог легко напасть на его след.
Примечание После глаголов to begin, to start, to continue в функции части составного
глагольного сказуемого употребляются как герундий, так и инфинитив:
Everyone now began talking to his neighbour. - Теперь каждый начал говорить со своим
Не began to tell them about his own struggles. - Он начал рассказывать им о своих
собственных трудностях.
3. Прямое дополнение:
Герундий в функции прямого дополнения переводится неопределенной формой глагола,
существительным или глаголом в личной форме (в функции сказуемого) в составе
придаточного предложения.
Герундий употребляется в функции прямого дополнения после глаголов
to avoid
to mind
to fancy
to mention
to deny
to put off
to delay
to postpone откладывать
to excuse
to propose предлагать
to give up
to require
to leave off
to need
to suggest
нуждаться в
Примечание. После глаголов to enjoy, to forget, to hate, to like, to dislike, to neglect, to omit,
to detest, to prefer, to prevent, to refuse, to regret, to remember, to resist в функции прямого
дополнения употребляется как герундии, так и инфинитив:
The night was such a fine one that I preferred to go on foot. - Ночь была такая хорошая,
что я предпочел пойти пешком.
Hе always preferred staying at home, with such a thick fog moving on from the moor. - Он
всегда предпочитал оставаться дома, когда такой густой туман надвигался с болота.
4. Предложное дополнение:
Герундий в функции предложного дополнения переводится неопределенной формой глагола,
существительным или глаголом в личной форме (в функции сказуемого) в составе
придаточного предложения.
Обычно герундий употребляется в функции предложного дополнения после глаголов,
прилагательных и причастий, требующих после себя определенных предлогов. К числу
таких наиболее употребительных глаголов, прилагательных и причастий относятся:
to depend (on) зависеть (от)
to be proud (of) гордиться
to rely (on)
полагаться (на) (чем-либо или кем-либо)
to insist (on)
настаивать (на)
to be fond (of) любить (кого-либо или что-либо)
to object (to)
возражать (против)
to be sure (of)
быть уверенным (в чем-либо)
to agree (to)
соглашаться (на)
to be pleased (at или with) быть довольным (чем-либо или кем-либо)
to hear (of)
слышать (о)
to think (of)
думать (о)
to thank (for)
благодарить (за)
to be surprised (at) удивляться (чему-либо)
to prevent (from) помешать, препятствовать
to be interested (in) интересоваться (чем-либо)
to succeed (in)
преуспевать (в)
to be connected (with или to) быть связанным (с)
Under the trying conditions of war our country succeeded in rapidly converting in dustry to war
production. - В тяжелых условиях войны нашей стране удалось быстро перевести
промышленность на военное производство.
5. Определение:
Герундию в качестве определения большей частью предшествует предлог of (иногда for).
Герундий в функции определения переводится на русский язык существительным в
родительном падеже, существительным с предлогом или неопределенной формой глагола:
the method of doing work - метод выполнения работы
the process of stamping - процесс штамповки
the possibility of using - возможность использования
the operation of removing - операция по удалению
the possibility of seeing -- возможность увидеть
the way of speaking - манера говорить
the capacity for doing work - способность производить работу
I'm glad to have the opportunity of talking to you, Doctor. - Я рад возможности
поговорить с вами, доктор.
The capacity for doing work a moving body possesses is called the kinetic energy of a given
body. - Способность производить работу, которой обладает движущееся тело,
называется кинетической энергией данного тела.
6. Обстоятельство
Герундий в функции обстоятельства употребляется всегда с предлогом и обычно
переводится существительным с предлогом, деепричастием несовершенного или
совершенного вида или глаголом в личной форме (в функции сказуемого) в составе
придаточного предложения:
Не went in. The hall clock greeted him by striking the half-hour. - Он вошел. Стенные
часы приветствовали его, пробив полчаса.
Only after having applied force we could change the volume and the form of solid body. Только после применения силы (применив силу, ... а после того как мы применили
силу), мы могли изменить объем и форму твердого тела.
Герундий часто входит в состав сложных существительных для указания назначения
предмета, обозначенного существительным:
writing-paper почтовая бумага, писчая бумага (бумага для письма),
driving force движущая сила (сила для производства движения),
drilling machine буровая машина (машина для бурения).
Отличие герундия от отглагольного существительного
Отглагольное существительное (The Verbal Noun) - это существительное, образованное от
глагола путем прибавления суффикса -ing к основе глагола:
to read -> reading
to begin -> beginning
to melt -> melting
плавление, таяние,
to come -> coming
приход и т. д.
Правила образования
образования причастия.
Отглагольное существительное обычно переводится существительным.
Отглагольное существительное отличается от герундия тем, что, в то время как
герундий имеет свойства как имени существительного, так и глагола, отглагольное
существительное, являясь обычным существительным, обладает лишь чисто именными
свойствами: имеет перед собою артикль, форму множественного числа, может употребляться
с указательным или неопределенным местоимением, определяется прилагательным или
причастием и принимает предложное дополнение (обычно существительное с предлогом of).
Герундий же не может иметь артикля, формы множественного числа, определяется не
прилагательным, а наречием, принимает прямое дополнение, а не предложное и, кроме того,
имеет формы времени и залога.
Примеры на отглагольное существительное:
They watched his comings and goings. - Они наблюдали, как он, приходил и уходил
(букв. его приходы и уходы).
The melting of copper, iron, and cast iron requires а very high temperature.- Плавление
меди, железа и чугуна требует очень, высокой температуры.
Тренировочные упражнения
Упр. 1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.
1. Have you finished writing? 2. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very useful. 3. I like skiing,
but my sister prefers skating. 4. She likes sitting in the sun. 5. It looks like raining. 6. My watch
wants repairing. 7. Thank you for coming. 8. I had no hope of getting an answer before the end of
the month. 9.1 had the pleasure of dancing with her the whole evening. 10. Let's go boating. 11. He
talked without stopping. 12. Some people can walk all day without feeling tired. 13. Living in little
stuffy rooms means breathing poisonous air. 14. Iron is found by digging in the earth. 15. There are
two ways of getting sugar: one from beet and the other from sugar-cane. 16. Jane Eyre was fond of
reading. 17. Miss Trotwood was in the habit of asking Mr. Dick his opinion.
Упр. 2. В следующих предложениях замените придаточные дополнительные герундием
с предлогом of.
E.g. She thought she would go to the country
for the week-end.
She thought of going to the country for
the week-end
1. I thought I would come and see you tomorrow. 2. I am thinking that I shall go out to the
country tomorrow to see my mother. 3. What do you think you will do tomorrow? 4.1 don't know
now; I thought
l would go to the zoo, but the weather is so bad that probably I shan't go. 5. I hear there are some
English books at our institute book-stall now. - So you are thinking that you will buy some, aren't
you? 6.1 thought I would work in the library this evening, but as you have come, I won't go to the
Упр. 3. В следующих предложениях замените придаточные времени герундием с
предлогом after.
E.g. When she had bought everything she needed, she went home. After buying everything she
needed, she went home
1. After I had hesitated some minutes whether to buy the hat or not, I finally decided that I might
find one I liked better in another shop. 2. When she had graduated from the university, she left
St. Petersburg and went to teach in her home town.
3. When he had proved that his theory was correct, he started studying ways and means of
improving the conditions of work in very deep coalmines.
4. After she took the child to the kindergarten, she went to the library to study for her
5. When he had made a thorough study of the subject, he found that it was a great deal more
important than he had thought at first.
Упр. 4. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные формы герундия.
1. Watching football matches may be exciting enough, but of course it is more exciting playing
football. 2. She stopped coming to see us, and I wondered what had happened to her. 3. Can you
remember having seen the man before? 4. She was terrified of having to speak to anybody, and
even more, of being spoken to. 5. He was on the point of leaving the club, as the porter stopped
him. 6. After being corrected by the teacher, the students' papers were returned to them. 7. I wondered at my mother's having allowed the journey. 8.1 understand perfectly your wishing to start the
work at once. 9. Everybody will discuss the event, there is no preventing it. 10. At last he broke the
silence by inviting everybody to walk into the dining-room. 11. On being told the news she turned
pale. 12. The place is worth visiting.
Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, требующие после себя герундия
to avoid to burst out cannot help to deny to enjoy
to excuse to finish to forgive to give up to go on
to keep (on) to mind1 to postpone to put off to stop
Упр. 5. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.
1. I avoided speaking to them about that matter. 2. She burst out crying. 3. They burst out laughing.
4. She denied having been at home that evening. 5. He enjoyed talking of the pleasures of
travelling. 6. Excuse my leaving you at such a moment. 7. Please forgive my interfering. 8. He gave
up smoking a few years ago. 9. They went on talking. 10. He keeps insisting on my going to the
south. 11. Oh please do stop laughing at him. 12. Do you mind my asking you a difficult question?
13. Would you mind coming again in a day or two? 14. I don't mind wearing this dress. 15. She
could not help smiling. 16. I cannot put off doing this translation. 17. Though David was tired, he
went on walking in the direction of Dover.
Упр. 6. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя герундий.
1. Наконец они перестали смеяться. 2. Она отрицала, что украла деньги. 3. Давайте отложим
поездку на дачу до следующей субботы. 4. Простите, что я потерял вашу ручку. 5. Когда она
кончит писать сочинение? 6. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы остаться дома и поработать
над моим переводом. 7. Перестаньте дрожать. Избегайте показывать этим людям, что вы их
боитесь. 8. Я не могу не беспокоиться о них: они перестали писать. 9. Я не отрицаю, что
видел их в тот вечер. 10. Он не возражал против того, чтобы его осмотрели: он перестал
притворяться, что здоров. 11. Он не может меня простить за то, что я порвал его сумку. 12.
Перестаньте разговаривать. 13. Мы закончили работу над этой проблемой. 14. Продолжайте
петь. 15. Вы не против того, чтобы открыть окно? 16. Он отрицал свое участие в
преступлении. 17. Я очень люблю рисовать. 18. Мы получили удовольствие от плавания. 19.
Я не могла не согласиться с ним. 20. Он рассмеялся. 21. Она бросила курить. 22. Она избегала встречи с ним. 23. Мы отложим обсуждение доклада.
Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, требующие после себя герундия с
определенными предлогами
to accuse of
to agree to
to approve of
to be afraid of
to complain of
to depend on
lo feel like
to give up the idea of
to insist on
to look forward to to object to to persist in to prevent from to rely on to succeed in to suspect of to
thank for to think of
Упр. 7. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.
1. They accuse him of having robbed the house. 2. He never agreed to their going on that dangerous
voyage. 3. He did not approve of her drinking so much coffee. 4. The teacher of mathematics did
not approve of his pupils dreaming. 5. All the happiness of my life depends on your loving me. 6. I
don't feel like seeing him. 7. I insist on being told the truth. 8. I object to his borrowing money from
you. 9. I stretched out my hand to prevent her from falling. 10. My friend succeeded in translating
this difficult text. 11. She suspected him of deceiving her. 12. The poor peasant thanked Robin
Hood heartily for having helped him. 13. He gave up the idea of ever hearing from her. 14. We are
looking forward to seeing you again. 15. She always complains of feeling unwell. 16. He persisted
in trying to solve that difficult problem. 17. The cold weather prevented the girls from going for
long walks. 18. Jane thought of leaving Lowood after Miss Temple's marriage.
Упр. 8. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя герундий.
1. Шум в соседней комнате мешал мне думать. 2. Я думаю о том, чтобы поехать на юг летом.
3 Мальчик жаловался, что его постоянно ругают и наказывают. 4. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы
поговорить с ним. 5. Я с нетерпением ждал встречи с братом. 6. Мне что-то не хочется
сегодня играть в лото. 7. Ей удалось сделать очень хороший перевод этого трудного текста.
8. Благодарю вас, что вы прислали мне такие красивые цветы. 9. Его обвинили в том, что он
продал важные государственные секреты. 10. Он отрицал, что продал их. 11. Он настаивал на
том, что невиновен. 12. Он боялся, что его посадят в тюрьму.
Упр. 9. Раскройте скобки, употребляя герундий в активной или пассивной форме.
1. Why do you avoid (to speak) to me? 2. She tried to avoid (to speak) to. 3. The doctor insisted on
(to send) the sick man to hospital. 4. The child insisted on (to send) home at once. 5. Do you mind
him (to examine) by a heart specialist? 6. He showed no sign of (to recognize) me. 7. She showed
no sign of (to surprise). 8. He had a strange habit of (to interfere) in other people's business. 9. I was
angry at (to interrupt) every other moment. 10. He was always ready for (to help) people. 11. He
was very glad of (to help) in his difficulty. 12. On (to allow) to leave the room the children
immediately ran out into the yard and began (to play). 13. In (to make) this experiment they came
across some very interesting phenomena. 14. The results of the experiment must be checked and rechecked before (to publish). 15. David was tired of (to scold) all the time. 16. The watch requires
(to repair).1 17. The problem is not worth (to discuss).118. Jane Eyre remembered (to lock) up in the
red room for (to contradict) Mrs. Reed.
Упр. 10. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму герундия.
1. Excuse me for (to break) your beautiful vase. 2. You never mentioned (to be) to Greece. 3. She
was proud of (to award) the cup of a champion. 4. I don't remember ever (to meet) your sister. 5. I
don't remember (to ask) this question by anybody. 6. The cat was punished for (to break) the cup. 7.
The cat was afraid of (to punish) and hid itself under the sofa. 8. The machine needs (to clean).1 9. I
am quite serious in (to say) that I don't want to go abroad. 10. He seemed sorry for (to be) inattentive to his child. 11. She confessed to (to forget) to send the letter. 12. The old man could not
stand (to tell) what he should do. 13. Going to the party was no use: he had no talent for (to dance).
14. The Bronze Horseman is worth (to see).15. After thoroughly (to examine) the student, the
professor gave him a satisfactory mark. 16. After thoroughly (to examine) by the examination commission, the student was given a satisfactory mark. 17. She accused him of (to steal) her purse. 18.
She reproached me for (not to write) to her.
19. This job is not worth (to take). 20. After (to look) through and (to mark) the students' papers, the
teacher handed them back. 21. After (to look) through and (to mark), the papers were handed back
to the students. 22. These clothes want (to wash)1. 23. David was very glad of (to find) his aunt.
8 часов
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по
А) Микроэлектроника
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
пройденного грамматического материала.
1. Развитие умений и навыков чтения и перевода по текстам:
А) Микроэлектроника
1) Give a definition of Microelectronics and retell the text
Microelectronics is a branch of electronic technology devoted to the design and
development of extremely small electronic devices that consume very little electric power.
Although the term is sometimes used to describe discrete electronic components assembled in an
extremely small and compact form, it is often taken as a synonym for integrated circuit technology.
Discrete components that can be made using microelectronic techniques include resistors,
capacitors, and transistors; inductors are excluded for practical purposes. Microelectronic tuned
circuits can be built using piezoelectric electromechanical components. Hybrid microcircuits
contain a mixture of discrete and integrated circuits on a single substrate. Thick-film techniques use
specially formulated inks or pastes that are applied to ceramic substrates by screen-printing
techniques. Thin-film devices are fabricated using electron-beam evaporation or sputtering.
Although other materials can be used, integrated circuits are usually fabricated on wafers of singlecrystal silicon; that is, silicon in which the orientation of all of the crystal is the same. The major
fabricating steps include film formation, impurity doping, photolithography, and packaging. Silicon
oxide, also called silica, is grown on the surface of the silicon during the film-formation stage.
Photolithographic methods are used to selectively remove the oxide from areas of the silicon: A
layer of photoresist is added to the oxide layer and then exposed to ultraviolet light through a mask.
After exposure, the silicon wafer is developed, and the unwanted areas of the oxide are removed by
an etching process. Impurity doping adds charge carriers to the silicon; the unique electronic
properties of semiconductors are produced by this process. Additional layers of silicon are
deposited to create bipolar transistors. Metal, usually aluminum, is deposited where contacts are
desired. Other transistor types-MOS or metal-oxide-semiconductor devices, for example-are
fabricated using similar techniques. Integrated circuits that contain over one billion transistors have
been developed.
2) Учебное пособие по английскому языку. Телекоммуникации. Судовцев В.А.Москва
«Высшая школа». Text - Microelectronics, стр. 66 . Упражнения после текста
Б) технические тексты для индивидуального чтения.
The emergence of, and progress in, microelectronics and photonics have revolutionized the
telecommunications and information science and engineering in the 20-the century. It would be
difficult to identify or even conceive of any other contemporary technologies that have had a more
dramatic, pervasive, and beneficial influence on our everyday living. The extent and sophistication
of the spectacular scientific and technological advances that are at our fingertips today as a result of
the successes in microelectronics and photonics are amazing. These “hightechnology” areas control
everything - from a space shuttle to a washing machine - and are equally important from the
perspective of an air force pilot, a young video enthusiast, a banking executive, an entertainer, or an
homemaker. A good example is the astonishing growth of the Internet, with the number of users
continuing to double every few months.
Microelectronics and photonics have tremendous implications for industry, employment,
strategic position of the country, and even for the future organization of the society. The well being
of the industrial nations depends on the development of intelligent products, tools and processes.
It is natural that everyone, not specialists only, wonders which new applications of
microelectronics and photonics are most likely to come into life in the near future and what
difference these applications might make for the 21-st century home and office.
On the other hand, mechanical and materials engineering is perceived, especially by those not in the
field, as the most traditional, routine, “old-fashioned” branch of engineering which simply cannot
have very much in common with the advanced, sophisticated and exciting “high-technology” world.
The truth is, however, that microelectronics and photonics have their foundation in materials,
structures (designs) and manufacturing technologies.
All the basic functions performed by electronic circuits and photonics devices are highly
dependent on electrical, optical and mechanical properties of the employed materials and their
Therefore the role of a mechanical, materials and reliability engineer is extremely important
in the “high-tech” world: it is his/her responsibility to make sure that the appropriate material
is selected, and that the given component, device or system will be viable and reliable, i.e. that no
critical failure is likely to occur during manufacturing, testing, transportation and operation of
the product or the system.
Trends The transistor invented in 1947 at Bell Laboratories and the integrated circuit (IC) built
independently at Texas Instruments and Fairchild Company twelve years later revolutionized the
electronics industry. Since then, the major trends in microelectronics were the drives for smaller,
faster, more reliable and less expensive IC’s. Exponential trends in technology, productivity and
cost improvements enable expanding markets and revenues, which enable larger R&D and
manufacturing investments, which, in turn, enable technology, productivity and cost improvements.
This paradigm has served us well for almost four decades, and the semiconductor industry is
probably unique in maintaining such a steep performance/price improvement trend for its products
over such a relatively long period.
The progress in microelectronics is measured, first of all, by the degree of miniaturization,
i.e. by the number of devices, which could be crammed onto a silicon chip. The desire to make the
devices smaller-and-smaller brought to life small-scale-integration (SSI), medium-scale-integration
(MSI), large-scale-integration (LSI) and very-large-scaleintegration (VLSI) technology generations
of the IC systems. We live now in the VLSI era, when a typical chip contains about ten million
devices. The existing technologies are incapable yet to produce IC’s on a silicon wafer with 100%
yield. If it happens, then a new era of ultralarge-scale-integration (ULSI), or wafer-scale-integration
(WSI), will commence.
The number of electronic devices on a chip is still doubling approximately every eighteen
months. It is expected that this trend will have matured by 2010. By that time highly packed IC’s
(such as memory chips) will contain up to a few billion devices, and the device density for custom
logic IC’s will increase from about 100 million to approximately 1 billion devices per chip. Such a
trend will be, in part, accelerated by the fact that chips will grow in size. This, in combination with
the trend towards thinner chips, will provide an obvious reliability challenge for a mechanical and
materials engineer. Another challenge will be due to the fact that chips with a larger number of
devices (which will have substantially higher frequencies: speeds of 200 MHz and higher are
becoming more and more common) will dissipate more power. The effective handling of the
increased chip size and elevated heat dissipation relies on the continuous effort in designs, materials
and manufacturing technologies.
Silicon wafers will also grow in size. A typical wafer today is 4-in in diameter, and the
largest wafers are twice as large. The industry is moving to 12-in or even to 16-in (a Japanese
program) wafers. It is expected that 12-in wafers will be introduced into high volume production by
the year 2010. Mini-batch processing and, perhaps, single-wafer technologies will play an important
role in the 12-in wafer era.
There is a crucial need for the continuous materials engineering effort in silicon technology.
Silicon is still the principal material for both digital and analog IC's. To have acceptable yields
during manufacture, the number of defects, either present in the starting material or introduced
during processing must not exceed one per wafer per masking step. Such a stringent requirement
has forced numerous discoveries and inventions about the growth of bulk silicon material and
epitaxial layers, lithographic patterning with feature-sizes below 1 micron, feature-size control
below 0.08 microns, as well as plasma processing, etching, metal bonding, and encapsulation
technologies and techniques.
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), invented by Cho and Arthur, Bell Laboratories, in the late
1960s, is expected to be one of the major semiconductor manufacturing technologies of the future.
It enables one to create artificial semiconductors, with properties that do not exist in naturally
occurring materials. This created a new concept, bandgap engineering, which permits to
make devices with properties heretofore not possible.
The mainstream technologies in semiconductor manufacturing are approaching a turning
point caused by the increasing gap between the growing complexity of the IC’s and
manufacturing processes, on one hand, and the acceptable cost, on the other. Therefore in the future,
the number of devices per chip may be constrained not only by the capabilities of the technology,
but by the economics as well.
New Frontiers Progress in microelectronics is bringing us greater computer power and storage
capacity at ever-lower cost. As long-term projections show, the microelectronics scene will
continue to be dominated well beyond the year 2010 by complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
(CMOS) technology.
Nanoelectronics The smaller are the devices, the closer we come to entering the world of quantum
mechanics, where the rules of physics differ drastically from those of the macroscopic world.
Probably, the one thing generally known about quantum mechanics is that matter, despite its
particulate nature, may behave like a wave. A possible new frontier in IC technology, based on the
laws of quantum mechanics, is the application of devices based on ballistic transistors, and singleelectron devices.
In the past several years, it has been established that solid state systems can be manufactured
in such a way that the electrons travel freely (“ballistically”) for appreciable distances (about
several microns) before they collide with crystal impurities. This provides a possibility of making
“ballistic” transistors. It is possible that “ballistic” circuits could operate more quickly and dissipate
less heat than conventional transistors. If this direction is successful, the new devices might begin to
gradually displace the conventional IC’s.
In single-electron devices, physicists are creating socalled semiconductor quantum dots also
known as nanocrystals or nanoclusters) and are investigating how to use them in new forms of
electronics and optoelectronics.
They aspire to transmit data not by tiny currents, but by single electrons that hop from one quantum
dot to the next.
3. Развитие умений и навыков оперирования грамматическим материалом:
Систематизация пройденного грамматического материала.
Modal Verbs
Какие глаголы называются модальными
Назовите основные особенности модальных глаголов по сравнению со смысловыми
Какие модальные глаголы Вы знаете
Выполнить тест:
1. When will you ___ come and see us in our new house?
a) can
b) be able to
c) must
d) have to
2. I may ___ go to Paris next week because there is a very big exhibition there.
a) have
b) have to
c) had
d) had to
3. You moved all of the boxes out of the moving truck by yourself? You ___ be exhausted!
a) can
4. This isn't a difficult task, so you ___ be able to complete it by Friday.
5. Teresa ___ believe her eyes. She saw a man beating his wife on the street!
a) couldn't
a) must
c) should
d could
6. You ___ have been really angry when your boss tried to embarrass you in front of your coworkers.
a) can
c) shall
d) won't
7. You ___ worry all the time. Don't be so negative. You should be more optimistic about life.
a) could have
b) might not
c) wouldn't
d) shouldn't
8. This is a large, luxurious house! It ___ cost a pretty penny.
a) can
c) must have
d) shall
9. You ___ called me first. I would have picked you up from the auto repair garage.
a) should have
b) can
c) shall not
d) should
10. Our son, Ted, ___ use a new car because his old car is always breaking down on him. So, we're
going to buy him a brand-new car for his birthday.
a) will have
b) could
c) could have
d) wouldn't have
The Infinitive
Дайте определение инфинитива.
В каких случаях инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.
Какие формы имеет инфинитив в английском языке.
Какие функции инфинитив может выполнять в предложении.
Какие инфинитивные конструкции вы знаете. Приведите примеры.
Выполните тест
Выберите правильный ответ на поставленные вопросы.
1. I'm glad to meet you.
a) Я рад с вами познакомиться. b) Я рад был с вами познакомиться.
2. I want you to read a poem.
a) Я хочу, чтобы вы прочитали стихотворение. b) Я хочу прочитать стихотворение.
3.I'm glad to have met you.
a) Я рад с вами познакомиться. b) Я рад был с вами познакомиться.
4. I want to read a poem.
a) Я хочу прочитать стихотворение. b) Я хочу, чтобы вы прочитали стихотворение.
5.Teachers would like to participate in our discussion.
a) Учителя хотели бы участвовать в нашем обсуждении. b) Учителя бы хотели, чтобы мы
участвовали в их дискуссии.
6. Teachers would like us to participate in their discussion.
a) Учителя бы хотели, чтобы мы участвовали в их дискуссии. b) Учителя хотели бы
участвовать в нашем обсуждении.
7. He is glad to hear about our visit.
a) Он рад, что услышал о нашем приезде. b) Он рад услышать о нашем приезде.
8. He is glad to have heard about our visit.
a) Он рад услышать о нашем приезде. b) Он рад, что услышал о нашем приезде.
9. My mother doesn't let me do it.
a) Моя мама не разрешала мне делать это. b) Моя мама не разрешает мне делать это.
10. He heard Nataly speaks over the telephone.
a) Он слышал, что Натали говорит по телефону.
b) Он слышал как Натали говорила по
Какие формы причастия вы знаете.
Какие функции в предложении причастие I может выполнять.
Какие функции в предложении причастие II может выполнять.
Что входит в состав независимого причастного оборота.
Выполните тест.
1.That night, ______ up to his room he thought of his unpleasant duty.
c)having gone
2. She smiled ______ the joke.
b)to remember
3. ______ so little in the country, I am afraid I cannot answer all your questions.
b)Having seen
c)To see
4. A new road ______ the plant with the railway station will soon be built.
b)having connected
5. Tom, ______ at what he had done, could at first say nothing.
a)horrified b)having horrified
6. Jones and Smith came in, ______ by their wives.
a)followed b)following c)follow
7. ______ by the blow, Peter fell heavily.
a)Stunning b)Stunned c)Stun
8. The new job ______ to me lately seems to be very interesting.
c)has offered
9. She looked at the table. There was a loaf of brown bread ______ into two halves
a)divides b)dividing
10. The animals ______ in the morning struggled furiously.
11. The child ______ alone in the large room began screaming.
a)leaving b)left
12. ______, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog up.
a)Bitten twice
b)Bitting twice
c)Having been bitten twice
The Gerund
Какие свойства имеет герундий
Как образуется герундий и какие формы имеет
Каковы функции герундия в предложении
Выполните тест
1. I'll lend you the book when i've
a) reading b) being
2.Do you the sea?
a)swimming b)robbing
3.They suggested................dinner in an Indian restauran.
a) is watching b) having
4. Robert gave years ago.
a) playing b)doing
5. The men admitted...........the bank.
a) robbing b) going
6. I really don't mind..........the housework.
doing b) reading
7. I didn't feel like........out last night, so I stayed at home.
a) playing b) going
8. Would you much noise? I am trying to study.
a) robbing b) not making
9. I normaly try to
a) having b) horrowing
10. Since she moved from London, she to see all her friends there.
a) being b) having
Времена в английском языке.
Test 1
1. This time tomorrow you ___ sitting in a deck chair on the beach.
a) are
b) were
c) will
d) will be
2. Before you telephoned, I ___ watching television.
a) was
b) will be
c) am
d) have
3. I must admit you ___ tried but I'm afraid the answer is still no.
a) did
b) will
c) do
d) have
4. How many times ___ you been there?
a) has
b) will
c) have
d) did
5. It's time we ___.
a) go
b) went
c) are going
d) going
6. I honestly couldn't follow a word you ___.
a) are saying
b) will say
c) were saying
d) did say
7. I've just ___ that the price has gone up again.
a) am told
b) have told
c) been told
d) was told
8. Long ___ the King!
a) live
b) lives
c) living
d) lived
9. He refused to go until he ___ seen all the paintings.
a) had
b) was
c) is
d) has
10. The man who ___ walking down the road just then, lives next door.
a) is
b) will be
c) was
d) has been
Тест 2.
1.The building ______ two years ago.
a)destroyed b)was destroyed c) has destroyed
2. I ______ by the news he had told me the day before.
a)am surprising b) am surprised c)was surprised
3. ______ he ______ at the airport tomorrow?
a)Is … being met b)Will … be met c) Will … meet
4. The place ______ to me.
a)is handed b)was handed c)will be handing
5. I ______ into buying a motorbike by Martha.
a)was talked
c)have been talked
6. Yesterday the whole programme ______ over to a report from Bosnia.
a)has been given
b)was given c)gave
7. A number of priceless works of art ______ in the earthquake.
a)have been destroyed b)was destroyed
c)has been destroyed
8. Because my visa had expired I ______ from re-entering the country.
b)am prevented c)prevent d)was prevented
9. It’s generally agreed that new industries ______ for the southern part of the country.
a) needs
b)are needed
10. It’s incredible to think that these clothes ______ by Queen Victoria.
a)wear b)are being worn c)were worn
11. A new drug ______ to combat asthma in small children.
a)is developing b)has been developed c)develops
12. A number of political prisoners ______ within the next days.
a)will be released b)release
c)were released
13. The problem ______ to me.
a)was saying b)was mentioned c)was being mentioned
14. The game ______ to the children.
a)demonstrates b) will be demonstrated c)is demonstrating
15. When I was young I ______ by my aunt and uncle.
a)was looked for b)was looked after c)was looked at
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