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DESCRIPTION JP2003102728

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DESCRIPTION JP2003102728
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an
ultrasonic receiving apparatus, and further relates to an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus for
medical diagnosis by receiving ultrasonic waves using such an ultrasonic receiving apparatus. .
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art At present, an ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus for receiving
an ultrasonic wave by modulating light is used. As such an ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus,
the inventor of the present invention receives ultrasonic waves by modulating light based on the
applied ultrasonic waves in Japanese Patent Application (Japanese Patent Application No. 2001026293). A device was proposed. FIG. 7 is a diagram in principle showing an example of the
above-mentioned ultrasonic receiving apparatus. The ultrasonic receiver has a light source 61 for
generating single mode laser light. The light generated from the light source 61 enters the
splitter 62. The light exiting the light source 61 and passing through the splitter 62 enters the
optical fiber array 63. The optical fiber array 63 is one in which fine optical fibers 63a to 63p are
two-dimensionally arranged. At the tip of the optical fiber array 63, an ultrasonic detection
element 64 is provided. The ultrasonic detection element 64 is constituted by Fabry-Perot
resonators (abbreviated as FPR) 64a to 64p formed at the tips of the optical fibers 63a to 63p,
respectively.
[0003]
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A half mirror is formed at one end (right side in the figure) of each FPR, and a total reflection
mirror is formed at the other end (left side in the figure), and light incident on the ultrasonic
detecting element 64 It is reflected by. The total reflection surface is subjected to geometric
displacement by the ultrasonic wave applied to the ultrasonic detection element 64, so that the
reflected light is modulated by the reflected light and enters the splitter 62 again. The reflected
light that has entered the splitter 62 is diverted and enters the photodiode (PD) array 65. Each of
the PDs 65 a to 65 p of the PD array 65 converts the received reflected light into an electrical
signal. The electrical signals converted from the reflected light in the PD array 65 are amplified
by the amplifiers 66a to 66p, and the electrical signals amplified by the amplifiers 66a to 66p are
A / D converted by the A / D converters 67a to 67p.
[0004]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to realize high-speed sampling when using a twodimensional photosensor array, it is necessary to use a PD array as shown in FIG. In addition, in
order to obtain a high quality image, it is necessary to make the pixel pitch finer and increase the
numerical aperture, so it is necessary to increase the number of pixels. However, since PD
requires a processing system such as an amplifier and an A / D converter for the number of
pixels in the subsequent stage, there is a problem that the cost becomes extremely high. In
addition, since the density of output signal lines from the PD is large, there is a problem that
mounting is difficult.
[0005]
It is also conceivable to use a CCD (charge coupled device) as a light detector. FIG. 8 is a diagram
in principle showing a conventional ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus using a CCD as a light
detector. In FIG. 8, the reflected light modulated by the ultrasonic detection element 64 and
incident on the splitter 62 is diverted and incident on the CCD 68. Each element 68a to 68p in
the CCD 68 converts the received reflected light into an electrical signal. The plurality of
electrical signals converted from the reflected light in the CCD 68 are amplified by the amplifier
69 and sequentially A / D converted by the A / D converter 70. As described above, when the
CCD 68 is used as a light detector, one amplifier and one A / D converter can be provided at the
latter stage, but the sampling intervals of the respective elements 68 a to 68 p in the CCD 68 are
long. Therefore, there is a problem that the frame rate is lowered and the time resolution of the
image is lowered.
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[0006]
In view of the above, it is an object of the present invention to provide an ultrasonic receiver
which is easy to implement and low in cost. Another object of the present invention is to provide
an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus using such an ultrasonic receiver.
[0007]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, in the
ultrasonic receiving apparatus according to the first aspect of the present invention, an ultrasonic
detection that modulates light based on an applied ultrasonic wave. The element, the
demultiplexing unit that demultiplexes the light modulated by the ultrasonic detection element
into a plurality of lights, and the plurality of lights demultiplexed by the demultiplexing unit are
received at spatially different positions, respectively, to generate an electric signal. A
photoelectric conversion unit to convert, a plurality of A / D conversion units to A / D convert a
plurality of electric signals output from the photoelectric conversion unit, and a data combining
unit to combine data output from the plurality of A / D conversion units Equipped with
[0008]
In the ultrasonic receiving apparatus according to the second aspect of the present invention, an
ultrasonic detecting element for modulating light based on an applied ultrasonic wave, and an
electric signal for light modulated by the ultrasonic detecting element A / D conversion unit for
converting an electrical signal output from the photoelectric conversion unit at a predetermined
time interval, A / D conversion unit for converting an electrical signal output from the
photoelectric conversion unit at a predetermined time interval And a data synthesis unit that
synthesizes data output from the / D conversion unit.
[0009]
In the ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus according to the first aspect of the present invention, an
ultrasonic transmission unit for transmitting ultrasonic waves according to a drive signal, and an
ultrasonic detection unit for modulating light based on the applied ultrasonic waves. A drive
signal generation circuit for generating a drive signal to be applied to the ultrasonic wave
transmission unit, a demultiplexing unit for demultiplexing the light modulated by the ultrasonic
wave detection unit into a plurality of lights, and the demultiplexing unit A photoelectric
conversion unit that receives a plurality of lights at spatially different positions and converts
them into electric signals, a plurality of A / D conversion units that A / D converts a plurality of
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electric signals output from the photoelectric conversion unit, and a plurality Data synthesis unit
that synthesizes data output from the A / D conversion unit, a signal processing unit that loads
and processes data output from the data synthesis unit, drive signal generation timing of the
drive signal generation circuit, and signal processing unit Control data acquisition timing A
control unit that, an image processing unit constituting the image data based on the output signal
of the signal processing unit comprises an image display unit that displays an image based on the
image data.
[0010]
In the ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus according to the second aspect of the present invention, an
ultrasonic transmission unit for transmitting ultrasonic waves according to a drive signal, and an
ultrasonic detection unit for modulating light based on the applied ultrasonic waves. A drive
signal generation circuit for generating a drive signal to be applied to the ultrasonic wave
transmission unit, a photoelectric conversion unit for converting light modulated by the
ultrasonic detection unit into an electric signal, and moving the photoelectric conversion unit at
predetermined time intervals Drive unit, an A / D conversion unit for A / D converting an
electrical signal output from the photoelectric conversion unit at a predetermined time interval, a
data combining unit for combining data output from the A / D conversion unit, and data
combining A signal processing unit that takes in and processes data output from the unit, a
control unit that controls drive signal generation timing of the drive signal generation circuit and
data acquisition timing of the signal processing unit, and an image based on an output signal of
the signal processing unit The An image processing unit constituting the data comprises an
image display unit that displays an image based on the image data.
[0011]
According to the present invention configured as described above, mounting can be facilitated
and the cost can be reduced.
[0012]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION Embodiments of the present invention will be
described below based on the drawings.
The same reference numerals are given to the same components, and the description will be
omitted.
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FIG. 1 is a diagram in principle showing an ultrasonic receiving apparatus according to a first
embodiment of the present invention.
The ultrasound receiver preferably comprises a light source 11 for generating single mode laser
light having a single wavelength of 500 nm to 1600 nm.
The light generated from the light source 11 is incident on a first demultiplexer 12 configured
using a half mirror, an optical circulator, a polarization beam splitter, or the like.
The splitter 12 passes the light incident from the first direction in the second direction and
passes the reflected light returning from the second direction in a third direction different from
the first direction. . In the present embodiment, a half mirror is used as the splitter 12. The half
mirror transmits incident light and reflects reflected light returning from a direction opposite to
the incident direction in a direction forming an angle of approximately 90 ° with the incident
direction.
[0013]
The light having passed through the splitter 12 is incident on the ultrasonic detection element
13. In the present embodiment, a multilayer film sensor is used as the ultrasonic detection
element 13. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the ultrasonic detection element 13 in principle. As
shown in FIG. 2, the ultrasonic detection element 13 includes a substrate 14 and a multilayer film
15 formed by alternately laminating two types of material layers having different refractive
indexes on the substrate 14. . The substrate 14 is a film-like substrate that is distorted when an
ultrasonic wave is applied, and has, for example, a circle having a diameter of about 2 cm or
more. A multilayer film 15 having a Bragg grating structure is formed on the substrate 14 by
alternately laminating two types of material layers having different refractive indexes. In FIG. 2, a
material layer A having a refractive index n1 and a material layer B having a refractive index n2
are shown.
[0014]
Assuming that the pitch (spacing) of the periodic structure of the multilayer film 15 is d and the
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wavelength of the incident light is λ, the Bragg's reflection condition is expressed by the
following equation. However, m is any integer. 2d · sin θ = mλ (1) Here, θ is an incident angle
measured from the incident surface, and when θ = π / 2, the following equation is obtained. 2d
= mλ (2) The Bragg grating selectively reflects light of a specific wavelength that satisfies the
Bragg's reflection condition and transmits light of other wavelengths.
[0015]
When ultrasonic waves are propagated to the ultrasonic detection element 13, the substrate 14
and the multilayer film 15 are distorted as the ultrasonic waves propagate, and the pitch d of the
periodic structure changes at each position on the surface of the multilayer film 15. The
wavelength λ of the light that is selectively reflected changes. In the reflection characteristics of
the Bragg grating, there is an inclined region where the reflectance changes before and after the
central wavelength with the highest reflectance (low transmittance), and detection light having
the central wavelength is incident on the multilayer film 15 in this inclined region. Add
ultrasound while doing this. Then, the intensity change of the reflected light according to the
intensity of the ultrasonic wave at each position of the receiving surface can be observed. By
converting the intensity change of the light into the intensity of the ultrasonic wave, it is possible
to acquire two-dimensional intensity distribution information of the ultrasonic wave.
[0016]
As a material of the substrate 14, optical glass such as quartz glass (SiO 2) or BK 7 (product of
Schott) is used. Moreover, as a substance used for material layers A and B, the combination of the
substance from which a refractive index mutually differs 10% or more is desirable. That is, when
n1 <n2, a substance satisfying n1 × 1.1 ≦ n2 is selected. This is to obtain high reflectance at the
interface between the material layer A and the material layer B. In addition, the material layers A
and B are desirably made of a material that easily stretches. This is to increase the amount of
distortion when ultrasonic waves are applied, and consequently to increase the sensitivity of the
system. As a substance which satisfies such conditions, for example, a combination of quartz
glass (SiO 2) and titanium oxide (Ti 2 O 3) can be mentioned. The refractive index of SiO 2 for a
laser beam of 1520 nm is about 1.45, and the refractive index of Ti 2 O 3 is about 2.0, which
sufficiently satisfy the above condition that the refractive indices differ by 10% or more. Besides
this, a combination of quartz glass (SiO2) and tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) can be used.
[0017]
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The layer thickness (film thickness) of the material layers A and B is preferably about 1⁄4 of the
wavelength λ of light incident on the multilayer film 15. Here, the film thickness is an optical
distance represented by the product of the refractive index (n) of the material layer and the
thickness (t) of the material layer. That is, the condition is nt = λ / 4. As a result, the pitch of the
periodic structure of the multilayer film 15 becomes about half of the wavelength of the incident
light, and light of wavelengths satisfying the expression (2) of Bragg's reflection condition is
selectively reflected, and light of other wavelengths is Will be transparent. In addition, the
material layer A or B having a layer thickness of approximately λ / 2 may be included in the
multilayer film including the material layers A and B having a layer thickness of approximately λ
/ 4.
[0018]
Such material layers A and B are formed on the substrate 14 in multiple layers (for example, 100
layers each) by a method such as vacuum deposition or sputtering. Here, using a multilayer film
sensor fabricated with a total of 200 layers of 100 layers each using SiO 2 as the substrate and
SiO 2 and Ti 2 O 3 as the material layer, a simulation was conducted in which laser light was
incident. The following results were obtained was gotten. That is, the slope of the reflectance
with respect to the change of the wavelength of incident light was 2.8 dB / 0.01 nm at a
reflectance of 25%. As described above, by increasing the number of layers of the multilayer film
15, the reflectance is increased and the reflectance exhibits a sharp change with respect to the
change of the wavelength, and the sensitivity of the ultrasonic detection element 13 is increased.
Can. The ultrasonic detection element 13 is distorted by the applied ultrasonic wave, and the
reflected light is modulated thereby and enters the demultiplexer 12 again.
[0019]
Referring back to FIG. 1, the reflected light entering the splitter 12 is diverted and enters the
second splitter 16. The demultiplexer 16 converts the reflected light incident from the first
direction into a first light (hereinafter, referred to as “first branched light”) and a second light
(hereinafter, referred to as “second branched light”). The light is split to pass the first split
light in the second direction (the upper side in the figure) and pass the second split light in the
third direction (the right side in the figure). In the present embodiment, a half mirror is used as
the splitter 16.
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[0020]
The first demultiplexed light demultiplexed by the demultiplexer 16 enters the first light detector
17. In the present embodiment, a photodiode (PD) array is used as the light detector 17. The
reflected light from the ultrasonic detection element 13 is split by the splitter 16 and is incident
on the PDs 17 a to 17 d in the light detector 17. Here, the first demultiplexed light may be made
to enter the light detector 17 directly or through an optical fiber or the like, or an imaging
system such as a lens may be provided downstream of the demultiplexer 16 to form an imaging
system. An image may be formed on the light detector 17 via the light source. The PDs 17a to
17d convert the received first demultiplexed light into a plurality of electric signals, respectively.
The light detector 17 is arranged such that the center of the beam of the first split light is
incident near the center thereof. FIG. 3A is a view showing how the first demultiplexed light is
incident on the light receiving surface of the light detector 17.
[0021]
The plurality of electric signals converted from the first demultiplexed light in the photodetector
17 are amplified by the amplifiers 18a-18d of the first group, and A / D converters 19a-19d of
the first group are amplified by the A / D converter. D converted.
[0022]
On the other hand, the second split light split by the splitter 16 is incident on the second light
detector 20.
In the present embodiment, a PD array is used as the light detector 20. The reflected light from
the ultrasonic detection element 13 is demultiplexed by the demultiplexer 16 and is incident on
the PDs 20 a to 20 d in the light detector 20. Here, the second split light may be made to enter
the light detector 20 directly or through an optical fiber or the like, or an imaging system such as
a lens may be provided downstream of the splitter 16 to form an imaging system. An image may
be formed on the light detector 20 via this. The PDs 20a to 20d convert the received second
branched light into a plurality of electric signals, respectively. The light detector 20 is disposed
such that the center of the beam of the second split light is incident in the vicinity of one corner
(in the present embodiment, the PD 20 c) of the light detector 20. FIG. 3B is a view showing a
state in which the second split light is incident on the light receiving surface of the light detector
20. As shown in FIG.
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[0023]
The plurality of electric signals converted from the second demultiplexed light in the
photodetector 20 are amplified by the amplifiers 21a to 21d of the second group, and A / D
converters 22a to 22d of the second group are amplified by the A / D converter. D converted.
[0024]
Digital data A / D converted by A / D converters 19a to 19d is stored in memories 24a to 24d,
and digital data A / D converted by A / D converters 22a to 22d is a memory 25a to 25d.
The digital data stored in the memories 24a to 24d and 25a to 25d are synthesized in the frame
memory 26 and stored. In the present embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B, the spatial
phase of the first split light incident on the PD array 17 and the spatial phase of the second split
light incident on the PD array 20. Since the phases are out of phase, the digital data stored in the
memories 24a to 24d and 25a to 25d are synthesized to obtain digital data having almost the
same spatial resolution as that of the conventional ultrasonic wave receiver shown in FIG. be able
to.
[0025]
The digital data stored in the frame memory 26 is subjected to predetermined signal processing
by the signal processing unit 27, and further subjected to predetermined image processing by
the image processing unit 28, and an image is displayed on the display unit 29. Ru.
[0026]
As described above, according to the ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus according to the
present embodiment, the reflected light is split into two, and the split light is photoelectrically
converted at spatially different positions. It is possible to obtain an image having almost the same
spatial resolution as that of the conventional ultrasonic wave receiver shown in FIG.
In addition, since the density of signal lines drawn from the light detectors 17 and 20 can be
reduced compared to the conventional ultrasonic receiving apparatus shown in FIG. 7, the
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mounting becomes easy. Furthermore, since the number of circuits in the subsequent stage of the
light detectors 17 and 20 can be reduced compared to the conventional ultrasonic receiving
apparatus shown in FIG. 7, the cost can be reduced.
[0027]
In the present embodiment, the splitter 16 splits the reflected light into two, photoelectrically
converts each split light, and combines the obtained digital data. Alternatively, the reflected light
may be split into three or more, each split light may be photoelectrically converted, and the
obtained digital data may be combined. Moreover, in the present embodiment, two
photodetectors 17 and 20 are used, but one photodetector is divided into first and second
regions, and the first demultiplexed light is divided into the first region. However, the second
split light may be made to be incident on the second region. Further, in the present embodiment,
a multilayer film sensor is used as the ultrasonic detection element 14, but an etalon sensor may
be used, or a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array in which the ultrasonic detection surface is divided.
Alternatively, an optical waveguide array or the like having a Bragg grating structure may be
used. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, although the number of PDs included in the PD
array used as the photodetectors 17 and 20 is four, the number of PDs may be two or more, and
four or more PDs may be used. good.
[0028]
Next, an ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present
invention will be described. FIG. 4 is a diagram in principle showing an ultrasonic receiving
apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention. The first split light split
by the splitter 16 is incident on the first light detector 30. In the present embodiment, a CCD
(charge coupled device) is used as the light detector 30. The reflected light from the ultrasonic
detection element 13 is split by the splitter 16 and is incident on the elements 30 a to 30 d in the
light detector 30. Here, the first demultiplexed light may be made to enter the light detector 30
directly or through an optical fiber or the like, or an imaging system such as a lens may be
provided downstream of the splitter 16 to form an imaging system. An image may be formed on
the light detector 30 via this. The elements 30a to 30d respectively convert the received first
branched light into a plurality of electrical signals. The photodetector 30 is disposed such that
the center of the beam of the first split light is incident near the center thereof.
[0029]
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The plurality of electric signals converted from the first demultiplexed light in the photodetector
30 are amplified by the first amplifier 31 and sequentially A / D converted by the first A / D
converter 32.
[0030]
On the other hand, the second split light split by the splitter 16 enters the second light detector
33.
In the present embodiment, a CCD is used as the light detector 33. The reflected light from the
ultrasonic detection element 13 is split by the splitter 16 and enters the elements 33 a to 33 d in
the light detector 33. Here, the second demultiplexed light may be made to enter the light
detector 33 directly or through an optical fiber or the like, or an imaging system such as a lens
may be provided at the rear stage of the splitter 16 to form an imaging system. An image may be
formed on the light detector 33 via the light source. The elements 33a to 33d convert the
received second branched light into a plurality of electric signals, respectively. The light detector
33 is arranged such that the center of the beam of the second split light is incident in the vicinity
of one corner (in the present embodiment, the element 33c).
[0031]
The plurality of electric signals converted from the second split light in the photodetector 33 are
amplified by the second amplifier 34 and A / D converted sequentially by the second A / D
converter 35.
[0032]
The digital data A / D converted by the A / D converter 32 is stored in the line memory 36, and
the digital data A / D converted by the A / D converter 35 is stored in the line memory 37. Ru.
The digital data stored in the line memories 36 and 37 are synthesized in the frame memory 26
and stored. In this embodiment, since the spatial phase of the first split light incident on the CCD
30 and the spatial phase of the second split light incident on the CCD 33 are shifted, the digital
stored in the line memories 36 and 37 By combining the data, it is possible to obtain digital data
having substantially the same spatial resolution as that of the conventional ultrasonic wave
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receiver shown in FIG.
[0033]
As described above, according to the ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus according to the
present embodiment, the reflected light is split into two, and the split light is photoelectrically
converted at spatially different positions. It is possible to obtain an image having substantially
the same spatial resolution as that of the conventional ultrasonic wave receiver shown in FIG.
Further, according to the ultrasonic receiving apparatus according to the present embodiment,
the sampling interval of each element of the light detectors 30 and 33 is shorter than the
sampling interval of each element of the light detector 68 shown in FIG. The frame rate can be
made higher than that of the conventional ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus shown in FIG. 1,
and an image with high time resolution can be obtained. On the other hand, by using CCDs as the
photodetectors 30 and 33, the number of circuits in the subsequent stages of the photodetectors
30 and 33 can be reduced as compared with the case of using a PD array, thereby reducing the
cost. be able to. As the light detectors 30 and 33, MOS sensors may be used. Further, although
the number of CCD elements used as the light detectors 30 and 33 is four in the present
embodiment, the number of elements may be plural, and four or more elements may be used.
[0034]
Next, an ultrasonic receiver according to a third embodiment of the present invention will be
described. FIG. 5 is a diagram in principle showing an ultrasonic receiving apparatus according to
a third embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, a drive unit 38
configured by a motor or the like is coupled to the light detector 30, and the light detector 30
moves in a direction perpendicular to the center of the beam of reflected light at predetermined
time intervals. Be done. Accordingly, since the spatial phase of the reflected light on the light
receiving surface of the light detector 30 changes at predetermined time intervals, the digital
data obtained by photoelectric conversion of the light detector 30 is synthesized at
predetermined time intervals. Thus, an image with high spatial resolution can be obtained. Also
in the present embodiment, the number of elements of the CCDs used as the light detectors 30
and 33 may be four or more.
[0035]
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12
Next, an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention
will be described with reference to FIG. As shown in FIG. 6, the ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
includes a drive signal generation circuit 51 that generates a drive signal, and an ultrasonic wave
transmission unit 52 that transmits an ultrasonic wave based on the drive signal. The ultrasonic
transmission unit 52 is configured of a vibrator using a piezoelectric element such as PZT or
PVDF. The ultrasonic waves transmitted to the subject are reflected from the subject and received
by the ultrasonic detector (sensor) 53. The sensor 53 includes an ultrasonic detection element
and the like. The timing control unit 50 controls the drive signal generation circuit 51 so as to
generate a drive signal at a predetermined timing, and controls the signal processing unit 27 so
as to take in data at a predetermined timing.
[0036]
As described above, according to the present invention, it is possible to realize an ultrasonic
receiving apparatus and an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus which are easy to mount and low in
cost.
[0037]
Brief description of the drawings
[0038]
1 is a diagram showing in principle the ultrasound receiving apparatus according to the first
embodiment of the present invention.
[0039]
2 is a diagram showing in principle the ultrasonic detection element of FIG.
[0040]
3 is a diagram showing a state of incidence of branched light on the light receiving surface of the
first and second light detectors of FIG.
[0041]
<Figure 4> It is the figure which shows the ultrasonic wave reception device which relates to the
2nd execution form of this invention in principle.
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[0042]
<Figure 5> It is the figure which shows the ultrasonic wave reception device which relates to the
3rd execution form of this invention in principle.
[0043]
<Figure 6> It is the figure which shows the ultrasonic diagnostic device which relates to one
execution form of this invention in principle.
[0044]
7 is a diagram showing in principle the conventional ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus.
[0045]
8 is a diagram showing in principle the conventional ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus.
[0046]
Explanation of sign
[0047]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 11, 61 Light source 12, 16, 62 Demultiplexer 13, 64 Ultrasonic
wave detection element 14 Substrate 15 Multilayer film 17, 20, 65 Photodiode (PD) array 17a17d, 20a-20d, 65a-65p Photodiode (PD) ) 18a to 18d, 21a to 21d, 31, 34, 66a to 66p, 69
amplifiers 19a to 19d, 22a to 22d, 32, 67a to 67d, 70 A / D converters 24a to 24d, 25a to 25d
memory 26 frame memory 27 signal processing unit 28 image processing unit 29 display unit
36, 37 line memory 38 drive unit 50 timing control unit 51 drive signal generation circuit 52
ultrasonic wave transmission unit 53 ultrasonic wave detection unit 63 optical fiber arrays 63a
to 63p optical fibers 64a to 64p Fabry-Perot Resonator (FPR) 68 CCD 68a ~ 8p element
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