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DESCRIPTION JP2004057477

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DESCRIPTION JP2004057477
[PROBLEMS] A transmission circuit and a transmission circuit are shared by one transmission
transformer and one transmission transformer by sharing one part of a winding with a
transmission circuit and a reception circuit without using dedicated boost transformers
individually provided in each of transmission and reception circuits. The present invention is to
provide a transmission / reception circuit of an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus in which an
increase in cost and size is suppressed by performing boosting of driving voltage and boosting of
an ultrasonic wave reflection signal upon reception. Kind Code: A1 An ultrasonic diagnostic
apparatus comprising a probe 3 comprising a plurality of transducers, a plurality of transmission
/ reception circuits for receiving signals 4 from each of the plurality of transducers, and a drive 1
for each of the plurality of transducers. The transmission / reception circuit has a step-up
transformer 2, the output of the drive circuit 1 of the transmission / reception circuit is
connected to the primary winding T1, and the vibrator 3 is connected to the first secondary
winding T2a. The ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus is characterized in that it is connected, and the
input of the receiving circuit 4 of the transmitting and receiving circuit is connected to the
second secondary winding T2b. [Selected figure] Figure 1
Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment
[0001] The present invention relates to an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus for displaying a
tomogram or the like of a living body using an ultrasonic wave by a probe having a transducer
array, and more particularly to a step-up transformer. It relates to a transmitting and receiving
circuit. [0002] In many cases, an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus that emits ultrasonic waves to a
living body to image and display a reflected ultrasonic signal from an organ in the living body is
intended to improve resolution. A system in which several tens to several hundreds of vibrators
are driven with substantially simultaneous phase shift is used, and in particular, this type is
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called an electronic scanning type. FIG. 5 is a block diagram of an electronic scanning ultrasound
diagnostic apparatus using a large number of transducers. As shown in FIG. 5A, in the
transmission and reception of ultrasonic waves in a general electronic scanning ultrasonic
diagnostic apparatus, transmission and reception of n transducers 52 of the probe 51, the
transmission circuit 53 and the reception circuit 54. Although m circuits 55 are provided less
than that, and a switch group for switching the transducers 52 connected to these transmission /
reception circuits 55 is also provided, this switch group is schematically omitted in this figure.
Further, received signals output from the m reception circuits are subjected to a phase adjusting
and adding circuit 56 in which respective phases are adjusted and added, and a signal processing
circuit 57 such as Log compression, detection, etc. to display an image 58 Is output as an image
signal to the FIG. 5 (b) is a block diagram showing the details of the configuration of the probe
51 of FIG. 5 (a) and the conventional transmission / reception circuit 55. The conventional
transmission circuit 53 includes a transmission drive circuit 53a to which a trigger signal from a
trigger signal oscillator (not shown) is input and a transmission side boosting transformer 53b
for boosting the transmission drive signal. On the other hand, a minute reception signal received
by the probe 51 passes without being restricted by the input limiter circuit 54 a that protects the
reception circuit 54 from excessive drive pulses, and is input to the reception side boosting
transformer 54 b. It is boosted to a received signal of several times the voltage. The boosted
reception signal is further amplified by the reception amplification circuit 54c to improve the NF
(noise factor) of the signal so as to correspond to the subsequent signal processing. As described
above, in the conventional transmission / reception circuit of the electronic scanning ultrasonic
diagnostic apparatus, a transmission step-up transformer for raising the transmission drive
voltage and a reception step-up transformer for improving the NF of the received signal are
provided. Improve the resolution of ultrasound images. However, when two step-up transformers
are mounted in the transmission / reception circuit, especially in the case of the electronic
scanning ultrasound diagnostic apparatus, as described above, several tens of transmission /
reception circuits and several hundreds in many are required. From the point of increase in the
number of parts and the installation space thereof, it has been a big problem to increase the
manufacturing cost of the transmission / reception circuit and the circuit board size.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the present invention, in the conventional
ultrasonic device, a step-up transformer is required for both the transmitting circuit and the
receiving circuit, and these circuits are required depending on the respective transducers.
Considering the problem, there is a problem that the cost of the transmitting and receiving circuit
is high and the circuit board also becomes large. The present invention has been made in view of
such problems, and an object of the present invention is to provide an ultrasonic diagnostic
apparatus in which an increase in cost and circuit board size is suppressed. In order to achieve
the above object, according to claim 1 of the present invention, a probe having a transducer and
an ultrasonic wave driven by the transducer are described. An ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
comprising: a transmitting and receiving circuit for emitting a signal and receiving a signal
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received by the transducer, wherein the transmitting and receiving circuit is configured such that
a drive circuit output of the transmitting and receiving circuit is connected to a primary side
winding; An ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus comprising a step-up transformer, wherein the
vibrator is connected to a secondary winding, and an input of a receiving circuit of the
transmitting and receiving circuit is connected to a second secondary winding. Provide an
apparatus. According to claim 2 of the present invention, a probe comprising a plurality of
transducers and a plurality of transducers are provided corresponding to each of the plurality of
transducers, and driving of the transducers and signals from the transducers are provided. An
ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus comprising a plurality of transmitting and receiving circuits for
receiving, wherein the transmitting and receiving circuits are connected to the primary side
winding with the drive circuit output of the transmitting and receiving circuit, and the first
secondary side winding includes the vibration. According to the present invention, there is
provided an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus comprising a step-up transformer in which an
element is connected and an input of a receiving circuit of the transmitting / receiving circuit is
connected to a second secondary winding. According to a third aspect of the present invention,
the first secondary winding is connected between the ground terminal and the tap terminal of the
secondary winding whose one end is grounded, and the second secondary winding is connected.
A wire is connected between the other terminal of the secondary winding extended from the tap
and the ground terminal, and a drive signal is wound on the primary winding and the first
secondary winding. It is characterized in that the voltage is boosted according to the line ratio,
and the received signal is boosted according to a winding ratio of the first secondary winding and
the second secondary winding. According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, the first
secondary winding is connected to one end terminal and tap terminal of the secondary winding
to which a diode bridge which is set to an ON state by passing a bias current and connected to
ground is connected. The second secondary winding is connected between the tap terminal and
the other terminal of the secondary winding extended therefrom, and a drive signal is
transmitted between the primary winding and the second winding. Boosted by the winding ratio
of the secondary winding of 2, and the received signal is boosted by the winding ratio of the sum
of the first secondary winding and the first and second secondary windings It is characterized by
According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, the first secondary winding is connected
between one end terminal of the secondary winding with its tap terminal grounded and the
grounded tap terminal, The secondary side winding is connected between the grounded tap
terminal and the other end terminal of the secondary side winding extended from the tap, and a
drive signal is transmitted from the primary side winding and the first 2 It is characterized in that
the voltage is boosted by the winding ratio of the next winding, and the received signal is boosted
by the winding ratio of the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding. DETAILED
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Embodiments of the ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus of the
present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings. The
embodiment of the present invention is applied to a transmission / reception circuit provided
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with a plurality in the same shape in an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus, and in the following, a
description will be made focusing on the transmission / reception circuit of the ultrasonic
diagnostic apparatus. . FIG. 1 (a) is a block diagram showing a basic configuration of a
transmission / reception circuit of an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus according to the present
invention, and FIG. 1 (b) schematically shows a step-up transformer according to a first
embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing a transmission /
reception circuit in a simplified manner. As shown in FIG. 1A, the configuration of the
transmission / reception circuit of the ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus of the present invention is
largely the transmission drive circuit 1 which receives a transmission trigger signal and
generates a drive waveform, and a step-up transformer And 2, a probe 3 for transmitting and
receiving an ultrasonic signal, and a receiving circuit 4 for amplifying a received signal.
Furthermore, the receiving circuit 4 includes a diode bridge switch circuit for blocking a high
voltage drive waveform voltage from the transmission drive circuit 1 and an input limiter circuit
5 having an input limiter circuit for suppressing the amplitude of the input and the receiving
amplifier circuit 6. Become. The step-up transformer 2 used in the present embodiment is a
transformer having a center tap on the secondary side winding as shown in FIG. 6B and including
three windings T1, T2a and T2b. One end of each of the primary winding and the secondary
winding is grounded. The turns ratio of these windings is T1: T2a: T2b = 1: M: N. The
transmission / reception circuit shown in FIG. 1 (b) operates as follows. The drive waveform
output from the transmission circuit 1 is applied to the winding T1 of the step-up transformer 2,
the voltage amplitude thereof is multiplied by M, induced in the winding T2a, and the probe 3 is
driven. An ultrasonic wave is transmitted from the driven probe 3, and a part of the ultrasonic
wave reflected by the reflector is received again by the probe 3 as an ultrasonic wave reflection
signal. The voltage of the ultrasonic wave reflected signal converted from the signal into an
electric signal and output from the probe 3 is 80 dB to 100 dB smaller than the voltage applied
to the probe 3 for transmission. However, it is input to the winding T2a of the center tap of the
step-up transformer 2 and is output at a voltage of 1+ (N / M) times to the terminal of the
winding T2b co-wound on the same secondary side iron core.
The ultrasonic wave reflected signal output from the step-up transformer 2 is input to the
receiving circuit 4, further amplified, and output to a signal processing circuit (not shown) of the
next stage. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a specific circuit example of the first embodiment of the
present invention. In the circuit of the first embodiment, the transmission drive circuit 1 of FIG.
1B corresponds to the transmission drive circuit 11 composed of switches M1 and M2 connected
to the trigger signals V1 and V2 of FIG. Further, the step-up transformer 2 is a step-up
transformer 22 having a tap also in the primary winding, the probe 3 is a probe 13 consisting of
a vibrator Cx and a cable T1, and the input limiting circuit 5 is a bias current The reception
amplification circuit 6 is configured to correspond to the reception amplification circuit 16
including the amplifier Amp1, respectively. In the operation of the first embodiment, the switches
M1 and M2 of the transmission circuit 11 are connected to the primary windings t1 and t2 of the
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step-up transformer 22 in FIG. It is driven by the rectangular wave trigger signals V1 and V2 to
alternately turn on and off. Due to the on / off of the switches M1 and M2, currents of opposite
phases of the voltage Vt alternately flow from the power supply Vt of the transmission circuit 11
to the windings t1 and t2 of the step-up transformer 22, thereby generating an alternating
magnetic field. The alternating magnetic field induces an alternating voltage in the grounded tap
winding t 3 on the secondary side to generate a drive signal to be input to the probe 13. This
drive signal is 2M · Vt obtained by multiplying the voltage 2Vt on the primary side by the
winding ratio M, and is applied to the vibrator Cx via the cable T1 of the probe 13. Since the
trigger signals V1 and V2 oscillate from two waves to several waves and stop oscillation until the
next transmission timing, the switches M1 and M2 are also turned off during a period without
oscillation. ing. In the vibrator 13, an ultrasonic wave is emitted by the drive signal, and a part of
the ultrasonic wave is reflected by the reflector, and is received again by the vibrator Cx of the
probe 13 as a reflected ultrasonic wave. The received reflected ultrasonic wave is converted into
an ultrasonic wave reflected signal of an electric signal by the transducer Cx of the probe 13 and
is applied to the grounded tap winding t3 of the step-up transformer 22 again. The ultrasonic
wave reflection signal applied to the winding t3 is grounded at the secondary side of the step-up
transformer 22 and the turns ratio between the terminal of the winding t4 and the ground
terminal, which is extended to the other end of the tap winding t3. The voltage is boosted by 1+
(N / M) times and output in response to t3: t4 = M: N.
The ultrasonic wave reflection signal boosted and output is input to a diode bridge switch circuit
(hereinafter referred to as a SW circuit) by the diodes D3 to D6 of the input limiting circuit 15 of
the receiving circuit 4. This SW circuit is connected to the power supply Vcc and the negative
power supply Vee through the bias resistors R2 and R3 and flows the bias current Ib when there
is no signal or small voltage signal, and all the diodes are turned on. Traffic lights go through. On
the other hand, when a signal larger than the voltage of the power supply Vcc or the negative
power supply Vee is input as in the vibrator drive signal, any set of the diodes D3 and D6 or the
diodes D4 and D5 is turned off. Since the diode bridge is turned off, the input large voltage signal
does not pass through the SW circuit. Furthermore, the input limiter circuit by the parallel diode
connected to the output of the SW circuit limits the input to the receiving amplifier 16 in the
subsequent stage to about 0.7 V or less, and excessive ultrasonic wave reflection signal is
suppressed Signal processing is performed, and is further output to the processing circuit of the
subsequent stage. According to the first embodiment, the boosting of the drive signal for driving
the probe 13 and the boosting of the ultrasonic wave reflection signal received by the probe 13
are performed by only one center tap boosting transformer. It is possible to do this without the
need for the step-up transformer provided on the receiving side. Therefore, particularly in an
electronic scanning ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus provided with a large number of transmitting
and receiving circuits, there is an effect that the installation space of the transformer provided on
the receiving side can be omitted and the cost of parts can be reduced. FIG. 3 is a diagram
showing a second embodiment, and FIG. 3A is a block diagram thereof, and FIG. 3B is a specific
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circuit diagram thereof. In the second embodiment, as shown in FIG. 2A, the transmission drive
circuit 1 that receives a transmission trigger signal and generates a drive waveform is connected
to the primary winding T 1 of the step-up transformer 2. Be done. The probe 3 is connected to
the center tap between the secondary winding T2a and the winding T2b of the step-up
transformer 2. Further, the transmission / reception changeover switch circuit 5a is connected to
the terminal of the winding T2a. Further, a receiving circuit 4 composed of an input limiter
circuit 5b and a receiving amplifier circuit 6 is connected to the terminal of the winding T2b. In
the transmission / reception changeover switch 5a, when a drive signal is applied to the winding
T1 and a high voltage is induced in the winding T2a, the high impedance is turned off, but in a
normal no signal or a minute voltage, it is in the on state. , The terminal of the winding T2a is
connected to the ground GND.
By this operation of transmission / reception changeover switch 5a, in this second embodiment,
boosting of the drive signal at the time of transmission of step-up transformer 2 is performed
between winding T1 and secondary winding T2b, and the winding ratio thereof T1: T2b = 1: N is
multiplied by N. On the other hand, the reception signal of the ultrasonic wave reflection signal is
applied to the primary side winding T2a, and the reception signal input to the reception circuit 4
from the terminal of the winding T2b of the step-up transformer 2 is the same as in the first
embodiment. The winding ratio T2a: T2b = M: N is multiplied by 1+ (N / M). The operation of the
second embodiment will be described using the circuit diagram of FIG. 3 (b). In this circuit, the
step-up transformer 2 in FIG. 5A is input to the step-up transformer 32 in FIG. 5B, the
transmission / reception switching circuit 5a is input to the SW circuit 15a of the diode bridge,
and the input limiter circuit 5b is input. Each is configured to correspond to the limiter circuit
15b. Furthermore, the transmission drive circuit 11 and the probe 13 are connected to the center
tap terminals of the primary windings t1 and t2 and the secondary windings t3 and t4 of the
step-up transformer 32, respectively, as in the first embodiment. Be done. The SW circuit 15a of
the diode bridge is connected to the terminal of the winding t3, and the node of the bridge paired
with this connection point is connected to the GND ground. The terminal of the winding t4 is
connected to the parallel diode of the input limiter circuit 15b. The operation of this embodiment
is similar to that of the first embodiment, in the transmission drive circuit 11, the switches M 1
and M 2 alternately repeat ON / OFF by the trigger signals V 1 and V 2, and the step-up
transformer 32 is wound. Current flows in the lines t1 and t2 to generate an alternating magnetic
field, and voltages boosted to 2M and 2N times are induced in the secondary windings t3 and t4,
respectively. Here, in the SW circuit 15a connected to the terminal of the winding t3, when the
terminal of the winding t3 is a small voltage (below the power supply Vcc or the negative power
supply Vee) and no signal, the diodes D3 to D6 are used. A bias current flows to turn on and
ground the terminal of this winding t3 to GND, while when a high voltage is applied, the high
impedance of either D3 or D6 or D4 or D5 is off. become. At this time, the terminal of the
winding t4 is grounded by the parallel diode of the input limiter circuit 15b at a smaller
impedance than the SW circuit 15a in the off state. Therefore, the voltage induced in the
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secondary winding t3 turns off the SW circuit 15a, and the terminal of the winding t4 is
grounded by the parallel diode of the input limiter circuit 15b. The output voltage (2N · Vt)
becomes a drive signal of the probe 13.
The ultrasonic wave emitted from the probe 13 by this drive signal is reflected by the reflector,
and is received by the probe 13 again, and is applied to the winding t3 as an ultrasonic wave
reflection signal. This ultrasonic wave reflection signal is a small voltage, and the abovementioned SW circuit 15a is grounded to GND in the ON state, and the winding ratio T2a: T2b =
M is applied to the terminal of the winding T2b provided extending to the winding T2a. : Output
as an ultrasonic wave reflection signal of a voltage boosted by 1+ (N / M) times by N. The
ultrasonic wave reflected signal output from the step-up transformer 32 is input to the input
limiter circuit 15 b of the receiving circuit 4, and limited to about 0.7 V or less by the parallel
diodes D 1 and D 2, and the reception amplification of the next stage It is input to the circuit 16.
In this embodiment, since the constant current source and the diode of the diode SW circuit 15a
which is a noise source are connected to the GND ground at one end of the diode bridge, the GND
ground and the input impedance of the receiving circuit and the probe are detected. As compared
with the division of the input impedance of the receiving circuit of the first embodiment and the
composite impedance of the probe 13 in the first embodiment, the noise ratio can be improved.
FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram showing a third embodiment of the present invention. In the third
embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4, the center taps of the secondary windings t3 and t4 of the stepup transformer 42 are grounded to GND, and the probe 13 is connected to the terminal of the
winding t3. The terminal is connected to an input limiting circuit 15 including an SW circuit by a
diode bridge and an input limiter circuit of a parallel diode. In the third embodiment, current
flows in the windings t1 and t2 by the trigger signals V1 and V2 as in the first embodiment
described above, and the voltage is boosted to 2 M times in the secondary winding t3. A voltage
is induced. The center tap is grounded to GND, and this voltage drives the probe 13. The
ultrasonic wave reflection signal received by the probe 13 is applied to the winding t3, and the
winding ratio t3: t4 = M: N is applied to the winding t4 which makes GND common to each other
at the center tap. Induced by (N / M) times. The ultrasonic wave reflection signal of the winding
t4 is input to the SW circuit of the input limiting circuit 15 connected to the terminal of the
winding t4. In the SW circuit, as in the first embodiment described above, the diode bridge is
turned “on” or “off” by the voltage of the input signal, and switching is performed according
to the magnitude of the input signal. .
Therefore, a signal with a small voltage, such as an ultrasonic wave reflection signal, passes
through the SW circuit 15a in the "on" state and is input to the input limiter circuit of the next
parallel diode, and further the reception amplification circuit of the next stage It is input to 16.
According to the third embodiment, since the windings of the step-up transformer 42 are
separately connected for each function of the circuit, the step-up of the reception signal is N / M
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times, but each winding ratio In addition, in the above description, one of the same transmitting
and receiving circuits provided in the electronic scanning ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus has
been described. The electronic scanning ultrasound diagnostic apparatus used is provided with a
probe having a plurality of transducers and a plurality of the above-mentioned transmission /
reception circuits, and a changeover switch (not shown) is provided to thereby be connected to
the transmission / reception circuits. The child is switched, and driving and reception are
performed. According to the present invention, since only one step-up transformer of the
transmitting and receiving circuit can be provided, in the electronic scanning ultrasonic
diagnostic apparatus provided with a large number of transmitting and receiving circuits, space
for installing the transformer provided on the receiving side can be omitted. The effect of
reducing parts costs is particularly significant. As described above, according to the present
invention, only boosting of the drive signal for driving the probe and boosting of the ultrasonic
wave reflected signal received by the probe can be performed. It becomes possible to do with two
center tap step-up transformers, and it is possible to reduce the number of step-up transformers,
and it is possible to reduce the space for installing the transformers and reduce the cost of parts.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the configuration of
an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention. FIG.
2 is a circuit diagram of the first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3 is a block diagram
and a circuit diagram showing a configuration of a second embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a block diagram and a circuit diagram of a third embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing the configuration of an electronic scanning ultrasound
diagnostic apparatus and a conventional transmission / reception circuit. [Description of the
code] 1, 11 ... Transmission drive circuit, 2, 22, 32, 42 ... Step-up transformer, 3, 13 ... Probe, 4,
14 ... Reception circuit 5, 15 Input limiting circuit 6, 16 Reception amplification circuit 15a Diode
bridge switch circuit (SW circuit) 15b Input limiter circuit.
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