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DESCRIPTION JP2012109739

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DESCRIPTION JP2012109739
The present invention provides an imaging device having a vibration unit that detects a vibration
wave efficiently. An imaging device has an imaging portion formed at a position different from a
vibrating portion formed of a part of a first substrate and the vibrating portion of a first main
surface of the first substrate. And. The second substrate 30 is joined to the second main surface
of the first substrate and a region other than the vibrating portion. A hollow portion is formed at
a position facing the vibrating portion of the second substrate. [Selected figure] Figure 1
Imaging device
[0001]
The present invention relates to an imaging apparatus having a vibration unit that receives a
vibration wave in addition to an imaging unit.
[0002]
Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 11-127393 proposes a solid-state imaging unit with
a microphone function in which a solid-state imaging unit that collects video information and a
microphone that collects audio information are integrated into one device.
In the solid-state imaging unit, a diaphragm of a microphone is disposed in front of the solid-state
imaging unit.
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[0003]
Therefore, when an optical element such as a lens is formed on the front side, the optical element
may block the sound, and the sound wave may not be detected efficiently. In addition, there is a
risk that the quality of the captured image may be degraded by the vibration of the vibrating
plate.
[0004]
Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 11-127393
[0005]
An object of the present invention is to provide an imaging device having a vibration unit that
detects a vibration wave efficiently.
[0006]
An imaging device according to an embodiment of the present invention includes: a vibrating
portion formed of a part of a first substrate; and an imaging portion formed at a position
different from the vibrating portion of the first main surface of the first substrate. Prepare.
[0007]
According to an embodiment of the present invention, it is possible to provide an imaging device
having a vibration unit that detects a vibration wave efficiently.
[0008]
It is a perspective view for demonstrating the structure of the imaging device of 1st Embodiment.
It is sectional drawing along the II-II line of FIG. 1 for demonstrating the structure of the imaging
device of 1st Embodiment.
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It is sectional drawing for demonstrating the manufacturing method of the imaging device of 1st
Embodiment.
It is sectional drawing for demonstrating the manufacturing method of the imaging device of 1st
Embodiment.
It is sectional drawing for demonstrating the manufacturing method of the imaging device of 1st
Embodiment. It is a perspective view for demonstrating the structure of the imaging device of
2nd Embodiment. It is sectional drawing along the VII-VII line of FIG. 6 for demonstrating the
structure of the imaging device of 2nd Embodiment. It is a perspective view for demonstrating
the structure of the imaging device of 3rd Embodiment. It is sectional drawing in alignment with
the IX-IX line of FIG. 8 for demonstrating the structure of the imaging device of 3rd Embodiment.
It is a perspective view for demonstrating the structure of the imaging device of 4th Embodiment.
It is sectional drawing along the XI-XI line of FIG. 10 for demonstrating the structure of the
imaging device of 4th Embodiment. It is a perspective view for demonstrating the structure of the
imaging device of 5th Embodiment. It is sectional drawing along the XIII-XIII line of FIG. 12 for
demonstrating the structure of the imaging device of 5th Embodiment. It is a perspective view for
demonstrating the structure of the imaging device of 6th Embodiment. It is sectional drawing
which followed the XV-XIV line of FIG. 12 for demonstrating the structure of the imaging device
of 6th Embodiment. It is sectional drawing for demonstrating the manufacturing method of the
imaging device of 6th Embodiment. It is a perspective view for demonstrating the structure of the
imaging device of 7th Embodiment. It is sectional drawing in alignment with the XVIII-XVIII line
of FIG. 12 for demonstrating the structure of the imaging device of 7th Embodiment.
[0009]
First Embodiment FIG. 1 is a perspective view for explaining the structure of an imaging device 1
according to a first embodiment, and FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view for explaining the structure
of the imaging device 1. The following figures are all schematic diagrams, and the aspect ratio,
etc., in the vertical and horizontal directions is different from the actual one.
[0010]
<Structure of Imaging Device 1> As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, in the imaging device 1, a first
substrate 10 and a second substrate 30 are bonded. In addition to the imaging function by the
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imaging unit 14, the imaging device 1 has a vibration wave detection function that detects an
external vibration wave by the vibration of the vibration unit 38. The vibrating portion 38 is a
region in which the first substrate 10 is not bonded to the second substrate 30 and has a
membrane shape. That is, as shown in FIG. 2, the hollow portion 37 is formed immediately below
the vibrating portion 38 by the concave portion 33 of the second substrate 30.
[0011]
The membrane-like first substrate 10 has a first base 11 and a protective film 19. The second
substrate 30 has a second base 31 and a protective film 34. The first base 11 and the second
base 31 are made of a semiconductor such as silicon.
[0012]
An imaging unit 14, a plurality of wires 20, and a plurality of electrode pads 21 are formed on
the first main surface 12 of the first base 11. The imaging unit 14 includes a light receiving area
in which a light receiving element such as a photodiode is formed, a color filter (not shown)
formed on the light receiving area, and a microlens (not shown) which is an optical element
formed on the color filter. And. Then, in the area adjacent to the light receiving area, a driving /
signal processing circuit (not shown) including a shift register, an output amplifier, an A / D
converter, a memory circuit and the like is formed.
[0013]
The electrode pad 21 is formed along the periphery of the first substrate 10, and is connected to
the imaging unit 14 through the wiring 20. Further, on the first main surface 12 of the first base
11, an electrode pad 17 and an electrode pad 35 for detecting the vibration of the vibrating
portion 38 are exposed by the through holes 18A and 18B, respectively.
[0014]
On the other hand, on the second main surface 13 of the first base 11, the movable electrode 15,
the wiring 16, the electrode pad 17 and the protective film 19 are formed.
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[0015]
The movable electrode 15 is formed in the opposing region of the region different from the
imaging unit 14 formation region.
The electrode pad 17 is connected to the movable electrode 15 by the wiring 16. The protective
film 19 is made of a silicon oxide film or the like.
[0016]
The second base 31 is provided with a recess 33 to be a cavity 37. As for the cross-sectional
shape of the recessed part 33, it is desirable that a bottom part is a taper shape smaller than an
opening part. At the bottom of the recess 33, a fixed electrode 32 is formed. Further, an electrode
pad 35 and a wiring 36 (see FIG. 4B) are formed on the second base 31. The electrode pad 35 is
connected to the fixed electrode 32 through the wire 36.
[0017]
A protective film 34 made of a silicon oxide film is formed to cover the surface of the second
substrate 30.
[0018]
The first substrate 10 and the second substrate 30 are bonded such that the movable electrode
15 and the fixed electrode 32 that constitute the vibration detection unit 38A face each other.
Air is enclosed in a cavity 37 formed by the recess 33 and the second major surface 13 of the
first substrate 10. The inside of the hollow portion 37 may be sealed with a gas such as nitrogen
or argon, may be vacuum, or may be penetrated with the outside air.
[0019]
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Here, the first substrate 10 is thinner than the thickness of the second substrate 30 and is in the
form of a film. The first substrate 10 on the recess 33, that is, the region of the first substrate 10
not bonded to the second substrate 30 is in the form of a membrane, and becomes the vibrating
portion 38.
[0020]
The thickness of the first substrate 10 is preferably 1 to 10 μm. If it is above the range, the
mechanical strength of the vibrating portion 38 is secured, and if it is below the range, the
vibrating portion 38 vibrates with high sensitivity by the vibration wave from the outside.
[0021]
Moreover, as for the depth of the recessed part 33, 30-100 micrometers is preferable. If it is
more than the said range, the movable electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32 will not contact,
and if less than the said range, the distance between electrodes can be measured with high
sensitivity. The thickness of the second substrate 30 is preferably 250 to 500 μm in order to
secure mechanical strength and miniaturize the imaging device.
[0022]
The movable electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32, which are disposed opposite to each other
as the vibration detection unit 38A, constitute a capacitor. When the vibrating portion 38
vibrates (displaces) due to an external vibration wave, the distance between the movable
electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32 changes, so the capacitance of the capacitor changes.
The imaging device 1 detects the vibration wave by detecting the capacitance between the
movable electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32.
[0023]
The vibration unit 38 and the vibration detection unit 38A have a function as a microphone if the
vibration wave is a sound wave, and have a function as an ultrasonic transducer if the vibration
wave is an ultrasonic wave. That is, the vibration unit 38 vibrates by the sound wave or the
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ultrasonic wave.
[0024]
Method of Manufacturing Imaging Device 1 Next, a method of manufacturing the imaging device
1 will be described using FIGS. 3 to 5. The imaging device 1 is manufactured by bonding the first
substrate 10 and the second substrate 30 after preparing the first substrate 10 and the second
substrate 30. <First substrate preparation step>
[0025]
As shown in FIG. 3A, the imaging unit 14 is formed on the first major surface 12 of the first base
11 made of silicon by a known method. The thickness of the first base 11 at this time is
preferably, for example, 500 to 1000 μm, at which mechanical strength can be secured.
[0026]
As shown in FIG. 3B, the electrode pad 21 and the wiring 20 connecting the imaging unit 14 and
the electrode pad 21 are formed on the first main surface 12. In the following drawings, the
electrode pads 21 and the wires 20 are not shown.
[0027]
The electrode pad 21 and the wiring 20 are formed by forming an aluminum film as a conductive
film on the entire surface of the first major surface 12 by a sputtering apparatus and then
patterning it. As a material of the conductive film, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, tantalum,
copper, or the like may be used.
[0028]
Next, although not shown, a color filter is formed on the light receiving area of the imaging unit
14, and a micro lens is further formed on the color filter.
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[0029]
As shown in FIG. 3C, the first base 11 is polished from the side of the second main surface 13
until it becomes a membrane having a thickness of 1 to 10 μm.
Polishing is mechanical polishing with a grindstone or the like or dry etching or the like.
[0030]
As shown in FIG. 3D, the movable electrode 15, the electrode pad 17, and the wire 16 connecting
the movable electrode 15 and the electrode pad 17 are formed on the second main surface 13
after polishing. . The movable electrode 15, the electrode pad 17 and the wiring 16 are formed
by forming a conductive film on the entire surface of the second main surface 13 and then
patterning it.
[0031]
As shown in FIG. 3E, a protective film 19 covering the second major surface 13 of the first base
11 is formed. For example, the protective film 19 made of a silicon oxide film is formed using
plasma chemical vapor deposition (plasma CVD) or the like using tetraethoxysilane or the like as
a source gas. Through the above steps, the membrane-like first substrate 10 having the first base
11 and the protective film 19 is prepared.
[0032]
<Step of Preparing Second Substrate> As shown in FIG. 4A, the concave portion 33 is formed on
the front surface of the second base 31 made of silicon. The thickness of the second substrate 31
is preferably, for example, 250 to 500 μm, at which mechanical strength can be ensured.
[0033]
The recess 33 is formed by wet etching with an alkaline solution such as KOH or TMAH or dry
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etching by ICP-RIE or the like.
[0034]
As shown in FIG. 4B, the fixed electrode 32 at the bottom of the recess 33, the electrode pad 35
on the surface of the second base 31, and wiring from the fixed electrode 32 to the electrode pad
35 via the side surface of the recess 33. 36 are formed.
The fixed electrode 32, the electrode pad 35, and the wiring 36 are formed by forming a
conductive film on the entire front surface of the second base 31 and then patterning it. In the
following drawings, the electrode pad 35 and the wiring 36 are not shown.
[0035]
As shown in FIG. 4C, a protective film 34 made of, for example, a silicon oxide film is formed so
as to cover the front surface of the second base 31. By the above-described steps, the second
substrate 30 having the second base 31 and the protective film 34 is prepared.
[0036]
<Substrate Bonding Step> As shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B, the second main surface 13 side of the
first substrate 10 and the front surface of the second substrate 30 are movable electrodes. 15
and the fixed electrode 32 are joined via an adhesive layer (not shown) so as to face each other.
The recess 33 becomes a cavity 37 by bonding.
[0037]
<Through Hole Forming Step> As shown in FIG. 5C, a through hole 18A penetrating the first base
11, a through hole 18B (not shown) penetrating the first substrate 10 and the protective film 34,
The electrode pad 17 and the electrode pad 35 (not shown) are exposed to the first major surface
12 side. The imaging device 1 is completed through the above steps.
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[0038]
The above steps are performed by a wafer process with high productivity. That is, after the first
wafer on which the large number of imaging units 14 and the like are formed and the second
wafer on which the large number of concave portions 33 and the like are formed, the large
number of imaging is performed by being separated. The device 1 is manufactured collectively.
[0039]
In the imaging device 1, a part of the first substrate 10 in which the imaging unit 14 is formed
constitutes a vibrating unit 38. The imaging unit 14 and the vibrating unit 38 are formed at
different positions on the first substrate 10. For this reason, even if an optical element such as a
micro lens is disposed on the front surface of the light receiving area of the imaging unit 14, the
vibration unit 38 is not affected. In addition, a protective member with high mechanical strength
such as a cover glass can be disposed on the front surface of the microlens.
[0040]
Furthermore, since the vibration unit 38 does not exist in front of the light receiving area, there
is no disturbance of the captured image due to the vibration of the vibration unit 38, and the
imaging device 1 can perform high-accuracy imaging.
[0041]
Further, since the distance between the movable electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32 for
determining the vibration detection sensitivity of the vibration unit 38 is determined by the
depth of the recess 33, the imaging device 1 can easily adjust the sensitivity.
[0042]
As described above, since the vibration unit 38 is formed at a position different from that of the
imaging unit 14, the imaging device 1 can efficiently detect the vibration wave.
In addition, the imaging device 1 can be manufactured at once by wafer process and has high
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productivity.
[0043]
The imaging device 1 can also generate an oscillating wave by applying a voltage between the
movable electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32.
That is, the vibration unit 38 has not only a receiving function for receiving the vibration wave,
but also a transmission function for generating the vibration wave.
[0044]
For example, the imaging apparatus 1 receives an echo signal generated by the transmission
function and reflected by the test object and returned by the reception function.
[0045]
Second Embodiment Next, an imaging device 1A of a second embodiment will be described.
Since the imaging device 1A of the present embodiment is similar to the imaging device 1 of the
first embodiment, the same components will be assigned the same reference numerals and
descriptions thereof will be omitted.
[0046]
In the imaging device 1 according to the first embodiment, the vibration of the vibration unit 38
is detected by the capacitance change between the fixed electrode 32 and the movable electrode
15 which is the first vibration detection unit 38A. On the other hand, in the imaging device 1A of
the present embodiment, the vibration of the vibration unit 38 is detected by the resistance
change of the piezoresistive element 22 which is the second vibration detection unit 38B.
[0047]
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As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the imaging device 1A includes a piezoresistive element 22 which is a
second vibration detection unit 38B that detects deformation (vibration) of the vibration unit 38.
The piezoresistive element 22 is formed by adding an impurity such as boron to the first major
surface 12 of the first base 11A (the first substrate 10A) by a diffusion method or an ion
implantation method. A plurality of piezoresistive elements may be formed at positions where
deformation of the vibrating portion 38 can be detected.
[0048]
Wirings 16A made of a conductive film and electrode pads 17A1 and 17A2 are formed on the
first major surface 12 for measuring a change in resistance of the piezoresistive element 22.
[0049]
As shown in FIG. 7, in the imaging device 1A, the recess 33A forming the cavity 37A of the
second base 31A (second substrate 30A) is a through hole having an opening on the back
surface.
Of course, the recess may be the same recess as the imaging device 1.
[0050]
The imaging device 1A has the effect of the imaging device 1 and is excellent in productivity
because the structure of the first vibration detection unit 38A and the processing of the second
substrate are easy.
[0051]
Third Embodiment Next, an imaging device 1B of a third embodiment will be described.
Since the imaging device 1B of the present embodiment is similar to the imaging device 1 and
the imaging device 1A, the same components will be denoted by the same reference numerals
and descriptions thereof will be omitted.
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[0052]
The imaging device 1B shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 includes a first vibration detection unit 38A and a
second vibration detection unit 38B. The first vibration detection unit 38A includes the movable
electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32, and detects a change in capacitance between the
electrodes via the electrode pads 35B1 and 35B2. The second vibration detection unit 38B
includes two piezoresistive elements 22A and 22B, and detects a change in resistance of the
piezoresistive elements 22A and 22B through the electrode pads 17B1 and 17B2. Then, in the
imaging device 1B, the vibration of the vibration unit 38 is detected by at least one of the first
vibration detection unit 38A or the second vibration detection unit 38B.
[0053]
That is, the first base 11B (the first substrate 10B) has the piezoresistive elements 22A and 22B
as the second vibration detection unit 38B on the first main surface 12 and the second main
surface 13 It has the movable electrode 15 which comprises the 1st vibration detection part 38A.
The plurality of electrode pads 21, 17B1 and 17B2 and the electrode pads 35B1 and 35B2 are
exposed on the first major surface 12. The number of piezoelectric elements may be one.
[0054]
The vibration state of the vibration unit 38 differs depending on the frequency / intensity of the
received vibration wave. For example, the imaging device 1B may detect a sound wave of low
frequency by the first vibration detection unit 38A, and may detect a sound wave of high
frequency by the second vibration detection unit 38B. Furthermore, the imaging device 1B may
detect a sound wave by the first vibration detection unit 38A, and may detect an ultrasonic wave
by the second vibration detection unit 38B.
[0055]
The imaging device 1B has the effects of the imaging device 1 and the imaging device 1A, and
can further efficiently detect vibration waves in different vibration states.
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[0056]
The imaging device 1B can also generate a vibration wave by applying a voltage between the
movable electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32.
For example, the imaging device 1B generates an ultrasonic wave by applying a voltage between
the movable electrode 15 and the fixed electrode 32, and detects an echo signal by the first
vibration detection unit 38A or the second vibration detection unit 38B. May be
[0057]
Fourth Embodiment Next, an imaging device 1C according to a fourth embodiment will be
described. Since the imaging device 1C of the present embodiment is similar to the imaging
device 1B and the like of the third embodiment, the same components will be assigned the same
reference numerals and descriptions thereof will be omitted.
[0058]
As shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, the imaging device 1C forms a recess 33C1 in the second major
surface 13 of the first base 11C as in the imaging device 1A of the second embodiment, thereby
forming a vibrating portion. Only 38 are membraned. That is, the cavity 37C of the imaging
device 1C is formed by the recess 33C1 of the first base 11C and the recess 33C2 of the second
base 31C.
[0059]
The imaging device 1C has the effects of the imaging devices 1 to 1B, and the first substrate 10C
is not in the form of a membrane as a whole, and thus is easy to handle.
[0060]
Although the imaging device 1C includes the first vibration detection unit 38A and the second
vibration detection unit 38B, it is sufficient that only one of them is used, and the first vibration
detection unit 38A is used. Vibration waves can also be generated.
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[0061]
Fifth Embodiment Next, an imaging device 1D according to a fifth embodiment will be described.
Since the imaging device 1D of the present embodiment is similar to the imaging device 1C and
the like of the fourth embodiment, the same components will be assigned the same reference
numerals and descriptions thereof will be omitted.
[0062]
As shown in FIGS. 12 and 13, in the imaging device 1D, the second substrate 30D (second base
31D) is flat.
That is, the cavity 37D of the imaging device 1D is formed by the recess 33D of the first
substrate 10D (the first base 11C) and the front surface of the second substrate 30D.
[0063]
The imaging device 1D has the effect of the imaging device 1C, and is easy to manufacture
because the second substrate 30D is flat.
[0064]
Although the imaging device 1D includes the first vibration detection unit 38A and the second
vibration detection unit 38B, it is sufficient that only one of them is used, and the first vibration
detection unit 38A is used. Vibration waves can also be generated.
[0065]
Sixth Embodiment Next, an imaging device 1E according to a sixth embodiment will be described.
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Since the imaging device 1E of the present embodiment is similar to the imaging device 1 and the
like of the first embodiment, the same components will be assigned the same reference numerals
and descriptions thereof will be omitted.
[0066]
As shown in FIGS. 14 and 15, the imaging device 1E includes a back-illuminated imaging unit
14E and a first vibration detection unit 38A.
[0067]
A method of manufacturing the imaging device 1E will be described using FIGS. 16 (A) to 16 (D).
In addition, since the manufacturing method of the imaging device 1E is similar to the
manufacturing method of the imaging device 1 of 1st Embodiment, only a different part is
demonstrated.
[0068]
<Step of Preparing First Substrate> As shown in FIG. 16A, the first substrate 10E (the first base
11E) includes a support layer 11E1 made of silicon, an insulating film 11E2 made of a silicon
oxide film, and silicon. SOI substrate having the active layer 11E3.
First, the imaging unit 14E is formed on the active layer 11E3 of the first base 11E.
[0069]
As shown in FIG. 16B, a wire connecting the movable electrode 15E, the electrode pad 17E, the
wire 16E, and the imaging unit 14E and the electrode pad 21E (not shown) on the side of the
first base 11E on the active layer 11E3. 20E are formed. The movable electrode 15E, the
electrode pad 21E, the electrode pad 17E, the wiring 20E, and the wiring 16E are formed by
forming a conductive film on the entire surface of the first base 11E on the active layer 11E3
side by a sputtering apparatus and then patterning.
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[0070]
Further, a protective film 19E made of a silicon oxide film is formed to cover the surface on the
active layer 11E3 side of the first base 11E. The first substrate 10E is prepared by the above
steps. The preparation process of the first substrate 10 is the same as the preparation process of
the first substrate 10 of the first embodiment.
[0071]
<Substrate Bonding Step> As shown in FIG. 16C, the first substrate 10E and the second substrate
30 are bonded via an adhesive layer (not shown).
[0072]
<Substrate Polishing Step> As shown in FIG. 16D, the support layer 11E1 and the insulating film
11E2 of the first substrate 10E are removed.
The removal of the support layer 11E1 is performed by polishing or dry etching or the like. The
removal of the insulating film 11E2 is performed by wet etching, dry etching or the like.
[0073]
A through hole is formed to expose the electrode pad to the first major surface 12 side. The
imaging device 1E is completed through the above steps.
[0074]
The imaging device 1E has the effect of the first embodiment, and since the imaging unit 14E is a
backside illumination type, incident light is not blocked by the wiring, and therefore the light
detection sensitivity at the time of imaging is high. In addition, since the first substrate 10E is
processed to be thin after bonding the first substrate 10E and the second substrate 30E, handling
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of the first substrate 10E before bonding is easy.
[0075]
The imaging device 1E may have the second vibration detection unit 38B, and can also generate
a vibration wave using the first vibration detection unit 38A.
[0076]
In addition, the back side illumination type imaging unit 14E of the present embodiment may be
applied to the first to fourth embodiments.
[0077]
Seventh Embodiment Next, an imaging device 1F according to a seventh embodiment will be
described.
Since the imaging device 1F of the present embodiment is similar to the imaging device 1A and
the like of the second embodiment, the same components will be assigned the same reference
numerals and descriptions thereof will be omitted.
[0078]
As shown in FIGS. 17 and 18, the imaging device 1F does not have a second substrate.
The vibrating portion 38 of the imaging device 1F is a region in which the first substrate 10F is
formed into a membrane shape by forming a recess (through hole) 33F on the second main
surface 13 side.
[0079]
The imaging device 1F has the same effect as the imaging device 1A and the like of the second
embodiment, and has a simple structure.
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[0080]
The present invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, and various
combinations, changes, modifications, and the like of the embodiments can be made without
departing from the scope of the present invention.
[0081]
1, 1A to 1F: imaging device, 10: first substrate, 11: first base body, 12: first main surface, 13:
second main surface, 14: imaging unit, ... light receiving area, ... micro Lens 15 movable electrode
16 wiring 17 electrode pad 18 through hole 19 protective film 21 electrode pad 22
piezoresistive element 30 second substrate 31 second substrate , 32: fixed electrode, 33: concave
portion, 34: protective film, 35: electrode pad, 36: wiring, 37: hollow portion, 38: vibration
portion, 38A: first vibration detection portion, 38B: second vibration detection Department
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