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DESCRIPTION JPH10271594

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DESCRIPTION JPH10271594
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
transmitter equipped with an ultrasonic sounder or fish finder used in seawater or in water, and
more particularly to a transmitter using a ceramic vibrator called a piezoelectric element. It
relates to an apparatus.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art As is known, as shown in FIG. 5, the structure of a conventional
sawtooth wave transmission apparatus is such that a diaphragm (2) made of nylon or the like is
provided on the front of the ceramic vibrator (1). A sheet (4) such as Styrofoam that absorbs the
emission of ultrasonic waves is provided directly on the surface of the ceramic vibrator (1), and
an air chamber (5) etc. is provided behind it, and the ultrasonic waves are emitted back It was
common to prevent this problem. However, since the acoustic impedance on the back side is
extremely small and the weight is light when considering the ultrasonic energy emitted into
water etc. from an efficient aspect, most of the ultrasonic energy is emitted from the piezoelectric
element (1 ) Is hardly emitted from the diaphragm (2) side which is the originally intended front
surface. This is as described in the last filed on Dec. 9, 1996 [Reference number] MA-001
[Application number] Japanese Patent Application No. 8-357460. Therefore, the applicant
improved the point of the above-mentioned poor efficiency of the ultrasonic wave emission with
the title "Transmitter for ultrasonic equipment" on Dec. 9, 1996 [Reference number] MA-001.
Patent application for a new ultrasonic wave transmitter. However, there has been a demand for
a transmitter that emits more powerful ultrasonic output as a trigger for the filing of an
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application, so the applicant has hesitated to file a new patent application that has been
improved to increase the output more greatly. . However, as the output increases, problems also
increase and it is necessary to solve not only performance improvements but also new handling
problems and measures against problems. Therefore, we decided to apply for an improved
invention that can solve the problems and needs together. However, the improved invention can
be applied not only to the present apparatus but also to a conventional transmission apparatus as
it is, and the individual improved inventions can be put to practical use even when combined for
various purposes. Also decided to apply.
[0003]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The wave transmission device previously filed applies a heavy
object having a large acoustic impedance to the surface of the ceramic vibrator opposite to the
diaphragm side to increase the efficiency of acoustic emission to increase the diaphragm
efficiency. It was intended to emit more ultrasonic waves from the side. Therefore, since the
conventional ceramic vibrator is used as it is and the maximum energy is utilized, depending on
the model, there is a case where the output of the vibrator itself is limited and a larger output can
not be desired. In order to increase the power further, the applicant has succeeded in increasing
the power by increasing the amplitude by piling up the ceramic vibrators in the direction in
which the ultrasonic waves are emitted, and has thus filed an application. However, in the
present invention, as the number of heavy objects provided on the back of the wave transmitting
device increases the number of ceramic vibrators, the weight becomes heavy and handling is
inconvenient, and the output of the ceramic vibrators is extremely increased. Since the emission
efficiency per unit area of the diaphragm is considerably improved, problems such as cavitation
between the diaphragm and the seawater also occur. Therefore, it became necessary to solve
each problem such as aspiration, and found a solution individually.
[0004]
The first task is to increase the output, but in order to obtain a higher output for the transmission
apparatus filed with the previous [Reference number] MA-001, Although it is possible to increase
the size of the transducer of the transmission device being used, the size is limited, so this device
is considered as a new method for generating another powerful output. That is, since the
ultrasonic waves use longitudinal waves, the output increases if the amplitude in the traveling
direction of the ultrasonic waves is increased. Therefore, a plurality of ceramic vibrators are
overlapped in the direction of emission of ultrasonic waves, that is, in the thickness direction, and
the amplitude is increased by the number to increase the output. Conventionally, there has been
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an idea of taking such a method, but ceramic resonators use acoustically resonance at their own
resonance point, so it is difficult to obtain ceramic resonators having the same resonance
characteristics. It didn't happen because of things like that. However, although this problem is
true that the acoustic impedance is largely different and depends on the acoustic impedance in
the near no load condition, the load is gradually increased, and the acoustic impedance is largely
different particularly in the heavy load condition due to the forced vibration. It has been
experimentally confirmed that it does not significantly affect the output, so that the output is
increased by stacking a plurality of ceramic vibrators.
[0005]
Next, in order to increase the output, including the one in which a plurality of ceramic vibrators
are stacked to increase the output, the ultrasonic oscillator has attached a heavy object having a
large acoustic impedance to the back of the ceramic vibrator to increase the output. If the
number of is more than one, the weight of the rear object also increases accordingly, which is
extremely inconvenient for handling in extreme cases. Therefore, one reason for providing the
back object is to want to acoustically fix the back portion of the ceramic vibrator as much as
possible by the inertial effect, and therefore the outer periphery of the heavy object provided on
the back is made of synthetic rubber outside its outer frame. It is considered that it may be fixed
to a frame and fixed acoustically by turning. However, the reason why such measures have not
been taken conventionally is that when the ceramic vibrator is directly fixed to the synthetic
rubber outer frame, the ceramic vibrator is highly likely to pick up the surrounding acoustic
noise. However, since noises picked up from the surroundings are audio frequencies, they can be
easily removed by providing an electric band pass filter or the like often used in recent years on
the receiver side. Moreover, it can also remove by acoustically shielding the circumference |
surroundings of the supporter provided in a synthetic rubber outer frame.
[0006]
Next is another measure that the weight of the entire transmission system is too heavy and it is
inconvenient to handle. In the previous invention, a large amount of ultrasonic waves was
emitted to the diaphragm side by bonding a heavy object to the back of the vibrator, but the
shape of the back object was made as thin as possible and the outer diameter was enlarged as a
result. The structure is designed to lighten, and the action is only to fix the ceramic vibrator to
the back object, and the inertial effect due to the back object becoming lighter in weight, that is,
the weight shortage causes the periphery of the back object to It is intended to have the same
effect as inertially fixed by projecting into seawater and utilizing acoustic resistance to seawater.
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By the way, the principle of projecting the back object into the seawater and obtaining the
fixation effect by its resistance is simply to simply assume that the area of the part projecting
into the seawater of the back object is larger than the area of the diaphragm The ultrasonic
energy is emitted from both sides of the underwater projection of the diaphragm and the back
object, and the size is the same, but the diaphragm with a smaller area vibrates more, while the
back object with a larger area has a larger area. The vibrations are small and act as resistors.
That is the same effect as fixing the oscillator. Furthermore, since a back object is also present on
the back surface, its inertial effect is taken into consideration and its effect as a resistor is further
expanded. Also, although it is conceivable to pick up acoustic noise from seawater as the back
object protrudes into the seawater, the problem of flooding can be addressed by the use of the
bandpass filter described above.
[0007]
In addition, when the thickness of the back object provided on the back surface is made free by
the material of the back object, the standing wave generated there may disturb the waveform of
the ultrasonic wave which is the fundamental wave. As a countermeasure for such cases, it is
necessary to make the thickness so that the standing wave generated there does not affect the
fundamental wave. The thickness in this case may be set to a thickness of 1⁄4 × n wavelength of
the fundamental wave, and such a concept can be applied to the case where the back object is
thick. Incidentally, if the thickness of the back object is made free, the magnitude of the reflected
wave varies at the interface between the back object and the foam and the disturbance of the
standing wave is generated, and the disturbance of the standing wave generated should be super
It results in disturbing the sound wave waveform. In such a case, if the thickness of the 1⁄4 × n
wavelength of the fundamental wave is used, the standing wave does not adversely affect the
fundamental wave because it takes zero or maximum value at the boundary surface.
[0008]
Next, because the efficiency of the ultrasonic energy is too high, including multiple ceramic
vibrators stacked to increase the output, light cavitation is generated at the interface between the
surface of the diaphragm that emits the ultrasonic waves and seawater etc. Countermeasures that
occur are caused by the fact that the contact surface of the acoustic launch object such as the
diaphragm with seawater etc. is too small for the acoustic energy to be emitted. In order to
prevent contact between the sound wave emitting object and seawater etc. and generate
cavitation, a special ultrasonic wave emission piece is provided in the direction of ultrasonic wave
emission, with a special ultrasonic wave emission piece which protrudes into sea water and acts
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integrally with the diaphragm to emit ultrasonic waves. Thus, the ultrasonic waves may be
emitted. By the way, since the ultrasonic projectile projects into the sea and makes the whole
projectile emit ultrasonic waves, almost the entire surface of the projectile is in contact with the
seawater, which makes it difficult to generate cavitation. In addition, since the shape of the
ultrasonic wave can be freely set, it has a feature that is useful for improvement of directivity
characteristics and the like.
[0009]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS As described above, the present
invention was developed as an apparatus for emitting ultrasonic waves powerfully, but succeeded
in emitting ultrasonic waves powerfully, but on the other hand, measures against various
problems associated therewith It is also necessary to develop the solution. Therefore, along with
the invention of emitting ultrasonic waves powerfully, it is necessary to post these
countermeasures together. However, the countermeasure can be applied not only to the present
invention but also to a conventional apparatus as it is, and some examples can be implemented
even if various combinations are taken. I decided. However, since it is impossible to list all of the
specifically conceivable embodiments, a representative example in which the examples are
arranged is described. Incidentally, FIG. 1 is an example implemented in the conventional
apparatus, and FIG. The present invention is an example applied to the improved invention dated
December 09, and FIG. 4 is an example in which the present invention is fully implemented.
Therefore, if these are summarized, [claim 1] is a basic matter, so it can be applied to all cases.
[Claim 2] The content below is the response when the output is too strong and problems occur. It
is a condition that it is selectively applied.
[0010]
The contents of the present invention show the basic contents of the present invention, and the
embodiments of the present invention are all the wave transmitting devices of the conventional
ultrasonic wave emitting device and the wave transmitting devices to be improved thereafter. It is
applicable to a transmitter. Concrete examples will be described with reference to FIG. 1. (1a) and
(1b) are ceramic vibrators in which two ceramic vibrators are overlapped and bonded in the
direction of propagation of ultrasonic waves, which is the thickness direction. Ru. Therefore,
other structures do not pose a problem if they are the conventional transmission apparatus and
the transmission apparatus to be improved this time. Therefore, in the present embodiment, a
conventional transmission apparatus is used as an embodiment. Further, the method for fixing
the ceramic vibrators (1a) and (1b) to each other is not particularly specified. Therefore, any
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conventional method can be used as long as the vibrators can be integrated. However, the gaps
between the transducers (1a) and (1b) should be as close to zero as possible to avoid acoustical
losses therebetween. Also, the electrical connection between the vibrators does not matter in
series or parallel, but a general connection method in which load is easy to apply is used.
However, when mismatching of load impedance becomes a problem, electrical matching is made
by inserting small resistances etc. If it does, it can respond. In the present embodiment, the
number of vibrators is two, but may be three, depending on the size required for the output. The
action and effect acoustically increase the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave in the direction of
propagation by the number of the superposed transducers by weighting a plurality of the
transducers (1), whereby the output of the ultrasonic waves is vibrated. It will increase by the
increased number of children.
[0011]
The second embodiment is an embodiment of what is shown in [claim 2], and the output is
further increased with respect to that of the previous application of Japanese Patent Application
No. 8-357460, filed on Dec. 9, 1996. In order to reduce the number of ceramic vibrators (1), the
number of ceramic vibrators (1) is two. Accordingly, the weight of the heavy object (3) provided
on the back side also increases, which makes the handling of the entire apparatus inconvenient.
Therefore, the synthetic rubber outer frame (the outer frame of the weight object (3) provided on
the back surface of the ceramic vibrator (1b) according to the present invention has been
improved so as to improve handling and make handling easier. 6) is fixed by an adhesive or the
like, and the weight effect of the heavy object (3) provided on the back side is reduced by
utilizing the inertial effect of the fixing, thereby facilitating the overall handling. If a concrete
structure is shown based on Fig. 2, multiple ceramic vibrators (1a) and (1b) are provided in the
direction of emission of ultrasonic waves, and the ultrasonic waves are to be emitted on the side
(1a) A light weight diaphragm (2) made of plastic, etc. is produced as before, and the opposite
side of it is a thick disc made of a large mass of stainless steel or ceramic mass, etc. with a large
weight and large acoustic impedance. A mass (3) is provided, the outer peripheral surface of
which is directly fixed to the inside of the synthetic rubber outer frame (6). The fixed structure is
not particularly specified, but it is acoustically integrated and preferably has a structure firmly
fixed to the synthetic rubber, and the structure of the other parts is the same as that on
December 9, 1996. The operation and effect of this embodiment is a weight object provided on
the back surface by fixing the outer peripheral surface of the weight object (3) having a large
acoustic impedance provided on the back surface to the synthetic rubber outer frame (6) which is
the outer frame by adhesion. (3) was the reduction in weight, and this made it possible to
improve the handling surface considerably. Therefore, the effect is also large when the weight of
the back object (3) shown in the following embodiment is light. Also, if the ceramic vibrator acts
as a receiver for receiving the reception signal, there is a concern that the synthetic rubber outer
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frame (6) will pick up external noise and enter this in the receiver, but the problem of flooding is
a band pass filter etc. It can be removed by the use of
[0012]
The third embodiment of the present invention is shown in [3], and basically it is desired to
increase the output and to set the number of ceramic vibrators (1) to a plurality (1a) and (1b) in
the same manner as the other Although the weight of the rear object (3) is increased by the
above, the distortion is reduced as much as possible, and is shown as an example in the case of
being reduced to the limit. Specifically, as shown in Fig. 3, the thickness of the weight object (3)
provided on the back is made as thin as possible and the outer diameter of the crucible is made
as large as possible. The purpose is to use the ceramic vibrator (1) and the back object (3 ) Is
fixed integrally and its thickness is limited to 1/4 x n times the wavelength of the ultrasonic wave
from the viewpoint of avoiding the adverse effects of standing waves of ultrasonic waves, and the
weight shortage is the back object If the outer periphery of (3) is made to project into seawater
and fixed using acoustic resistance by seawater, the same effect is to be obtained. Therefore, the
larger the area of the portion of the back object (3) protruding into the seawater, the larger the
effect. The reason is that when the back object (3) is projected into the sea water and ultrasonic
waves are emitted, the ultrasonic waves are emitted from both sides of the diaphragm (2) and the
back object (3) but emitted from the transducer (1) Of the vibration caused by the discharge is in
inverse proportion to the area projected into the seawater, and the diaphragm (2) side with a
small area vibrates more strongly, and the opposite is the case with the back object (3) side.
Small and acoustically act as a resistor. The reason why the thickness of the heavy object (3) is an
integral multiple of 1⁄4 wavelength of the ultrasonic wave emission wavelength is that the
standing wave is zero or not at the boundary surface only when the thickness of the back object
(3) This is because the disturbance of the fundamental wave due to the reflection of the
ultrasonic wave at the interface is negligible. Furthermore, the reason of setting the integral
multiple of the 1⁄4 wavelength is to consider the case where it can not be made very thin
depending on the material and the strength of the back object (3).
[0013]
The detailed contents will be described in more detail. [FIG. 3] The structure of the part shown by
(1a) (1b) (2) (4) (5) (7) is the same as the first except for the number of ceramic vibrators (1) It is
almost the same as that shown in the second embodiment. Therefore, if only different parts are
described, the thickness of the back object (3) with large acoustic impedance provided on the
back surface of the ceramic vibrator (1b) is made as thin as possible and the outside diameter is
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enlarged. The thickness of the outer diameter is about 1.4 times the diameter of the synthetic
rubber outer frame (6). When the back object (3) is made of a metal material such as stainless
steel, it is necessary to electrically insulate the contact surface between the surface of the
ceramic vibrator (1) and the back object (3). Such a consideration is not necessary when it is
made of an insulating material or the like. As described above, the effect of the present invention
is not to make the total weight of the transmission apparatus as large as possible, and to keep the
output large. The present embodiment can also be applied to the case where the number of the
ceramic vibrator (1) is one.
[0014]
The fourth embodiment embodies the contents of [Claim 4], and cavitation is caused between the
seawater and the diaphragm when energy per unit area of the ultrasonic waves emitted is large,
and the ultrasonic waves are efficiently transmitted to the seawater. It is an attempt to prevent
drowning that causes it to block firing. The specific structure will be described based on [Fig. 4].
In the figures (1a, 1b) are two-layered vibrators, but may be three-layered, and (3) is a heavy
object provided on the back In the example, the structure shown in 【Example 3】 was adopted
with emphasis on ease of handling. Therefore, there is no difference in other constructions. In
short, everything that causes cavitation is covered. In addition, the structure of parts other than
the basic structure, for example, the structure of the sheet (4) of polystyrene foam and the air
chamber (5) synthetic rubber outer frame (6) electric wire cable (7) is the same as other
structures. The important parts in this embodiment are the diaphragm (2a) and the ultrasonic
wave emitting piece (2b) provided at the tip thereof. The ultrasonic wave emitting piece (2b) is
directly connected to the diaphragm (2a) and protrudes into the sea to be underwater The
structure is designed to directly emit ultrasonic waves. Specifically, a plurality of support rods
protruding into the sea from the diaphragm (2a) side may be erected and the ultrasonic wave
emitting piece (2b) may be fixed to the tip of the support using a screw or the like. In the present
embodiment, the shape of the ultrasonic wave emitting piece (2b) is simply a flat plate, but the
shape of the ridge portion is likely to be changed in the future. In addition, if the ultrasonic
projective piece (2b) is a simple flat plate and the outer diameter is the same, the contact area
with seawater is doubled as compared with the conventional diaphragm (2), so cavitation
becomes difficult to occur. However, since the ultrasonic beam (2a) is directly connected to the
vibrating plate (2a) and the weight on the vibrating plate (2a) side is heavy and the acoustic
impedance and the acoustic inertia effect are both increased, the back surface of the ceramic
vibrator (1b) The weight of the heavy object (3) to be provided in the above shall be heavy
enough to overcome it, or the area of the part protruding into the sea should be increased. The
shape of the ultrasonic beam (2b) is simply a flat in this embodiment, but can be freely set.
Therefore, when the load per unit area is large, the piece portion of the ultrasonic beam (2b) may
be double or triple. It is also possible to reduce the burden by making it a structure. Further,
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when the emission angle of the ultrasonic wave, that is, directivity, is a problem, the size and the
angle and shape of the sound emitting surface can be freely set, which can greatly contribute to
the improvement of the directivity. The ultrasonic beam (2b) and the diaphragm (2a) are made of
plastic or ceramic as light as possible, but a metal piece is also possible. In the case of a bag, the
back object (3) and the diaphragm (2a) ) The ultrasonic wave may be emitted using the
resonance phenomenon with the acoustic projectile (2b).
However, it is necessary to electrically insulate between the surface electrode of the vibrator (1a)
and the diaphragm (2a). The first effect is to eliminate cavitation, but other directivity
improvement effects are also significant.
[0015]
[Effect of the invention] The ultrasonic emitting apparatus according to the present application
succeeds in emitting powerful ultrasonic waves so far, which enables detection of a wider range
of fish schools than before, and in some cases even detection of single fish. It is to In addition, in
the underwater explorer, it is possible to more accurately determine the state of sludge and the
bottom sediment, so that it is possible to expect unconventional effects. In the present invention,
the structure in which a plurality of transducers are stacked to increase the output is sufficiently
applicable to other ultrasonic devices such as ultrasonic cleaning devices, but this time a
sounding machine and a detector It shows an example applied to etc.
[0016]
Brief description of the drawings
[0017]
1 is a central sectional view showing an example in which the ultrasonic wave emitting device
according to the present invention is applied to a conventional wave transmitting device.
[0018]
2 is a central sectional view showing an example in which the ultrasonic wave emitting apparatus
according to the present invention is applied to the improved invention filed on December 09,
1996.
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[0019]
Fig. 3 A central sectional view showing an example of the invention in which the increase in
weight and shape is suppressed as much as possible with respect to the invention to be applied
on December 9, 1996.
[0020]
4 is a central cross-sectional view showing an example of applying the prevention of occurrence
when cavitation occurs in the ultrasonic emitting device according to the present invention.
[0021]
5 is a central sectional view showing the basic structure of a conventional ultrasonic emitting
device.
[0022]
Explanation of sign
[0023]
(1) (1a) (1b) ceramic vibrator (2) (2a) vibration plate (2b) ultrasonic wave emitting piece or piece
(3) back weight object or reflector plate (4) sheet of expanded polystyrene (5) air Room (6)
Synthetic rubber outer frame (7) Electric wire cable
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