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■ Unidirectional sonar transducer O Japanese Patent Application No. 45-31877 '□ [Phase]
Application No. 45 (10'70) April 14 Priority claim [Phase] 19 ”April 14, 69 [Phase] Ameri
Country ■ s1's 63'0 [111 111] □ □ same ton el lavres ', ア メ リ カ 合衆国 United States
Michigan l publication ジ ソ ン son ビ vii 凸 convex nido 28' 1 '6' ≠ ル ス ル ス ル ス 出 願
applicant 0 2 Tonpa 9-Pollen Reich □ '' Jac y Son of the United States Midgigan 'i two, i: i ·
gasoline · anti-Dreito 2400 [with] agent patent attorney Ken Itobu' 'outside 2 people' ° ° · t □
Brief Description of the Drawings; □ '2 · Fig. 1 is a top view of a non-complete transducer device
constructed in accordance with the present invention, Fig. 2 is a cross sectional view A crosssectional view taken along the line 1-7, and the same figure 3 is a cross-sectional view taken
along the line 1 of FIG. a-n "demand"-, d'p 's 冒 ナ 冒 nana q- 2 -16 Fig. 5 is used for the nondirectional part of the cylindrical element Figure schematically shows the relationship between
the component parts of the element and the potential generated when it is in the 5No vibration
mode, Figure 7 (e) R, excitation in mode; Figure 8 shows the voltage generated by the directional
electrodes when done, Figure 8 is configured according to the present invention, and '[111 111]
block diag showing the electronic device in a deep relationship with the user ↓ 7 LkJ 1', '.
Detailed Description of the Invention The present invention is directed to a transducer by
utilizing acoustical properties. Sonar system, that is, watching! , Polar ratio, there is an acoustic
vibration ml transmitted for communication purpose, and the frequency is within the bandwidth
of the sonar related to the average power of the roster ground waveform being swarming) 11 □
generally If the signal-to-noise ratio is to be referred to in the bath as recognitiond '1fferential' ~ /
# 'J-吾 (吾 i-鴎 鴎 l) 4 吾 I, 吐 β self It is assumed to be detected at an average of 50 percent for.
Improved signal-to-nozzle ratio is derived if the selected selectivity is achieved in the form of
extreme horizontal and / or EI =, UL confidence responses, and the effectiveness of transducers
and systems Is substantially improved. □ [111111] EndPage: 1 Until now, sonar systems and
conventional transducers have failed to make effective use of the aforementioned characteristics
in transducers that are practically manufactured from both technical and economic standpoints
Aspects of the technology are presented in U.S. Pat. Nos. 24,688,373, 3,321,738, 3,277,433 and
3,290,646. Prior art transducer systems that generate a signal while simultaneously receiving a
reflected signal have limitations in terms of power output, which limits the range and accuracy of
the sonar system. Also, the cost of prior art devices makes the use of directional sonar systems
expensive, thus limiting the use of the devices. The current high search rate requirements also
require that high sensitivity and broad range detection be achieved. Higher resolutions are also
expected, and the transducer must be able to be used with a fully automated signal analyzer and
other equipment used to analyze and transmit the received signal. The sonar system and
transducer disclosed in Application No. 666 405 overcome many of the shortcomings of the
prior art systems. However, in this case also, the voltage, manufacturing costs, and characteristics
related to the orthogonal direction and omnidirectionality generated by the transducers
acoustically isolated from each other and mounted on separate piezoelectric cylinders. Are
inferior to similar ones associated with the transducer of the present invention. The basic object
of the present invention is to provide an improved transducer structure capable of producing
both perpendicular directional and omnidirectional related voltages from homogeneous
piezoelectric cylinders.
In the practice of the present invention, transducer voltages for both orthogonal directional and
omnidirectional purposes are generated within a common and integral piezoelectric cylinder.
Also, the piezoelectric element of the transducer can generate a signal and it is also possible to
receive it when it is reflected from a reflective object, such as a search target. The present
invention achieves complete transducer phasing (phasin recommendation and synthesis, thereby
directly generating a sine-cosine voltage output and eliminating the need for external circuitry).
[1111111 The transducers of the invention have a relatively wide frequency range with very
high sensitivity between 6 KC and 12 KC, and are particularly useful in the 5 cycle to 12 KC
frequency range. The homogeneous cylindrical element used in the transducer of the present
invention provides a large capacitance to the radially polarized piezoelectric element to produce
improved directional sensitivity characteristics. Compared to transducers constructed in
accordance with the disclosure of the previously listed application, the single piezoelectric
cylinder element of the present invention, on which both the orthogonal directional and
omnidirectional electrodes are mounted, is mechanically related. In addition to the low
complexity and low production cost, it has the advantage of low cost for assembling the
transducer. In addition, improved uniformity of response between omnidirectional and
directional modes is obtained. The use of a single piezoelectric cylinder reduces the space
required for a transducer utilizing the present invention, and the number of acoustical insulators
required is necessary for the transducers previously disclosed in the aforementioned application.
It will be half of what is done. The use of a single cylinder allows for optimal placement of the
ceramic material between the directional and omnidirectional electrodes, and maximum
transmission without sacrificing receive voltage sensitivity in either omnidirectional or
directional modes The system is achieved. The foregoing objects of the present invention will be
understood from the following description and the drawings. The transducer of the present
invention finds particular application in sonar systems used to detect submarines and other
underwater targets. The apparatus for transmitting and generating signals used and associated
with, and received by, the transducer may be of conventional nature. Usually, the transducer is
suspended from a floating support above the water surface, and the transducer parts are
suspended therefrom by cables.
The basic configuration of the transducer according to the invention is shown in FIG. 1, where
only-piezoelectric cylinders are employed. The transducer comprises a support member 10
having a lower flange portion 12 and a lower flange portion 14 connected to each other
[111111] EndPage: 2 by a portion 15 penetrating the piezoelectric cylinder element 16. The
remainder of the underwater transducer assembly, such as a storage compartment for batteries,
electronics and the like, is usually attached to the upper flange 14 of the support portion 10. The
piezoelectric ceramic cylinder 16 can be made of any of a variety of piezoelectric materials, such
as lead zirconate titanate. It has been found that the more PZT produced by the Flebitite
Corporation (Betford, Ohio) is particularly useful. Other materials that may be used are ADP,
lithium sulfate, or other polycrystalline materials. The piezoelectric ceramic cylindrical element
16 is mounted on the support member 10 such that an annular gap is created between the inner
cylindrical surface of the cylindrical element and the Delrin spacer sleeve 18 circumscribing the
support 15. The cylindrical piezoelectric element 16 has inner and outer cylindrical wall surfaces
20 and 22, respectively, and has an axial inner end region 24 and another axial end region 26.
For convenience of explanation, the axial area of the element is referred to as an end area, said
end area being equal to the axial dimension of the electrode set defined thereon, as described
below, from the end of the element 16 You can think of it as an extension. Two sets of electrodes
are affixed to the ceramic element 16. That is, one set constitutes an electrode for generating a
orthogonal directional voltage, and the other set of electrodes generate an omnidirectional
voltage. The electrodes are formed by silver plating specific portions of the inner and outer
surfaces of the device. There is sufficient spacing between the various electrode portions to
define the electrical isolation between the electrodes based on the dielectric properties of the
ceramic element. The position of the electrode set on the ceramic element end region 24 for
generating the orthogonal directional voltage will be best appreciated from the first, second, sixth
and seventh figures. Four silver electrodes 28 are plated 90 degrees apart on the inner surface
20 in the end area 24. These electrodes 28 have similar circumferential and axial dimensions and
are arranged diametrically opposite one another. Terminals are provided on the electrodes, and
as is apparent from FIG. 4, diametrically opposed electrodes are connected to one.
The three electrodes 30, 32 are arranged to be radially opposed with respect to the electrodes
28. And 34 are provided on the outer surface 22 of the element end region W111111124. The
electrode 30 surrounds the outer peripheral surface of the element end region surface for about
180 degrees, and is aligned with the two electrodes 28 on the radius. Electrodes 32 and 34
surround the outer wall for 90 degrees and are radially aligned with electrode 30 and nonradially aligned electrode 28. Conductors are electrically connected to the electrodes as shown.
The electrical interconnections of the electrodes are shown in FIG. Shading capacitors are
connected to the X-ray and Y-axis circuits to control the sensitivity of the transducer and to
obtain the desired directivity pattern. The tuning capacitor can be made of metallized mylar. An
omnidirectional electrode consisting of silver plated portion 38 is disposed on the inner surface
of element 16 in part of end region 26 and, in a coaxial arrangement, outer electrode 40
circumscribes outer end region 26 of element 16 . As will be appreciated from FIG. 1, the axial
dimension of the omnidirectional electrode is substantially larger than the axial dimension of the
orthogonal directional electrode. As shown, leads are connected to the inner and outer nondirectional electrodes. The wiring for the nondirectional electrodes is shown in FIG. It is desirable
that the entire cylindrical element 16 be housed within a protective support 41 such as neoprene
to protect the transducer from damage and other deleterious effects. The directional
characteristics of the cylindrical transducer element are obtained from the fact that the true
cylinder has several modes of mechanical resonance. In the case of a segmented cylinder based
on the electrode arrangement on the element 16, the output is the sum of two voltages, both of
which are the result of oscillations in the two major modes of the cylinder It is something that
occurs. When pressure waves pass through the element, radial expansion and contraction occur.
If all stress and generated voltages are in phase, the transducer is N as shown in FIG. It vibrates
at The above-mentioned vibration modes are such as causing the cylinder to expand and contract
radially, wherein the diameter of the cylinder increases and decreases throughout its
configuration. Of course, the aforementioned dimensional changes are very slight, but the
sensitive properties of the piezoelectric cylinder produce a voltage that can be both felt and
exploited. [111111 EndPage: 3 If not suppressed, the cylinder will resonate at the same time in 9
modes. The mode of vibration is lined up in a row to be in contact with the impulse surface of the
sound wave perpendicular to the child source. In the meanwhile, for n = 1, it will be cylindrical
(or vibrate like a dipole and 7th back), basically it will use a cosine directivity pattern.
The transducer has many resonant modes which satisfy the frequency relationship of interest.
That is, where fR-resonant frequency-cylinder diameter C = speed of sound in material n =
vibration mode. For n1 mode 1. As the semi-cylindrical tray expands and contracts, the cylinder
expands and its four potentials become as shown in FIG. であろう。 When the cylinder is
stressed in n1 mode, the upper half of the upper receives radial stress, while the lower half
receives stress in the opposite radial direction. At the midpoint of the two halves tangential stress
is at a maximum, while the radial component is zero. Since the cylindrical element 16 is sensitive
only to radial stress, the opposing force shown in FIG. 7 is m. The pressure gradient is a factor
that induces the n1 □ mode while the mode is generated. The pressure gradient of an acoustic
wave is 90 degrees out of phase with the absolute pressure of the acoustic wave. Therefore, the
voltages 1tj S generated by the n and l modes are 90 degrees out of phase with the voltages
generated by the stress of the n □ mode. The output 畔, n □ and nl of the transformer, sense
element 16, is the sum of the voltages. Separate the two voltages-"2! 17) The output of the
alternative must be subtracted. The voltage generated in the mode n.quadrature. is equal in
amplitude and phase to X.sub.47. Therefore, there will be no difference or output due to
oscillations in this particular mode. -To produce improved sensitivity and transmission
characteristics. As preferred X,) constructions of transducers utilizing the inventive concept, an
odd number of circles; cylindrical elements Tf-1, 6 are employed. This configuration is shown in
FIG. In FIG. 8 there is shown a number of stacking elements 16 supported between the flange
support members 1z and rl 111 111 14 ', the embodiment of the support arrangement of FIG. 8
being similar to that of FIG. is there. The elements 16 are separated at their adjacent ends by
suitable acoustic insulation. The insulating means may be such as Delrin spacer 42 sandwiched
between synthetic cork sandwiches (gold) 440 to provide the desired cushion and seal. The
elements of the arrangement of FIG. 8 are electrically interconnected as shown in FIG. As shown,
the orthogonal directional electrodes 28 to 34 are connected in parallel via the adjustment
camber 3C, and the nondirectional electrodes 38 and 40 are connected in parallel. By using four
similarly isolated electrodes 28 in the orthogonally directed electrode set, the voltage outputs as
described above are combined to generate a sine / cosine pattern that is spatially orthogonal to
one another Can form two separate channels.
By utilizing radial polarization, a significant increase in the capacity and sensitivity of the
cylindrical piezoelectric element is realized. By poling through the thickness of the cylindrical
wall, the risk of damaging the device is minimized, while achieving a uniform potential gradient
during poling. By using thin-walled devices, the present invention can achieve large capacitance
values, and electrical uniformity employs expensive manufacturing techniques. -Easily
maintained without incident. FIG. 10 is a block diagram showing the interrelationship between
the transducer and the parts directly associated with it. The T / R relay receives the desired
address-k-n combination from the ground device and keeps it in a transmitting state. The signal
passes through the T / R 1 j-ray where it is amplified and applied to the dead end of the
transducer via the other T / R 1, 1-ray. The water surrounding the transducer is made
acoustically launched by the sonar flea. When the sound wave radar from the search transmitter
leaves, the T / R ss-ray returns to its receiving mode. The incoming signal is sensed by the trispeaker in three different ways. The output levels and relative polarities of each of the three
transducer sections are related to the direction in which the acoustic signal arrives. Since the
human pressure fluid has the same relative phase for all three parts, the relationship of the
output depends on the characteristics of the transducer [1111111 EndPage: 4]. An acoustic
reception pattern is illustrated at the lower transducer of FIG. One is omnidirectional and is
conveniently labeled with a six thousand "code to indicate the relative position at the instant
when the received pressure is at a positive peak value. Others are sine-cosine dipole-patterns,
which have power level characteristics that vary with orientation. As the orientation changes, the
output signal phase alternates from in-phase "ten" to phase operation 6- ", with a corresponding
decrease in output, passing through zero, and increasing again. Omnidirectional output j with a
constant level and phase regardless of the orientation j main, the amplitude of the two
orientation sensing signals can be divided into °° C), which operates on the principle of 眸
magnetic core saturation Use a common core with toroidal windings to obtain better uniformity
between the reactors. It allows direct transmission of the output signal, and changes in the
inventive concept can be made as it is necessary to convert the output frequency to Conserve
multiplexing signal bandwidth, which is a gateway to the person skilled in the art. And the
invention is limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
The embodiment of the present invention is as follows.
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jps491223, description
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