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FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a converter for detecting an air-borne
shock wave in a device for obtaining information about the trajectory of an ultrasonic wave
vehicle passing through a predetermined area. In this case, the device comprises a converter
arranged near the predetermined area and means for calculating information about the trajectory
of the passing projectile from the signals generated by the converter. (Prior Art) A method has
been proposed for determining the position of a trajectory using a device for detecting an 11i
striking wave generated by a bullet or projectile flying at a velocity faster than the air velocity
using a converter or the like. Such projectiles are called ultrasound projectiles. U.S. Pat. No.
3,778.059 describes such a method, in which two metal rods are placed near the ground and one
side end of the target, respectively, and the sound is applied to the end of the rod. A converter is
attached. When a projectile is launched at a target, shockwaves generated by the projectile strike
the rod and the sound waves generated by the rod are transmitted to the transducer and then
converted to electrical signals. The resulting signal is provided to a timed calculator which
calculates the trajectory position of the projectile and displays the position at which the projectile
strikes the target on a device such as a cathode ray tube. A further conventional method is
described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,925,582, in which four converters are arranged around the target
area, and four conversions in which the projectile is launched at the target The signals obtained
by the instrument are supplied to a suitable computing display which calculates and displays the
position of the projectile. The opening calculator determines the duration of the shockwaves
detected by each transducer as the duration of the shockwaves increases as the distance from the
shockwave origin increases. A signal representing the duration of the shockwave controls the
beam scanning circuit of the display. This conventional arrangement has the disadvantage that at
least three of the diverters are exposed to national fire and damaged. Furthermore, the accuracy
obtained by the method described in this patent is not very high. It can be understood from the
above example that, in the above-mentioned conventional method, a converter is generally used
to detect a shock wave present in a rigid target or a shock wave transmitted by air generated by
a projectile such as a projectile. However, all conventional methods have the disadvantage that
the converter does not accurately indicate the exact position of the projectile or that the
converter is damaged by the projectile it hits. A further disadvantage of the conventional method
is that it must provide a rigid target so that the shockwaves can be transferred to a sufficiently
rigid target on a regular basis.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is to provide an improved target shooting
range in which the above-mentioned drawbacks are eliminated or reduced. The invention relates
to a device of the kind described above, characterized in that the device has at least three
converters arranged near the end of the predetermined rA zone, Means for generating an output
signal in response to an air-borne shock wave generated by the ultrasonic generator and incident
on the converter, and means for measuring the time delay between the output signals generated
by each converter; Means are provided for calculating the passing position of the projectile from
the time delay. In this context, the term "converter" means a device in which the output signal is
obtained by the detection of shock waves generated by the ultrasound projectile. According to
another feature of the invention, a converter is provided for detecting an air-borne shock wave,
which converter has a dome (hemispherical) member which is rigid, has a force, and is exposed
to the shock wave. Have a convex surface. The dome member is configured to transmit a shock
wave to an element coupled to the bottom surface of the dome with an element generating an
output signal in response to the 1111 M wave. The present invention will be described in detail
by way of examples with reference to the accompanying drawings so that the present invention
can be more easily understood and other features can be understood. Referring to FIG. 1 of the
accompanying drawings, the shooting range of the present invention has a plurality of shooting
points 1 occupied by a training shooter 2 and a corresponding number of targets 3 shot by the
same shooter. Although the targets are illustrated in a single bank, multiple banks of targets may
be spaced apart in the direction of increasing distance from the firing point. At the front of the
target is placed a fill 4 or other protective device, and at the back of the fill 4, i.e. outside the
sight of the training shooter, at least three spaced transducers 5 are placed. These transducers
are spaced apart and arranged near the lower end of the target and are configured to detect the
WJ strikes generated by the projectiles fired at the target. A long array of transducers may be
provided in front of all targets, or different groupings of transducers may be provided for each
target. The converter will be described in detail later. The switch 5 is connected via an
appropriate landline 6 to a computer 7 or similar computing device housed in a control 21 room
8 used by the shooting range manager. The computer calculates the position of each bullet fired
to each target 3 when the shockwave generated by the bullet is detected by the converter, the
position of each bullet is set to the visual display unit of control sol and each shooting point 1
(Displayed on the displayed visual display unit 1o.
In this way, the training shooter can know where each bullet hits the target. When an onlooker
11 is present, a large visual display 12 is connected to the computer 7 so that the onlooker 11
can see the progress of the shooting. In addition, or as an alternative, the display unit is provided
with a printing device or a punching device, which is operated by the computer 7 so as to print
the position where each bullet hits the target 3 or to punch and output on paper. May be It is
understood that with this type of device it is not necessary to use a rigid target. The only
condition of the target is that the target can look at the training shooter and give a target point.
In this way it is not necessary to door the practitioner to repair the target or to indicate the
position at which the individual bullets hit the target. It is also understood that the switch 5 is
placed behind the bank 4 so that the only possibility that the switch will receive as a result of
shooting is the result of a bouncing bullet, and such bouncing bullets are very rare . The
probability of the converter being damaged is very low. As will be described later, with this type
of device, it is possible to increase the accuracy, and in the case of a target area of 183 cm О
183 cm, it is possible to calculate the position of the bullet that hits the target with an accuracy
of 0.635 cm or more. it can. Further, this accuracy can be improved by using appropriate means.
Since the present invention has been schematically described above, it will be described in detail
next. In a relatively simple embodiment of the present invention, the shock waves generated by
the ultrasound projectile extend in a direction perpendicular to the trajectory of the projectile,
with multiple detectors in a single plane perpendicular to the trajectory detecting each from the
trajectory It is assumed that the shock wave is detected each time according to the distance of
the sensor. In this type of embodiment, as illustrated in FIG. 2, at least four transducers T 1, T 2,
T 3, T 3 are arranged on a horizontal line extending from left to right. Converter T. The distances
from T.sub.1 to T.sub.1, T.sub.2 and T.sub.3 are respectively .times.1, .times. A bullet is a switch
T. Assuming that the general point on the coordinate with origin as x, y) is passed, the converter
T from the point (X, 'l /). , T1, T2 and T3 are 1 o 111.12.13 respectively. It is assumed that the
trajectory of the projectile is perpendicular to the vertical plane containing the converter and that
the converter receives shock waves from the projectile with a time delay which varies
sequentially and according to the precise trajectory of the projectile. From the signals generated
by the converter, the signals t 1, t 2, t 3 are calculated. Here, t1 is a time delay between the ViJ
bombardment reception by the converter T1, To.
Converter T. This value is negative if shock waves are received before T1. 1, 13 are
corresponding time delays for the converters T2, T3. Therefore tl-(j! 1-1 ░) / V, (A1> t2 = (12-1
o) / ? (A2) A mouth -1! ??? ??????????????? The symbol V is the velocity of
the shockwave perpendicular to the trajectory of the projectile. cXJ to C + ++ II II 111-1 '-u "-1 1
1 ^ N ,. As noted above, the apparatus of the present invention has a plurality of transducers
located under the target that the training shooter shoots. Consider an embodiment in which at
least three converters are equally spaced on a horizontal line. The converter 15.16 is
schematically shown in FIG. Each transducer generates a signal when a shock wave generated by
the projectile is detected, which signal is applied to a timing device that calculates the time delay
between the detection of the shockwave by the first transducer and the detection by the last
transducer. . Referring to FIG. 3, it will be appreciated that the trajectory of the projectile is on
the central vertical line t00 when a shockwave is simultaneously detected by the transducer
15.16. However, it is understood that the trajectory of the projectile is somewhere on the
hyperbola to1 if the transducer 16 receives a shockwave prior to 15 in a unit time when the
difference in detection of the shockwave is one unit of time. It is likewise understood that if the
shockwave is detected in the converter 15 one unit time before the converter 16, the trajectory
of the projectile must be on the hyperbola t10. Accordingly, a series of hyperbolic coordinates
are generated, and similar hyperbolic coordinates are formed by the combination of converters
16.17 and by the combination of converters 15.17. In the preferred embodiment of the water
source constructed based on this mathematical analysis, as shown in FIG. 4, five converters 1822 mounted in a row at spaced locations below the target area. Is used. Typical converters used
are described below. The output of each converter is fed to amplifiers 23-27 and amplified.
Representative amplifiers will be described later. Each amplifier is connected to each of the
converters 18-22. The counters 28-31 are connected to the amplifiers 23, 24.26. 27 respectively.
A logic controller 32 is connected to the output of the amplifier 25 and is connected to provide a
signal to each counter 28-31 when a signal is present at the output of the amplifier 25.
Each counter is a 74191 type counter sold by Tetigus Instruments. Each counter is connected as
follows. That is, when the counter first receives a signal from each amplifier, the counter starts
counting at a predetermined rate in the negative direction, and the counting continues until the
controller 32 receives a signal from the amplifier 25, at which time the counter stops To do.
Alternatively, when the counter first receives a signal from the controller 32, the counter counts
in a positive direction at a predetermined rate until it receives a signal from the associated
amplifier. Thus, when a bullet or other ultrasound projectile passes converters 18-22, the @
bombarding wave is detected by the converters in turn, and counters 28-31 are each converted
with converters 18.19.21. 22 and store a count representing the time difference between when
the shock wave is detected by the converter 20. The computer 7 is connected to the output of the
counter and is programmed to store the count in its memory formation. The computer 7
subsequently scans the stored time delays and calculates the time delays between each adjacent
pair of converters. The computer then scans the calculated time delay and selects four adjacent
converter groups that have the smallest time delay. The computer is one. 1. A measured value of
1 and x1. ??? The position of the bullet trajectory is calculated by substituting the measured
value of X3 into the above equation. The measurement of the distance between the converters is
stored permanently in the memory of the computer. The computer calculates the position of the
bullet, which is displayed on a suitable display 33 or printed by a printer or used in other ways.
In the simple embodiment of the invention which is now described, it can be considered that the
computer 7 is calculating the bullet trajectory position by determining the hyperbolic
coordinates of the trajectory. For accurate results, use four, preferably five) converters or use the
information from each converter to assist in the calculation of orbital position. Or you need to
give the computer information about the speed of the projectile and the speed of sound of the air.
Thus, under certain circumstances it may be sufficient to use only three converters. For example,
if a certain amount of inaccuracies are acceptable, and / or if a consistent charge is used and the
computer or other computing device can be suitably programmed, or given appropriate input
information. . If four converters are used, there is a vertical error area extending above the
If a bullet is fired into this particular error area, the computer will miscalculate the position of the
bullet and the probability of the error being 1 to 2 m increases. Thus, even if four transducers are
used and the target is placed against the transducers so that the error area does not fall on the
target area, if the 811 driller misses the target and the bullet passes the error area The computer
miscalculates the position of the bullet and indicates that the bullet was actually hit even though
it did not hit the target. In fact, this error area is located symmetrically between the two
converters, so that when the projectile passes through this error area, the two converters have
symmetrical arrangement of the error areas with respect to it. The shock wave is detected at the
same time. With this fact in mind, the computer can be programmed to identify the situation in
which the projectile has passed the error area, ie the two converters in question can identify the
situation in which the shock waves are simultaneously received, and appropriate display or
printing You can get it. Thus, if the error area is not on the target area, the computer should
indicate that the bullet was "out" or indicate that the bullet has passed the error area. In any case,
bullets passing in the error area are ignored and not recorded as "hits". Because the presence of
the error areas mentioned above is disadvantageous, it is preferred to use at least 5 converters as
illustrated in FIG. When using such an arrangement, there are 5 different virtual groups
consisting of 4 converters selected from 5 converters. The computer 7 stores a signal
representing the reception of the shock waves by each transducer 5 and is programmed to
calculate the position of the projectile by using one main group of four transducers. However,
when the computer initially selects the four groups of converters, the computer determines
whether the projectile or projectile has passed the error area of the particular group of the four
converters. If yes, the computer negates the group, selects the other four from the five
converters, and repeats the calculation. Of course, in such a case, the calculation can be repeated
using each of the remaining four of the five rotation groups to further reduce the error by taking
an average value. When using this type of five converter arrangements, considerable accuracy
can be obtained for the large square area located directly above the converter train.
The only i band whose accuracy can not be guaranteed is the ll11 l I wresting area of the square
area on the converter. When it is desired to eliminate the errors that occur when the projectile
passes this region, each transducer is selected or adjusted to detect shock waves from the
projectile only within that predetermined distance. This predetermined distance is chosen in such
a way that bullets entering the error area are not detected by all the converters. If the shockwave
generated by the projectile is not detected by all the converters, the projectile position is not
calculated. Alternatively, the computer is programmed to detect when the bullet passes in the
error area and generate an appropriate output. It is based on the fact that if the projectile enters
this error area, the extra @ at the time of reception of the shockwave by each converter has a
discernable pattern. In other embodiments where the present invention is used in a shooting
range with a large number of targets, a long, in-line converter can be provided. In this case, the
transducers are located below the target, and whenever a projectile is launched into the target,
the shockwaves generated by the projectile are detected at the same time by the first one or two
transducers almost simultaneously. Initially, a group of four or five converters, including the first
converter, is selected by the computer according to which converter has detected a shockwave.
The time at which the impact wave is detected by these converters is used as the basis for the
calculation. Placing the converter in a straight horizontal line has shown that some error areas
appear, but as illustrated in FIG. 5, the converter is in the upper horizontal row 35.36
and the lower horizontal row 37.38. These error areas can be reduced or eliminated by arranging
the lower converters in a staggered fashion relative to the upper ones. In this case, the array of
converters is rWJ-shaped. When placed in this way, the hyperbolic coordinates formed by the
converter are not at right angles. The points intersect at an angle according to the angle of
incidence of the arm of "W", and the accuracy is high. Some of these hyperbolic coordinates are
illustrated. Of course, in addition to the intersecting hyperbolic coordinates as shown, the three
converters 34, 35, 36 in the upper row can also be used in exactly the same way as the three
converters illustrated in FIG. Form a number of hyperbola. In the practice of the present
invention, only three flat disks of piezoelectric material can be used as converters. Such a
converter is arranged in the horizontal position as illustrated in FIG.
There are various disadvantages with the converter. When a projectile 40 is fired to the right of
the converter, the shockwave 41 strikes the end or corner of the converter 39 and the converter
is compressed in both horizontal and vertical directions. The resulting output has a waveform as
shown in FIG. 7 and takes the form of a negative going sine wave 42 with a small positive "ridge"
43 at its leading end. I want to measure the time T shown in the waveform, but the width of the
"bump" 43 is related to the exact position of the bullet, so it is difficult to distinguish it from the
background noise, and it may be absent. It is difficult to detect. Information on the position of the
converter is entered into the computer, this information being at one exact position of the center
44 of the converter, the computer performs all calculations assuming that the converter is at this
particular position, and The output signal of the generator indicates the moment when the shock
wave reaches this particular position. However, as soon as a shock wave strikes the converter,
the converter produces an output with a predetermined response time. When the projectile 45
passes vertically above the three converters, the shockwave is directly incident on the top of the
converter and produces a proper output signal. Thus, the trajectory of the projectile 40 fired to
the right of the switch is a greater distance from point 44 than the trajectory of the projectile 45
passing directly above the converter. However, the distance between the trajectories of bullets
40.45 is equal to the distance, and the converter produces an output as soon as the shock wave
is incident on the converter, so the time for the projectile to pass and the time for the output
signal are equal . The output of the converter therefore indicates that the trajectory of the bullet
40.45 is at an equal distance from point 44. But this is not correct. That is, a slight timing error
occurs, and the trajectory of the projectile passing the right of the converter is calculated by the
computer so as to be closer to the point 44 than the reality. This drawback can be eliminated if
the converter is shaped as a vertical disc as shown in FIG. 8 and its plane is oriented
vertically to the training shooter. it can. When the bullet 5o passes through the disks and a shock
wave is generated, the shock waves are always incident on the periphery of each disk, and the
incident points of the shock waves on the disks are at equal distances from the center of the
disks. In this way, a constant timing error is introduced into each signal generated by each
converter, but this error can be offset since it is only the time difference used to base the
calculation. However, pointing the disc to the vertical position does not solve the problem of the
positive ridge 43 appearing at the beginning of the output signal 42, so in the present invention
it is preferred to provide each converter with a dome of rigid material whose convex surface is
exposed to shock waves. preferable.
In this case, the flat bottom of the dome is in intimate contact with the converter material,
transferring the shockwave from the atmosphere to the converter. If a hemispherical dome is
used and the axis of the dome points to vertical information in front of the target, is facing the
training shooter, or is in the direction between these two localized directions, then the shot
emitted at the target The shock waves generated by the body always strike the periphery of the
hemispherical dome in the tangential direction, and the shock waves pass radially through the
dome and are transmitted directly to the center of the converter. In this case, a constant timing
error appears, but this error is equal to the time it takes for the VrJ strike wave to reach its
center from the periphery of the hemispherical dome, and as described above, this error is not
important. The hemispherical dome serves to prevent or minimize the generation of the first
positive ridge 43 of the waveform generated by the converter, the output of the converter
becoming more like a sinusoidal waveform. However, because it is important to measure the
onset of this sinusoidal waveform very accurately, the response does not have to be large, but it
is preferable to use a very fast converter. Comparing the g5 response time of a series of
piezoelectric disks of different sizes, it has been found that the response time is a function of the
diameter of the disk, the smaller the disk the faster the response time. However, it was found that
all disks of 5 m or less had almost equal response times. For this reason, it is preferable to use a
5M diameter disc as it has the largest output signal acquisition width and the fastest response
time. The output of the converter provided with a disc of this size has a frequency greater than
that of possible noises and frequencies of II rich, and such noise can be eliminated, so a disc of
the above dimensions is preferred. However, a disk with a small diameter is also preferable
because it improves the accuracy. Referring to FIGS. 9 and 10, the preferred converter used in
the present invention comprises a converter element consisting of a disc 51 of piezoelectric
material such as, for example, zirconate titanate. The thickness of the disc 51 is 1 # and the
diameter is 5 mm. The facing flat surfaces of the disc 51 are provided with a coating of a
conductive material such as silver which is deposited in a conventional manner, for example
vacuum deposition. For example, two conductive lines 53 ░ 54 such as copper or gold are
respectively connected to the center of the lower surface and the periphery of the upper surface
of the disc by welding or acoustic bonding. The disc 52 is then rigidly attached to a housing
having a cylindrical member 55 with a 5M diameter 'fI 56 at one end face. The groove 56 has a
depth of 1.5 M, and is connected to the shaft hole 57 extending to the member 55 to receive the
line 53 provided on the lower surface of the piezoelectric member.
A second hole 58 is formed in the periphery of the member 550 parallel to the hole 57, which
receives the line 54 and terminates in an inter / adjacent groove 59 adjacent to the groove 56.
The member 55 is formed of a phenolic resin adhesive fiber, Trannol (Tufnol>), which can be
cylindrically shaped. The housing can be composed of two parts consisting of phenolic resin as
sold under the trade mark "araldite", but usually the housing is made by processing ("" the said
material. The resin is held in the cylindrical aluminum case 6O and is processed. With such
means, the aluminum case 60 can be grounded to provide a faraday cage which minimizes noise.
The piezoelectric material and the wire are bonded to the member 55 using an adhesive such as
araldite or cyanoacrylic impact adhesive. A small hole 61.62 is formed in the lower surface of
member 55 and a conductive bin 62.63 is attached to this hole. Line 53.54 projects from the
lower end of hole 57.58 and is welded to the bin. An adhesive or other suitable setting member is
used to hold all the elements in place and to secure the rigid hemispherical dome 65 to the
switch. The dome may be fabricated from aluminum or molded from a resin such as that sold
under the trademark "araldite". The dome 65 has an outer diameter of 8 feet, which is equal to
the diameter of the housing. A centrally located bottom projection 66 contacts the piezoelectric
element 51 and has the same diameter as the disc 51. Alternatively, the dome and member 55
may be molded from one single piece. The bin 63.64 projecting from the bottom of the holder is
connected to the coaxial cable and the whole connection is encapsulated in soft rubber. The
coaxial cable may be short (i.e. up to 1 m long) and connected to a suitable amplifier which
amplifies the output signal generated by the converter. In another embodiment of the invention,
the bin provided in the holder is directly connected to the printed circuit board to which the
amplifier is attached. The printed circuit board is potted to the bottom of the housing. A housing
coupled with an associated converter is mounted in front of the target as outlined above. The
housing and the cable exiting the housing are a support or other rigid structure that may receive
shock waves detected by the converter before the vfJ strike is received by the hemispherical
dome provided at the top of the converter It is important to be acoustically decoupled from the
object. Thus, it is important to acoustically decouple the converter from such a framework when
the converter is attached to a rigid horizontal framework.
The converter may be mounted on a block of a suitable acoustic decoupling medium such as an
expanded polymer foam or a combination thereof with a metal plate. The most preferred material
is closed cell foam polyethylene, which is sold under the tradename Plastizote j by Bakelitexy +
on; Of course, other acoustic decoupling materials such as fiberglass cloth and mineral hair may
also be used. The converter creates a block 67 of acoustic coupling medium as shown in FIG. 11,
forms a hole or recess 68 sized to receive the converter and holder inside the block, and inserts
the housing into this recess You may attach it by doing. The entire block is clamped by clamp 69
to a suitable framework or support 70 in a conventional manner. These are illustrated
schematically. When placing the transducers relative to the target, information regarding the
exact location of each transducer must be provided to the computer along with information
regarding the location of each target relative to the transducer. Carefully measure the correct
distance and provide the converter with the correct information. Alternatively, other methods
may be used to provide the information to the computer. For example, instead of measuring the
distance between the transducers using a ruler or the like, a metal rod is placed in contact with
each transducer, ultrasonic pulses are propagated along the metal rod, and the pulses in each
transducer are The time of arrival may be measured and recorded by a computer. Since the
velocity of the ultrasonic pulse traveling on the metal rod is input to the computer, the computer
can calculate the exact position of each transducer with high accuracy. It can be appreciated that
the position of the projectile relative to the converter is measured when the projectile is launched
at the target. This position is optionally displayed by the computer. It is important to provide the
computer with accurate information of the target position for the converter in this way. As
mentioned above, the amplitude of the shockwave generated by each transducer is related to the
velocity of the projectile, the nature of the projectile, the distance between the projectile and the
converter, and many other variables. From this signal an accurate signal has to be determined for
operating the means for measuring when a shock wave is detected by the converter, for which
purpose it is preferable to convert the analog signal generated by the converter into a digital
signal . The signal is thus applied to an amplifier whose leading end generates an early digital
This amplifier is triggered by shockwaves but not by noise. A preferred amplifier 71 is illustrated
in FIG. The signal is fed along the coaxial cable 72 to the amplifier and the two cores of the
coaxial cable are fed to the input of the differential amplifier 73 via various biasing resistors. The
output of differential amplifier 73 is AC coupled to trigger threshold compare circuit 74 where
the signal is compared to a predetermined reference signal to prevent the entire device from
being triggered by noise other than shockwaves. The trigger threshold comparison circuit 74 is
configured to be able to adjust the sensitivity of the device. The output of the comparison circuit
is amplified using a linear amplifier arrangement 75, 76, 77, and the amplified signal is output to
the output cuff 8. The reference numerals of the elements shown in FIG. 12 indicate the elements
used in the preferred embodiment of the present invention. These elements are elements of
military quality obtained by Texas Instruments. The output of the amplifier can be considered as
a digital signal. As already mentioned, the above-mentioned mathematical analysis is based on
the assumption that the shock waves generated by the ultrasound projectile extend
perpendicularly to the trajectory of the projectile, and the embodiment of the invention based on
that analysis is satisfactory It has been proved to be something to be done. Accuracy can not be
improved beyond certain limits. Every time a bullet is fired from a rifle-like gun, an ultrasonic
bullet produces an 'ff J firing wave, and each shockwave then spreads spherically at a constant
velocity. FIG. 13 shows the trajectory of the projectile, and shows the position occupied by the
projectile at times 1 to I4. The figure also shows the spherical shockwaves generated by the
bullet at these moments. All of the shockwaves are shown at time I4. The diameter of the
shockwave at the position occupied by the bullet at time I4 is O, and the diameter of the
shockwave generated by the bullet at time 11 is large. It is also understood from FIG. 13 that the
envelope of the sphere generally forms a conical shockwave. Since a shock wave is generated
each moment, such a conical envelope is generated. FIG. 14 shows a bullet or other projectile
approaching the target, and the mS wave generated when the bullet is in position A detected by
sensor C. The projectile strikes the target of the point. You can think about the situation by
mathematical methods. Ie first time T. Let us assume that the projectile is at some point P on the
orbit, and let the sensor drop a perpendicular to this orbit. This perpendicular ends at the point
of the orbit. The shockwave generated when the projectile is at point A of the orbit is detected by
the converter C.
The bullet travels along the trajectory PADB and finally hits the target eight. It is necessary to
determine the coordinates of the point B of the target plane with respect to the origin of the
coordinate system O. P indicates the position of the bullet when the timing period starts. The
shockwave that triggers the converter of C is from the point ? of the projectile trajectory. P is a
point on the orbit such that CD is perpendicular to AD. It is assumed that the projectile trajectory
is straight at (relatively short) distance 1 t lPB. The king is a unit vector in the orbital direction.
Due to the nature of the shock wave from the ultrasonic wave generator, it becomes nb. Sound
velocity is the speed of the bullet. The time for the shockwave to reach the converter at C is given
by the time for the t-bullet to reach from A to A plus the time for the shockwave to reach from A
to C. Starting from this mathematical concept, it is possible to find vector equations with various
vector parameters and t. Similar formulas apply for each converter of the converter arrangement.
Knowing the time t for each converter, it is possible to solve the equation as a set of simultaneous
equations. In the example, each equation contains 5 unknowns, and 5 equations need to be
solved simultaneously. The equations are solved iteratively. I will explain the shooting range
based on such mathematical methods. FIG. 15 illustrates the arrangement of the firing field
diverter 79 having a plurality of lanes 8 ░ and a plurality of target banks 81. The converter 9 of
each target bank 81 is connected to a timing unit (which will be described later), and the output
of each timing unit is supplied to a buffer 83. Referring to FIG. 15, three banks of targets 81 are
illustrated so that signals from the translator are applied to the three timing devices @ 82, and
hence the three buffers. The buffer is sequentially examined by the computer, and if any
information is available at the output of buffer 83, the information is transferred to computer 7
and the buffer is then cleared. Each target bank is provided with a long, aligned translator located
in front of each target. There is no specific converter group in front of each individual target.
When using devices where the information from each bank's converters is stored in a buffer and
then the buffer is examined by a computer, each converter is required to be fired at the shooting
field as it does not need to be individually connected to the computer It should be understood
that the amount of wiring required is minimized. Referring to FIG. 16, each timing device 82 has
a tri-state latch 84, each latch connected to the output of the amplifier 71 associated with the
respective converter.
Each latch 84 is a latch sold by Texas Instruments under the reference numeral 74363. Each of
the three state latches 84 is connected to the output of a 24 bit clock signal generator 85, which
in turn generates the accurate time signal. A new signal is created every 10 nanoseconds. The
connection is as follows. That is, when a digital signal is applied from the amplifier 71 associated
with the converter to the latch 84, the latch records the 24-bit clock signal appearing at the
output of this moment 24 pi to the clock signal generator 85. The digital signal from amplifier 71
is also simultaneously marked 1] D to controller 86, thereby causing latch 841. : The recorded
signal is transferred to the buffer 83 together with the persistent storage signal of the persistent
storage 87 associated with the latch. The signal stored in persistent storage 87 is a signal
representative of the converter associated with this particular latch 84. Buffer 83 serves to
temporarily store information in a "first in first out" type of device. The information stored in
buffer 83 comprises the signals temporarily stored in latch 84 and the signals permanently
stored in persistent storage 87 associated therewith. -Once this information is input to the buffer
83, another signal is sent to the latch 84, the latch is cleared and the converter is also! ???
When receiving the lli wave, the other signal from the clock signal generator 85 is prepared to be
stored. In this way, the buffer 83 stores a large number of different pieces of information, each
piece of information representing a particular converter and this converter! ! It contains a signal
representing the time at which the ill wave was received. Of course, when two successive
shockwaves are detected by the same transducer, two signals are temporarily stored in the
buffer. These signals indicate that the transducers are the same, but also indicate that the
transducers have different times of receiving shock waves. When the signal stored in the buffer is
obtained at the output of the buffer 83, the signal is sent to the computer 7. Subsequently, the
computer 7 examines each buffer and receives information from the buffer 83 whose
information appears at the output. The information from the buffer 83 is provided to a first mini
computer 88 and also to a memory 89 located in the computer system. These elements and other
elements in the computer system are commonly connected to a bus 90. This bus bar is illustrated
in FIG. The device works in real time.
That is, time is not shared by the various elements, and the elements operate independently of
one another and operate simultaneously. The mini computer 88 is a Texas Instruments TMS9900
computer associated with a local memory consisting of Intel 2102 memory, which scans the data
initially received from the buffer, and various times the transducer has received a shock wave
with predetermined values. Compare. By initially doing this comparison, various received signal
"groups" are identified. Each received signal group is a value within a predetermined reference
value, and is a signal obtained from a single projectile. For example, when a projectile passes a
converter, the WJ bombardment wave generated by the projectile is five to six converters of the
long train of converters placed under the target from which the projectile is launched. Is detected
by All converters detect the wJ bombardment in a relatively short time, and the signals detected
by the converters can be easily distinguished from one another because the signals obtained by
the converters are much slower in time than the signals obtained from the following projectiles .
As mentioned above, the mini computer 88 selects the same reception signal group and supplies
these signals to the computer 91, ie, the programmed read out memory (PROM) preprogrammed
according to the purpose. The PROM operates as an arithmetic unit that performs predetermined
arithmetic operations on input data and generates an output signal representing the trajectory
position of the projectile. It is understood that the program of such a device is unique in the
sense that the hardware of the device is required and no software program is required. In this
way such a method is feasible since the device operates at a very high speed and the unit only
has to perform one arithmetic function. However, if the programmed computer can operate at a
considerable speed, such a computer can be used. When the eight arithmetic units calculate the
orbital position, this information is supplied to the memory 89 and from there to the visual
display unit @ 92. The visual display 92 includes means for generating a signal that indicates the
target when applied to the cathode ray tube. Referring to FIG. 18, a preferred means for
generating such a signal is illustrated, which comprises a closed circuit television camera 94
associated with means 95 for projecting the image of the photographic slide 96 onto the camera.
Camera 94 operates in a conventional manner to generate a video signal representative of the
image of slide 96. The slide 96 also has various marks and lines forming the X, Y axes, and the
position of the target with respect to these axes is known.
A portion of the video signal from the camera is provided to two separate detectors 97.98. These
detectors 97.98 detect the camera position of the beam scanning the target at any time and are
also connected to the eraser 9 to erase the video signal portion for the marks forming the axis.
Thus, the output of the video signal on line 100 includes only the portion of the video signal
generated by the camera 94, ie, only the signal representing the target image. The signals
generated by the X and Y detectors are also supplied to another comparator 101, which receives
information from the computer 7 including the exact position of each projectile detected by the
device. . The comparator 101 is the position of the projectile and X. Compare with the signal of
the Y detector and when the signal corresponds, ie when the beam of the camera 94 is directed
to the image @ which is projected onto the camera 94 corresponding to the target area of the
shooting range hit by the projectile, The comparator generates an output signal which is supplied
to the exclusive OR gate 102. The output of the erase circuit 99 is supplied to the cathode ray
tube 103 through the exclusive OR gate 102. The cathode ray tube displays the target image
obtained from the slide 96 by means of the camera 94, and also on that image an area
representing the point of the impact target of the projectile or projectile fired at the shooting
field opposite the color of the image. It is displayed. Of course, in this case, the projectile or
projectile will hit the position of the target estimated by the computer based on the information
from the converter. One visual display unit 92 is provided for the shooting range control device.
This controller can select any target as a target of interest from among the many targets of 9A
firing field. The visual display unit displays this particular target and the position at which the
projectile launched to the target hits or penetrates the target. A plurality of such visual display
units are sequenced for a plurality of firing range control devices. As mentioned at the beginning
of this description, individual display units are provided for each training shooter so that the
shooter can see immediately where each bullet passes. In the shooting range according to the
present invention, each individual target is provided with a mechanism for raising the target to
the exposure position and lowering the target to the latent position. These mechanisms are
controlled by a computer device. The computing device has a user program storage device
storing a predetermined program for movement of the target, and the target performs the
predetermined movement when the stored program is activated. A second mini computer 105,
again comprised of a Texas TMS9900 computer, is provided and connected to the mechanical @
to move the target.
The computer records each specific target location and checks the correct function of this target.
Yet another visual display unit 107 is provided, which displays an image depicting each target on
the shooting range. The display on any particular time visual display unit indicates the status of
each target, ie whether the target is in an elevated or processed position, and also indicates the
number of hits scored for a particular target. The visual display unit is provided for the shooting
range manager, who uses it to determine the exact status of each target on the shooting range.
The visual display unit is also configured to be able to indicate the malfunction of the target. A
printer 108 is provided in the computer device. This printer can print all the information in
memory. A paper punching device can also be set. The main computer 109 performing the tII
function is preferably a computer such as the computer 031 4/10 sold by Calfornian Computer
Automation, and the user's program storage device 104 is preferably sold by computer
automation . ????????????????????????????????? The main
memory 89 is preferably a core memory up to 32 words sold by computer automation. A
preferred printer 108 is Centronix 306, also obtained from computer on-tome methods. It should
be noted that many variations are possible and that the computer is provided with a means to
calculate the score from a particular projectile. This score is displayed on a suitable visual display
unit. The targets used in the shooting range of the present invention may be static targets or
targets that rise and fall in response to command signals as illustrated in FIG. Alternatively, it
may be a fountain such as water on which a visual image showing a single target is projected.
When the target is of the up and down type, the target can be controlled by radio signals but
controlled by landline as described above. The computer drops the target for a short time
whenever the target is actually hit by a training shooter. Further, while the present invention has
been described in connection with a fixed shooting range, the present invention relates to a
shooting range in which the target is moved along the trolley and the converter is mounted on
the trolley at a fixed position relative to the target. It is obvious that also can be applied.
Alternatively, the invention is also applicable to ground-to-air or air-to-air training, where the
converter is attached to the target cylinder. When a shooting range as described above is used to
train a very large number of archers, the computer located in the central control cabinet
performs a lot of power and the exact shooting performed by the computer is It is controlled by
various bush buttons etc. provided in the control cabinet. Initially, the computer calculates the
location of each bullet fired at each target and sends a signal to a visual display unit located near
each training shooter. Each visual display unit thereby displays the target that the training
shooter aims for, and also displays the point at which the training shooter has targeted a
particular firing period target. In this way, as the training shooter fires ten targets at the target
and each circle is fired at the target sequentially, the position of the bullet hitting the target is
displayed on the visual display unit. Of course, near misses are also detected by the converter
and can therefore be displayed on the visual display unit. At the end of the shooting period If the
shooter's shot is accurate enough, 10 points will be recorded on the display of the target to show
exactly where the bullet hit the target. The various scores displayed on the display unit represent
the exact number at which the projectile has been fired at the target, so the shooter can
determine if the accuracy has improved during the firing period. The computer can also calculate
for each target the entire group of shots fired by each training period training shooter. These
numbers can be displayed on individual display units 9 provided with each training shooter.
Alternatively, the number of "hits" and "failures" can be recorded and displayed, and the score
obtained by the shooter can be displayed. The computer 7 is programmed to draw the attention
of the shooting manager to the training hand performing extremely inaccurate shooting so that
the shooting manager can be given instructions and advice to the training shooter. can do. The
central control cabinet is provided with a display 8 which allows the instructor to momentarily
observe any one target display. This display corresponds exactly to the display shown on the
training shooter's visual display unit. In this way, the instructor can monitor the progress of each
training shooter. The printer 13 only prints the scores and groups by each training shooter
during the shooting period. Also, the print can be activated to print any or all targets, including
an indication of each target point hit by a bullet.
Such a print constitutes a permanent record of the shooting of a particular shooter. Since the
target 3 used in the present invention is a static target and the target is only a desired aiming
mark, it is not necessary to replace the target until the target is virtually completely destroyed.
The invention can also be used in combination with targets moving from a latent position to an
exposed or shooting position or vice versa. This type of target is illustrated in FIG. The present
invention is also applicable to a target mounted on a trolley moving along a predetermined track,
where the converter is mounted directly or indirectly on the trolley moving with the target. The
present invention can also be used in combination with a number of means, such as a light that
illuminates the target and can be fired even after dark, or a means that can be placed on or near
the target to simulate retaliatory fire. Such means are controlled by the computer and are
activated for projectiles that are launched to the target but are near misses. Furthermore, many
possibilities are implied to the person skilled in the art. In the above-described mathematical
analysis, it is assumed that the air from which the projectile is launched is stationary, but (g) if
the shooting range is an outdoor shooting range, wind may be blowing. The following
mathematical analysis takes into account the effects of this style. Referring to FIG. 19, the bullet
travels along the trajectory PAB and eventually hits the target B, whose coordinates are
determined. The shock wave that actuates the C sensor is the shock wave at point A in the
projectile trajectory. P is the position of the bullet when the timing period starts and indicates an
arbitrary origin of timing. O is a point on the target surface, which is the origin of coordinates.
Now, let t be the total time for the signal to reach from P to C, where t is the sum of the time for
the bullet to reach A and the time for the shock wave to reach from A to C. ????????
????????? The motion of the shockwave can be viewed as a spherical wave front
spreading into the moving atmosphere. At time tl, the disturbance center of the sphere moves
from A to R due to the wind, and the disturbance spreads to the radius RC. Vector equations can
be determined for various vector parameters and the sum of tl and tl. For example, in such an
equation, the time for the shock wave to arrive at sensor C is related to the coordinates of the
position of the sensor and the position at which the bullet hits the target surface. Similar
equations hold for each arrayed sensor, and with sufficient sensors, the equations can be solved
for various unknowns.
In practice, it is possible to use an iterative method to solve the equation. When considering
wind, there are more unknowns and more input data has to be used to determine the position of
the projectile. When solving simultaneous equations, there must be as many equations as there
are unknowns, and so many time differences must be measured to get accurate results. Another
way to solve the problem in the presence of wind is to measure the wind speed and the direction
of the wind and input it into a computer. This wind speed is properly taken into account when
making the necessary calculations. A preferred method of measuring the wind speed or at least
measuring the effect of the wind speed is to provide one or more sound sources, such as dragon
wave converters, located at predetermined points in relation to the converter train. It is. The
sound emitting transducer is controlled by the computer and emits sound at a frequency as
detected by the transducer. The converter and timing device measure the sound wave detection
time generated by the converter. These times are compared to the times when the converter was
activated. This comparison makes it possible to accurately measure the effect of the wind, and
the effect of the wind is monitored at each point of the firing point every hour. This is
particularly useful in conditions where strong winds are blowing. When the diverters are
arranged in a straight or stagger, accurate results are obtained when the projectile travels
perpendicular to the target and there is no wind when using four diverters and the projectile is at
a known oblique angle The correct result is obtained when using 5 converters when incident on
the wind and there is no wind, and when the projectile has unknown horizontal incident
component and known vertical component and there is no wind, 6 converters When used,
accurate results are obtained, with seven incidents when the incidence is unknown at normal
incidence and the wind factor is unknown, and when the known incidence is unknown and the
wind factor is unknown Results are obtained and accurate results can be obtained using eight
converters when the projectile has an unknown horizontal incident component and a known
vertical component and there is no wind. If the transducers are staggered in two rows, accurate
results can be obtained using six transducers when the projectile has unknown horizontal and
vertical incident components, and no wind. If the projectile has an unknown angle of incidence
and there is no wind, using seven converters gives accurate results, and the projectile has known
horizontal incident components and unknown horizontal incident components. If the wind factor
is unknown, accurate results can be obtained using eight converters, if the projectile incidence is
unknown and the wind factor is unknown, accurate using nine converters The result is obtained.
The number of converters mentioned above indicates the number of converters in the group
selected by the computer, and the timing signal is calculated from the specific number of
converters when the position of the projectile is correctly calculated in each specific set of
conditions. Received by From the above, it is often preferred to arrange the converters in a
staggered or non-linear fashion. A preferred method of attaching the diverter in this manner is
illustrated in FIG. The diverter is mounted within suitably spaced apertures 110 formed in the
panel 111. The panel 111 has in the center a rigid metal sheet 112, on the face of which a sheet
of sound-absorbing material 113 is provided. The dome 65 of the switch projects from the front
of the panel 111 and is subjected to shock waves. The rear end of each transducer is provided
with a radially extending flange 114 which contacts the rear end face of the panel 111 to
position the transducers. The openings 11O are accurately placed by drilling using a suitable jig.
When the opening interval changes as the temperature changes due to thermal expansion,
temperature measurement means is provided to input compensation information to the computer
7. The panel 111 is of the desired length to accommodate as many converters as needed. The
transducer detects a secondary shockwave when the projectile hits a rigid target located near the
transducer. The timing device, and thus the computer, can not distinguish between such
secondary shockwaves and the shockwaves mainly generated by the projectile. Thus, as shown in
FIG. 21, a block of sonic absorber or other sonic absorbing medium is placed between the
transducer and the target 116, and means 111 for supporting the transducer are placed near the
block. It is preferable to do. The shockwaves traveling in the direction of arrow 117 and detected
by the projectile are detected by the converter, but the shockwaves reflecting off the target and
traveling in the direction of arrow 118 are not detected by the converter. The diverter therefore
falls in the shadow of member 115. FIG. 22 shows another embodiment of the shooting range
using the device according to the present invention. A set of converters 120 is arranged on the
lower front of the set of static targets. These converters 120 are connected to the computer 7 by
land lines 122 as described above. In addition to the static target 121, a self-propelled trowel
123 is provided that supports a wireless control target that is movable along the mole rail track
124. The trow 9123 carries the target labeled tank. A set of converters 124 are mounted on the
trolley and signals are input from the converters to the computer 7 via a wireless link 125.
A second wireless link 126 is provided and a control signal is input to the trow 9123. Many other
shooting fields using the present invention are conceivable. Such rA firing sites are provided with
targets that are attached to static targets or trowels, targets that automatically fall off when hit,
and targets that are specifically illuminated for night shooting. 23 and 24 are flowcharts showing
the two calculation methods described above.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a shooting range provided with the device of the present invention,
Fig. 2 is a schematic coordinate diagram showing the positions of projectiles with respect to four
converters and coordinate axes, and Fig. 3 Fig. 4 is a block diagram showing an embodiment of
the present invention, and Fig. 5 is a curve diagram showing hyperbolic coordinates intersecting
with staggered converters, Fig. 6 Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram showing the converter element,
Fig. 7 is a waveform diagram showing the output generated by the converter shown in Fig. 6, Fig.
8 is an elevation of four converters, Fig. 9 is a preferred type 10 is a cross-sectional view of the
FIG. 9 converter, FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the apparatus for mounting the converter of
FIG. 10, FIG. 12 is FIG. Circuit diagram of the amplifier associated with the converter, Fig. 13 is
an illustration showing the shock wave generated by the ultrasound projectile FIG. 14 is an
explanatory view showing a trajectory of a projectile and detection of a shock wave by a
converter, FIG. 15 is a block diagram showing another embodiment of the present invention, and
FIG. 16 is a part of the embodiment of FIG. 17 is a block diagram showing the other part of the
embodiment of FIG. 15, FIG. 18 is a schematic drawing showing the other part of the
embodiment of FIG. 15, and FIG. Explanatory drawing showing the detection of the shock wave
by the converter, FIG. 20 is a partially cutaway perspective view of the panel supporting the
converter, FIG. 21 is a side perspective view showing the target, the converter and the sound
absorbing agent block, FIG. FIG. 22 is a perspective view showing another embodiment of the
shooting range of the present invention, FIG. 23 is a flow chart showing the operation of FIG. 4
device, and FIG. 24 is a flow chart showing the operation of FIG.
и и и и и и и и и и и и и и. ~, T 1 T, T 2, T 3 ... converter, 15-22 ... converter, 23-27 ... amplifier, 28-31 ...
counter, 32 ... control device, 33 ... Display device, 34 to 3 ... converter, 40 ... bullet, 41 ... shock
wave, 45 ... bullet, 46 to 49 ... converter, 51 ... piezoelectric element, 65 и и и -Dome, 71: amplifier,
73: differential amplifier, 79: converter, 80: lane, 81: target, 82: timing device, 83: buffer, 84 ...
Latch, 85 ... Clock signal generator, 96 ... Photo slide, 111 ... Panel, 116 ... Target 120 ... diverter,
121 ... target, 122 ... landline, 123 ... Torotsu, 124 ... Morureru, 125.126 ... wireless link.
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description, jps62138698
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