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DESCRIPTION JP2009218693

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DESCRIPTION JP2009218693
An object of the present invention is to appropriately adjust the volume of an audio output device
and to avoid auditory fatigue and hearing loss. A sound pressure value of an output sound is
detected (15), and on the basis of the detected sound pressure value (PA), determination of
volume adjustment necessity is performed, and sound pressure corresponding to the sound
pressure value. The information (PB) is output (14), the information indicating the necessity of
volume adjustment and the sound pressure information are received, the adjustment coefficient
(KA) is output (13), and the audio signal is adjusted by the adjustment coefficient (KA) (11). An
average value (PB) over a predetermined period of the sound pressure value (PA) is used as the
sound pressure information (PB). [Selected figure] Figure 1
Voice output device, telephone and portable telephone
[0001]
The present invention relates to an audio output device, and more particularly to volume control
thereof. The invention also relates to a telephone comprising an audio output device, for example
a mobile telephone.
[0002]
In recent years, with the development of mobile phones, the use of telephones in various
situations is not carried out, but it is often used at high volume without adjusting the output
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1
voice, leading to fatigue and loss of hearing. There was also a thing. Patent Document 1 below
discloses that the volume of an input signal and the volume specified by the user are mutually
adjusted to adjust the overall volume.
[0003]
Unexamined-Japanese-Patent No. 2003-258988
[0004]
However, in the above-described conventional method, it is left to the user to grasp the state of
the voice that is actually output, and there are cases where the effect from the viewpoint of
hearing protection can not be sufficiently obtained.
[0005]
The present invention provides an audio output apparatus that receives an input audio signal and
outputs audio, and a sound pressure detection unit that detects a sound pressure value of audio
output by the audio output apparatus; and a volume based on the sound pressure value. A state
determination unit that performs determination of necessity of adjustment and outputs
information indicating volume adjustment necessity as a determination result and outputs sound
pressure information corresponding to the sound pressure value; and volume adjustment from
the state determination unit An adjustment coefficient generation unit that outputs an
adjustment coefficient in response to information indicating whether or not it is necessary, and
the sound pressure information; and an output that generates the adjusted audio signal by
adjusting the input audio signal using the adjustment coefficient. An audio output device
comprising: an adjusting unit; and an audio output unit that generates an audio based on the
adjusted audio signal from the output adjusting unit.
The present invention also provides an audio output apparatus that receives an input audio
signal and outputs an audio, and an auditory burden detection unit that detects an auditory
burden received by a listener from the audio output by the audio output apparatus; State
determination unit that determines whether or not volume adjustment is necessary based on the
auditory burden detected by the unit, and outputs information indicating whether or not volume
adjustment is necessary as a determination result, and outputs auditory burden information
corresponding to the auditory burden An adjustment coefficient generation unit that outputs an
adjustment coefficient in response to the information indicating the necessity of volume
adjustment from the state determination unit and the auditory burden information; and adjusting
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2
the input audio signal according to the adjustment coefficient. An audio output device
comprising: an output adjusting unit generating an adjusted audio signal; and an audio output
unit generating an audio based on the adjusted audio signal from the output adjusting unit. .
[0006]
According to the present invention, the volume can be properly adjusted, and auditory fatigue
and hearing loss can be avoided.
[0007]
Embodiment 1
The first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a schematic configuration of the audio output device 100
according to the first embodiment. This voice output device is, for example, incorporated in a
mobile phone.
[0008]
The audio output device 100 includes an output adjustment unit 11, an audio output unit 12, an
adjustment control unit 13, a state determination unit 14, and a sound pressure detection unit
15. A speaker 17 is connected to the sound output unit 12, and a microphone 18 is connected to
the sound pressure detection unit 15. The input speech signal SA in the present embodiment is,
for example, a digital speech signal obtained by decoding a speech coded sequence by a decoding
unit (not shown), and is input in synchronization with a sample clock (not shown).
[0009]
The output adjustment unit 11 adjusts (attenuates) the magnitude of the input audio signal SA to
be input based on the adjustment coefficient KA from the adjustment control unit 13 and outputs
an output audio signal (adjusted audio signal) SB. It generates and supplies it to the audio output
unit 12.
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3
[0010]
The audio output unit 12 receives an output audio signal (adjusted audio signal) SB from the
output adjustment unit 11, converts it into an analog signal, supplies it to the speaker 17, and
causes the speaker 17 to output sound.
[0011]
The microphone 18 receives the sound output from the speaker 17 and converts it into an
electric signal.
The sound pressure detection unit 15 measures the sound pressure of the sound output from the
speaker 17 based on the output sound signal from the microphone 18, and outputs the measured
sound pressure value PA.
Sound pressure measurement is performed, for example, at intervals of 60 seconds. The
measurement interval may be longer or shorter than 60 seconds or variable length, but it is
convenient if it is an interval synchronized with an interval (period) of the determination of
necessity of volume adjustment by the state determination unit 14 described later. The
measurement of the sound pressure can be performed in the same manner as a known sound
level meter. The sound pressure measured at each time point (each measurement timing) is
output to the state determination unit 14 and the state storage unit 16 as an output sound
pressure value PA (i).
[0012]
The state storage unit 16 stores the sound pressure value PA measured at each measurement
timing (at intervals of 60 seconds) supplied from the sound pressure detection unit 15 for the
past nine times. The sound pressure values PA (i-1) to PA (i-9) for the past nine times stored are
updated each time the sound pressure value PA (i) is newly acquired by measurement at an
interval of 60 seconds. . That is, the oldest one is erased and the latest one is added.
[0013]
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For example, as shown in FIG. 2, the state determination unit 14 includes an average calculation
unit 141 and an adjustment determination unit 142. The average calculation unit 141 receives
the sound pressure value (current sound pressure value) PA (i) measured from the sound
pressure detection unit 15, and the sound pressure value PA for the past nine times stored in the
state storage unit 16 i-1) to PA (i-9) are read out, and based on these, an average value (sound
pressure average value) PB (i) over these past predetermined periods is obtained and output as
sound pressure information. As the average value, a simple average value may be obtained, and a
weighted average value may be obtained, and for example, weighting of older sound pressure
values may be made smaller.
[0014]
The adjustment determination unit 142 determines the necessity of volume adjustment based on
the sound pressure average value PB (i) obtained by the average calculation unit 141, and
outputs the determination result as the determination result information JI. That is, it is
determined whether the sound pressure average value PB is larger than a predetermined
threshold value PBt (preset, stored in a storage unit (not shown), and supplied to the adjustment
determination unit 142). It is determined that the adjustment is necessary, and the determination
result information JI indicating "volume adjustment required" is output.
[0015]
In addition, the sign “PB (i)” of the sound pressure average value, the sign “PA (i)” of the
sound pressure value, “PA (i-1)” to “PA (i-9)”, The term “PB” or “PA” is used when it is
necessary to clarify whether or not it is necessary, and when it is not necessary to clarify, or
when it is obvious without being specified. The same applies to other symbols “EI” described
later and the like.
[0016]
The threshold PBt is set to a value that can reduce the risk of hearing loss when listening to
voice, and is preferably designed based on, for example, “Guideline for Ministry of Labor, Labor
Standards Bureau Notification Code No. 546 for Noise Prevention”, In the present embodiment,
the threshold value PBt is 80 dB. However, the threshold value is not limited to this value, and
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5
may be set to a value capable of reducing the risk of hearing loss, and may be arbitrarily
determined by the designer according to the configuration of the apparatus used. The
determination result information JI is supplied to the adjustment control unit 13 together with
the sound pressure information PB (i).
[0017]
The adjustment control unit 13 configures an adjustment coefficient generation unit that obtains
an adjustment coefficient (attenuation coefficient) KA based on the determination result
information JI from the state determination unit 14 and the sound pressure information PB.
When the determination result information JI indicates “adjustment required”, the adjustment
control unit 13 obtains the adjustment coefficient KA by the following equation (1) based on the
sound pressure information PB and the threshold value PBt. KA = VPBt / VPB (1) Here, VPB and
VPBt are respectively the sound pressure information PB which is a decibel value and its
threshold value PBt converted into a value corresponding to a voltage value, and VPB = 10 <PB. /
2> (2) VPBt = 10 <PBt / 2> (3)
[0018]
The adjustment coefficient KA determined by the equation (1) is to attenuate the audio signal so
that the sound pressure average value PB does not exceed the threshold value PBt. When the
determination result information JI output from the state determination unit 14 indicates “no
adjustment required”, the adjustment control unit 13 outputs one representing “1” as the
adjustment coefficient KA.
[0019]
The output adjustment unit 11 adjusts the input audio signal SA using the adjustment coefficient
KA determined by the adjustment control unit 13 to generate an output audio signal SB. The
adjustment by the adjustment coefficient KA is expressed by the following equation. SB = SA · KA
(4) If the adjustment coefficient KA is 1, SB = SA, and the input audio signal SA becomes the
output audio signal SB as it is (without being adjusted).
[0020]
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The adjustment coefficient KA supplied to the output adjustment unit 11 is determined until the
next adjustment coefficient KA is determined (that is, as described later, the state determination
unit 14 determines the necessity of volume adjustment next (after 60 seconds)) And the same
value is used for adjustment in the output adjustment unit 11 until a new adjustment coefficient
KA is determined based on the result.
[0021]
When the input audio signal SA is input to the audio output device 100 for the first time, the
adjustment coefficient KA is 1, the output adjustment unit 11 does not perform the adjustment
processing, and the input audio signal SA is as it is, that is, SB = SA. Output to the audio output
unit 12.
[0022]
The adjustment control unit 13 also supplies initialization information TL to the state storage
unit 16 to initialize the stored contents (clearing the past sound pressure values PA (i-1) to PA (i9), etc. Do.
[0023]
The initialization is performed when the input audio signal SA is input to the audio output device
100 for the first time.
Further, the initialization may be performed also when the sound source included in the input
audio signal SA changes (in this case, the change of the transmitting terminal, the speaker, the
audio content, etc. is indicated).
However, in that case, it is necessary to notify the adjustment control unit 13 that the input audio
signal has been switched, which is performed, for example, by causing the adjustment control
unit 13 to obtain the determination result from the input audio signal switching detector (not
shown). .
[0024]
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7
In the above embodiment, the adjustment coefficient KA is determined by the equation (1) based
on the sound pressure average value PB and the threshold value PBt, but KA may be gradually
increased from the start of adjustment. .
For example, assuming that the time from the start of adjustment is t, in the range of t ≦ Tm, KA
= (VPBt / VPB) · (1−t / Tm) (5) In the range of t> Tm, KA = (VPBt / The adjustment coefficient KA
may be determined by VPB) (6). In the above equation, Tm represents the time to change the
adjustment factor. The adjustment coefficient KA set in this manner is 1, at the start of
adjustment (time t = 0) as shown in FIG. 3, decreases with time t, and after time Tm (VPBt / VPB)
It becomes equal and thereafter maintains the value of (VPBt / VPB).
[0025]
As shown in FIG. 3, when changing the adjustment coefficient KA with the time from the start of
adjustment, the adjustment control unit 13 calculates the above-mentioned equation (6) every
time interval, for example, every one second. The adjustment coefficient KA to be output may be
supplied to the output adjustment unit 11.
[0026]
The time Tm may be determined based on the sound pressure average value PB (for example, Tm
may be increased as the sound pressure average value PB is larger), for example, so that the
change speed of the adjustment coefficient KA becomes constant. Tm may be determined such
that VPB / Tm is constant.
In this case, the adjustment coefficient KA may be changed by subtracting the predetermined
change width for each predetermined time instead of repeating the calculation according to the
equation (6) for each predetermined time.
[0027]
As described above, by gradually changing the adjustment coefficient KA so that the value of the
output sound signal SB changes continuously in the time domain, it is possible to reduce the
discomfort that the sound after adjustment gives to the listener. .
[0028]
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In the above embodiment, the sound pressure detection unit 15 acquires the sound output from
the speaker 17 with the microphone 18 and measures the sound pressure, but if the output
characteristics of the speaker 17 are known in advance, or if it can be estimated 4, the sound
pressure detection unit 15 detects the sound signal output from the sound output unit 12 and
acquires the sound pressure value in consideration of the output characteristic of the speaker 17
as in the sound output device 110 of FIG. 4. It is good as well.
[0029]
In the above embodiment, although the sound pressure average value PB is compared with the
threshold value PBt in the state determination unit 14, the sound pressure value PA at each time
point (each measurement timing) is compared with the threshold value PAt, and the comparison
result It is good also as using as a result of determination of volume adjustment necessity.
The threshold value PAt for the sound pressure value PA is preferably determined based on the
above-mentioned "Guideline for Ministry of Labor, Labor Standards Bureau Notification Standard
No. 546 for the prevention of noise disturbances", and the like, for example, about 85 dB.
In this case, the sound pressure value PA is supplied to the adjustment control unit 13 as sound
pressure information, and the adjustment control unit 13 adjusts the adjustment coefficient KA
based on the sound pressure value PA (in place of the sound pressure average value PB). It will
be determined.
[0030]
As described above, according to the first embodiment, the sound pressure of the sound to be
output is measured, and the volume adjustment is performed in consideration of hearing
protection, thereby providing the listener with a voice with less hearing fatigue. It becomes
possible. Further, as described with reference to FIG. 3, it is possible to gradually change the
adjustment coefficient KA with the lapse of time from the start of adjustment, and eliminate or
reduce the discomfort of the listener accompanying the volume adjustment.
[0031]
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9
Second Embodiment Second Embodiment A second embodiment of the present invention will be
described with reference to FIG. FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing a schematic configuration of
the audio output device 200 according to the second embodiment. The second embodiment is
generally the same as the first embodiment, but differs from the first embodiment in that the
time control unit 21 is added and the operations of the state determination unit 14 and the
adjustment control unit 13. The same members as in the first embodiment are given the same
reference numerals as in FIG.
[0032]
The adjustment control unit 13 performs initialization when the supply of the input audio signal
SA is started. In the initialization, as in the first embodiment, the initialization information TL is
sent to the state storage unit 16 to clear the stored contents, and the initialization information TL
is also output to the time control unit 21. The time control unit 21 sets an elapsed time stored in
an elapsed time storage unit (timer) in the time control unit 21 to an initial value 0 in accordance
with the initialization information TL. The elapsed time storage unit measures the elapsed time
thereafter, and provides information TA indicating the elapsed time according to the request.
[0033]
During voice output after initialization, the adjustment control unit 13 periodically outputs a time
acquisition request TR to the time control unit 21 at, for example, a time interval of 60 seconds,
while the time control unit 21 The time information TA provided by the progress information
storage unit is output. The adjustment control unit 13 receives the time information TA from the
time control unit 21, and outputs the elapsed time information TI to the state determination unit
14 based on the time information TA. That is, it is determined whether or not the time
information TA is equal to or more than a predetermined time (processing preparation time) Tb,
and the elapsed time information TI indicating the determination result is output. The processing
preparation period Tb is set to, for example, 300 seconds.
[0034]
The elapsed time information TI may be, for example, a flag that is “1” when the time
information TA is equal to or longer than the processing preparation time Tb, and is “0”
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otherwise. The elapsed time information TI may be any other information as long as it can
identify the above determination result.
[0035]
The state determination unit 14 receives the elapsed time information TI from the adjustment
control unit 13, and generates the determination result information JI based on the elapsed time
information TI and the sound pressure average value PB calculated in the same manner as in the
first embodiment. . That is, when the elapsed time information TI indicates that "the processing
preparation period Tb or more", based on whether the sound pressure average value PB exceeds
the threshold PBt, as described in the first embodiment. In the case where the determination
result information JI is generated and the elapsed time information TI indicates "less than the
processing preparation period", the determination result information JI is set as "adjustment
unnecessary".
[0036]
By performing the processing as described above, after the supply of the input audio signal SA is
started, that is, after the output of audio is started, until the predetermined processing
preparation time Tb elapses, the process for the input audio signal SA is started. No adjustment is
made. This is because the effect of the adjustment process on the listener is noticeable when the
adjustment is performed immediately after the start of voice output, and the listener's familiarity
(adaptation) with the listening volume is considered in view of the high possibility of giving
discomfort to the listener. The adjustment process is suspended until it progresses to reduce the
sense of discomfort to the listener for the adjustment.
[0037]
As described above, the process preparation time Tb is set to, for example, 300 seconds, but the
designer may set an arbitrary time according to the characteristics of the apparatus or the like.
For example, the processing preparation time Tb may be changed according to the sound
pressure value such as the sound pressure average value PB.
[0038]
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According to the second embodiment, in the process of determining whether or not to perform
adjustment, since the user's temporal familiarity with the volume of the listener is taken into
consideration, it is possible to suppress discomfort due to the adjustment, and further, it is
carried out. Since the effect of mode 1 is also obtained, it is possible to provide a voice with less
discomfort and less discomfort.
[0039]
Third Embodiment
The third embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 6 is a
block diagram showing a schematic configuration of the audio output device 300 according to
the third embodiment. The third embodiment is generally the same as the first embodiment, but
is different from the first embodiment in that an intensity analysis unit 31 and an intensity
storage unit 32 are added and the operation of the adjustment control unit 13. The same
members as in the first embodiment are given the same reference numerals as in FIG.
[0040]
The initialization based on the initialization information TL output from the adjustment control
unit 13 is performed not only for the state storage unit 16 but also for the intensity storage unit
32.
[0041]
The strength analysis unit 31 periodically analyzes the input voice signal SA at, for example, a
60-second time interval to obtain the strength (power) EI of the input voice signal SA.
As the signal strength EI, for example, the square sum of the input voice signal may be obtained.
In this case, for example, the square of the input voice signal (the value of each sample clock
cycle) may be accumulated for a predetermined period, for example, one second, and the
intensity EI may be determined by calculating the sum of the calculation results in the period.
good. The signal strength EI is obtained, for example, in synchronization with the determination
of the volume adjustment necessity by the state determination unit 14 (thus, at the same time
interval).
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[0042]
The signal intensity EI (i) obtained by the intensity analysis unit 31 is supplied to the adjustment
control unit 13 and also to the intensity storage unit 32. The state storage unit 32 stores the
signal strength EI for one past time, and the signal strength EI (i) is newly obtained by the
strength analysis unit 31, and the newly obtained signal strength (current signal strength) EI (
When the adjustment control unit 13 calculates the adjustment coefficient KA based on i), it is
read out as the signal strength EI (i-1) of the previous one (60 seconds before).
[0043]
The state determination unit 14 calculates the sound pressure average value PB (i) in the same
manner as in the first embodiment, and compares the calculated sound pressure average value
PB (i) with the threshold value PBt in the same manner as in the first embodiment. The
determination result information JI is supplied to the adjustment control unit 13 together with
the sound pressure average value PB (i).
[0044]
The sound pressure average value PB (i) calculated by the state determination unit 14 is supplied
to the adjustment control unit 13 and also to the state storage unit 16.
The state storage unit 16 stores one sound pressure average value PB, and the state
determination unit 14 newly calculates the sound pressure average value PB (i), and the newly
calculated sound pressure average value PB (i When the adjustment control unit 13 calculates
the adjustment coefficient KA based on the above, it is read out as the sound pressure average
value PB (i-1) one time ago (60 seconds before).
[0045]
The adjustment control unit 13 receives the sound pressure average value PB (i) from the state
determination unit 14, receives the sound pressure average value PB (i-1) of one time ago from
the state storage unit 16, and receives a signal from the intensity analysis unit 31. The intensity
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EI (i) is received, the signal intensity EI (i-1) of the previous time is received from the state
memory unit 32, and the adjustment coefficient KA is determined based on these. That is, when
the determination result information JI indicates "adjustment unnecessary", the adjustment
coefficient KA is output as 1.
[0046]
When the determination result information JI indicates "adjustment required", the adjustment
coefficient KA given by the following equation (7) is obtained. KA=(VPBt/VPB)・
(VDE/VDP) …(7) とする。 Here, VDP is a value (value corresponding to a voltage
value) corresponding to dp given by dp = PB (i) -PB (i-1), and is given by VDP = 10 <dp / 2>.
Further, VDE is a voltage value corresponding to de given by de = EI (i) -EI (i-1), and is given by
VDE = de <1/2>.
[0047]
As described above, the degree of increase in sound pressure (dp = PB (i) -PB (i-1)) with respect
to increase in signal strength EI of the input speech signal (de = EI (i) -EI (i-1)) Since the
adjustment factor KA is determined in consideration of the above, it is possible to make an
adjustment suitable for the characteristics of the input signal. Furthermore, the same effect as
that of the first embodiment can be obtained. Therefore, it is possible to provide a voice with a
low degree of auditory fatigue and to further reduce the discomfort due to the adjustment.
[0048]
For example, when the above difference values de and dp can not be acquired, the adjustment
coefficient KA may be set to 1 (no adjustment is performed, that is, the adjustment coefficient KA
may be set to 1). The coefficients may be output as they are (without change).
[0049]
In addition, the adjustment coefficient KA may be gradually increased with the passage of time as
described with reference to FIG. 3 in the first embodiment.
[0050]
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14
In the above embodiment, although the signal strength is calculated by the sum of squares of the
input speech signal, the signal strength may be calculated by other than the sum of squares.
In the above embodiment, analysis is performed with an analysis length (length of time for which
the sum of squares is calculated) as one second at a time interval of 60 seconds. (Calculation of
signal strength) may be performed.
Furthermore, in the above embodiment, although the signal strength is calculated in
synchronization with the determination of the necessity of volume adjustment by the state
determination unit 14, an interval not synchronized with the determination of the necessity of
volume adjustment by the state determination unit 14 You may analyze by
[0051]
In the above embodiment, the intensity storage unit 32 is provided in addition to the state
storage unit 16, but these may be configured as a part of one storage device as indicated by
reference numeral 33 in FIG. .
[0052]
The third embodiment has been described above as a modification to the first embodiment, but
the same modification can be applied to the second embodiment.
[0053]
Fourth Embodiment
Fourth Embodiment A fourth embodiment of the present invention will be described with
reference to FIG.
FIG. 7 is a block diagram showing a schematic configuration of the audio output device 400
according to the fourth embodiment. The fourth embodiment is generally the same as the first
embodiment except that a characteristic analysis unit 41 and a characteristic application unit 42
are added and the configuration of the adjustment control unit 13 is different from the first
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15
embodiment. The same members as in the first embodiment are given the same reference
numerals as in FIG.
[0054]
The adjustment control unit 13 acquires the determination result information JI supplied from
the state determination unit 14, generates analysis request information FR indicating necessity of
analysis based on the determination result information JI, and the characteristic analysis unit 41
and the characteristic Output to the application unit 42. If the determination result information JI
indicates "adjustment required", the analysis request information FR indicates "analysis required",
and if the determination result information JI indicates "adjustment not required", The analysis
request information FR indicates "analysis unnecessary". The analysis request information FR
may be, for example, a flag indicating whether or not the characteristic analysis in the
characteristic analysis unit 41 is necessary.
[0055]
When the analysis request information FR indicates “analysis required” from the adjustment
control unit 13, the characteristic analysis unit 41 analyzes the frequency characteristic of the
input voice signal SA, and outputs the analysis result as an analysis result signal FS. That is, the
characteristic analysis unit 41 performs frequency analysis on the input input audio signal SA to
acquire the intensity of each frequency. Frequency analysis can be performed, for example, by a
known FFT method. However, the method of frequency analysis is not limited to the FFT method,
and any method can be used as long as the intensity of each frequency or each frequency band
can be acquired. For example, analysis by a known orthogonal mirror filter or any frequency
filter bank applied But it is good.
[0056]
The result of the frequency analysis is output to the characteristic applying unit 42 as an analysis
result signal FS. In this case, analysis signals (elements) c 1,..., C n of the number according to the
analysis order in frequency analysis are generated as the analysis result signal FS to be output.
[0057]
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The adjustment control unit 13 determines an adjustment coefficient KA based on the
determination result information JI and the sound pressure average value PB, and outputs the
adjustment coefficient KA to the characteristic applying unit 42. The characteristic application
unit 42 acquires the adjustment coefficient KA and the analysis request information FR from the
adjustment control unit 13, and acquires the analysis result signal FS from the characteristic
analysis unit 41. The analysis result signal FS and the characteristic application unit 42 are
previously obtained. The adjustment coefficient KAk for each frequency is output to the output
adjustment unit 11 based on the stored frequency intensity limit Fk.
[0058]
That is, when the characteristic application unit 42 receives information indicating “analysis
required” as the analysis request information FR, a value representing the intensity of each
frequency component included in the analysis result signal FS, ie, each element ck (k = 1 to n is
compared with the frequency intensity limit Fk for the corresponding frequency, and if each
element ck exceeds the corresponding frequency intensity limit Fk, it is determined that the
characteristic application is necessary, and the element ck Then, the characteristic application
coefficient Bk for each frequency is determined. That is, the analysis signal ck included in the
analysis result signal FS is made to be the characteristic application coefficient Bk (Bk = ck). On
the other hand, when the characteristic application is not required (when the characteristic
application unit 42 receives information indicating “analysis unnecessary” as the analysis
request information FR, or when each element ck does not exceed the corresponding frequency
strength limit Fk) In this case, the same value as the frequency intensity limit Fk is set as the
characteristic application coefficient Bk (Bk = Fk).
[0059]
Then, based on the adjustment coefficient KA, the characteristic application coefficient Bk, and
the frequency intensity limit Fk, the adjustment coefficient KAk for each frequency is obtained by
the following equation (8). KAk = (Fk / Bk) · KA (8) That is, the adjustment coefficient KAk for
each frequency is given by KAk = KA (8A) when the characteristic application is not required, and
the characteristic application is required. In the case, KAk = (Fk / ck) · KA (8B)
[0060]
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By the above process, when the adjustment coefficient generation unit 43 needs to apply the
characteristic, the ratio (PBt / PB = the sound pressure information (sound pressure average
value) to the sound pressure information (average value) PB of the threshold PBt The product of
KA) and the ratio (Fk / ck) of the intensity limit Fk of each frequency to the component or
element ck of the frequency is output as the adjustment coefficient KAk of the frequency.
[0061]
However, the method of determining adjustment coefficient KAk of each frequency is not limited
to the above equation (8), and changes adjustment coefficient KAk according to the difference
(ck-Fk) between analysis signal ck and frequency intensity limit Fk, for example. You may make it
[0062]
Also, the frequency strength limit Fk may be applied to suppress the strength of the frequency
that has a high degree of influence on the fatigue level, and for example, the known RobinsonDatson curve (equal sensitivity curve) may be set as a reference. Just do it.
[0063]
As described above, according to the third embodiment, the characteristic applying unit 42
corrects the adjustment coefficient KA output from the adjustment control unit 13 for each
frequency or for each frequency band as required (application of characteristics). To generate an
adjustment coefficient KAk for each frequency, and a combination of adjustment control unit 13
and characteristic application unit 42 (indicated by reference numeral 43) constitutes means
(adjustment coefficient generation unit) for generating adjustment coefficient KAk. ing.
On the other hand, in the first to third embodiments and the fifth embodiment described later,
only the adjustment control unit 13 configures the adjustment coefficient generation unit.
[0064]
The output adjustment unit 11 adjusts the input audio signal SA using the adjustment coefficient
KAk from the characteristic application unit 42 to generate an output audio signal SB.
[0065]
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The output adjustment unit 11 adjusts the input audio signal SA using the adjustment coefficient
KAk for each frequency to generate an output audio signal SB.
For example, by converting the input speech signal SA into the frequency domain by a known
FFT method or the like, the components of each frequency of the input speech signal SA
(components of the same frequency as the respective elements generated by the frequency
analysis in each characteristic analysis unit) A value obtained by multiplying the same frequency
by the adjustment coefficient KAk determined by the characteristic applying unit 42 is
determined as the component of the frequency of the adjusted audio signal SB, and then to the
time domain by the known inverse FFT method. You just have to convert it again.
[0066]
It is also possible to suppress the frequency components that greatly affect auditory fatigue more
significantly.
In order to do so, the strength limit FK of a large frequency of auditory fatigue may be set to a
smaller value so that the adjustment coefficient KAk of the frequency becomes a smaller value.
[0067]
As described above, by controlling the output for each frequency, it is possible to significantly
suppress the component of the frequency that has a large influence on auditory fatigue, and it is
possible to provide a voice with an increased degree of safety.
In addition, since the effects of the above-described embodiment can also be obtained, it is
possible to provide a voice with less discomfort and less discomfort.
[0068]
Although the fourth embodiment has been described above as a modification to the first
embodiment, the same modification can be applied to the second and third embodiments.
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[0069]
Embodiment 5
Fifth Embodiment A fifth embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference
to FIG. FIG. 8 is a block diagram showing a schematic configuration of the audio output device
500 of the fifth embodiment. The fifth embodiment is generally the same as the first
embodiment, except that a movement detection unit 51 and a pressure detection unit 52 are
added, and the operation of the state determination unit 14 is different. About the member
similar to Embodiment 1, the same number as FIG. 1 is provided.
[0070]
The sound pressure detection unit 15, the movement detection unit 51, and the pressure
detection unit 52 constitute an auditory burden detection unit 53. The sound pressure detection
unit 15, the movement detection unit 51, and the pressure detection unit 52 output the sound
pressure value PA, the movement information MA, and the pressure value NA to the state
determination unit 14, respectively. Acquisition of the movement information MA and the
pressure value NA by the state determination unit 14 is performed at predetermined time
intervals, for example, at intervals of 1 second.
[0071]
The movement detection unit 51 detects the movement amount of a device (for example, a
telephone) including the voice output device 500 as a part thereof, and outputs the movement
amount as movement information MA.
[0072]
The detection of the movement amount is, for example, time integration of the acceleration
detected by a known acceleration sensor, and the parallel movement amount and the rotation
angle (for example, every 1 second time interval) every predetermined time And may simply be
referred to as “movement amount”, and the detected movement amount is output as
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movement information MA.
In this case, if the speaker 17 is fixed to a telephone equipped with the voice output device, the
movement of the speaker 17 can be regarded as the same as the movement of a telephone
equipped with the voice output device.
[0073]
The pressure detection unit 52 detects the pressure applied around the speaker 17 and outputs
the detected pressure value NA. For example, a known piezoelectric element is disposed within a
radius of 2 cm centering on the speaker 17, and a pressure value NA obtained by an output
sound signal of the piezoelectric element is output.
[0074]
For example, as shown in FIG. 9, the state determination unit 14 according to the fifth
embodiment includes an average calculation unit 141, a movement determination unit 143, a
pressure change calculation unit 144, a pressure determination unit 145, and an auditory burden
degree calculation unit 146. And the adjustment determination unit 147.
[0075]
The average calculator 141 operates in the same manner as the average calculator 141 of the
first embodiment described with reference to FIG. 2 and outputs the sound pressure average
value PB (i).
[0076]
The movement determination unit 143 receives the movement information MA from the
movement detection unit 51, and determines whether a predetermined condition is satisfied.
For example, the amount of parallel movement within a predetermined time (for example, set as
1 second) indicated by the movement information MA from the movement detection unit 51 is
within the range of 10 to 15 cm, and the same predetermined time (for example, 1 second) If the
rotation angle within the range of 165 degrees to 195 degrees is within the range, it is
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determined that a predetermined movement has occurred, and the determination result
information MT is set to "1".
The predetermined movement referred to here is a movement that occurs when the listener
changes the ear to be heard. Such a determination is made because, when using the telephone,
when the degree of auditory fatigue is high, the listener tends to change the ear to be heard, and
the speaker 17 (and thus the telephone equipped with the speaker 17) moves as described above
The reason is because it can be estimated that the listener is getting tired.
[0077]
As described above, the determination of the volume adjustment necessity in the state
determination unit 14 is performed once every 60 seconds, but the above condition is satisfied
between the determination of the volume adjustment necessity and the next determination.
When it is determined that the predetermined movement has occurred, the determination result
information MT becomes “1” (held as “1”), and when the determination result information
MT next determines the necessity of volume adjustment Used for If the predetermined movement
satisfying the above conditions does not occur even once during the 60 second period, the
determination result information MT is “0”, and this determination result information MT is
used to determine whether or not volume adjustment is necessary. .
[0078]
Furthermore, the ranges (upper and lower threshold values) used for the determination
conditions for the amount of parallel movement and the rotation angle are not limited to the
above values, and it is desirable to adjust them according to the characteristics of the apparatus.
Further, when only one of the amount of parallel movement and the rotation angle satisfies the
predetermined condition, the determination result information MT may be set to "1".
Furthermore, the detection of the movement amount of the speaker 17 is not limited to the above
method, and may be performed by another method.
[0079]
The pressure change calculation unit 144 obtains a change in pressure value acquired every one
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second. That is, the pressure supplied every one second from the pressure detection unit 42 is
held for one dose, and then, when the pressure value is supplied, the pressure value (current
pressure value) NA (j) that has just been supplied A ratio NR (= NA (j) / NA (j-1)) to the held
pressure value (preceding pressure value) NA (j-1) is obtained. The pressure determination unit
145 determines whether the ratio NR determined by the pressure change calculation unit 144 is
larger than a predetermined threshold value NRt, for example, 2.0. If the ratio NR is larger than
the predetermined threshold value NRt, the pressure change unit 145 determines a
predetermined pressure change. Is judged to have occurred, and the judgment result information
NT is set to "1". The predetermined pressure change mentioned here is associated with the
operation of the listener strongly pressing the speaker against the ear. The reason for making
such a judgment is that the user of the telephone set tends to put the speaker on his ear strongly
if he gets tired from long-term listening, and therefore it can be estimated that the fatigue will
progress if the pressure rises as mentioned above. It is because it can.
[0080]
As described above, the determination of the volume adjustment necessity in the state
determination unit 14 is performed once every 60 seconds, but the above condition is satisfied
between the determination of the volume adjustment necessity and the next determination.
When it is determined that a pressure change has occurred, the determination result information
NT becomes “1” (held as “1”), and when the determination result information NT is next
determined whether the volume adjustment is necessary or not. used. If no change in pressure
satisfying the above conditions occurs even during the 60 second period, the determination
result information NT is “0”, and this determination result information NT is used to determine
whether or not volume adjustment is necessary. .
[0081]
The predetermined threshold value NRt is not limited to 2.0, and it is desirable that the designer
set the optimum value according to the characteristics of the apparatus. In the above example,
when the ratio of the current pressure value NA (j) to the previous pressure value NA (j-1)
exceeds the predetermined threshold value, the determination result information NT is “1”.
Alternatively, when the difference (increase) between the current pressure value NA (j) and the
previous pressure value NA (j-1) exceeds a predetermined value, it may be determined that the
fatigue has progressed. In addition, the determination may be made based on only the current
pressure value instead of the comparison with the previous pressure value. Furthermore, the
pressure detection is not limited to the above method, and any other method may be used as long
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as it can detect the pressure applied to the vicinity of the speaker 17.
[0082]
As described above, the movement detection unit 51 and the pressure detection unit 52 detect
the movement of the listener and use the detection result to determine the listening fatigue
degree of the listener.
[0083]
The auditory burden degree calculation unit 146 calculates the auditory burden degree HL by,
for example, equation (9) based on the determination result information MT and NT generated as
described above and the sound pressure information PB.
HL = PB + α · (MT + NT) (9) In the equation (9), α is a weighting coefficient for the movement
determination result information MT and the pressure determination result information NT. It
becomes easy to judge that adjustment is necessary. α is determined by experiment or the like
so that the determination result is optimal.
[0084]
The adjustment determination unit 147 uses the perceptual burden degree HL determined by the
above equation (9) by the perceptual burden degree calculation unit 146 to determine whether
or not volume adjustment is necessary. That is, it is determined whether the degree of auditory
burden HL is larger than a predetermined threshold value HLt, determination of necessity of
adjustment is performed based on the determination result, and determination result information
JI is output. The threshold HLt is predetermined, stored in the state determination unit 14, and
supplied to the adjustment determination unit 147.
[0085]
As described above, in the above example, α · (MT + NT) is added to the sound pressure
information PB, but this is received based on the movement of the telephone equipped with the
voice output device and the pressure change around the speaker. The burden on the listener is
estimated and used to determine the necessity of volume adjustment.
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[0086]
In order to make the influence on the determination of the volume adjustment necessity different
between the movement determination result information MT and the pressure determination
result information NT, the auditory burden degree HL is calculated by HL = PB + α 1 · MT + α 2
· NT (10) You may
Here, α1 and α2 are weighting coefficients individually determined for the movement
determination result information MT and the pressure determination result information NT,
respectively, and are determined in the same manner as α described above.
[0087]
Furthermore, the method of calculating the degree of auditory burden HL is not limited to
Formula (9) or Formula (10) above. Further, the threshold HLt for the degree of auditory burden
HL may also be gradually reduced with the lapse of time from the start of the volume adjustment,
as described for the threshold PBt for sound pressure information in the first embodiment.
Furthermore, the threshold HLt may be arbitrarily set by the designer according to the device
characteristic to be used.
[0088]
Further, the movement information MA and the pressure value NA may be used directly for
calculation of the degree of auditory burden HL and for calculation of the adjustment coefficient
KA without using the movement judgment result information MT and the pressure judgment
result information NT.
[0089]
Furthermore, in the above embodiment, the auditory burden detection unit 53 includes the sound
pressure detection unit 15, the movement detection unit 51, and the pressure detection unit 52,
but at least one of the above three members is It should just exist.
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For example, the auditory burden detection unit 53 may be configured by the sound pressure
detection unit 15 and the movement detection unit 51, and even if the auditory burden detection
unit 53 is configured by the sound pressure detection unit 15 and the pressure detection unit 52
The auditory burden detection unit 53 may be configured of only the movement detection unit
51.
[0090]
As described above, by utilizing the movement information and the pressure information, it is
possible to recognize the listening condition of the listener, and it is possible to provide a voice
suitable for the listener. In addition, since the effects of the above-described embodiment can also
be obtained, it is possible to provide a voice with less discomfort and less discomfort.
[0091]
The fifth embodiment has been described above as a modification to the first embodiment, but
the same modification can be applied to the second, third, and fourth embodiments.
[0092]
Furthermore, the features described in the first to fifth embodiments can be used in combination.
For example, the feature described in the third embodiment may be combined with the feature
described in the fourth embodiment. Furthermore, a plurality of output adjustment units
described in the first to fifth embodiments may be provided. For example, the output adjustment
unit of the third embodiment may be provided downstream of the output adjustment unit of the
fourth embodiment.
[0093]
Furthermore, with regard to the first embodiment, the modification described with reference to
FIG. 3 may be applied to the second to fifth embodiments. Furthermore, regarding the first
embodiment, it has been described that determination of necessity of volume adjustment and
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determination of adjustment coefficient KA may be performed using sound pressure value
obtained by one measurement instead of sound pressure average value. However, the same
applies to the second to fifth embodiments.
[0094]
In the above embodiment, the output adjustment unit 11 has been described as attenuating the
input voice signal, but as the output adjustment unit 11, one having an amplification function is
used to adjust the amplification degree with the adjustment coefficient. Also good.
[0095]
Although the audio output device of the present invention has been described above as being
realized by hardware, it can also be realized by software, that is, by a programmed computer.
[0096]
Although the audio output device of the present invention has been described above as being
incorporated in a portable telephone, it can be incorporated in a telephone other than the
portable telephone, and can also be applied to other audio reproduction devices.
In this case, it is possible to change the threshold used in the determination of the volume
adjustment necessity or the method of detecting the sound pressure according to the application.
[0097]
It is a block diagram which shows the audio | voice output device of Embodiment 1 of this
invention.
It is a block diagram which shows an example of the state determination part 14 of FIG. 7 is a
graph showing an example of an adjustment coefficient KA which changes with time in the audio
output device of the first embodiment. It is a block diagram which shows the modification of the
audio | voice output device of Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a block diagram which shows
the audio | voice output device of Embodiment 2 of this invention. It is a block diagram which
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shows the audio | voice output device of Embodiment 3 of this invention. It is a block diagram
which shows the audio | voice output device of Embodiment 4 of this invention. It is a block
diagram which shows the audio | voice output device of Embodiment 5 of this invention. It is a
block diagram which shows an example of the state determination part 14 of FIG.
Explanation of sign
[0098]
11 output adjustment unit, 12 voice output unit, 13 adjustment control unit, 14 state
determination unit, 15 sound pressure detection unit, 16 state storage unit, 17 speaker, 18
microphone, 21 time control unit, 31 intensity analysis unit, 32 intensity storage 33 storage
units 41 characteristic analysis unit 42 characteristic application unit 43 adjustment coefficient
generation unit 51 movement detection unit 52 pressure detection unit 53 auditory burden
detection unit 141 average calculation unit 142 adjustment determination unit.
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