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DESCRIPTION JP2010087864

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DESCRIPTION JP2010087864
An object of the present invention is to collect a sound according to a distance from a sound
collection target and a sound pressure thereof by using a plurality of sound collection means. A
sound collection device (10) includes microphones (110a, 110b, 110c) in a housing (100) having
an opening (100A) opening in a sound collection direction. The microphones 110a, 110b and
110c are arranged such that the distances with respect to the sound collection direction are
different. In addition, the sound collection device 10 includes a damping member 140 that
attenuates the sound, and the sound collected by the microphone 110b is smaller (weaker) than
the sound collected by the microphone 110a, and the sound collected by the microphone 110b
The sound picked up by the microphone 110c is made smaller than the sound to be picked up.
[Selected figure] Figure 1
Sound pickup device
[0001]
The present invention relates to a technology for picking up sound.
[0002]
There is a technique of adding and collecting sound collection results by a plurality of sound
collection means.
For example, Patent Document 1 describes a technique for adding and outputting an audio signal
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from a microphone capsule provided on the front side of a microphone cabinet and an audio
signal from a microphone capsule provided on the rear side of the microphone cabinet. It is done.
JP-A-8-79882
[0003]
When the sound collection results by a plurality of sound collection means are added and output,
an undesirable output result may be obtained. For example, when one of the plurality of sound
collection means approaches the sound source and the volume from the sound source is
excessive, the sound from the sound source may be split, etc., and a distorted sound different
from the original sound It may be picked up as Therefore, an object of the present invention is to
make it possible to collect a sound according to the distance from the sound collection target and
the sound pressure thereof by using a plurality of sound collection means.
[0004]
A sound pickup apparatus according to the present invention is provided with a plurality of
sound pickup means which are disposed from a position near to the sound pickup direction to a
position far from the position and which generates sound signals according to the sound picked
up by each. The apparatus is characterized by comprising: selection means for selecting at least
one of the sound means; and output means for outputting an audio signal generated by the
sound collection means selected by the selection means.
[0005]
The sound collection device according to the present invention may be configured to include an
attenuation member for attenuating the sound between the sound collection means adjacent to
the sound collection direction.
In the sound collection device according to the present invention, the selection means selects a
first sound collection means near the sound collection direction among the plurality of sound
collection means, and the first sound collection means is When the sound pressure represented
by the sound signal obtained by sound collection exceeds a predetermined level for a
predetermined period, the sound pickup device is at a position farther from the sound collection
direction than the first sound collection means among the plurality of sound collection means.
The second sound collection means may be selected. In the sound collection device according to
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the present invention, the selection means selects a first sound collection means far from the
sound collection direction among the plurality of sound collection means, and the first sound
collection means is When the sound pressure represented by the sound signal obtained by sound
collection falls below a predetermined level for a predetermined period, the sound pickup
direction among the plurality of sound collection means is closer to the sound collection direction
than the first sound collection means The second sound collection means may be selected. In the
sound collection device according to the present invention, the output means includes a first
sound signal generated by the sound collection means selected by the selection means, and a
second sound signal generated by another sound collection means. May be output with the
respective gains relatively different.
[0006]
According to the present invention, it is possible to use a plurality of sound collection means to
collect a sound according to the distance from the sound collection target and the sound
pressure thereof.
[0007]
Embodiment FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view showing an internal configuration of a sound
collection device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
The sound collection device 10 shown in the figure includes a plurality of microphones 110 a,
110 b and 110 c housed in a housing 100. The sound collection device 10 has an opening 100A
at a position corresponding to the sound collection direction of the housing 100, and is used by a
user to direct the opening 100A to a sound collection target. The microphones 110a, 110b and
110c are arranged side by side so that the distances from the opening 100A are different.
Specifically, the microphone 110a is located closest to the opening 100A, and the microphone
110c is located farthest from the opening 100A. The microphones 110a, 110b and 110c have
different positions, but the internal configuration is the same. In the following, when it is not
necessary to distinguish the microphones 110a, 110b and 110c, they are collectively referred to
as the "microphone 110". The microphone 110 is an example of the sound collection unit in the
present invention, and is a silicon microphone in the present embodiment, but may be another
microphone. Moreover, the sound collection apparatus 10 may be equipped with the power
supply which is not shown in figure inside, and may operate | move by what is called a plug-in
power system.
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[0008]
Here, a silicon microphone refers to a microphone that can be manufactured using a
manufacturing process of a semiconductor integrated circuit. Silicon microphones can be
manufactured by MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology and are relatively
compact. For example, in the case of a silicon microphone, the diameters of the diaphragm and
the back plate can be about several mm (for example, about 1.0 mm), and can be further reduced.
[0009]
FIG. 2 is a view showing the microphone 110a (and 110b) and the periphery thereof, and is a
view showing the microphone 110a from the sound collecting direction side. The microphone
110 a is fixed in position by being supported by the support portion 100 </ b> B protruding
from the inner wall surface of the housing 100. Further, a damping member 140 is provided in
the vicinity of the microphone 110a. The damping member 140 is made of a material that
attenuates sound, and is, for example, a porous sound absorbing material or a sound absorbing
film. The attenuation member 140 is provided between the microphone 110 a and the
microphone 110 b and between the microphone 110 b and the microphone 110 c. The
attenuation member 140 is provided so as to include at least one of the paths of the sound
collected by the microphone 110 on the side far from the sound collection direction. That is, the
attenuation member 140 attenuates the sound collected by the microphone 110b more than the
sound collected by the microphone 110a, and the sound collected by the microphone 110c
attenuates the sound collected by the microphone 110b. It is provided as. Therefore, the
damping member 140 may be provided to fill the entire space between the microphone 110
closer to the sound collection direction and the microphone 110 farther from the sound
collection direction.
[0010]
FIG. 3 is a diagram schematically showing the configuration of the microphone 110 of the
present embodiment. As shown in the figure, the microphone 110 has a diaphragm 111 and a
back plate 112 formed on a silicon substrate 118 having an acoustic port, and also includes a
resistor 113, a preamplifier 114, and lead wires 115-117. Although the resistor 113, the
preamplifier 114, and the lead wires 115 to 117 are outside the cover indicated by the two-dot
chain line, they may be housed inside the cover. The diaphragm 111 is a semiconductor film
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such as polycrystalline silicon and vibrates in response to a sound. The back plate 112 is fixedly
provided to face the diaphragm 111 at a predetermined distance. The back plate 112 is a
semiconductor such as polycrystalline silicon similar to the diaphragm 111, is connected to the
grounded lead wire 116, and is insulated from the diaphragm 111. The diaphragm 111 and the
back plate 112 have, for example, a circular shape, but may have a shape in which a portion of a
circle is cut away, a hole, or the like, or may have a polygonal shape.
[0011]
FIG. 4 is a view showing a configuration example of the diaphragm 111 and the back plate 112.
As shown in FIG. In the figure, the diaphragm 111 is circular smaller than the outer periphery of
the back plate 112, and has a plurality of through holes. The back plate 112 has a central
circular portion and an outer circumferential annular portion, which are integrated by a plurality
of arms. That is, the back plate 112 is a circular member in which a fan-shaped portion
corresponding to a gap between adjacent arm portions is cut. The number and shape of the arms
are arbitrary. In addition, the back plate 112 has a plurality of holes similarly to the diaphragm
111.
[0012]
Capacitance is accumulated between the diaphragm 111 and the back plate 112. The capacitance
fluctuates as the diaphragm 111 vibrates and the distance (distance) between the diaphragm 111
and the back plate 112 changes.
[0013]
The resistor 113 has a predetermined electrical resistance, and the diaphragm 111 is connected
to the preamplifier 114 through the lead wire 117. The preamplifier 114 is connected to a lead
wire 117 connected to the diaphragm 111 and a lead wire 115 grounded, and amplifies a change
in capacitance between the diaphragm 111 and the back plate 112 as a voltage change and
outputs Do. Note that these electric circuits may be formed on the silicon substrate 110 as the
diaphragm 111 and the back plate 112 are. For example, after these electrical circuits are
formed, movable microstructures such as the diaphragm 111 can be formed while protecting
them.
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[0014]
With the above configuration, the microphone 110 converts a change in sound, that is, a change
in sound pressure into an electrical signal, amplifies this, and outputs it as an audio signal. That
is, the microphone 110 generates an audio signal which is an electrical signal corresponding to
the capacitance between the diaphragm 111 and the back plate 112 which changes according to
the input of audio.
[0015]
FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the sound collection device 10. As shown
in FIG. As shown in the figure, in addition to the microphones 110a, 110b, and 110c, the sound
collection device 10 includes an operation unit 120 that receives an operation of the user, and an
audio processing unit 130 that performs predetermined processing on an audio signal. . The
operation unit 120 includes a button and a switch, and switches the sound collection level of the
sound collection by the sound collection device 10. The operation unit 120 generates an
operation signal according to the sound collection level designated by the user, and supplies the
operation signal to the sound processing unit 130. In the present embodiment, it is assumed that
the operation unit 120 is configured to be able to specify the sound collection level to one of
three levels of “high”, “medium”, and “small”. Here, the case where the sound collection
level is "high" refers to the case where the sound from the sound collection target is collected
more (strongly), and the case where the sound collection level is "low" is used. This refers to the
case where the sound from the sound collection target is collected smaller (weakly), and the case
where the sound collection level is "medium" refers to the case of "large" and the case of "small".
It refers to the case where sound is picked up at the level between them.
[0016]
More specifically, the audio processing unit 130 includes a selection unit 131 and an output unit
132. The selection unit 131 is an example of selection means in the present invention, and the
output unit 132 is an example of output means in the present invention. The selection unit 131
selects one of the audio signals output by the microphones 110 a, 110 b and 110 c, and switches
the audio signal to be selected according to the operation signal supplied by the operation unit
120. The output unit 132 has, for example, a predetermined output terminal, and outputs the
audio signal selected by the selection unit 131 to an external device. The output unit 132 may
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convert an audio signal which is an analog signal into digital data, and output (send) the digital
data by wireless or wired communication means, or may store the digital data in a storage means
such as a flash memory. It may be output (stored).
[0017]
The configuration of the sound collection device 10 of the present embodiment is as described
above. When using the sound collection device 10, the user designates the sound collection level
by the operation unit 120. The sound collection device 10 collects sound in a mode according to
the sound collection level designated by the user. The user may connect an external device such
as a speaker to the sound collection device 10, and switch the sound collection level while
listening to the sound collected by the sound collection device 10.
[0018]
When the sound collection device 10 obtains an operation signal indicating that the sound
collection level is "high", the sound collection device 10 outputs an audio signal collected by the
microphone 110a, and an operation indicating that the sound collection level is "medium" When
a signal is obtained, an audio signal collected by the microphone 110b is output, and when an
operation signal indicating that the collection level is "small" is obtained, an audio signal collected
by the microphone 110c is output. At this time, in the sound collection device 10, the selection
unit 131 selects an audio signal according to the operation signal so that an audio signal other
than the selected audio signal is not output.
[0019]
According to the sound collection device 10 of the present embodiment, when the sound
collection level is “high”, a sound with less attenuation as the sound signal is compared to the
case where the sound collection level is “medium” or “small”. It is output. That is, the sound
pressure level of the sound collected when the sound collection level is "high" is relatively large.
On the other hand, when the sound collection level is "low", the sound with more attenuation, ie,
a sound with a relatively low sound pressure level, is an audio signal, as compared to the case
where the sound collection level is "medium" or "high". Is output as
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[0020]
Therefore, the user can use this sound collection device 10 to select an aspect of sound collection
according to the situation. For example, when "high" is set as the sound collection level in
advance and sound collection is started, when a distorted sound signal is generated such that the
sound to be collected is too loud and exceeds the dynamic range of the microphone 110, By
switching the sound collection level to "medium" or "small", it is possible to obtain an audio signal
with less distortion. Also, when the sound collection level is set to "medium", it is possible to
switch the sound collection level to "high" to obtain an audio signal with a larger sound pressure
level when the sound collected is too small. is there.
[0021]
The degree of attenuation in the plurality of microphones 110 can be changed by adjusting the
distance between the microphones 110 or by adjusting the amount of the attenuation member
140. In this case, the damping member 140 may not be provided to further reduce the degree of
damping. Also, the number of microphones 110 may be increased or decreased to increase or
decrease the level of the sound collection level.
[0022]
[Modifications] The present invention can be implemented in a mode different from the
embodiment described above. The following modification is an example of a modification
applicable to the present invention.
[0023]
(1) Modified Example 1 In the present invention, the selection means may select the sound
collection means regardless of the operation by the user. The selection means first selects, for
example, a predetermined sound collection means as a reference sound collection means, and
changes the sound collection means to be selected from the reference sound collection means
when a predetermined condition is satisfied. It may be one. The selection means will be described
using the microphones 110a, 110b and 110c of the above-described embodiment as in the
following example. That is, the selecting means first selects the microphone 110b as the
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reference sound collecting means, and detects the sound pressure level of the audio signal
generated by the microphone 110b, and the detected sound pressure level is a predetermined
level (first When the sound pressure level is exceeded for a predetermined period, the sound
collection means to be selected is changed to the microphone 110c, while the detected sound
pressure level is different from the first sound pressure level by a predetermined level (second
sound pressure level) Is selected for a predetermined period, the sound collection means to be
selected is changed to the microphone 110a. According to such selection means, it is possible to
switch the sound collection means so that a more appropriate sound is collected when the sound
pressure of the collected sound is not appropriate (ie, it is excessive or too small). Become.
[0024]
In the present example, the reference sound collection means may be selected from any of a
plurality of sound collection means. Moreover, the "predetermined period" in this example does
not have to be continuous regardless of the length. For example, assuming that the
"predetermined period" in this example is "one second", the selection unit is one second in total
after the sound pressure level starts to collect for a period in which the sound pressure level
exceeds the first sound pressure level. If it becomes above, the sound collection means of
selection object may be switched, and if the period when the sound pressure level exceeded the
1st sound pressure level becomes continuously 1 second or more, the sound collection means of
selection object May be switched.
[0025]
(2) Modification 2 FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing a configuration of an output adjustment unit
applicable to the present invention. The sound collection device according to the present
invention may include this output adjustment unit 150 instead of the selection unit 131 shown in
FIG. The output adjustment unit 150 includes output adjusters 151a, 151b, and 151c
corresponding to the microphones 110a, 110b, and 110c, respectively, and adjusts and outputs
the gain of the audio signal output from the microphones 110a, 110b, and 110c. Do. The output
adjusters 151a, 151b and 151c determine the gain in accordance with the operation signal
supplied from the operation unit 130. When the sound collection level is “high”, the output
adjustment unit 150 outputs the sound signal output from the microphone 110 a with the gain
relatively larger than that of the other sound signals. Similarly, when the sound collection level is
“medium”, the output adjustment unit 150 relatively increases the gain of the sound signal
output by the microphone 110 b compared to other sound signals, and the sound collection level
“ In the case of “small”, the gain of the audio signal output by the microphone 110 c is made
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relatively larger than that of the other audio signals. At this time, the output unit 132
superimposes the audio signal output from the output adjustment unit 150 and outputs the
superimposed signal. In this case, if the gain of the relatively smaller audio signal is 0, the same
output result as that of the above-described embodiment can be obtained.
[0026]
A cross-sectional view showing the internal configuration of the sound collecting device and a
diagram showing the configuration of the microphone and its surroundings. A diagram
schematically showing the configuration of the microphone. A block diagram showing the
configuration of the diaphragm and back plate. A block diagram showing the configuration of the
sound collecting device Block diagram showing the configuration
Explanation of sign
[0027]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Sound collection apparatus, 110, 110a, 110b, 110c ...
Microphone, 120 ... Operation part, 130 ... Audio processing part, 131 ... Selection part, 132 ...
Output part, 140 ... Attenuation member, 150 ... Output adjustment part
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