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DESCRIPTION JP2015506157

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DESCRIPTION JP2015506157
A technique for applying waveform shaping to DC-DC level transitions in an audio amplifier. In
one aspect, the waveform shaping block may utilize, for example, a non-linear shaped waveform,
such as a Gaussian waveform, raised cosine waveform, root raised cosine waveform, etc., to shape
the transition between two DC levels of the audio amplifier output. . Waveform shaping
techniques may be utilized, for example, during amplifier power-up or power-down, or in an
impedance measurement mode, to minimize overall transition time while reducing audio artifacts
associated with the transition.
Waveform shaping for audio amplifiers
[0001]
[0001] This patent application claims priority to provisional patent application no. 61/570, 740,
entitled "Waveform shaping for audio amplifiers," filed Dec. 14, 2011. It claims priority over, and
as a result, is assigned to this assignee and is expressly incorporated by reference herein.
[0002]
[0002] The present disclosure relates to the design of audio amplifiers, and more particularly to
waveform shaping for audio amplifiers.
[0003]
[0003]
11-04-2019
1
In the operation of audio power amplifiers (PA's), certain operational scenarios are to be taken
from one DC voltage level to another level of voice voltage PA. Request output.
For example, during the initial start-up or power-down of voice PA, a DC bias or offset voltage
may be established at the output of PA or removed from the output of PA.
In particular, DC levels are usually present at the output of the amplifier, for example, during
class A or AB operation. In this case, Vout may rise from 0 volts to a DC level during start up of
the amplifier, and conversely, Vout may fall from DC level to 0 volts during shutdown of the
amplifier. Alternatively, the output voltage of the PA may also transition between two or more
voltage levels during impedance measurement mode, for example, multiple voltage-current
measurements to determine the impedance of the audio load. In the output of PA.
[0004]
[0004]
In each scenario, rising or falling transitions (transitioning up or down) of the output of the
amplifier from one DC level to another may produce unnecessary audio artifacts. For example,
such transitions may result in audible "pops" or "clicks" that can be recognized by the user of the
audio device. A "ramping" waveform may be employed to minimize such audio artifacts that are
captured as the output of the amplifier transitions from one DC level to another. In particular,
instead of allowing the amplifier to transition directly from one DC level to another in an
uncontrolled manner, the transition may be controlled, for example linearly spread out over a
period of time. Through such ramping, audio artifacts at the output of the amplifier are
significantly reduced. However, it would be desirable to provide techniques to further reduce
such audio artifacts, as well as provide faster convergence to the final desired DC level over time.
[0005]
[0005]
In general, linear ramping profiles do not necessarily provide the best trade-off between
minimizing the audio artifacts generated by the transition and minimizing the required transition
time. is not. It would be desirable to provide an additional technique to minimize audio artifacts
that simultaneously results in rapid convergence of the output of the amplifier to the desired DC
voltage level.
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2
[0006]
FIG. 1 shows an exemplary scenario 100 in which the techniques of this disclosure may be
applied. FIG. 2 shows an audio output component as known in the art. FIG. 3 shows a plot of
voltage Vin and Vout when a transition of voltage levels appears. FIG. 4 shows a plot of an
exemplary power spectral density (PSD) of Vin or Vout corresponding to the uncontrolled DC-DC
transition shown in FIG. FIG. 5 shows an exemplary embodiment according to the present
disclosure, wherein a waveform shaping block 212 is provided between the signal generator 210
and the audio amplifier 220. FIG. 6 shows Vin_pre vs Vin time domain plots for an exemplary
low-to-high voltage transition of Vin_pre. FIG. 6A illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a
particular waveform shaping scheme. FIG. 6B shows a time domain plot of Vin as a sample
“raised cosine” waveform is applied to shape Vin. FIG. 7 shows a plot of the power spectral
density of the time domain signal shown in FIG. FIG. 8 shows an exemplary implementation of
waveform shaping block 212. FIG. 9 shows an alternative exemplary embodiment in which a
waveform shaping block is provided between the audio amplifier and the audio load. FIG. 10
illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a method in accordance with the present disclosure. FIG.
11 shows an alternative exemplary embodiment of the method according to the present
disclosure. FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a system that combines load
impedance measurements in accordance with the present disclosure with waveform shaping
techniques.
Detailed description
[0007]
[0020]
Various aspects of the present disclosure are described in further detail below with reference to
the accompanying drawings. However, the disclosure should not be construed as being embodied
in many different forms and limited to any particular structure or function represented
throughout the disclosure. Rather, these aspects will fully convey the scope of the present
disclosure to one of ordinary skill in the art by providing the present disclosure with processing
and completion. Given the teachings herein, one of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that
the scope of the present disclosure, whether practiced independently or in combination from any
other aspect of the disclosure, can be any of the disclosures disclosed herein. It should be
understood that it is intended to cover some aspects. For example, an apparatus may be
11-04-2019
3
implemented or a method may be practiced using any of the aspects described herein. Further,
the scope of the present disclosure covers apparatuses or methods implemented using other
structures, functions, or structures and functions in addition to or other than the various aspects
of the present disclosure described herein. It is intended. It should be understood that any aspect
of the disclosure disclosed herein may be embodied by one or more elements of a claim.
[0008]
[0021]
The detailed description set forth below in connection with the accompanying drawings is
intended to illustrate exemplary aspects of the present invention and is intended to represent
only exemplary aspects in which the present invention may be practiced. It is not a thing. The
term "exemplary" as used throughout this specification means "serving as an example, example,
or figure" and is necessarily understood to be preferred or advantageous over other exemplary
aspects. It should not be done. The detailed description includes specific details for the purpose
of providing a thorough understanding of the exemplary aspects of the invention. It will be
apparent to one skilled in the art that the exemplary aspects of the present invention may be
practiced without these specific details. In some instances, well-known structures and devices are
shown in block diagram form in order to avoid obscuring the novelty of the exemplary aspects
presented herein.
[0009]
[0022]
FIG. 1 shows an exemplary scenario 100 in which the techniques of this disclosure may be
applied. It will be understood that FIG. 1 is shown for illustrative purposes only and is not meant
to limit the scope of the present disclosure to the particular system shown. For example, it will be
appreciated that the techniques disclosed herein may be readily applied to audio devices other
than those shown in FIG. Furthermore, this technology can also be easily adopted in other types
of audio devices, such as, for example, home stereo systems, other multimedia devices
incorporating audio, devices incorporating built-in speakers, etc. Such alternative exemplary
embodiments are considered to be within the scope of the present disclosure.
[0010]
[0023]
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4
In FIG. 1, headset 110 includes left (L) headphones 115, right (R) headphones 120, and
microphone 130. These components of headset 110 are electrically coupled to the terminals of
plug 150, which is insertable into jack 160 of audio device 140. The jacks 160 need not project
from the surface of the device 140, as suggested by FIG. 1, and furthermore the size of the
elements shown in FIG. 1 are not generally drawn to scale. It should be noted that. Device 140
may be, for example, a mobile phone, an MP3 player, a home stereo system, etc.
[0011]
[0024]
Voice and / or other signals are exchanged between device 140 and headset 110 via plug 150
and jack 160. Plug 150 receives an audio signal from jack 160 and sends the signal to the left
and right headphones of headset 110. The plug 150 further couples the electrical signal to the
jack 160 using the audio content generated by the microphone 130, and the microphone signal
may be further processed by the device 140. It should be noted that the plug 150 may further
include terminals not shown for transmitting other types of signals, such as control signals, for
example.
[0012]
[0025]
FIG. 2 shows an audio output component as known in the art. In FIG. 2, the signal generator 210
generates a voltage Vin that is input to the audio power amplifier 220. The audio power amplifier
220 amplifies the voltage Vin to generate an output voltage Vout, which drives an audio load
230 with an effective impedance ZL. The audio load 230 may correspond to, for example, an
audio speaker, headphones, etc.
[0013]
[0026]
In theory, the voltage Vin generated by the signal generator 210 and provided to the audio
power amplifier 220 is a desired audio output, such as voice, music, digitally synthesized sound,
etc., at the audio load 230 (a desired It will be appreciated that it consists of an audio signal
component that produces an audio output. However, in certain processing scenarios, Vin and its
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5
corresponding Vout may include non-audio signal components that are associated with voltage
transitions, such as from DC voltage levels to other levels. For example, such voltage transitions
may occur when the audio power amplifier 220 is initially powered on and a DC bias or offset
voltage is established. Alternatively, voltage transitions may occur during certain control modes,
eg, during time intervals associated with measurement of voice load impedance, as described
further below.
[0014]
[0027]
FIG. 3 shows a plot of the voltages Vin and Vout when voltage level transitions appear. It should
be noted that FIG. 3 is shown for illustrative purposes only, and is not intended to limit the scope
of the present disclosure to any particular type of transition of voltage levels. In FIG. 3, Vin
transitions from a first DC level V1 at time t1 to a second DC level V2 at time t2 (ie, a DC-to-DC
transition occurs). . The output voltage Vout transitions correspondingly from V1 'to V2' during
the time interval from time t1 'to t2'. Note that the horizontal and vertical axes of Vin and Vout in
FIG. 3 are generally not shown to scale and may, of course, depend on the response time of the
amplifier, for example, the magnitude of the amplifier gain. It should. Furthermore, in FIG. 3, the
amplifier gain is shown as positive for the purpose of illustration only (ie, an upward transition at
Vin corresponds to an upward transition at Vout) and It should be noted that the disclosed
technology can be easily applied to alternative exemplary embodiments where the amplifier gain
is negative.
[0015]
[0028]
In prior art implementations, the voltage and timing characteristics of the V1-V2 transition and /
or the V1'-V2 'transition are not otherwise controlled, eg, V1' to V2 'of the output of the amplifier
The transition of can be directly dependent on the transition specification of the voltage level of
the amplifier, eg rise-time or fall-time of the output of the amplifier given the corresponding
voltage transition at the input . Alternatively, in certain prior art implementations, the V1-V2
transition and the corresponding V1'-V2 'transition rise or fall in a straight ramp configuration. )
Configured so that the transition between the two input DC levels of Vin results in a straight-line
linear transition between the two output DC levels of Vout as a result. obtain.
[0016]
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6
[0029]
FIG. 4 shows a plot of an exemplary power spectral density (PSD) of Vin or Vout corresponding
to the uncontrolled DC-DC transition shown in FIG. It is understood that the DC-DC transition of
FIG. 3 may produce significant spectral components of Vout, for example, within the audio
frequency range between frequencies f1 and f2, as shown in FIG. Will. In an exemplary
embodiment, f1 may correspond to 20 Hz and f2 may correspond to 20 kHz. Next, when Vout is
coupled to the audio load 230, these spectral components may generate audio artifacts in the
audio load 230, for example, in the form of clicks, pops, and / or other noise. It would be
desirable to provide techniques for minimizing such audio artifacts in the audio load 230. At the
same time, it may be desirable to minimize the transition time as shown in FIG. 3, for example the
time interval t2'-t1 '.
[0017]
[0030]
FIG. 5 illustrates an exemplary embodiment in accordance with the present disclosure, wherein a
waveform shaping block 212 is provided between the signal generator 210 and the audio
amplifier 220. The waveform shaping block 212 receives as an input the output generated by the
signal generator 210, labeled Vin_pre in FIG. Waveform shaping block 212 further generates an
output labeled Vin for audio amplifier 220. In operation, waveform shaping block 212 detects
DC-DC transitions of voltage Vin_pre and “shapes” the corresponding transitions of Vin
according to a pre-selected transition waveform profile. configured to "shape". The preselected
waveform profiles may be Gaussian waveforms, raised-cosine waveforms, root-raised cosine
waveforms, truncated sinc pulse waveforms And / or other pulse shaping waveforms known in
the art. These waveform profiles may shape Vin to be generally non-linear. It should be noted in
this context that the term "nonlinear" indicates that the DC-DC transition between voltage levels
is not simply characterized by a straight line. For example, a non-linear waveform profile may be
piecewise linear, that is, including linear segments with various features.
[0018]
[0031]
In an exemplary embodiment, waveform shaping block 212 may be provided with a
configuration signal 212a that indicates a time interval during which voltage transitions within
Vin_pre may be advantageously shaped. In this manner, waveform shaping block 212 may avoid
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unnecessarily shaping the output Vin_pre of the signal generator during the time interval when
Vin_pre is found to contain only speech components. For example, signal 212a may signal a time
interval corresponding to PA power-up, power-down, or impedance measurement mode. In an
alternative exemplary embodiment, configuration signal 212a may be omitted, and instead
waveform shaping block 212 is configured to determine when to shape Vin_pre directly based
on the analysis of Vin_pre. obtain.
[0019]
[0032]
FIG. 6 shows time domain plots of Vin_pre and Vin for an exemplary low-to-high voltage
transition in Vin_pre for Vin_pre. In FIG. 6, Vin_pre is characterized by an exemplary time
domain function f (t) that includes a low to high voltage transition at time t1. After processing by
the waveform shaping block 212, during the time interval for which waveform shaping is
applied, the voltage Vin is characterized by f '(t) of the shaped version (a shaped version) of the
function f (t) .
[0020]
[0033]
FIG. 6A illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a particular waveform shaping scheme. The
particular scheme for shaping f (t) to produce f '(t) shown in FIG. 6A is described for illustrative
purposes only, and any particular waveform shaping scheme It should be noted that the scope of
the present disclosure is not limited to this. In FIG. 6A, f (t) is shown on the left hand side and is
further characterized mathematically as the following function: f (t) = V1 + x (t) = V1 + ΔV.
Where V1 is the initial voltage at time t1, ΔV is defined as the difference between the last (V2)
of Vin_pre and the first (V1) transition voltage, and · is the multiplication operation And u (t)
correspond to a unit step function. Further, shown on the right hand side of FIG. 6A is an
exemplary shaped waveform function f '(t) characterized as follows: f' (t) = V1 + x (t) .p ( t); where
p (t) is a raised cosine function and is defined as shown in FIG. 6A.
[0021]
[0034]
FIG. 6B shows a time domain plot of Vin when the exemplary raised cosine pulse described in
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FIG. 6A is applied to shape Vin. In FIG. 6B, the shaped waveform is a ramped waveform across
the horizontal time axis (ie, a transition that is processed according to a straight-line linear
interpolation) Compared with. Both raised cosine and the ramp waveforms converge to the
desired DC level of Vout = 1 after 1 hour unit, but raised cosine waveforms with the
appropriately selected T It should be noted that it may converge to 90% of the last Vout level
earlier than it does. Furthermore, the scale of the horizontal and vertical axes in FIG. 6B is
arbitrarily chosen to highlight the principles of the present disclosure and is not intended to limit
the scope of the present disclosure.
[0022]
[0035]
FIG. 7 shows an exemplary power spectral density plot of the time domain signal shown in FIG.
From FIG. 7, for example, as a result of waveform shaping using the raised cosine profile
described herein, the power of Vin located within the audio frequency range from f1 to f2 is
relative to the power of the unshaped waveform Vin_pre [0036] Given the above, one skilled in
the art will appreciate that the waveform shaping operation may also be performed using other
techniques not specifically described in the specification. . For example, pulse shapes other than
raised cosine pulse shape (e.g., Gaussian pulse shape, etc.) may selectively DC-DC level transitions
as described. It can be used to shape. Furthermore, alternative operations may also be applied,
for example, to certain exemplary embodiments, where the time domain function f (t) is f ′ (t), ie
the shaping chosen to generate the following equation F ′ (t) = f (t) * p (t), where * is the
convolution operation, and may be convoluted with the selected shaped waveform impulse
response And p (t) represents the shaped waveform impulse response. These alternative
exemplary embodiments are intended to be within the scope of the present disclosure.
[0023]
[0037]
FIG. 8 shows an exemplary implementation of waveform shaping block 212. It should be noted
that FIG. 8 is shown for illustrative purposes only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the
present disclosure to any particular implementation of the waveform shaping block. Those skilled
in the art will appreciate that, given the disclosed technology, alternative implementations of the
waveform shaping block are derived, and such alternative exemplary embodiments are
considered to be within the scope of the present disclosure. .
11-04-2019
9
[0024]
[0038]
In FIG. 8, Vin_pre is provided as a digital signal to the waveform shaping operation block 810.
Block 810 may be configured to process Vin_pre according to the waveform shaping operation
as described above with reference to pulse shape coefficients stored in look-up table (LUT) 820.
The output of block 810 is then provided to the audio amplifier as described above. A further
step (not shown in FIG. 8) is to convert the digital output of block 810 into a suitable format for
driving the audio amplifier, for example digital analog conversion (DAC) circuitry and It should
be noted that it may be provided between audio amplifiers such as and / or other pre-processing
circuits.
[0025]
[0039] In an alternative exemplary embodiment, a pulse waveform is generated using an
equation calculated in a processor or other digital circuit, and such pulse waveform can be used
to generate a signal according to the techniques described herein. It can be used to shape.
[0026]
[0040]
FIG. 9 shows an alternative exemplary embodiment in which a waveform shaping block is
provided between the audio amplifier and the audio load.
In FIG. 9, the waveform shaping block 222 is provided with the output voltage Vout of the audio
amplifier 220, and the waveform shaping block 222 then generates a shaped output voltage
Vout_post for the audio load 230. In this exemplary embodiment, the output of audio amplifier
220 may be an analog voltage, so that waveform shaping block 222 may incorporate appropriate
component circuitry for processing and waveform shaping the analog voltage. It should be noted.
For example, waveform shaping block 222 may be followed by one or more digital-to-analog
converters (of DACs) and one or more analog-to-digital converters (of ADCs for converting Vout
into the digital domain for digital processing. May be included. Alternatively, waveform shaping
block 222 may directly process and shape the analog voltage in the analog domain. Such
alternative exemplary embodiments are intended to be within the scope of the present disclosure.
11-04-2019
10
[0027]
[0041] In the exemplary embodiment, waveform shaping block 222 may also be incorporated
into the output stage of audio amplifier 220.
[0028]
[0042]
FIG. 10 shows an exemplary embodiment of a method 1000 according to the present disclosure.
The method of FIG. 10 is shown for illustrative purposes only, and is not intended to limit the
scope of the present disclosure to any particular method indicated.
[0029]
[0043]
At block 1010 of FIG. 10, a signal is generated to drive the audio amplifier. This signal comprises
a transition between two DC levels during a transition period.
[0030]
[0044] At block 1020, prior to driving the audio amplifier, the signal is shaped during the
transition period to have a non-linear shaped waveform profile.
[0031]
[0045]
FIG. 11 shows an alternative exemplary embodiment of a method 1100 according to the present
disclosure.
At block 1110, an audio signal is generated.
[0032]
11-04-2019
11
[0046] At block 1120, the audio output signal is shaped such that the shaped audio signal has a
non-linear shaped waveform profile during the transition between the two DC levels of the audio
signal.
[0033]
[0047]
FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a system that combines load impedance
measurement and waveform shaping techniques in accordance with the present disclosure.
The exemplary embodiment of FIG. 12 is shown for illustrative purposes only, and is not
intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure to any particular implementation of a load
impedance measurement system. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the techniques
disclosed herein are readily adapted to generate a waveform shaped signal for an alternative load
impedance measurement system.
[0034]
[0048]
In FIG. 12, impedance measurement and control block 1220 programs input voltage setting
control block 1210. Block 1210 sets the voltage Vin_pre output by the signal generator to one of
a plurality of voltages suitable for determining the impedance of the audio load 230, as described
below. Following processing by waveform shaping block 212 and audio amplifier 220, audio
amplifier 220 drives audio load 230 using output voltage Vout and output current Iout. The
voltage / current measurement block 1230 may measure the voltage Vout that drives the audio
load 230 simultaneously with the corresponding current Iout drawn by the audio load 230.
These voltage and current measurements are provided to the original impedance calculation and
control block 1220, which calculates the impedance of the voice load 230 based on the
measured voltages and currents.
[0035]
[0049]
Techniques for measuring the impedance of the audio load 230, which are well known in the art,
11-04-2019
12
may suitably configure the signal generator 210 to generate multiple settings on Vin_pre, so that
Vout accordingly Set to multiple corresponding values over time. For example, in the exemplary
embodiment, it is desirable to set Vin_pre to at least two DC voltage settings Vin_pre (1) and
Vin_pre (2), such that at least two corresponding Vout values Vout (1) and Vout ( 2) Generate.
Two or more different voltage settings Vout (1) and Vout (2) enable the voltage / current
measurement block 1130 to obtain at least two corresponding voltage-current measurements
(Vout, Iout), so that Provide a more accurate measurement method.
[0036]
[0050]
In the exemplary embodiment, if the signal generator 210 is configured to set Vin_pre to
multiple voltage settings during impedance measurement, the waveform shaping techniques of
this disclosure will generate the shaped waveform Vin. It may be applied to shape Vin_pre. For
example, configuration signal 212a may configure waveform shaping block 212 to perform
waveform shaping when system 1200 is in an impedance measurement mode. In the impedance
mode in the exemplary embodiment, if Vin_pre is set to Vin_pre (1) and Vin_pre (2)
consecutively, the waveform shaping block 212 applies the waveform shaping techniques of the
present disclosure, so that The transition from Vin (1) to Vin (2) due to the transition from
Vin_pre (1) to Vin_pre (2) is a shaped waveform. This may advantageously reduce audio artifacts
that may occur in connection with the transitions, while also minimizing transition times.
[0037]
[0051]
The waveform shaping technique is also easily adapted to provide three or more settings of
Vin_pre so that impedance measurements can be generated when requesting three or more
different voltage-current measurements (Vout, Iout) It will be understood that. Further, the
impedance measurement system of FIG. 12 may also readily provide the exemplary embodiment
of FIG. 9, ie, where the waveform shaping block follows an audio amplifier. Such alternative
exemplary embodiments are considered to be within the scope of the present disclosure.
[0038]
[0052]
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13
Referring to “voltage” transitions herein, those skilled in the art will recognize that the
techniques disclosed herein may also be applied to other types of transitions, such as current
transitions in electromagnetic signals and / or other types of transitions. It should be noted that
it will be understood that it applies easily. Such alternative exemplary embodiments are
considered to be within the scope of the present disclosure.
[0039]
[0053]
In the present specification and claims, when an element is "connected" or "coupled" to another
element, it may be directly connected or coupled to the other element or there may be
intervening elements present Will be understood. On the other hand, if an element is considered
"directly connected" or "directly coupled" to another element, there are no intervening elements
present. Furthermore, if an element is considered “electrically coupled” to another element, a
low resistance path exists between such elements while the element is simply coupled to another
element. It means that low resistance paths may or may not exist between these elements.
[0040]
[0054]
Those skilled in the art will appreciate that information and signals may be represented using
any of a variety of different technologies and techniques. For example, data, instructions,
commands, information, signals, bits, symbols and chips that may be mentioned throughout the
above description may be voltage, current, electromagnetic waves, magnetic fields or magnetic
particles, optical fields or light particles, or any combination thereof Can be represented by
[0041]
[0055]
Those skilled in the art will further appreciate that the various exemplary logic blocks, modules,
circuits and algorithm steps described in connection with the exemplary aspects disclosed herein
may be electronic hardware, computer software, or both. It will be understood that it can be
implemented as a combination. To clearly illustrate this compatibility of hardware and software,
various illustrative components, blocks, modules, circuits, and steps have been described above
generally in terms of their functionality. Whether such functionality is implemented as hardware
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or software depends upon the particular application and design constraints imposed on the
overall system. Skilled artisans may implement the described functionality in varying respects for
each particular application, but such implementation decisions should not be interpreted as
causing a departure from the scope of the exemplary aspects of the present invention.
[0042]
[0056]
The various exemplary logic blocks, modules, and circuits described in connection with the
exemplary aspects disclosed herein may be implemented as general purpose processors, digital
signal processors (DSPs), application specific integrated circuits ASIC), field programmable gate
array (FPGA) or other programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete
hardware components, or designed to perform the functions described herein It may be
implemented or implemented using any combination of them. A general purpose processor may
be a microprocessor, but optionally, the processor may be any conventional processor, controller,
microcontroller, or state machine. The processor may also be implemented as a combination of
computing devices such as, for example, a combination of DSP and microprocessor, multiple
microprocessors, one or more microprocessors in conjunction with a DSP core, or any other such
configuration. .
[0043]
[0057]
The method or algorithmic steps described in connection with the exemplary aspects disclosed
herein may be embodied directly in hardware, in a software module executed by a processor, or
in a combination of the two. Software modules include random access memory (RAM), flash
memory, read only memory (ROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically
erasable ROM (EEPROM), registers, hard disk, removable disk , CD-ROM, or any other form of
storage medium known in the art. An exemplary storage medium is coupled to the processor
such that the processor can read information from, and write information to, the storage
medium. In the alternative, the storage medium may be integral to the processor. The processor
and the storage medium may reside in an ASIC. The ASIC may reside in a user terminal. In the
alternative, the processor and the storage medium may reside as discrete components in a user
terminal.
[0044]
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15
[0058]
In one or more exemplary aspects, the functions described may be implemented in hardware,
software, firmware, or any combination thereof. When implemented in software, the functions
may be stored on or transmitted across a computer readable medium as one or more instructions
or code. Computer-readable media includes both computer storage media and communication
media including any medium that facilitates transfer of a computer program from one place to
another. A storage media may be any available media that can be accessed by a computer. By
way of example and not limitation, such computer readable media may be RAM, ROM, EEPROM,
CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage device, or
instructions or data structures May be used to carry or store the desired program code, and may
comprise any other medium accessible by a computer. Similarly, any connection is properly
termed a computer-readable medium. For example, software may be from a web site, server, or
other remote source, using coaxial technology, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, digital subscriber
line (DSL), or wireless technology such as infrared, wireless, microwave, etc. When transmitted,
wireless technologies such as coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, DSL, or infrared,
wireless, microwave and the like are included in the definition of medium. Disks and discs, as
used herein, are compact discs (CDs), laser discs, optical discs, digital versatile discs (DVDs),
floppy discs and A disc includes a Blu-ray (registered trademark) disc, and a disc magnetically
reproduces data while a disc optically reproduces data using a laser. Combinations of the above
should also be included within the scope of computer readable media.
[0045]
[0059]
The previous description of the disclosed exemplary aspects is provided to enable any person
skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. Various modifications to these exemplary
aspects will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined
herein will be apparent to others without departing from the spirit or scope of the present
invention. Can be applied to various aspects. Thus, the present disclosure is not intended to limit
the exemplary aspects set forth in the present invention, but is to be accorded the widest scope
consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein. Intended for.
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