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DESCRIPTION JPS6139697

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DESCRIPTION JPS6139697
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to
variable directional microphones, and more particularly, to a variable directional microphone in
which directional microphones using a microphone array are made to have variable directivity.
(Conventional technology) Variable directional microphones are conventionally known, but
conventional variable directional microphones are designed to allow the directivity
characteristics of a single microphone to be varied in a narrow and wide manner. there were.
(Problems to be Solved by the Invention) For that reason, in the conventional variable directional
microphone, since a sharp directional characteristic can not be obtained in principle, the narrow
and wide variable range of the directional characteristic is narrow. On the other hand, as a
microphone having sharp directional characteristics, a microphone array in which a plurality of
microphone units are arranged in a required arrangement manner is conventionally known, but
in a directional microphone based on a microphone array, a directional microphone is
conventionally There has been no provision for narrowing and widening the characteristics. By
the way, for example, when a microphone array having sharp directional characteristics is used
for sound collection in stage relay etc., sound can be collected clearly from a distance without
picking up the reverberation of a hole too much. When a cast of 2 Å or more simultaneously
speaks, the voices of all the casts can not be picked up by one microphone array, and in such a
case, sound is picked up by a plurality of microphone arrays in this case. However, since
microphone arrays with sharp directional characteristics have a large form, when a plurality of
microphone arrays are used, for example, there is much space for operation. It becomes a
problem that it is needed or it gets in the way of the audience's play. The above problems can be
solved by making the micro-bon array variable in directional characteristics, and the appearance
of such a variable directional microphone array has been sought. (Means for Solving the
Problems) The present invention relates to a microphone array comprising a plurality of
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microphone units arranged in a required arrangement, and a center of the microphone unit
including at least one microphone unit in the center of the microphone array. Set the array area,
also. The arrangement of the plurality of microphone units arranged on one side of the central
arrangement area of the microphone units sets the first lateral arrangement area of the
microphone units, and the other of the central arrangement area of the microphone units
described above Means for setting a second lateral arrangement area of the microphone units by
arranging the plurality of microphone units arranged on the side, and an output signal obtained
based on the microphone units belonging to the central arrangement area of the microphone
units described above And the first one of the microphone units.
The signal ratio changing means for changing the ratio to the output signal obtained based on
the microphone units belonging to the second lateral arrangement region, and the microphone
units obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the central arrangement region of the
microphone units described above Output signal, and the first one of the microphone units
described above. The microphone array is configured such that the directivity characteristic
obtained in a state in which the ratio to the output signal obtained based on the microphone
units belonging to the second lateral arrangement region is 1 is a predetermined directivity
characteristic. Microphone array for a variable directional micro-bon including a means for
applying weighting to each microphone unit, and a microphone array in which a plurality of
microphone units are arranged in a required arrangement manner A microphone unit is provided
by setting a central arrangement region of the microphone units including at least one
microphone unit in the middle and arranging the plurality of microphone units arranged on one
side of the central arrangement region of the microphone units described above. Set the first side
array area of Means for setting a second lateral arrangement area of the microphone units by the
arrangement of the plurality of microphone units arranged on the other side of the central
arrangement area of the microphone units together, and the central arrangement of the
microphone units described above An output signal obtained based on the microphone units
belonging to the area, and the first one of the microphone arrays I. Means for changing the signal
ratio for changing the ratio to the output signal obtained based on the microphone units
belonging to the second lateral arrangement region, and the microphone units belonging to the
central arrangement region of the micro-bon units described above The obtained output signal
and the first one of the microphone units described above. The microphone array is configured
such that the directivity characteristic obtained in a state in which the ratio to the output signal
obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the second lateral arrangement region is 1
is a predetermined directivity characteristic. A variable directional microphone comprising means
for applying weighting to each of the microphone units, the output signal obtained based on the
microphone units belonging to the central array region of the microphone units, and the
microphone Unit 1. Means for maintaining the output signal generated based on the far-field
sound source in front substantially constant even if the ratio to the output signal obtained based
on the microphone units belonging to the second lateral array area is changed For a variable
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directional microphone provided and a microphone array in which a plurality of microphone
units are arranged in a required arrangement manner, a central arrangement area of the
microphone units including at least one microphone unit at the center in the microphone array is
set Further, the first lateral arrangement area of the microphone units is set by arranging the
plurality of microphone units arranged on one side of the central arrangement area of the
microphone units, and the center of the microphone units is set. Several my which are arranged
on the other side of the arrangement area Means for setting a second lateral arrangement area of
the microphone units by the arrangement of the rophone units, an output signal obtained based
on the microphone units belonging to the central arrangement area of the microphone units
described above; The signal ratio changing means for changing the ratio to the output signal
obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the two lateral arrangement regions, and
the microphone units obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the central
arrangement region of the microphone units described above An output signal and the first one
of the microphone units described above.
The microphone array is configured such that the directivity characteristic obtained in a state in
which the ratio to the output signal obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the
second lateral arrangement region is 1 is a predetermined directivity characteristic. In the
variable directional microphone provided with means for weighting each of the microphones
“one telephone unit,” the directional characteristics of the microphones are set to be gradually
sharpened from the broad state, An output signal obtained based on the microphone units
belonging to the central array area of the microphone units, and the first one of the microphone
units. An output signal generated based on a far sound source on the front, corresponding to the
change in the signal ratio described above, when the ratio to the output signal obtained based on
the microphone units belonging to the second lateral arrangement area is changed To provide a
variable directional microphone comprising means for allowing The details of the specific
contents of the variable directional microphone of the present invention will be described below
with reference to the attached drawings. FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a schematic
configuration of an embodiment of a variable directional microphone according to the present
invention. In FIG. 1, HA indicates a plurality of microphone units MUal-MUan, MUbl to MUbm,
MUcl to It is a microphone array configured by arranging Mt 1 cm in a required arrangement
manner. The microphone units MUal to MUan used to construct the microphone array HA
described above, and microphones having predetermined unidirectional characteristics are used.
In the microphone array HA in which the plurality of microphone units are arranged in the
required arrangement manner, zC is a central arrangement area of the microphone units set to
include at least one microphone unit at the center of the microphone array HA. And zSl is a first
lateral arrangement area of the microbon units consisting of an array of a plurality of microbon
units MUbl to MUtoa set on one side of the central arrangement area zC of the microphone units,
and further ZS2 is a second lateral array area of the microphone units consisting of an array of a
plurality of microphone units MUcl to MUcm arranged on the other side of the central array area
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ZC of the microphone units described above. Kal to Kan, Kbl to Kbm, and Kcl to Kcm are
coefficient units that perform weighting specific to the sensitivity of each microphone unit
configuring the microphone array HA, and ADDc belongs to the central array region ZC described
above The adder is an adder for adding the output signals from the microphone units MUal to M
U a n, and ADDs are the above-mentioned first to third items.
Second lateral array area 2S1. Microphone units MUbl to M-port bI11 belonging to ZS2. It is an
adder that adds the output signals from MUC1 to MUcn +. Further, VRc is an output signal (first
signal) from the adder Ar) Dc described above, that is, a composite signal (first signal) of output
signals of all the microphone units MUal to MUan belonging to the central array region ZC. A
first signal level regulator for adjusting the signal level, VRs is an output signal (second signal)
from the above-mentioned adder ADDs, that is, all belonging to the first and second side
arrangement areas ZSI and ZS2 A second signal level adjuster for adjusting the signal level of the
composite signal (second signal) of the output signals of the microphone units MUbl to MUbm
and MUc1 to MUcm, the first signal level adjuster VRc described above And the second signal
level regulator VRs operate so as to make the ratio of the first signal to the second signal
variable. The directivity characteristics of the first signal and the second signal can be obtained
by corresponding to the absence of the first signal and the broadest state obtained according to
the absence of the second signal. It is made variable between the case where the ratio is 1 and
the sharpest state obtained correspondingly. The above-mentioned first one. The output signals
of the second signal level adjusters VRc and VRg are added by the adder ADD and output as an
output signal of the variable directional microphone to the output $ + o. In the variable
directional microphone of the present invention configured as described above, the plurality of
microphone units MUal to Mllan, MIlbl to MUbm, and MUcl to MUcm, which constitute the
microphone array HA, are each individually as described above. In the above microphone array H
^, the sensitivity of the anus is given a predetermined weight by the individual coefficient units
Kal ~ Kan, Kbl ~ Kbm, Kcl ~ Kcm provided for each of the microphone units of The weighting
aspect for the sensitivity of each of the plurality of microphone units MUal to NUan, MUblMUbm, and MUcl to MUcm, which make up the Ratio of the signal to the second signal is 1 The
directional characteristic urchin a first signal level adjuster VRc and the second signal level
adjuster VRs is obtained in the state of being adjusted, it is made to differ depending on whether
to any directional characteristics.
FIG. 2 shows a case in which the weights of the individual ones of the plurality of microphone
units MUal to MUan, MUbl to MUbio, NtJ'cl to MUcm constituting the microphone array HA are
weighted as so-called Hamming windows. An example aspect of weighting is shown, and (a) to (e)
of FIG. 3 show a plurality of microphone units MUal′′MUan, NUbl-MUbm, MUcl to MUcm of
the microphone array MA described above. The other example of the weighting to the sensitivity
of each thing is shown. A Hamming window as shown in FIG. 2 is adopted as a weighting aspect
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to the sensitivity of each of a plurality of microphone units MUal-MUan, MUbl-MUbm, and MLIcl
“MIJcm constituting the microphone array HA. In this case, when the sharpest directivity is
obtained with the microphone, the main lobe does not spread much, and furthermore, the
directivity with a small side lobe can be obtained, so the microphone array MA is configured. It is
desirable to adopt a Hamming window as shown in FIG. 2 as a weighting aspect to the sensitivity
of each of a plurality of microphone units MUal to MUan, MUbl to MUbm, Mllcl to MUc + w. It is
an aspect of In addition, since the side lobe may be somewhat large as the directional
characteristic when the sharpest directional characteristic can be obtained by the microphone, if
it is desired to make only the main lobe sharp, the microphone As a weighting aspect to the
sensitivity of each of a plurality of microphone units MUal to MUan, MUbl to MUbm, and MUcl to
HUcw + constituting the array HA, for example, weighting 1, as exemplified in FIG. 3 (b) Are
adopted in the configuration of the variable directional microphone according to the present
invention, and each of a plurality of microphone units MUal′′MUan, MUbl ~MUbm, NUcl
~MUcm, which constitute the microphone array HA. Weighting for the sensitivity of things Te, in
a state where the microphone is made in sharpest directionality characteristics, depending on
what it is done in the directional characteristics that are desired, it is the aspect of appropriate
weighting is adapted to be employed. It should be noted that as the number of microphone units
constituting the microphone array increases, the directivity in the state where the sharpest
directivity can be obtained can be made sharper, and when the directivity is made the broadest. It
is needless to say that the directivity characteristics become broad as the number of microphones
used in the central array region zC decreases.
Now, the aspect of the change of the directional characteristics of the microphones in the
variable directional microphone of the present invention is a signal of the combined signal (first
signal) of the output signals of all the microphone units 1 to MUa 1 to MUan belonging to the
central array region zC. A first signal level regulator VRc for adjusting the level, Second lateral
array region 251. ZS21: A first signal level adjuster VRs that adjusts the signal level of the
combined signal (second signal) of the output signals of all the microphone units Mllbl to MUbtn
and Milcl to MIIc + n to which it belongs It is determined by the aspect of the change in the ratio
of the signal to the second signal. (A), (b) and (c) of FIG. 5 are the adjustment of the first signal
level regulator VRc and the i of the second signal level regulator VRs. In the case where the
change of the signal level of the first signal and the second signal according to 1111 is
performed, for example, in the manner as shown in FIG. FIG. 5 is a diagram showing the gain of
the output signal obtained from each microphone unit corresponding to the position a of the
second signal level adjuster VRc, the position of the knob of VRs b. The gain (sensitivity) of the
output signal for each microphone unit is indicated by the length of each arrow (the point
representing the gain (sensitivity) of the output signal obtained from the microphone unit is
indicated by the arrows. The same applies to (2), (3) and (8)). In FIG. Positions of the knobs in the
second signal level adjusters VRc and VRs, and the vertical axis indicates the gain (sensitivity) of
the output signal of the microphone unit (this point is shown in FIGS. 7 and 9). The same is true).
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In FIG. In a state where the position of the knob in the second signal level adjusters VRc and VRs
is at position i, a composite signal of output signals of all the microphone units MUa 1 to MUan
belonging to the central array region zC 1) is applied to the adder ADD from the first signal level
regulator VRc which is in the gain 1 state, and in the state in which the knob is in the i position,
Array area 251. A composite signal (second signal) of the output signals of all the microphone
units MUbl to MLIbm and NUcl ′ ′ NLIcm belonging to ZS2 is added to the adder ADD by the
second signal level adjuster VRs in which the gain is 0. The variable directional microphone of
the present invention, as shown in FIG. 5 (a), has its central array as shown in FIG. Only the
output signal of the microphone unit in the area zC is sent to the output terminal 0, and the
microphone in this state has its broadest directional characteristic.
Next, in FIG. In a state in which the position of the knob in the second signal level adjusters VRc
and VRs is in the position of c, the gain of the first signal by the first signal level adjuster VRc and
the second signal level adjuster The gain of the second signal by VRs is made the same, and in
this state, the variable directional microphone of the present invention transmits the output
signals from all the microphone units in its microphone array MA to the output terminal O, Is the
sharpest of its directional characteristics. In addition, the first one. In a state where the position
of the knob in the second signal level adjuster VRe, VRs is at the position of the mouth in FIG. 4,
the gain of the first signal by the first signal level adjuster VRc and the second signal The gain of
the second signal by the level adjuster VRs is the first. The positions of the knobs of the second
signal level adjusters VRc and VRs are brought to an intermediate state between the abovedescribed two states performed for the positions a and c in FIG. In the variable directional
microphone, the output signals from all the microphone units in its microphone array MA are
sent to the output terminal O, and the microphone has the broadest directivity and the sharpest
directivity. It is made in the middle state with the state. In (A), (B) and (C) of FIG. 5 showing the
change in sensitivity of the microphone units of the microphone array when the directivity of the
variable directional microphone of the present invention changes, the directivity characteristics
of the microphones Even if is changed, the sum of the sensitivities of the microphone units of the
microphone array to the sound source in the front of the microphone given to the microphone as
the signal of the same level of similarity is kept approximately constant (microphone In (a), (b)
and (c) of FIG. 5 showing different states of the directional characteristics of each of the arrows
in each time, the sum of the lengths of the arrows in each time becomes respectively constant. By
showing as an example, even if the directional characteristics of the microphones are changed,
each of the microphone arrays for the sound source far ahead of the microphones The sum of the
sensitivity of Lee black phone unit is adapted to represent the state of being substantially
constant). Then, even if the directivity characteristic is changed, the sum of the sensitivities of the
microphone units of the microphone array to the sound source far from the front of the
microphones is substantially constant.
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Second signal level regulator VRc. When the ratio of the first signal to the second signal is
changed by VRs, the sensitivity to the target sound source does not change even when the
directivity characteristic is changed. It is convenient for collecting sounds such as stage
broadcasts. In FIG. 6, the number n of microphone units belonging to the central arrangement
area ZC = 4, the number m-18 of microphone units provided in the first side arrangement area
ZS1, and the second side arrangement area ZS2 A total of 40 microphone units are arranged at
an arrangement interval of 28.3111 m of microphone units with the number m of microphone
units m = 18, and the weighting of the sensitivity for each microphone unit is made a Hamming
window as shown in FIG. The first and second microphone arrays are used so that the sum of the
sensitivities of the microphone units of the microphone array to the sound source far from the
front of the microphones becomes substantially constant even if the directivity characteristic is
changed as described above The ratio of the first signal to the second signal is shown in FIG. 4 by
the signal level adjusters VRc and VRs. It shows a directivity characteristic diagram of a variable
directional microphone consisting be configured to be changed to. Next, FIG. The second signal
level adjuster VRc, the first one by VRs. The variation of the ratio of the second signal is different
from that described with reference to FIG. 4 and the first signal always has a gain of 1 regardless
of the position of the knob of the first signal level regulator VRc. The second signal has a gain of
O when the knob of the second signal level adjuster VRs is in the position of i and a gain of the
second signal level adjuster VRs in the position of the ha of the second signal level adjuster VRs.
Operation is performed when the variable directional microphone of the present invention is
configured such that the ratio of the first signal to the second signal is changed in such a state
that Also, (a), (b) and (c) of FIG. 8 show the gain of the output signal of each microphone unit of
the microphone array at each position b and b of the knobs in FIG. It is the figure which
illustrated the state of (sensitivity). In the variable directional microphone of the present
invention, the directional characteristics are changed such that the gain of the first signal is
always constant and only the gain of the second signal is changed from O to the same as the gain
of the first signal. 7 and 8, the sum of the sensitivities of the respective microphone units of the
microphone array to the sound source far in front of the microphones (sum of the lengths of the
arrows) is For example, the directional characteristics of the variable directional microphone are
changed from the broad state to the zooming of the image by the television camera, for example,
since it gradually increases as the state of the broad directional property changes to the state of
the sharp directional property. If it is changed to a sharp state, the sound will be picked up as if it
were zoomed in according to the zooming of the image. It is effective.
FIG. 9 shows the first of the first to the directional characteristics from the broad state to the
sharp state, so that the zooming effect in the one described with reference to FIGS. 7 and 8 is
further emphasized. It shows an example where the signals of both the signal and the second
signal are made to be gradually larger. FIG. 10 is a block diagram of another configuration aspect
of the variable directional microphone of the present invention, and in this FIG. 10, the
illustration of the same components as the components of FIG. 1 is omitted. In the tenth
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embodiment, the output signal from the adder ADDc is added to the adder ADD, and the output
signal from the adder ADD is sent to the output terminal 0 via the signal level adjuster VRo. It is
done. (A), (b) and (C) in FIG. 11 show the adjustment state of the signal level by the signal level
adjusters VR8 and VRo in FIG. 10, and (a) in FIG. It is the same as the case of FIG. 4 described
above, and (b) of FIG. 11 is the same as the case of FIG. 7 described above, and (c) of FIG. The
same as in the case of. (Effects) As is apparent from the details described above, the variable
directional microphone of the present invention is a microphone array in which a plurality of
microphone units are arranged in a required arrangement mode, at least one center of the
microphone array. The first side of the microphone unit is set by setting a central arrangement
area of the microphone units including the plurality of microphone units, and arranging the
plurality of microphone units arranged on one side of the central arrangement area of the
microphone units described above. Means for setting a second lateral arrangement area of the
microphone units by setting the two side arrangement area constant and arranging the plurality
of microphone units arranged on the other side of the central arrangement area of the
microphone units described above; , Of the microphone unit A signal for changing the ratio
between the output signal obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the central array
area and the output signal obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the first side
second array area of the microphone units An output signal obtained based on the ratio changing
means, the microphone unit belonging to the central array region of the microphone unit, and
the first to third microphone units described above. The microphone array is configured such
that the directivity characteristic obtained in a state in which the ratio to the output signal
obtained based on the microphone units belonging to the second lateral arrangement region is 1
is a predetermined directivity characteristic. A variable directional microphone comprising means
for applying weighting to each microphone unit, and a variable directional microphone having
the above-mentioned configuration, in the central arrangement region of the microphone units
described above An output signal obtained based on a microphone unit to which the first
embodiment belongs, and the first one of the microphone units.
Means for maintaining the output signal generated based on the far-field sound source in front
substantially constant even if the ratio to the output signal obtained based on the microphone
units belonging to the second lateral array area is changed In the variable directional microphone
provided, and in the above-mentioned variable directional microphone, based on the microphone
units belonging to the central array region of the microphone units so that the directional
characteristics of the microphones gradually change from the broad state to the sharp state
Corresponding to the change in the signal ratio described above, when the ratio between the
output signal obtained by the output signal and the output signal obtained based on the
microphone units belonging to the first side second array region of the microphone units is
changed Means for gradually increasing the output signal generated based on the far-field sound
source According to the variable directional microphone of the present invention, the central
array region, the first lateral array region, and the second lateral region can be obtained by using
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the microphone array having sharp directional characteristics. According to the present
invention, an array area is set, and the directivity characteristic can be changed widely and
narrowly by the signal processing circuit having a simple configuration, with the output signal
from the microphone unit belonging to each area described above. The conventional problems of
the prior art can be easily solved well.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a variable directional microphone according to the present invention,
and FIGS. 2 and 3 are diagrams showing an example of weighting of microphone arrays to
microphone units, and FIGS. 4, 7 and 9 and 11. The figure shows the first.
Explanatory drawing of the change aspect of the 1st 2nd signal by the 2nd signal level regulator,
FIG. 5 and FIG. 8 is explanatory drawing of the state of the sensitivity of the microphone unit in a
microphone array, FIG. 6 is a directional characteristic curve FIG. 10 is a block diagram of a part
of another embodiment of the variable directional microphone of the present invention. -31 =
MUal = MUan, MUbl-MUbm, MUcl-NUcm-microphone unit, MA ... microphone array, Kal-Kan, KblKb + ++, Kcm-coefficient unit, ADDc, AI) Ds, ADD ... adder , VRc, VRs ... 1st. Second signal level
adjuster, VRo: signal level adjuster, ZC: central array area, ZSI: first side array area, ZS2, second
side array area, procedure Amendment (self-developed), display of the case 1984 Patent
Application No. H near 2 No. 2, name of the invention variable directional microphone 3,
relationship with the person making the correction Patent Assignee Patent application Kanagawa
Prefecture 3-12 Moriya-cho, Jina-ku, Yokohama Name: (432) Nippon Victor Co., Ltd. 4 agent,
agent · Date of the Showa Year (Shipment Date: 6 days of Showa Year) 6, detailed description of
the invention of the statement targeted for correction Contents of column 7, complement 1; (1)
Specification box 2; page 3 line 3, "(a) in Fig. 5" is corrected to "(a) in Fig. 5". (2) In the
specification, page 23, line 15, "N, correct its" to "N, as in (H) of Fig. 5". (3) In the specification,
page 24, line 9, "n, correct it" to "d, as in (b) of Fig. 5", correct it.
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