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JP2011213817

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DESCRIPTION JP2011213817
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To enhance visibility of scattered and reflected light by scattering and
reflecting projection light projected from the viewer side as a projection screen, and also to have
excellent transparency for an image on the opposite side to the viewer by having high
transparency. Provided is an oriented polyester film for a transparent projection screen speaker,
a diaphragm comprising the same, and a transparent projection screen speaker comprising the
same, which has transmissive visibility and also has a function as a speaker having an excellent
acoustic effect. An oriented polyester film comprising a layer A comprising a matrix phase and a
dispersed phase containing polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate as a main component,
wherein the difference between the refractive index of the matrix phase in the layer A and the
refractive index of the dispersed phase is a film In the plane, the refractive index of the matrix
phase exceeds 0.1 in the highest x direction, and in the film plane, the refractive index difference
between the two phases is in the specific range in the y direction and the z direction The film has
a total light transmittance of 85% or more and a parallel light transmittance of 65% or more
when linearly polarized light parallel to the y direction is perpendicularly incident on the film
surface, and light in non-polarization state is perpendicular to the film surface Transparent
professional having a total light ray reflectivity of less than 30% when incident on light, and
having a Young's modulus of layer A of at least 8 GPa and at most 15 GPa in the x direction.
Obtained by oriented polyester film for E action screen speaker. 【Selection chart】 None
Oriented polyester film for transparent projection screen speaker, diaphragm comprising the
same, and transparent projection screen speaker comprising the same
[0001]
11-05-2019
1
The present invention relates to an oriented polyester film for a transparent projection screen
speaker, a diaphragm made of the same, and a transparent projection screen speaker made of
them. More specifically, the visibility by scattering and reflected light is enhanced by scattering
and reflecting the projection light projected from the viewer side, and high transparency also
provides excellent transmission visibility for the image opposite to the viewer. An oriented
polyester film for a transparent projection screen speaker, a diaphragm comprising the same,
and a transparent projection screen speaker comprising the same, which also has a function as a
speaker having an excellent acoustic effect.
[0002]
A display method that projects and displays various contents such as product information and
advertisements on the windows of stores such as convenience stores, show windows such as
department stores, and transparent partitions installed in event spaces etc. while maintaining its
transparent visibility. Has been introduced in recent years. As a specific form, for example, a
transparent projection screen is bonded to a window or a show window, and a content image is
projected from a projector.
[0003]
In addition, vehicles such as automobiles and motorcycles are provided with various devices for
informing a driver (pilot) and the like of various information such as traveling speed. A car may
also be provided with a navigation device for notifying navigation information. In automobiles,
many of these devices for displaying information are located below the front window, so when
the driver looks at the devices below the front window while driving, the information is read
relatively I am moving a lot. Therefore, in order to reduce the movement distance of the
viewpoint for safe driving, a display device called a head-up display (HUD) device has been
proposed. As the HUD device, a transparent projection screen is disposed on a window glass
surface below the front window or inside a driver's seat near the window (projector's seat), and a
projector projects content images onto the screen to display information Proposed.
[0004]
The conventional projection screen strongly scatters and reflects the projection light from the
projector to obtain a good projection image with little viewing angle dependency. However, in the
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2
case of the use form as described above, a window or a show window And the like are required to
have opposite characteristics, such as expressing good scattering reflectance as a projection
screen without impairing the transmission visibility originally possessed by the transparent
substrate. Therefore, instead of the conventional scattering / reflection type, films suitable for
highly transparent reflective screens have been studied (Patent Documents 1 and 2).
[0005]
On the other hand, as for the sound equipment used for the display device, at present, in most
cases, the existing speaker unit is separately installed. If a transparent flat speaker can be
realized, integration with a display device enables efficient use of a display space, and an
improvement in the degree of freedom in design and design can be expected. In addition to the
display, if a transparent flat speaker can be attached to a building material that exhibits a
function by being transparent, such as a building window or a show window, an acoustic function
can be given to the building material, and a design surface, I can expect improvement in freedom
in design.
[0006]
In the study of flat speakers, it has been studied to improve the vibration propagation
characteristics of the diaphragm element and to prevent the deterioration of the acoustic
characteristics due to the transmission loss, and to reduce the weight and increase the elastic
modulus of the diaphragm element by plastic film, especially polyethylene naphthalene A
biaxially stretched film composed of dicarboxylate (PEN) has been studied (Patent Document 3).
Moreover, although the orientation multilayer laminated film for acoustic diaphragms which is
excellent in the high internal loss characteristic and interlayer adhesiveness as a film which is
excellent in the acoustic reproducibility as an acoustic diaphragm in patent document 4 is
described, a vibration propagation characteristic is improved. And to make it highly transparent.
As described above, the transparent projection screen and the flat speaker are different
equipments because they have different functions.
[0007]
JP 2008-112040 A WO 2006/009293 Pamphlet JP 2008-21939 JP A 2009-96116 A
[0008]
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3
The object of the present invention is to increase visibility of scattered reflected light by
scattering and reflecting projected light projected from the viewer side as a projection screen,
and also to have high transparency for an image on the opposite side to the viewer An oriented
polyester film for a transparent projection screen speaker, a diaphragm comprising the same,
and a transparent projection screen speaker comprising the same, having excellent transmission
visibility and simultaneously having a function as a speaker having an excellent acoustic effect It
is to do.
[0009]
MEANS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM As a result of earnestly examining in order to solve the said
subject, this inventor provides the film suitable for the novel transparent projection screen
speaker member which integrated the transparent projection screen and plane speaker which
were separate apparatuses conventionally. In the case of transparent projection screen
applications, sea-island orientations with different scattering properties depending on the
polarization direction, that is, scattering reflectivity is high for one linearly polarized light and
high permeability for linear polarized light in the orthogonal direction. A film that combines the
functions of both members by using polyethylene naphthalate as the matrix component of the
film, and increasing the Young's modulus in the direction of high scattering reflectance, ie, the
direction in which the refractive index difference between the matrix phase and the dispersed
phase is large. It has been found that it can be obtained, and the present invention has been
completed. That.
[0010]
That is, an object of the present invention is an oriented polyester film including a layer A
consisting of a matrix phase and a dispersed phase containing polyethylene naphthalene
dicarboxylate as a main component, and the refractive index of the matrix phase and the
refractive index of the dispersed phase in layer A The total light transmittance of the film is 85%
or more, and the parallel light transmittance is 65% or more when linearly polarized light parallel
to the y direction is perpendicularly incident on the film surface, satisfying the following
formulas (1) and (2) A transparent projection screen speaker having a total light reflectance of
less than 30% when light in a non-polarized state is perpendicularly incident on the film surface,
and having a Young's modulus of layer A of 8 GPa to 15 GPa in the x direction; This is achieved
by an oriented polyester film.
| (Ny + Nz) / 2- (ny + nz) /2|≦0.05 (1) | nx-Nx |> 0.1 (2) (where n is the refractive index of the
matrix, N Represents the refractive index of the dispersed phase, nx represents the matrix
11-05-2019
4
refractive index in the direction of the highest refractive index in the film plane, ny represents
the matrix refractive index in the y direction orthogonal to the x direction in the film plane, and
nz represents the film thickness direction Matrix refractive index, Nx is the dispersed phase
refractive index in the x direction, Ny is the dispersed phase refractive index in the y direction
orthogonal to the x direction in the film plane, and Nz is the dispersed phase refractive index in
the film thickness direction)
[0011]
The oriented polyester film for a transparent projection screen speaker of the present invention
is a film obtained by laminating the layer B on at least one side of the layer A as a preferred
embodiment, and the inside of the film against 100 Hz stretching displacement at 25 ° C. The
loss is 0.03 or more, the layer B is mainly composed of polyester, and 75 to 97% by mole of all
repeating units of the polyester is the ethylene terephthalate component, and the layers A and B
are alternately laminated Having a multilayer structure of three or more layers, laminated to the
transparent substrate through at least one of the outermost layers of layer B, the oriented
polyester film has a crystallization exothermic peak in differential scanning calorimetry None,
Haze value for linearly polarized light parallel to y direction and for linearly polarized light
parallel to x direction Ratio to the haze value Hx is 0.5 or less, the dispersed phase is a
thermoplastic resin different from the matrix phase, and the content of the dispersed phase
component is based on the weight of the layer A. It includes those equipped with at least one of
0.01% by weight or more and 30% by weight or less, and used as a diaphragm.
[0012]
The present invention also relates to a diaphragm using such an oriented polyester film for
transparent projection screen speakers.
The present invention further relates to a transparent projection screen speaker including such a
diaphragm, and as a preferred embodiment thereof, an actuator is installed at an end of the
diaphragm, the diaphragm is stretched and fixed, a display or a transparent It includes those
having at least one of being used by being laminated with a building material and being
laminated with a transparent building material by an insert molding method.
[0013]
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5
The oriented polyester film for a transparent projection screen speaker according to the present
invention scatters and reflects polarized light in one direction, and has high transparency to
polarized light in the orthogonal direction, so it scatters and reflects projection light projected
from the viewer side. It has excellent transparency and visibility with respect to a visible image
and an image on the opposite side to the viewer through the film.
Moreover, since the film itself is excellent in acoustic characteristics, it also has a function as a
diaphragm of a transparent flat speaker module in which the actuator is directly installed at the
end of the diaphragm, so a novel composite called a transparent projection screen speaker A
member can be provided.
As a use which can express the composite function which united display and sound function by
such a transparent projection screen speaker, a new usage form ranging from a large display
such as digital signage, to a flat-screen TV etc, and further to a mobile phone etc. Can be created.
[0014]
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail. <Oriented Polyester Film> The
oriented polyester film of the present invention is an oriented polyester film including layer A. As
this oriented polyester film, the oriented polyester film which consists of one layer of layer A is
mentioned. Moreover, it may be a laminated film further having a layer B on at least one side of
the layer A.
[0015]
(Layer A) The layer A of the oriented polyester film of the present invention is composed of a
matrix phase and a dispersed phase containing polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate as a
main component. Further, the refractive index of the matrix phase and the refractive index of the
dispersed phase in the layer A satisfy the relationships of the following formulas (1) and (2). |
(Ny + Nz) / 2- (ny + nz) /2|≦0.05 (1) | nx-Nx |> 0.1 (2) (where n is the refractive index of the
matrix, N Represents the refractive index of the dispersed phase, nx represents the matrix
refractive index in the direction of the highest refractive index in the film plane, ny represents
the matrix refractive index in the y direction orthogonal to the x direction in the film plane, and
nz represents the film thickness direction Matrix refractive index, Nx is the dispersed phase
refractive index in the x direction, Ny is the dispersed phase refractive index in the y direction
11-05-2019
6
orthogonal to the x direction in the film plane, and Nz is the dispersed phase refractive index in
the film thickness direction)
[0016]
Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the layer A is 8 GPa or more and 15 GPa or less in the x
direction. By having such a layer, it has scattering and reflecting properties with respect to one
light source, that is, linear polarized light projected from the viewer side, and has high
transparency without reflecting linear polarized light orthogonal to the linear polarized light. In
addition, it is possible to obtain a film suitable for a highly transparent projection screen speaker,
in which the film itself has high acoustic properties. Specific embodiments of layer A of the film
of the present invention are described in detail below.
[0017]
(Matrix phase) The polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate which forms a matrix phase is
synthesized from naphthalene dicarboxylic acid or its ester-forming derivative and ethylene
glycol or its ester-forming derivative. Here, the “main component” is 70% by weight or more,
preferably 72% by weight or more, and particularly preferably 75% by weight or more, based on
the weight of the layer A. In addition, the upper limit value of the content of polyethylene
naphthalene dicarboxylate is preferably 99.99% by weight, more preferably 99.95% by weight,
and still more preferably 99.9% by weight. As naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, 2, 6- naphthalene
dicarboxylic acid, 2, 7 naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, 1, 5- naphthalene dicarboxylic acid can be
mentioned, Among them, 2, 6- naphthalene dicarboxylic acid is particularly preferable.
[0018]
By using polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate as the resin of the matrix phase of layer A, the
relationship between the refractive index with the dispersed phase is controlled to satisfy the
equations (1) and (2), and the direction of polarized light specified in the present invention The
scattering reflection characteristic and the transmission characteristic can be obtained according
to the above, and at the same time, the high Young's modulus specified in the present invention
can be realized, and the sound propagation characteristic can be enhanced. The polyethylene
naphthalene dicarboxylate may be a homopolymer or a copolymer. The copolymerization
component is preferably 10 mol% or less, more preferably 5 mol% or less, of all the repeating
11-05-2019
7
units constituting the polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate.
[0019]
As a copolymerization component, diol components such as trimethylene glycol, tetramethylene
glycol, hexamethylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, cyclohexane dimethanol, diethylene glycol,
polyethylene oxide glycol, and ethylene oxide adduct of bisphenol sulfone can be used. Further,
as a copolymerization component, adipic acid, sebacic acid, phthalic acid, isophthalic acid,
terephthalic acid, 2,7-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,5-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 4,4'- Dicarboxylic acid components such as diphenyl dicarboxylic
acid and 5-sodium sulfoisophthalic acid can be used. These compounds may be used alone or in
combination of two or more.
[0020]
Among these copolymer components, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 4,4'diphenyldicarboxylic acid and 2,7-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid as acid components, and
diethylene glycol, trimethylene glycol and hexamethylene glycol as glycol components And
neopentyl glycol and ethylene oxide adducts of bisphenol sulfone can be mentioned as preferable
examples.
[0021]
The polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate is preferably produced using a titanium compound
or a germanium compound as a catalyst.
When the catalyst is an antimony compound, depending on the production conditions,
precipitation of antimony metal may occur due to a reduction reaction, and the transparency may
be reduced.
[0022]
The intrinsic viscosity of the layer A is preferably 0.40 dl / g or more at 35 ° C. in ochlorophenol, and more preferably 0.40 to 0.90 dl / g. If the intrinsic viscosity is less than 0.40
11-05-2019
8
dl / g, the crystallization rate may be significantly increased due to the low molecular weight, and
spherulites may be generated to impair the transparency. When the intrinsic viscosity is higher
than 0.9 dl / g, the melt viscosity is high and melt extrusion is difficult, and the polymerization
time is long and uneconomical.
[0023]
Polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate can be produced by applying known methods. For
example, it can be produced by an esterification reaction of a diol and a dicarboxylic acid, and
then a polycondensation reaction of the resulting reaction product into a polyester. Alternatively,
the derivative of these raw material monomers may be transesterified, and then the resulting
reaction product may be polycondensed to produce a polyester.
[0024]
(Dispersed Phase) It is preferable that the dispersed phase constituting the layer A be either an
aggregate of particles or a thermoplastic resin different from the matrix phase. An aggregate of
these particles or a thermoplastic resin is preferably one having, as a main component, a polymer
containing a styrene residue as a monomer component, from the viewpoint of the difference in
refractive index with the matrix phase.
[0025]
Examples of the particles include particles having a primary particle size of 0.01 to 10 μm. Such
particles are not particularly limited as long as they are transparent organic particles or
inorganic particles. Preferably, they are organic particles which are less likely to cause voids
when the film is stretched. Here, the primary particle size is the size of the minimum unit of
particles. If the primary particle size is less than 0.01 μm, there is a high possibility that the
scattering reflection performance will not occur, and if it exceeds 10 μm, voids are likely to be
generated during stretching. It is more preferable that such particles have a refractive index
which is the same as the refractive index in the y direction or z direction of the matrix phase after
stretching, or the difference in refractive index is 0.035 or less.
[0026]
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9
Examples of organic particles include acrylic particles, styrene particles, silicone particles,
styrene-butadiene rubber particles, acrylic-acrylic core-shell particles, and acrylic-styrenebutadiene core-shell particles. In particular, in the core-shell type particle, since the shell portion
has rubber elasticity, it is possible to further suppress void formation due to stretching, and it is
easy to obtain various optical properties of the present invention. Among these, polystyrene,
syndiotactic polystyrene, methacrylate-styrene copolymer and acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer
are particularly exemplified as preferable particles.
[0027]
The thermoplastic resin different from the matrix phase is not particularly limited as long as it is
a highly transparent thermoplastic resin incompatible with the thermoplastic resin forming the
matrix phase, but the y-direction and z-direction refraction of the matrix phase after stretching It
is preferable to have a refractive index that is the same as the refractive index or that the
refractive index difference is 0.035 or less. As such a thermoplastic resin, polystyrene,
syndiotactic polystyrene, methacrylate-styrene copolymer and acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer
are exemplified as preferable.
[0028]
The content of the dispersed phase component is preferably 0.01% by weight or more and 30%
by weight or less based on the weight of the layer A. As the content of the dispersed phase
increases in such a range, the scattered light is multiply scattered and the scattered reflected
light tends to be in the front direction. Also, as the content of the dispersed phase decreases
within such a range, it becomes possible to reduce multiple scattering and obtain a sharp
reflection pattern.
[0029]
However, if the content of the dispersed phase exceeds the upper limit value, the multiple
separation occurs excessively and the polarization separation effect tends to be reduced. Further,
when the content of the dispersed phase is less than the lower limit value, the scattering is
extremely small, and in this case as well, it becomes difficult to secure the polarization separation
11-05-2019
10
performance. The lower limit of the content of the dispersed phase is more preferably 0.05% by
weight or more for the purpose of sufficiently transmitting linearly polarized light in the y
direction and reducing the total light reflectance in the non-polarized state to ensure
transparency. Particularly preferably, it is 0.1% by weight or more, and the upper limit is
preferably 28% by weight or less.
[0030]
The dispersed phase more preferably satisfies the following formula (3). 10 ≦ α ≦ 200 (3)
(wherein α represents a scattering parameter represented by π · d / λ. d is the major axis of
the dispersed phase, and λ is the wavelength of visible light. )
[0031]
Since the film of the present invention is preferably obtained by stretching in at least one
direction and performing stretching close to uniaxial stretching, the dispersed phase of the
present invention is an elliptical sphere having a major axis in the stretching direction
(hereinafter referred to as island shape Is sometimes referred to). In the above equation (3), d
indicates the particle size of the dispersed phase in the high draw ratio direction, that is, the x
direction, and is equal to the major axis of the elliptical sphere.
[0032]
In general, the scattering efficiency is wavelength-dependent, so that, for example, in the case of
very small particles in the submicron order, light with a short wavelength is likely to be scattered.
Therefore, the wavelength distribution of the scattered light may differ when the light path
length in the film is different due to the difference in the incident angle of light, and when it is
severe, the color shifts within the projection range on the screen (color shift ) Results. Color shifts
can be difficult to recognize, especially when dealing with relatively complex images such as
navigation devices. Therefore, it is preferable that the scattering parameter α satisfy the range
of the above equation (3).
[0033]
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11
The average value of the major axis of the dispersed phase is preferably 0.1 to 400 μm. The
average value of the major axes is more preferably 0.5 to 50 μm. When the average diameter of
the major axis is less than the lower limit, optical action may not occur, and when the upper limit
is exceeded, the scattering anisotropy may be insufficient.
[0034]
(Refractive index characteristics) In the layer A of the film of the present invention, the refractive
index of the matrix phase and the refractive index of the dispersed phase have the following
formula (1) (2) | (Ny + Nz) / 2-(ny + nz) / 2 | .05 (1) | nx-Nx |> 0.1 (2) (where, n represents the
refractive index of the matrix, N represents the refractive index of the dispersed phase, and nx
represents the film plane) Where ny is the matrix refractive index in the y direction orthogonal to
the x direction in the film plane, nz is the matrix refractive index in the film thickness direction,
Nx is the dispersed phase refractive index in the x direction, Ny represents the dispersed phase
refractive index in the y direction orthogonal to the x direction in the film plane, and Nz
represents the dispersed phase refractive index in the film thickness direction.
[0035]
The layer A strongly scatters linearly polarized light parallel to the x direction when the
refractive indices of the matrix phase and the dispersed phase in the x, y and z directions satisfy
the equations (1) and (2), respectively, Parallel linearly polarized light exhibits an optical
property of transmitting without scattering.
In the above formula, n represents the refractive index of the matrix, and N represents the
refractive index of the dispersed phase. nx represents the matrix refractive index in the direction
of the highest refractive index in the film plane, and in the present invention, it coincides with the
high stretching magnification direction. ny is the matrix refractive index in the y direction
orthogonal to the x direction in the film plane, nz is the matrix refractive index in the film
thickness direction, Nx is the dispersed phase refractive index in the x direction, and Ny is
orthogonal to the x direction in the film plane The dispersed phase refractive index in the
direction, Nz represents the dispersed phase refractive index in the film thickness direction,
respectively. Further, linearly polarized light parallel to the x direction is synonymous with
linearly polarized light having a vibrating plane in the x direction, and linearly polarized light
parallel to the y direction is synonymous with linearly polarized light having a vibrating plane in
the y direction. Also, the x direction of the film of the present invention is disposed parallel to
one light source, that is, linearly polarized light projected from the viewer side.
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[0036]
In the above equation (1), in the case of | (Ny + Nz) / 2− (ny + nz) / 2 |> 0.05, since the
refractive index difference between the matrix phase and the dispersed phase is large in the yz
plane, Scattering increases, and the image due to external light can not be clearly viewed through
the film. In addition, it is preferable that | (Ny + Nz) / 2- (ny + nz) / 2 | is 0.025 or less.
[0037]
In the case of | nx-Nx | ≦ 0.1 in the above equation (2), the scattering performance in the x
direction is insufficient and the scattering reflectivity to linearly polarized light projected from
the viewer side becomes poor. At the same time as the visibility of the image projected from the
side is reduced, it is not possible to provide the Young's modulus characteristic in the x direction
in such a range. With respect to the absolute value of the difference between nx and Nx
represented by the formula (2), the scattering performance in the x direction is enhanced when
the difference in refractive index between both phases is larger than 0.1, preferably 0.20 or more
More preferably, it is 0.25 or more. On the other hand, the upper limit value of | nx-Nx | is
preferably 0.35 or less in terms of stretch ratio, mechanical properties, and the like.
[0038]
The layer A of the film of the present invention has almost the same average of the refractive
indices of the matrix phase and the dispersed phase in the yz plane (equation (1)), and the
difference in the refractive index of the matrix phase and the dispersed phase is large in the x
direction When the absolute value of the difference exceeds 0.1, high scattering anisotropy is
exhibited even for polarized light obliquely incident on the film plane which is present in the
large amount of light transmitted through the film. Therefore, the refractive index of the matrix
phase is preferably as near isotropic as possible in the yz plane, and it is more preferable to
satisfy the following formula (4). 0.90 <ny / nz ≦ 1.10 (4)
[0039]
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13
Such refractive index characteristics are as follows: a thermoplastic resin composition containing
the constituents of the matrix phase and the dispersed phase is melt-extruded to form an
unstretched sheet, and the unstretched sheet is stretched in at least one direction under film
forming conditions described later It is obtained by performing stretching close to uniaxial
stretching. Furthermore, it is preferable to select from the above-mentioned combination as a
constituent of a matrix phase and a dispersed phase.
[0040]
(Young's Modulus) In the oriented film of the present invention, the Young's modulus of the layer
A is 8 GPa or more and 15 GPa or less in the x direction. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of
the layer A is preferably 8 GPa or more and 13 GPa or less, more preferably 9 GPa or more and
13 GPa or less in the x direction.
[0041]
As a module configuration of the transparent projection screen speaker of the present invention,
from the viewpoint of securing the transparency of the screen portion, a configuration in which
the actuator is directly attached to the end of the diaphragm is preferable. In such a module
configuration, the actuator is attached to the end of the diaphragm In order to sufficiently
propagate the acoustic vibration from the actuator over the entire area of the diaphragm, a
higher Young's modulus characteristic is required than that of the diaphragm material used in
the conventional flat speaker. If the Young's modulus of the layer A in the x direction is less than
the lower limit value, the acoustic vibration does not sufficiently propagate to the part away from
the mounting position of the actuator, and the acoustic propagation characteristic effect as a
diaphragm is not exerted. The Young's modulus property of layer A is preferably higher within
this range, but a film with over-orientation in which the Young's modulus exceeds the upper limit
is inferior in the handling property in the manufacturing process because the elongation at break
is insufficient. Not
[0042]
In addition to the fact that the high Young's modulus layer A is included in the film layer
configuration, it is possible to obtain sound propagation characteristics suitable for the
diaphragm of the transparent projection screen speaker module directly attaching the actuator to
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14
the end of the diaphragm. Even in the case of a laminated film including the layer B having a
certain internal loss characteristic to enhance sound absorption, high sound transmission
characteristics can be exhibited. The Young's modulus characteristics of these layers A can be
obtained by using polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate as a resin of the matrix phase
constituting layer A and performing stretching at a high stretching ratio of 4.5 times to 8 times in
the x direction .
[0043]
(Layer B) The oriented polyester film for a transparent projection screen speaker of the present
invention is preferably a laminated film further having a layer B on at least one side of the layer
A, and 100 Hz at 25 ° C. of the film further having the layer B It is preferable that the internal
loss with respect to the expansion-contraction displacement of the above is 0.03 or more. By
having the layer B in which the internal loss of the film is 0.03 or more, not only the sound
propagation characteristic by the layer A but also the improvement of the sound reproducibility
such as the sound cutoff property by the layer B can be improved.
[0044]
In order to simultaneously provide the internal loss while satisfying the light transmittance
characteristics of the film, the layer B is mainly composed of polyester, and 75 to 97% by mole of
all repeating units of the polyester is an ethylene terephthalate component preferable. When the
amount of the ethylene terephthalate component is less than the lower limit value, the layers A
and B may not be able to be laminated by the co-extrusion method. When the amount of ethylene
terephthalate component exceeds the upper limit value, the internal loss may be less than 0.03.
[0045]
In addition, the polyester constituting the layer B has a crystallization exothermic peak of the film
by differential scanning calorimetry because 75 to 85% by mole of all repeating units of the
polyester is an ethylene terephthalate component, so the film heating by film heating There is no
decline in transparency, which is preferable. Here, "main component" means that the content of
the polyester is 90% by weight to 100% by weight based on the weight of the layer B, and more
preferably 95% by weight to 100% by weight. And particularly preferably 98% by weight or more
and 100% by weight or less.
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[0046]
The internal loss property of the film is a property mainly attributable to the copolymerized
amount of polyester. There are no particular restrictions on the type of copolymerization
component of the polyester that constitutes layer B. For example, ethylene oxide of trimethylene
glycol, tetramethylene glycol, hexamethylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, cyclohexane dimethanol,
diethylene glycol, polyethylene oxide glycol, bisphenol sulfone Diol components such as adducts;
Dicarboxylic acids such as adipic acid, sebacic acid, phthalic acid, isophthalic acid,
naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-diphenyldicarboxylic acid,
5-sodium sulfoisophthalic acid Ingredients can be used. Moreover, in order to obtain high
transparency even after film heating, a component that suppresses the crystallinity of the
polyester is preferable, and a copolymerization component that suppresses the rearrangement of
the ethylene terephthalate component is preferable. Specifically, those having a large molecule,
those having an ester bonding functional group at a position greatly different from that of the
ethylene terephthalate component, and the like can be mentioned, and preferable examples
include a naphthalene dicarboxylic acid component and an isophthalic acid component, In
particular, the combined use of a naphthalene dicarboxylic acid component and an isophthalic
acid component can be mentioned as a preferred example in order to continuously obtain high
transparency even after film heating.
[0047]
Moreover, as resin which comprises the layer B, amorphous resin is also illustrated other than
the above-mentioned co-polyester. In the case of an amorphous resin, lamination with the layer A
by coextrusion may be difficult in some cases, and lamination by another method is preferred.
Examples of such non-crystalline resin include copolymerized acrylic, atactic polystyrene, various
branched polyolefins, ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVA) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). By
using such an amorphous resin, internal loss characteristics as a film and high transparency can
be obtained. Moreover, it is preferable that it is 25-100 degreeC, and, as for the glass transition
point of resin which comprises the layer B, it is more preferable that it is 60-100 degreeC. When
the glass transition temperature of the resin constituting layer B is in such a range, the glass
transition point of polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate constituting layer A can be
complemented to exhibit sound absorption characteristics in a wide frequency range.
[0048]
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16
(Additives) The oriented polyester film of the present invention does not contain particles from
the viewpoint of transparency improvement, or it is in the range of less than 0.01% by weight
based on the total weight of the film even if it contains particles. is necessary. In the case of a
laminated film, the particles may be contained in either layer A or layer B within such a range,
but the inclusion in the layer constituting the outermost layer is to improve the slipperiness of
the film. It is preferable in point. When particles are added, the average particle diameter of the
particles is preferably in the range of 0.001 to 0.2 μm. As specific particles, for example,
inorganic particles (for example, kaolin, alumina, titanium oxide, calcium carbonate, silicon
dioxide etc.) containing an element of periodic table IIA, IIB, IVA, IVB, crosslinked silicone resin
And particles made of a highly heat-resistant polymer such as crosslinked polystyrene and
crosslinked acrylic resin particles. In the film of the present invention, if necessary, additives
such as flame retardants, heat stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet light absorbers, mold release
agents, coloring agents, antistatic agents and the like are added within the scope of not impairing
the object of the present invention May be blended.
[0049]
<Film Properties> (Light transmittance and light reflectance of film) In the film of the present
invention, not only the refractive index properties of the layer A satisfy the above expressions (1)
and (2), but also the total light transmittance of the film, parallel When both the light
transmittance and the total light reflectance satisfy the characteristics described later, it is
possible for the viewer to view both images for the first time. That is, the film of the present
invention is required to have a total light transmittance of 85% or more when linearly polarized
light parallel to the y direction is perpendicularly incident on the film surface. Here, the total light
transmittance is determined by measuring the total light transmission amount using an
integrating sphere type measuring device in accordance with JIS K7105.
[0050]
The film of the present invention is also required to have a parallel light transmittance of 65% or
more when linearly polarized light parallel to the y direction is perpendicularly incident on the
film surface. Here, the parallel light transmittance is a parallel light transmittance measured on
the same straight line as the incident light, and is obtained by subtracting the diffuse
transmittance from the total light transmittance in accordance with JIS K7105. The parallel light
transmittance is preferably 70% or more.
11-05-2019
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[0051]
Furthermore, the film of the present invention is required to have a total light reflectance of less
than 30% when light in the unpolarized state is perpendicularly incident on the film surface.
Here, the total light reflectance is determined in accordance with JIS K 7105, and is a
combination of the specular reflectance and the diffuse reflectance for incident light. The nonpolarization state means that the light source used in the measurement is used as it is without
being decomposed into polarization components.
[0052]
The linearly polarized light parallel to the y direction, that is, the linearly polarized light
orthogonal to the linearly polarized light projected from the viewer side does not include the
image projected from the viewer side, and has high transparency without scattering and
reflection. At the same time, it is possible to more clearly view an image due to external light
opposite to the viewer through the film. If these light transmittances fall below the abovementioned range, it becomes difficult to clearly recognize an image due to external light through
the film. Such light transmittance is achieved by the refractive index characteristics of the matrix
phase and the dispersed phase in the y direction and z direction satisfying the equation (1) and
that the content of the dispersed phase does not exceed the upper limit based on the weight of
the film. Ru.
[0053]
In addition, the total light reflectance when light in a non-polarization state is perpendicularly
incident on the film surface is in the range of less than 30%, and the smaller the smaller the
value, the visibility of the external light image through the film can be enhanced. . The lower limit
of the total light reflectance is 3%, preferably 5% or more, more preferably 10% or more, and
particularly preferably 15% or more. When the total light ray reflectance is 30% or more, it also
scatters and reflects external light that is not related to the image projected from the viewer side,
which causes a decrease in contrast during image projection, and also when not projecting Since
the screen is whitish and inferior in transparency, the transmission visibility of the external light
image through the film is poor. When the total light ray reflectance is less than the lower limit,
the visibility of the external light image is high, but the visibility of the image projected from the
11-05-2019
18
viewer side tends to be reduced.
[0054]
The total light reflectance can be controlled within the above range by controlling the content of
the dispersed phase, and the total light reflectance can be reduced as the content decreases.
These light transmittances and light reflectances are not the characteristics of one side of the
film, but similar characteristics are obtained on both sides of the film.
[0055]
(Internal loss) The oriented polyester film of the present invention may be a film laminate formed
by laminating the layer B on at least one side of the layer A, and in the case of such a laminate,
the inside for 100 Hz stretching displacement at 25 ° C. The loss is preferably 0.03 or more in
terms of sound reproducibility. Here, the internal loss is the ratio of loss elastic modulus E ′ ′
and storage elastic modulus E ′, which is the dynamic viscoelasticity of the film laminate, and is
represented by loss tangent (tan δ). The internal loss is more preferably 0.04 or more, still more
preferably 0.045 or more. When the value of the internal loss is less than the lower limit value,
the diaphragm itself may be vibrated by the vibration, leaving residual sound and the sound
cutoff property may not be sufficient. The higher the internal loss tan δ, the higher the vibration
absorption capacity, but the upper limit value is 0.15 in view of the nature of the resin
constituting the present invention.
[0056]
In order to obtain such internal loss characteristics, the copolymerized polyethylene
terephthalate described in the explanation of the layer B is used as the resin constituting the
layer B, and heat setting treatment is performed at 200 ° C. to 240 ° C. during film formation.
Thus, a method of lowering the molecular orientation of the layer B, and a method of using an
amorphous resin as a polymer constituting the layer B other than polyester can be mentioned.
[0057]
(Crystallization exothermic peak) It is preferable that the oriented polyester film of the present
invention does not have a crystallization exothermic peak in differential scanning calorimetry.
11-05-2019
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Since the oriented polyester film does not have a crystallization exothermic peak, it is possible to
suppress the growth of spherulite-like structure in the film due to post heat treatment or long
time aging, without causing white turbidity even after film heating. Initial high transparency is
maintained. On the other hand, when the film has a crystallization exothermic peak,
crystallization may occur due to heating of the film, and the film may become cloudy to maintain
the initial high transparency. Incidentally, the crystallization exothermic peak in the present
invention refers to a crystallization exothermic peak generated when the film sample is heated by
heating by differential scanning calorimetry.
[0058]
In order to prevent the occurrence of the crystallization exothermic peak, heat is applied in the
temperature range of 200 to 240 ° C. so that the crystallization of the layer A containing
polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate as the main component proceeds sufficiently in the film
forming step. It is preferable to perform fixation processing. When the layer B is contained, the
copolymerized amount of the copolymerized polyethylene terephthalate constituting the layer B
is 15 to 25% by mole so that the layer B does not crystallize upon heating after film formation to
cause white turbidity. It is preferable to use at least one of naphthalenedicarboxylic acid
component and isophthalic acid component as the copolymerization component, and it is
particularly preferable to use the naphthalenedicarboxylic acid component and the isophthalic
acid component in combination. Preferred for obtaining transparency. Moreover, as resin which
comprises the layer B, you may be amorphous resin other than the above-mentioned copolyester.
[0059]
(Haze) In the oriented polyester film of the present invention, the ratio R (Hy / Hx) of the haze
value Hy for linearly polarized light parallel to the y direction to the haze value Hx for linearly
polarized light parallel to the x direction is less than 0.7. Is more preferably 0.5 or less, still more
preferably 0.3 or less. Here, the haze value is determined by the following equation (5) in
accordance with JIS K 7105. H = (diffuse transmittance / total light transmittance) × 100 (5)
[0060]
11-05-2019
20
The haze value Hy for linearly polarized light parallel to the y direction and the haze value Hx for
linearly polarized light parallel to the x direction can be obtained by the above equations for
linearly polarized light in each direction. When the ratio R of each polarization component of the
haze value is 0.7 or more, (i) the difference in refractive index between the matrix phase in the x
direction and the dispersed phase is smaller than the equation (2), (ii) in the yz plane As the
refractive index difference between the matrix phase and the dispersed phase is greater than that
of the formula (1), at least one of (i) and (ii), the scattering performance of linearly polarized light
parallel to the x direction becomes insufficient. Or, the transmission performance of linearly
polarized light parallel to the y direction may be insufficient, and the sharpness of the image may
not be sufficient. The haze value characteristic is that the refractive indices of the matrix phase
and the dispersed phase in the x direction, y direction and z direction satisfy the equations (1)
and (2) respectively, that is, the refractive index properties of the matrix phase and the dispersed
phase It is obtained by stretching in at least one direction under a combination of the respective
materials and film forming conditions to be described later and performing stretching close to
uniaxial stretching. Further, by further reducing the haze value within such a range, scattering
performance in the x direction can be enhanced, and transmission performance in the y direction
can be enhanced.
[0061]
(Film Thickness) The oriented polyester film of the present invention preferably has a film
thickness of 5 μm or more and 125 μm or less, more preferably 7 μm or more and 100 μm or
less, and still more preferably 10 μm or more and 50 μm or less. When the film thickness is
less than the lower limit value, the sound quality reproducibility may not be sufficient as a
substrate film of a projection screen speaker. On the other hand, when film thickness exceeds an
upper limit, handling property may fall. In the case of a laminated film, the thickness ratio of the
layer A to the film thickness is preferably 0.1 to 1, more preferably 0.2 to 0.8, and particularly
preferably 0.3 to 0.7. When the thickness ratio of the layer A is less than the lower limit value,
the Young's modulus characteristic as a film may not be sufficient, and although the sound
propagation characteristic appears, its effect may not be sufficient. On the other hand, when the
thickness ratio of the layer A exceeds the upper limit value, although the sound propagation
characteristics are excellent, the sound reproducibility may be poor depending on the frequency.
[0062]
<Laminated Structure> The oriented polyester film of the present invention may be an oriented
11-05-2019
21
polyester film consisting of one layer of layer A, or may be a laminated film further having layer
B on at least one side of layer A. In the case of a laminated film, one in which layers A and B are
alternately laminated in three or more layers, such as A | B | A | B. The present invention has a
high Young's modulus layer A having polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate as a matrix phase
component, so that the acoustic propagation characteristic effect suitable for the projection
screen speaker diaphragm of the module form is directly attached to the end of the diaphragm.
Play. In addition, by having the layer B and having an internal loss of 0.03 or more as a film,
sound reproduction characteristics such as sound cutoff are also improved.
[0063]
Simple layer structures, such as two layers such as A | B and three layers such as A | B | A or B |
A | B, are superior in terms of ease of installation. Further, in the case of a multilayer structure in
which layers A and B are alternately stacked in 11 or more layers, effects such as improvement
in breaking elongation and prevention of delamination can be obtained, but the high
transparency of the present invention In order to maintain it, multi-layering within the range in
which the reflection function by multi-layer structure does not occur is preferable. Specifically, (i)
the layer thickness per layer is reduced to 50 nm or less, (ii) the visible light transmittance is not
reduced, that is, the two layers do not have a reflected light wavelength in the visible wavelength
range. The layer thickness may be adjusted according to the refractive index of
[0064]
Regarding (ii), in detail, ii-1) In the following formula (6), even if any natural number m takes any
value, the refractive index of both layers so that the main reflection light wavelength λ is less
than 380 nm or more than 800 nm. And adjusting the layer thickness, λ = (2 / m) × (nA × dA +
nB × dB) (6) (in the above formula, λ is the main reflected light wavelength, and m is the
doubled acoustic wave length of the main reflected wavelength / The order represented by the
main reflection wavelength, nA is the refractive index of layer A, dA is the thickness of layer A
(nm), nB is the refractive index of layer B, dB is the thickness of layer B (nm), or ii -2) In the
following formula (7), the optical thickness ratio fA of the layer A is made to be in the range of
0.9 to 1.1 regardless of any natural numbers m and natural numbers p less than m take any
values. Can be mentioned. fA = (m / p) × (nA × dA) / (nA × dA + nB × dB) (7) (in the above
formula, fA is an optical thickness ratio, and m is a double wave length of the main reflection
wavelength / main reflection wavelength Where p is the double wave length of the main
reflection wavelength / order represented by the main reflection wavelength, less than m, nA is
the refractive index of layer A, dA is the thickness of layer A (nm), nB is layer B Refractive index,
11-05-2019
22
dB represents thickness of layer B (nm)
[0065]
The upper limit of the number of layers is not particularly limited as long as high transparency is
not impaired, but in view of the size of the merging device of both resins for layer A and layer B,
2001 layer is preferable, and more preferable It is 1001 layers, more preferably 201 layers. On
the other hand, when it is difficult to achieve high transparency using methods such as (i) or (ii),
the number of layers of the laminated film is preferably limited to 10 or less. The outermost layer
of the alternating stack of layer A and layer B may be either layer A or layer B. When layer B is
the outermost layer, it can be thermocompression-bonded as an adhesive layer at the time of
bonding the outermost layer which consists of layer B with a transparent base material.
[0066]
The oriented polyester film of the present invention may be provided with an easy-adhesion layer
or may be surface-treated for the purpose of enhancing the adhesiveness when it is bonded to a
transparent substrate or a functional layer. As the easy-adhesion layer, for example, an easyadhesion layer containing a binder component such as a polyester resin system or an acrylic
resin system can be used. Further, the method of surface processing is not particularly limited,
but corona treatment, plasma treatment, etc. may be mentioned, and these surface processing
may be performed in the film forming step or in a step different from the film forming step.
Good.
[0067]
<Method for Producing Film> (Melt Extrusion Casting) The oriented polyester film of the present
invention is obtained by forming a film by melt extrusion casting and then performing stretching
in at least one direction. In the film of the present invention, in order to enhance the visibility of
the image, it is preferable to perform stretching close to uniaxial stretching. For melt extrusion,
conventionally known techniques can be used. Specifically, the composition material of the dried
layer A is supplied to an extruder, and a method of extruding a molten resin from a slit die such
as a T-die or the like, or setting a vent device in the extruder which supplied the composition
material, There is also a method of extruding a molten resin from a slit die such as a T-die while
discharging moisture and various gas components generated during melt extrusion.
11-05-2019
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[0068]
When a laminated film is produced by a coextrusion method, a multilayer feed block device
comprises the composition material for layer A supplied from the first extruder and the
composition material for layer B supplied from the second extruder. By alternately laminating
them in the molten state using a die, and then casting the molten laminate on a rotating drum
using a die to give a sheet-like article (unstretched film of multilayer laminate). . The thicknesses
of the layers A and B are adjusted by the feed block.
[0069]
The molten resin extruded from the slit die is cast and solidified by cooling. The method of
cooling and solidification may be any conventionally known method, but a method of casting a
molten resin on a rotating cooling roll and forming it into a sheet is exemplified. In the case of a
single layer, the surface temperature of the cooling roll is relative to the glass transition point
(Tg) of polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate of layer A, and in the case of lamination, relative
to the glass transition point (Tg) of the resin constituting layer B. It is preferable to set it in the
range of (Tg-100) ° C to (Tg + 20) ° C.
[0070]
(Stretching) The sheet-like material obtained by melt extrusion casting can be made to match the
optical properties of the film and the like with the object of the present invention by performing
stretching in at least one direction. It is preferable to perform stretching close to stretching. Such
stretching may be carried out using a sequential stretching machine or a simultaneous stretching
machine. Further, in order to obtain high productivity, the film of the present invention is
preferably produced in a continuous process following the above-mentioned sheet production.
Hereinafter, the stretching method is illustrated. For example, it may be described as a
longitudinal direction (film forming direction, longitudinal direction, MD). When extending |
stretching to (iii), the method of extending | stretching using the circumferential speed difference
of 2 or more rolls, and the method of extending | stretching in an oven are mentioned.
[0071]
11-05-2019
24
Moreover, it may describe as the width direction (direction perpendicular | vertical to the film
forming direction, horizontal direction, and TD). In the case of drawing in a direction, in the
tenter oven of the method of holding an end by a clip etc., the method of drawing with a
difference in the distance between the clip transport rails on the entry side and the exit side can
be mentioned.
[0072]
(Stretching Temperature) The film stretching temperature (Td) in the present invention is
preferably a temperature of the glass transition point Tg to (Tg + 40 ° C.) of polyethylene
naphthalene dicarboxylate. When the stretching temperature of the film is less than Tg,
stretching itself is difficult, while when the stretching temperature exceeds the upper limit, the
stress required for stretching becomes extremely low, so the molecular chain orientation is
insufficient, In some cases, the above-mentioned various characteristics can not be secured. A
more preferable range of the stretching temperature is Tg to (Tg + 20 ° C).
[0073]
(Stretch Ratio) The control of the stretch ratio is preferably a stretched film close to uniaxial
stretching in order to exhibit the refractive index properties of the present invention, and
preferably also the haze properties. The stretching ratio is RMD> RTD or RTD> RMD. RMD
indicates a longitudinal stretch ratio, and RTD indicates a transverse stretch ratio. This means
that RMD and RTD are not equal, and either one of the draw ratios is larger than the other.
Further, this does not necessarily mean only uniaxial stretching or biaxial stretching in which the
stretching ratio in the MD direction and the TD direction is different, but in the case where the
orthogonal direction is substantially shrunk by uniaxial stretching when the stretching
orthogonal direction is free. Specifically, the case includes RTD when RMD> RTD, or the case
where the value of RMD when RTD> RMD is less than 1. Furthermore, it also includes the case of
positively shrinking the orthogonal direction using a tenter type stretching device or the like. The
x direction defined by the film characteristics corresponds to the high stretching direction.
Therefore, when RMD> RTD, the MD direction at the time of film formation corresponds to the x
direction of the film, and the TD direction corresponds to the y direction. When RTD> RMD, the
TD direction at the time of film formation corresponds to the x direction of the film, and the MD
direction corresponds to the y direction.
11-05-2019
25
[0074]
When RMD / RTD or RTD / RMD is 1.0, ie, RMD = RTD, the relationship between the refractive
index of the matrix phase and the dispersed phase of the obtained film satisfies one of the
equations (1) and (2) Although both are difficult to satisfy, the haze characteristics may be
degraded. Moreover, in order to satisfy | fill also the Young's modulus characteristic of layer A
about the draw ratio of a high extending | stretching direction (x direction), it extends | stretches
in 4.5 times-8 times. If the draw ratio in the high drawing direction is less than the lower limit
value, the Young's modulus of the layer A in such a direction becomes lower than 8 GPa.
[0075]
More preferably, in the case of RMD> RTD, the stretching ratio is in the range of more than 2.0
and 7.0 or less, and the RTD is in the range of 0.7 or more and 2.0 or less. In the case of RTD>
RMD, it is preferable that RTD / RMD is more than 2.0 times and 7.0 or less, and RMD is in the
range of 0.7 or more and 2.0 or less. When RMD / RTD in the case of RMD> RTD or RTD / RMD
in the case of RTD> RMD exceeds 7.0, the refractive index characteristic of the present invention
can not be obtained, and the mechanical characteristics in the direction of low draw ratio May
fall and become brittle. When RTD in the case of RMD> RTD or RMD in the case of RTD> RMD is
less than 0.7, ie, when the drawing orthogonal direction is free, if the drawing orthogonal
direction is extremely shrunk, the flatness or uniformity of the film Not only the properties are
impaired, but also in this case, the mechanical properties in the direction of lower draw ratio may
be reduced and become brittle. On the other hand, when RTD in the case of RMD> RTD or RMD
in the case of RTD> RMD exceeds 2.0, the value of ny / nz in the refractive index balance of the
matrix phase does not fall within the range specified in the present invention. Sometimes.
[0076]
(Stretching Speed) The stretching speed is preferably 5 to 500000% / min.
[0077]
(Heat Fixing Temperature) It is preferable to further heat-set the film obtained by this stretching
method in a temperature range of 200 ° C. or more and 240 ° C. or less.
11-05-2019
26
The heat setting temperature is more preferably 200 ° C. or more and 235 ° C. or less. By
performing the heat setting treatment in such a temperature range, dimensional stability at high
temperature can be improved, and the transparency is further improved. In the case of a
laminated film in which the layer B containing copolymerized polyethylene terephthalate is
laminated by a coextrusion method, the molecular orientation of the layer B can be reduced by
performing the heat treatment in such a heat setting temperature range, and the present
invention Internal loss characteristics can be obtained. Moreover, a heat relaxation process may
be further performed after the heat setting process, and it is preferable to carry out in the
temperature range of 170 ° C. to 200 ° C. and in the range of a relaxation rate of 0.1 to 5%.
[0078]
(Post-film processing) The obtained oriented polyester film is subjected to an activation
treatment (coating, corona discharge, plasma treatment, etc.) of the film surface as needed, such
as adhesion improvement when pasting with other members such as a transparent substrate.
Post processing such as) may be given. The post-processing may be performed during the film
stretching step or may be performed in a separate step.
[0079]
(Production of Film Laminate by Post-Process Lamination) The laminate film of the present
invention can be produced by post-process lamination of layer A and layer B in addition to the
production by the co-extrusion method described above. When using crystalline resin, it is
preferable to make it laminate | stack by such a method. In this case, the layer A and the layer B
may be directly laminated by using an amorphous resin having an adhesive function as a
material constituting the layer B, or the layer A and the layer B may be laminated via the
adhesive. It is also good.
[0080]
<Vibration Plate> The oriented polyester film of the present invention can be used as a
diaphragm of a transparent projection screen speaker module having the functions of a
transparent projection screen and a transparent flat speaker. By using the film of the present
invention as the diaphragm of such a module, when the actuator is used in a structure directly
11-05-2019
27
installed at the end of the diaphragm, sound is sufficiently transmitted to the part away from the
installation position of the actuator And excellent sound propagation characteristics are
expressed. In addition, by using the oriented polyester film of the present invention as a
diaphragm, the installation position of the actuator can be at the end of the diaphragm, and the
transparency of the film itself is high. Transparency can be increased, and image visibility as a
projection screen can be secured.
[0081]
<Transparent Projection Screen Speaker> The present invention also encompasses a transparent
projection screen speaker that uses such an oriented polyester film as a diaphragm and that
includes the diaphragm. Preferably, such a transparent projection screen speaker has a structure
provided with an actuator at the end of the diaphragm. Also, the diaphragm may be stretched
and fixed.
[0082]
In the transparent projection screen speaker of the present invention, the diaphragm is
transparent and has excellent sound propagation characteristics, and the actuator is provided at
the end of the diaphragm, so a sound source such as a voice coil is provided on the back of the
diaphragm. Absent. Therefore, such a projection screen speaker can be bonded and integrated
with a display, a transparent building material, and the like without impairing the display
function and the transparency of the transparent building material, and while displaying an
image as a projection screen, the other side of the screen It is not necessary to provide a speaker
as a separate facility, since the image of can be viewed simultaneously and the screen itself
functions as a speaker.
[0083]
Examples of transparent building materials include transparent walls, show windows, partitions
and windows. Moreover, it can be used also as displays, such as digital signage, a flat-screen
television, and a mobile telephone, as a display. These transparent substrates may be either glass
or resin. In addition, when pasting with these displays, transparent building materials, etc., they
can be pasted through adhesives, adhesives, adhesive sheets, adhesive sheets, etc. within the
range that does not impair transparency, and are mainly silicone rubber or silicone resin. A gel-
11-05-2019
28
like material or the like may be used as a pressure-sensitive adhesive material, and may be
applied in a frame shape and pasted through the vibration-absorbing frame-like pressuresensitive adhesive material. As another method for bonding the display, the transparent building
material, and the like to the projection screen speaker, bonding by insert molding may be
mentioned. In such a case, the material of the transparent substrate is preferably a resin.
[0084]
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail by way of examples, but the present
invention is not limited to these examples. Each characteristic value was measured by the
following method. Further, parts and% in the examples mean parts by weight and% by weight,
respectively, unless otherwise specified.
[0085]
(1) Amount of Polyester Component For each layer of the film sample, the component of the
polyester, the copolymerization component and the amount of each component were specified by
<1> H-NMR measurement.
[0086]
(2) Refractive Index The refractive index nxj, nyj, nzj in three directions was measured by a
refractometer (a prism coupler manufactured by Metricon Co., Ltd.) using three types of laser
beams having wavelengths of 473 nm, 633 nm, and 830 nm. .
Cauchy's refractive index wavelength dispersion fitting equation nij (λ) = a / λ <4> + b / λ <2>
+ c (where nij (λ): in each direction at wavelength λ (nm)) The refractive index (i = x, y, z), a, b
and c each represent a constant. Subscript j (j = 1, 2) is a number assigned to two types of
refractive index values observed at the time of measurement for convenience. Constants of a, b, c
from the three equations obtained I asked for. After that, refractive indices at 589.3 nm (nxj
(589.3), nyj (589.3), nzj (589.3)) were calculated. In each of the directions, either ni1 or ni2 is
the refractive index ni of the matrix phase, and the other is the refractive index Ni of the
dispersed phase, these are the refractive indices n'i, N 'of the individual phases by the following
method It was determined by measuring and selecting a value close to this.
11-05-2019
29
[0087]
(2-1) Refractive index of matrix phase Using the thermoplastic resin of the matrix phase used in
each example and comparative example, a film is formed under the same conditions as each
example and comparative example, and the same as the above (1) The refractive index n'i (i = x, y,
z) in three directions was measured by the method.
[0088]
(2-2) Refractive Index of the Dispersed Phase (2-2a) When the Dispersed Phase is Consisting of
Aggregates of Particles The refractive index N 'of the aggregate alone of the particles was directly
measured by the immersion method.
Prepare a standard solution with a known refractive index, sandwich it with a small amount of
sample powder between a slide glass and a cover glass to make a liquid film, and set it on a
polarization microscope with the analyzer removed. When observation is performed using a NaD
line as a light source and the quantity of light is reduced, Becke lines are observed around the
sample powder when the refractive indices of the sample and the standard solution are different.
When the sample stage of the microscope is moved slightly from the bottom to the top, if the
refractive index of the sample is higher than that of the standard solution, the Becke line moves
from the sample powder to the standard solution, and vice versa The Becke line moves in the
opposite direction. The measurement is repeated while sequentially changing the refractive index
of the standard solution according to the type of the dispersed phase used in each example and
comparative example, and the refractive index of the standard solution when the Becke line is not
observed is the refractive index of the dispersed phase alone It was N '.
[0089]
(2-2b) When the dispersed phase is a thermoplastic resin A plate-like sample of the thermoplastic
resin alone is prepared, and the refractive index N'i (i = x, y, z) was measured, and these were
averaged to calculate the refractive index N ′ of the dispersed phase alone. The plate-like
sample of the thermoplastic resin alone is set in a press equipped with a heating stage by
sandwiching a small amount of the resin pellet of the thermoplastic resin between two Teflon
(registered trademark) sheets, and the heat of the thermoplastic resin is removed. After pressing
at a pressure of 0.5 MPa for 1 minute at a temperature sufficiently lower than the decomposition
temperature by 10 ° C. or more and sufficiently higher than the glass transition temperature or
the melting point, it was rapidly cooled below the glass transition temperature.
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[0090]
(3) Light transmittance of film (total light transmittance, parallel light transmittance), haze Using
a commercially available polarizing film, the direction of maximum refractive index (x direction)
of the film from which the transmission axis of the polarizing film is obtained and orthogonal
thereto Each laminated sample was made to be parallel to the direction (y direction). The
obtained laminated sample was placed in a haze meter (POIC haze meter SEP-HS-D1
manufactured by Nippon Precision Optical Co., Ltd.), with the polarizing film on the light source
side and the transmission axis direction of the polarizing film being vertical. Then, the total light
transmittance (%), the parallel light transmittance (%) and the haze (%) were measured in
accordance with JIS K7105.
[0091]
(4) Total light reflectance of film Using the obtained film, the total light reflectance (%) was
measured in accordance with JIS K 7105.
[0092]
(5) Young's modulus The film sample is cut out to a width of 10 mm and a length of 150 mm so
that the x direction is the measurement direction, the sample is mounted 100 mm between the
chucks, and a tensile test is performed under the conditions of 10 mm / min tensile speed
according to JIS-C2151. The Young's modulus was calculated from the slope of the rising portion
tangent of the load-elongation curve obtained.
The measurement was performed 5 times, and the average value was taken as the result. The
measurement was performed in a room adjusted to a temperature of 23 ± 2 ° C. and a
humidity of 50 ± 5%. Tensilon UCT-100 manufactured by ORIENTEC Co., Ltd. was used as a
measuring device. In the case of a laminated film, the same Young's modulus measurement was
performed for layer A. Specifically, when layer A can be isolated from the laminated film, the
other layers were peeled off and measured for layer A. Moreover, when isolation of layer A was
difficult, the Young's modulus was calculated | required by the method of creating and measuring
the single layer film of layer A which uses the composition of layer A as a raw material.
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[0093]
(6) Internal loss A film sample is cut out to a width of 3 mm and a length of 40 mm, and the
sample is mounted at 30 mm between chucks using a dynamic viscoelasticity measuring
apparatus (manufactured by ORIENTEC Co., Ltd., DDV-01FP). A 100 Hz stretch displacement was
applied (displacement amplitude 25 μm), and the storage modulus E ′ and loss modulus E ′
′ of the film sample were measured. The loss tangent tan δ was calculated from the obtained E
′ and E ′ ′ and used as the internal loss value. The film forming direction and the width
direction were respectively evaluated, and an average value was calculated.
[0094]
(7) Crystallization Exothermic Peak 10 mg of a film sample was sampled, and measured at 20 °
C./min with a DSC apparatus (manufactured by TA Instruments, trade name: DSC 2920). The
temperature was raised at the rate of temperature rise, and the presence or absence of the
crystallization exothermic peak was confirmed based on the DSC chart.
[0095]
(8) Thickness of each layer, number of layers A film sample is cut out in a triangle, fixed to an
embedding capsule, and then embedded in epoxy resin. Then, the embedded sample was cut with
a microtome (ULTRACUT-S, manufacturer: Reichert) along a plane including the film forming
direction and the thickness direction to form a thin film section of 50 nm in thickness. The thin
film section thus obtained is observed and photographed at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV
using a transmission electron microscope (manufacturer: Nippon Denshi Co., Ltd., trade name:
JEM 2010), and the thickness of each layer of layers A and B The number of layers was
measured, and the thickness of each layer was determined from the average value of each.
[0096]
(9) Film Total Layer Thickness The total layer thickness of the film is measured at 10 points with
a needle pressure of 30 g using an electronic micrometer (trade name "K-312A" manufactured by
Anritsu Co., Ltd.), and their average value It asked for.
[0097]
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(10) The total thickness ratio of the layer A occupying the total thickness of the film The average
of the layer thicknesses of the layer A obtained by the method of (8) is multiplied by the number
of layers of the layer A to obtain the total layer thickness of the layer A The
On the other hand, the total film thickness of the film was determined according to the method of
(9), and the total thickness ratio of the layer A occupied in the total layer thickness was
calculated.
[0098]
(11) Acoustic characteristics DIATONE ACT-1 (manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation)
was installed as an actuator for a flat speaker at the end of one short side of a 20 cm × 30 cm
film sample and at the center of a 20 cm width. In the anechoic chamber, the film sample is
placed so that the long side of the film sample is vertical and the short side to which the actuator
is attached is down while the film sample is expanded in the diagonal direction from the four
apexes of the film sample. Carried out. The following acoustic characteristics were evaluated
from the obtained directivity data and frequency characteristics data.
[0099]
(I) Sound propagation characteristics The measurement position (i) is the same height as the
actuator mounting position at a position 50 cm away from the sample surface arranged in the
vertical direction. Further, as in the case of the position (A), the measurement position (A) is 30
cm above the position (A) at a position 50 cm away from the sample surface. :: The difference
between measured sound pressure at position (A) is within 10% of the measured sound pressure
at position (A), and sound can be heard from the entire surface with the same sound pressure ○:
Contrast with position (A) , Deviation of measured sound pressure at position (a) exceeds 10%
and within 15% Δ: Contrast of position (a), measurement sound pressure at position (a) exceeds
15% and within 20% ×: Position (A) Contrast, deviation of measured sound pressure at position
(a) exceeds 20%
[0100]
(Ii) Sound reproduction ◎: 85% or more of input signal reproduction rate was observed for all
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frequency bands ○: 85% or more of input signal reproduction rate was observed for all
frequency bands of 1 kHz or more; A frequency band showing a recall of 80% to less than 85%
was observed Δ: A frequency band showing a recall of 80% to less than 85% not only at less
than 1 kHz but also at 1 kHz or more was observed ×: 80% A frequency band showing a recall
less than was observed
[0101]
(12) Bonding with a Transparent Substrate A polycarbonate plate was used as a transparent
substrate, and a polycarbonate plate and a film sample were bonded with a vibration absorbing
frame-shaped pressure-sensitive adhesive made of silicone rubber to prepare a 20 cm × 30 cm
laminated member.
Using the Diaton ACT-1 (Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd.) installed as a flat speaker actuator at the
end of one short side of the film sample and at the center of 20 cm width, use the sample as in
(11). It was placed in an anechoic chamber and the acoustic characteristics described in (11)
were evaluated.
[0102]
(13) Transmission Visibility, Scattering Reflectivity Using the laminated member of a
polycarbonate plate and a film sample prepared by the measurement method (12), the laminated
member is installed vertically in a bright room, and is commercially available from below 45 °
on the front side An image (a green letter in black) was projected from the liquid crystal projector
of (1), and at the same time, an object 2 m ahead of the laminated member was observed. As a
reference sample, a polycarbonate plate was used and evaluated according to the following
criteria. :: The projected image can be recognized more sharply compared to the reference
sample, and an object 2 m ahead can be sufficiently viewed. ○: It is possible to recognize the
projection image but lack sharpness and / or it is possible to see an object 2 m ahead but lose
sharpness. ×: The projected image can hardly be recognized as in the reference sample, and / or
can not visually recognize an object 2 m ahead.
[0103]
(14) Film turbid after heating The film sample was heated at 150 ° C. for 30 minutes and then
allowed to naturally cool in a room temperature atmosphere, and then visually compared relative
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to the film sample before heating to confirm the occurrence of white turbidity. .
[0104]
Example 1 As a thermoplastic resin component constituting a matrix, polyethylene-2,6naphthalenedicarboxylate having an intrinsic viscosity of 0.61 dl / g produced using a
germanium catalyst is dried for 6 hours with a dryer at 180 ° C. After that, it is mixed with 1.0%
by weight (based on the weight of layer A) of syndiotactic polystyrene resin (manufactured by
Idemitsu Petrochemical, trade name “Zarek 81AC”) dried at 90 ° C. for 10 hours as a
component constituting the dispersed phase The resultant was charged into an extruder, meltkneaded at 295 ° C., and formed into a sheet from a die at 290 ° C.
The melt was extruded on a rotary cooling drum with a surface temperature of 60 ° C. to obtain
an unstretched film with a thickness of 156 μm. The obtained unstretched film was introduced
into a group of rolls heated to 140 ° C., stretched by 1.25 times in the longitudinal direction
(longitudinal direction), and cooled by a group of rolls at 60 ° C. A coating agent consisting of
65% by weight of polyester 1/30% by weight of acrylic 1/5% by weight of wetting agent is
uniformly coated on one side of this longitudinally uniaxially stretched film with a roll coater
using a roll coater to facilitate adhesion Coating layer was formed. Subsequently, while holding
the both ends of the longitudinally stretched film with clips, the film was introduced into a tenter
and stretched 5.0 times in a direction (horizontal direction) perpendicular to the longitudinal
direction in an atmosphere heated to 150 ° C. Thereafter, heat setting was performed at 230 °
C. in a tenter, and after 3% relaxation at 180 ° C., the film was uniformly cooled and cooled to
room temperature to obtain a 25 μm thick biaxially stretched film. The properties of the
obtained film are shown in Table 1. With respect to the composite member to which the film and
the transparent substrate are attached, the results of the evaluation of the acoustic
characteristics, the transmission visibility and the scattering reflectivity are shown in Table 1.
[0105]
<Coating Composition> (Polyester 1) The acid component is 65 mol% of 2,6naphthalenedicarboxylic acid / 30 mol% of isophthalic acid / 5 mol% of 5-sodium
sulfoisophthalic acid, and the glycol component is 90 mol% of ethylene glycol / diethylene glycol
10 It is composed of mol% (Tg = 80 ° C., average molecular weight 13,000). The polyester 1
was produced as follows according to the method described in Example 1 of JP-A No. 06116487. That is, 44 parts of dimethyl 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate, 16 parts of dimethyl
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isophthalate, 4 parts of dimethyl 5-sodium sulfoisophthalate, 34 parts of ethylene glycol and 2
parts of diethylene glycol are charged in a reactor, 05 parts were added, the temperature was
controlled to 230 ° C. under a nitrogen atmosphere, and heating was performed to distill off
generated methanol to carry out a transesterification reaction. Next, the temperature of the
reaction system was gradually raised to 255 ° C., and the pressure in the system was reduced to
1 mmHg to carry out a polycondensation reaction.
[0106]
(Acryl 1) Composed of 30 mol% of methyl methacrylate / 2 mol% of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline /
10 mol% of polyethylene oxide (n = 10) methacrylate / 30 mol% of acrylamide (Tg = 50 ° C.) .
The acrylic 1 was produced as follows according to the method described in Production
Examples 1 to 3 of JP-A-63-37167. That is, 3 parts of sodium lauryl sulfonate as a surfactant and
181 parts of ion-exchanged water were charged in a four-necked flask, heated to 60 ° C. in a
nitrogen stream, and then ammonium persulfate 0.5 as a polymerization initiator Parts, 0.2 parts
of sodium hydrogen nitrite and further 23.3 parts of methyl methacrylate, 22.6 parts of 2isopropenyl-2-oxazoline as monomers, polyethylene oxide (n = 10) methacrylic acid A mixture of
40.7 parts and 13.3 parts of acrylamide was added dropwise over 3 hours while adjusting the
liquid temperature to 60 to 70 ° C. After completion of the dropwise addition, the reaction was
continued with stirring while maintaining the same temperature range for 2 hours, and then
cooled to obtain an aqueous dispersion of Acrylic 1 having a solid content of 35%.
[0107]
(Wetting agent) Polyoxyethylene (n = 7) lauryl ether (manufactured by Sanyo Kasei Co., Ltd.,
trade name Naroacty N-70)
[0108]
Example 2 A biaxially stretched film with a thickness of 25 μm in the same manner as in
Example 1 except that the component constituting the dispersed phase was changed to
acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (product of Daicel Polymer, trade name “Sebian N”). I got a
film.
The properties of the obtained film are shown in Table 1.
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[0109]
[Example 3] As a resin for layer A, polyethylene-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate having an intrinsic
viscosity of 0.61 dl / g, an acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer resin of 1.0 based on the weight of
layer A What mixed by weight was put into an extruder and melt-kneaded at 295 ° C. On the
other hand, as a resin for layer B, polyethylene terephthalate (inherent viscosity: 0.62 dl / g)
obtained by copolymerizing 7.5% by mole of isophthalic acid and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic
acid is dried with a 170 ° C. dryer for 6 hours After that, it is put into the other extruder, and in
the molten state, using feed block device, it becomes 3 layers so that A | B | A (discharge ratio
layer A: layer B: layer A = 1: 2: 1) After laminating and forming into a sheet from a die while
maintaining the laminated structure, an unstretched film laminate is obtained in the same
manner as Example 1, and a stretched film laminate is obtained under the same conditions as
Example 1. The The properties of the obtained film laminate are shown in Table 1.
[0110]
[Example 4] The same resin as in Example 3 is used as each of the layer A and the layer B, and is
charged into each extruder, and in a molten state, 101 layers of the resin for layer A and 100
layers of the resin for layer B After branching, laminate to 201 layers using a multi-layer feed
block device in which the first layer and the second layer are alternately laminated (discharge
ratio layer A total: layer B total = 1: 1), The sheet was formed into a sheet from a die in a state in
which the laminated state was maintained, and then an unstretched film laminate was obtained in
the same manner as Example 1, and a stretched film laminate was obtained under the same
conditions as Example 1. The properties of the obtained film are shown in Table 1.
[0111]
[Example 5] The coated sides of the stretched film obtained in Example 2 are pressure-bonded
via a polyester-based adhesive (manufactured by Toyobo Co., Ltd .; Byron), and three layers of A |
B | A A film laminate was obtained. The properties of the obtained film laminate are shown in
Table 1.
[0112]
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[Example 6] Example 3 except that the resin for layer B was changed to polyethylene
terephthalate (intrinsic viscosity: 0.62 dl / g) obtained by copolymerizing isophthalic acid and
2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid by 6 mol% each. A stretched film laminate was obtained in the
same manner as in. The properties of the obtained film laminate are shown in Table 1.
[0113]
Example 7 A stretched film was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the
draw ratio was changed as shown in Table 1. The properties of the obtained film are shown in
Table 1.
[0114]
[Example 8] A stretched film was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the
component amount of the dispersed phase was changed as shown in Table 1. The properties of
the obtained film are shown in Table 1.
[0115]
Comparative Example 1 A stretched film was obtained by repeating the same operation as in
Example 2 except that the mixing ratio of the acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer resin used as a
component of the dispersed phase was 35% by weight. The properties of the obtained film are
shown in Table 1.
[0116]
Comparative Example 2 A stretched film was obtained by repeating the same operation as in
Example 1 except that the thickness of the unstretched film was 50 μm and the lateral
stretching ratio was 1.5. The properties of the obtained film are shown in Table 1.
[0117]
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Comparative Example 3 A stretched film was obtained under the same conditions as in Example
1 except that polyethylene terephthalate (inherent viscosity: 0.62 dl / g) obtained by
copolymerizing 12 mol% of isophthalic acid was used as a resin for layer A. The The properties of
the obtained film are shown in Table 1. The sound propagation characteristics were not sufficient
because the Young's modulus was insufficient. In addition, the difference in refractive index
between the matrix phase and the dispersed phase in the x direction was not sufficient, and the
projected image could not be recognized sufficiently.
[0118]
Comparative Example 4 A stretched film was obtained under the same conditions as in Example
2 except that the unstretched film thickness was 248 μm and the stretch ratio was set to
longitudinal × lateral direction = 3.1 × 3.2. The properties of the obtained film are shown in
Table 1. The sound propagation characteristics were not sufficient because the Young's modulus
was insufficient. In addition, the relationship between the refractive index in the y direction and
the refractive index in the z direction did not satisfy the relationship of equation (1), and the
projected image could not be recognized sufficiently.
[0119]
Comparative Example 5 Stretching was carried out under the same conditions as in Example 2
except that polyethylene terephthalate (having an intrinsic viscosity of 0.62 dl / g) was used as
the resin for layer A in place of polyethylene-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate. I got a film. The
properties of the obtained film are shown in Table 1. Although the refractive index
characteristics and the visibility of the projected image were good, the acoustic propagation
characteristics were not sufficient because the Young's modulus was insufficient.
[0120]
Comparative Example 6 A stretched film was obtained under the same conditions as in Example
2 except that 0.1% of spherical silica particles having an average particle diameter of 0.3 μm
was added in the polymerization step. The properties of the obtained film are shown in Table 1.
The relationship between the refractive index in the y direction and the z direction did not satisfy
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the relationship of equation (1), and the parallel light transmittance and the total light
transmittance were insufficient, and the projected image could not be recognized sufficiently.
Moreover, it was inferior to the transparent visibility of the image | video of the other side of a
projection screen speaker.
[0121]
[0122]
The oriented polyester film for a transparent projection screen speaker according to the present
invention scatters and reflects polarized light in one direction, and has high transparency to
polarized light in the orthogonal direction, so it scatters and reflects projection light projected
from the viewer side. It has excellent transparency and visibility with respect to a visible image
and an image on the opposite side to the viewer through the film.
Moreover, since the film itself is excellent in acoustic characteristics, it also has a function as a
diaphragm of a transparent flat speaker module in which an actuator is directly installed at an
end of the diaphragm, and a novel composite member called a transparent projection screen
speaker Can be provided. As a use which can express the composite function which united
display and sound function by such a transparent projection screen speaker, a new usage form
ranging from a large display such as digital signage, to a flat-screen TV etc, and further to a
mobile phone etc. Can be created.
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