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JP2012209922

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This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
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DESCRIPTION JP2012209922
The present invention relates to a thermoacoustic apparatus, and more particularly to a
thermoacoustic apparatus using carbon nanotubes. A thermoacoustic device according to the
present invention includes a substrate, a sound wave generator, and a heater, the substrate is
made of a carbon nanotube composite structure, and the carbon nanotube composite structure
has a carbon nanotube structure. Body and an insulating layer coated on the surface of the
carbon nanotube structure, the sound wave generator is installed on one surface of the substrate,
and the graphene structure is formed, and the heater generates energy to the sound wave
generator. To generate heat in the sound generator. The present invention also provides an
electronic device using the thermoacoustic apparatus. [Selected figure] Figure 1
Thermoacoustic device
[0001]
The present invention relates to a thermoacoustic device, and more particularly to a
thermoacoustic device using graphene.
[0002]
In general, an acoustic device comprises a signal device and a sound generator.
The signaling device transmits a signal to the sound generator. The thermoacoustic device is a
type of acoustic device that utilizes a thermoacoustic phenomenon. Non-Patent Document 1 and
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1
Non-Patent Document 2 disclose thermoacoustic devices in which sound is generated by heat
when an alternating current flows through a conductor. When alternating current is applied to
the conductor, heat is generated in the thermoacoustic apparatus and is propagated to the
surrounding medium. Sound waves can be generated due to the thermal expansion and pressure
waves generated by the transmitted heat.
[0003]
Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2004107196 Japanese Patent Application
Publication No. 2006161563 Chinese Patent Application Publication No. 101284662 Japanese
Patent Application Publication No. 2008297195 Chinese Patent Application Publication No.
101239712
[0004]
“The Thermophone”,EDWARD C. WEMTE,Vol.
XTX,No.4,p.333−345 “On Some Thermal Effects of
Electric Currents”,William Henry
Preece,Proceedings of the Roal Society of
London,Vol.30,p.408−411(1879−1881)
H.D.Arnold、I.B.Crandall, “The thermophone as a
precision source of sound”, Phys. 1917, 10, 22-38, Kaili Jiang,
Qunqing Li, Shoushan Fan, "Spinning continuous carbon nanotube yarns", Nature, 2002, 419, p.
801
[0005]
Non-Patent Document 3 discloses a thermophone manufactured by a thermoacoustic
phenomenon. Thermoacoustic phenomenon is a phenomenon in which sound and heat are
related, and there are two aspects, energy conversion and energy transport. Transferring the
signal to the thermoacoustic device generates heat in the thermoacoustic device and propagates
to the surrounding media. Sound waves can be generated by thermal expansion and pressure
waves generated by the transmitted heat. Here, a platinum piece having a thickness of 7 × 10 <5> cm is used as a thermoacoustic component. However, for a platinum piece having a thickness
of 7 × 10 <-5> cm, the heat capacity per unit area is 2 × 10 <-4> J / cm <2> · K. Since the heat
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2
capacity per unit area of the platinum piece is very high, there is a problem that the
thermoacoustic frequency and the thermoacoustic effect are low when the thermophone using
the platinum piece is used outdoors.
[0006]
Accordingly, the present invention provides thermoacoustic devices and electronic devices for
solving the above-mentioned problems. The thermoacoustic frequency and the thermoacoustic
effect of the thermoacoustic device and the electronic device become high.
[0007]
A thermoacoustic device according to the present invention includes a substrate, a sound wave
generator, and a heater, wherein the substrate comprises a carbon nanotube composite structure,
and the carbon nanotube composite structure includes a carbon nanotube structure and a carbon
nanotube. Comprising an insulating layer coated on the surface of the structure, the acoustic
wave generator is disposed on one surface of the substrate, comprises a graphene structure, and
the heater provides energy to the acoustic wave generator; The heat generator generates heat.
[0008]
The carbon nanotube structure has a free standing structure, and comprises at least one carbon
nanotube film.
[0009]
The carbon nanotube composite structure has a plurality of micropores, and a part of the sound
wave generator is suspended with respect to the plurality of micropores.
[0010]
The electronic device of the present invention comprises a thermoacoustic device.
The thermoacoustic apparatus includes a substrate, a heater, and a plurality of sound wave
generators, the substrate is made of a carbon nanotube composite structure, and the carbon
nanotube composite structure is a carbon nanotube structure and a carbon nanotube.
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Comprising an insulating layer coated on the surface of the structure, the acoustic wave
generator is disposed on one surface of the substrate, comprises a graphene structure, and the
heater provides energy to the acoustic wave generator; The heat generator generates heat.
[0011]
Compared to the prior art, the thermoacoustic apparatus of the present invention has the
following advantages.
First, since the thermoacoustic device of the present invention includes a graphene structure, the
structure is simple and the weight and size can be reduced.
Second, since the thermoacoustic device of the present invention generates an acoustic wave by
heating the graphene structure, it is not necessary to use a magnet. Third, since the graphene
structure has a small heat capacity per unit area, a large specific surface area, and a high rate of
heat exchange, sound can be favorably generated. Fourth, because graphene structures are thin,
transparent acoustic devices can be manufactured.
[0012]
It is a top view of the thermoacoustic apparatus in Example 1 of this invention. It is sectional
drawing of the thermoacoustic apparatus in Example 1 along line | wire II-II of FIG. It is a top
view of the thermoacoustic apparatus in Example 2 of this invention. It is sectional drawing of
the thermoacoustic apparatus in Example 2 along line IV-IV of FIG. It is a top view of the
thermoacoustic apparatus in Example 3 of this invention. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of one
thermoacoustic device in Example 3, taken along line VI-VI of FIG. 5; FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional
view of another thermoacoustic device in Example 3, taken along line VI-VI of FIG. 5; It is a top
view of the thermoacoustic apparatus in Example 4 of this invention. It is sectional drawing of
the thermoacoustic apparatus in Example 4 along line IX-IX of FIG. It is a scanning electron
micrograph of the non-twisted carbon nanotube wire utilized for the thermoacoustic apparatus of
FIG. It is a scanning electron micrograph of the twisted carbon nanotube wire utilized for the
thermoacoustic apparatus of FIG. It is a top view of the thermoacoustic apparatus containing the
board | substrate formed by coat | covering the surface of a carbon nanotube structure by the
insulating layer in Example 5 of this invention. It is a scanning electron micrograph of the drone
structure carbon nanotube film utilized for the carbon nanotube structure of FIG. It is a figure
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which shows the structure of the carbon nanotube segment of the carbon nanotube film in FIG. It
is a scanning electron micrograph of the fluff structure carbon nanotube film utilized for the
carbon nanotube structure of FIG. It is a scanning electron micrograph of the presid structure
carbon nanotube film in which a carbon nanotube is arrange | positioned without orientating. It
is a scanning electron micrograph of the presid structure carbon nanotube film in which a carbon
nanotube is orientated and arrange | positioned. It is a top view of the thermoacoustic apparatus
in Example 6 of this invention. FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view of the thermoacoustic device in
Example 6 along the line XVII-XVII in FIG. 18. It is a top view of the thermoacoustic apparatus in
Example 7 of this invention. FIG. 21 is a cross-sectional view of the thermoacoustic device in
Example 7 taken along line XIX-XIX in FIG. 20. It is a sectional side view of the thermoacoustic
apparatus in Example 8 of this invention. It is a sectional side view of the thermoacoustic
apparatus in Example 9 of this invention. It is a side view of the thermoacoustic apparatus in
Example 10 of this invention.
[0013]
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the
drawings.
[0014]
Example 1 Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the thermoacoustic apparatus 10 of the present example
includes a sound wave generator 102 and a heater 104.
[0015]
The heat generator 104 can provide energy to the sound wave generator 102 and cause the
sound wave generator 102 to generate heat, whereby the thermoacoustic device 10 can generate
a sound wave.
In the present embodiment, the heater 104 includes a first electrode 104a and a second
electrode 104b disposed at a predetermined distance from the first electrode 104a.
The first electrode 104 a and the second electrode 104 b are electrically connected to the sound
wave generator 102. In the present embodiment, the first electrode 104a and the second
electrode 104b are disposed on the same surface of the sound wave generator 102 and are
parallel to two opposing sides of the sound wave generator 102.
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[0016]
The thermoacoustic device 10 can generate a sound wave by providing the electric wave
generator 102 with an electric signal and causing the sound wave generator 102 to generate
heat. . The first electrode 104a and the second electrode 104b may be formed in a layered, rodlike, strip-like or lump-like shape, and their cross sections may be circular, square, trapezoidal,
triangular or polygonal. The first electrode 104 a and the second electrode 104 b are fixed to one
surface of the sound wave generator 102 by an adhesive. In order to prevent the heat generated
from the sound wave generator 102 from being absorbed by the first electrode 104 a and the
second electrode 104 b, the heat of the sound wave generator 102 of the first electrode 104 a
and the second electrode 104 b The contact area is preferably small. The first electrode 104a
and the second electrode 104b are thread-like or band-like, and the material is any one kind of
conductive materials such as metal, conductive adhesive, conductive paste, ITO, carbon nanotube
and the like. In the present embodiment, the first electrode 104 a and the second electrode 104 b
are thread-like silver electrodes formed on one surface of the sound wave generator 102 by
printing conductive silver paste.
[0017]
If the first electrode 104a and the second electrode 104b have a certain strength, the first
electrode 104a and the second electrode 104b may support the sound wave generator 102. For
example, when both ends of the first electrode 104a and the second electrode 104b are fixed to
one frame, the sound wave generator 102 is installed and suspended on the first electrode 104a
and the second electrode 104b. .
[0018]
The thermoacoustic device 10 further includes a lead (not shown) of the first electrode and a lead
(not shown) of the second electrode. The lead wire of the first electrode and the lead wire of the
second electrode are electrically connected to the first electrode 104a and the second electrode
104b, respectively. The thermoacoustic device 10 is electrically connected to an external circuit
(not shown) by the lead wire of the first electrode and the lead wire of the second electrode.
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[0019]
The sound wave generator 102 is made of a graphene structure. The graphene structure is a film
structure having a certain area and a two-dimensional structure. The graphene structure includes
at least one graphene sheet, and the thickness of the graphene structure is 0.34 nm to 10 nm.
When the graphene structure includes a plurality of graphene sheets, the plurality of graphene
sheets may be juxtaposed to form large-sized graphene structures, or may be stacked on each
other to form a stacked graphene structure. Do. The graphene structure is preferably a singlelayer graphene. Graphene here is a sheet of sp <2> -bonded carbon atoms with a thickness of one
atom, and has a hexagonal lattice structure like a honeycomb formed of carbon atoms and their
bonds. Since the light transmittance of single-layer graphene reaches 97.7%, a graphene
structure formed of the single-layer graphene has good light-transmitting properties. Therefore, a
transparent thermoacoustic device can be manufactured using the graphene structure. Since the
graphene structure is very thin, its heat capacity is small, for example, the heat capacity of singlelayer graphene is 5.57 × 10 <-4> J / K · mol. The graphene structure has a free standing
structure. Here, a self-supporting structure is a form which can utilize the said graphene
structure independently, without utilizing a support material. That is, it means that the graphene
structure can be suspended by supporting the graphene structure from opposite sides without
changing the structure of the graphene structure.
[0020]
The method for producing the graphene structure may be chemical vapor deposition, coating or
mechanical exfoliation. In this embodiment, the graphene structure is formed on the surface of a
substrate made of a metal film by chemical vapor deposition.
[0021]
The electrical resistivity of the working medium of the acoustic wave generator 102 is greater
than the electrical resistivity of the acoustic wave generator 102. Thus, the heat capacity per unit
volume of the working medium is increased, so that the heat generated by the sound wave
generator 102 can be conducted. The working medium can be a gas or a liquid. For example, the
gaseous medium is air, and the liquid working medium is one or more of non-electrolytic
solution, water or organic solution. The electrical resistivity of the liquid medium is 0.01 Ω · m or
more, preferably pure water. In the present embodiment, the working medium of the sound wave
generator 102 is air.
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[0022]
The thermoacoustic device 10 is electrically connected to an external circuit by the first electrode
104a and the second electrode 104b, and can transmit an external signal to generate an acoustic
wave. Since the thermoacoustic device 10 includes the graphene structure and the heat capacity
per unit area of the graphene structure is small, the pressure wave can be generated in the
surrounding medium by the temperature wave generated by the sound wave generator 104. it
can. When a signal is transferred to the graphene structure of the sound wave generator 104,
heat is generated in the graphene structure by the signal intensity and / or the signal. The
diffusion of the temperature wave thermally expands the surrounding air to produce a sound. In
the present embodiment, the thermoacoustic apparatus 10 operates by an electro-thermal-sound
conversion system.
[0023]
The sound pressure level of the thermoacoustic device 10 is 50 dB, and its frequency response
range is 1 Hz to 100 KHz. The harmonic distortion of the thermoacoustic device 10 can be very
small, for example, only within 3% in the range of 500 Hz to 40 KHz.
[0024]
Example 2 Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, the thermoacoustic apparatus 20 of the present example
includes a sound wave generator 202, a heater 204, and a substrate 208. The difference between
the present embodiment and the first embodiment is that the thermoacoustic apparatus 20 of the
present invention further includes a substrate 208. The sound wave generator 202 is installed on
one surface of the substrate 208. The heater 204 includes a first electrode 204a and a second
electrode 204b. The first electrode 204a and the second electrode 204b are electrically
connected to the sound wave generator 202 so as to be separated by a predetermined distance.
In the present embodiment, the first electrode 204a and the second electrode 204b are disposed
on the surface of the sound wave generator 202 opposite to the surface adjacent to the substrate
208, and the sound wave generator 202 is opposed to the surface Parallel to two sides. The
shape, size and thickness of the substrate 208 are not limited. The substrate 208 is flat or
curved, and the material is a hard or flexible material having a certain strength. Preferably, the
substrate 208 has good thermal insulation and heat resistance, and its electrical resistivity is
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higher than that of the sound wave generator 202. Specifically, the material of the substrate 208
is glass, ceramics, quartz, diamond, plastic, resin and wood.
[0025]
In the present embodiment, at least one through hole 208 a is formed in the substrate 208. The
relationship between the depth H1 of the through hole 208a and the thickness H2 of the
substrate 208 is represented by the following equation (1).
[0026]
H1 ≦ H2 (Equation 1)
[0027]
If the depth of the through hole 208a is smaller than the thickness of the substrate 208, the
through hole 208a is a blind hole.
When the depth of the through hole 208a is equal to the thickness of the substrate 208, the
through hole 208a is a through hole. The shape of the cross section of the through hole 208a
may be circular, square, rectangular, triangular, polygonal or machined. When a plurality of
through holes 208 a are formed in the substrate 208, the distance between two adjacent through
holes 208 a is 100 μm to 3 mm. In the present embodiment, a plurality of through holes 208 a
are uniformly formed in the substrate 208, and the cross-sectional shape of the single through
hole 208 a is circular.
[0028]
The sound wave generator 202 is formed on one surface of the substrate 208 and is suspended
on the plurality of through holes 208a. In the present embodiment, a part of the plurality of
sound wave generators 202 is suspended above the plurality of through holes 208 a, and the
other part is directly installed on one surface of the substrate 208. Thus, the thermoacoustic
generator 202 is supported by the substrate 208.
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[0029]
Example 3 Referring to FIG. 5, the thermoacoustic apparatus 30 includes a sound wave generator
302, a heater 304, and a substrate 308. Compared to the second embodiment, at least one
groove 308 a is formed in the substrate 308 of the thermoacoustic apparatus 30 of the present
embodiment. The at least one groove 308 a is formed on one surface of the substrate 308. The
depth of the groove 308 a is smaller than the thickness of the substrate 308. The groove 308a is
a blind groove or a through groove. When the groove 308 a is a blind groove, the length thereof
is smaller than the side L 3 of the substrate 308. When the groove 308 a is a through groove, the
length thereof is the same as the side L 3 of the substrate 308. The shape of the groove 308a
may be a rectangle, an arc, a polygon, or a circle. Referring to FIG. 6, when the cross section
along the longitudinal direction of the blind groove 308a is rectangular, the blind groove 308a is
defined as a rectangular blind groove 308a. Referring to FIG. 7, when the cross section along the
longitudinal direction of the blind groove 308a is triangular, the blind groove 308a is defined as
a triangular prism blind groove 308a. Referring to FIG. 5, in the present embodiment, a plurality
of uniform rectangular blind grooves 308a are provided on the surface of the substrate 308. The
distance between two adjacent blind grooves 308a is not limited.
[0030]
In the thermoacoustic apparatus 30, at least one groove 308 a is formed in the substrate 308.
Since the groove 308a can reflect the signal of the sound wave generator 302, the signal
intensity of the sound wave generator 302 is increased. The substrate 308 supports the sound
wave generator 302 and maximizes the contact area between the sound wave generator 302 and
the surrounding medium when the distance between two adjacent blind grooves 308 a
approaches zero. It can be done.
[0031]
In order to enhance the thermoacoustic effect of the sound wave generator 302, the depth of the
groove 308a is preferably 10 μm to 10 mm.
[0032]
Example 4 Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, in comparison to Example 2, the thermoacoustic apparatus
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10
40 of the present example includes a substrate 408 which is a network structure.
The thermoacoustic device 40 includes a sound wave generator 402, a heater 404, and a
substrate 408. The substrate 408 is a network structure, and includes a plurality of first linear
structures 408 a and a plurality of second linear structures 408 b. The plurality of first linear
structures 408a and the plurality of second linear structures 408b cross each other to form a
network structure. When the plurality of first linear structures 408a are parallel to one another
and the plurality of second linear structures 408b are parallel to one another, the plurality of
first linear structures 408a may be in the first direction L1. The plurality of second linear
structures 408b extend along a second direction L2. The distance between two adjacent first
linear structures 408a is preferably 0 to 1 cm, and the distance between two adjacent first linear
structures 408b is preferably 0 to 1 cm. In the present embodiment, the plurality of first linear
structures 408a are installed in parallel to each other at equal intervals. The distance between
two adjacent first linear structures 408a is 1 cm. The plurality of second linear structures 408b
are installed in parallel to each other at equal intervals. The distance between two adjacent
second linear structures 408b is 1 cm. The first direction L1 and the second direction L2
intersect at an angle α (0 ° <α ≦ 90 °).
[0033]
The substrate 408 has a plurality of meshes 408c. The mesh 408c is formed by crossing the
plurality of first linear structures 408a and the plurality of second linear structures 408b with
each other. The mesh 408c is a quadrilateral, for example, a square, a rectangle or a rhombus.
The dimensions of the mesh 408c are determined by the distance between two adjacent first
linear structures 408a and the distance between two adjacent second linear structures 408b. In
the present embodiment, the mesh 408c is square and its side length is 1 cm.
[0034]
The diameters of the plurality of first linear structures 408a and the plurality of second linear
structures 408b may be, but are not limited to, 10 μm to 5 mm, and the materials thereof may
be fibers, plastics, resins or insulation such as silicone. It is a material. Specifically, the plurality
of first linear structures 408 a and the plurality of second linear structures 408 b may be made
of one or more of plant fibers, animal fibers, wood fibers, and mineral fibers, but have certain
heat resistance characteristics. It is preferable to be made of a flexible material such as nylon
cord, spandex. The plurality of first linear structures 408 a and the plurality of second linear
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structures 408 b may be made of a conductive linear material covered with an insulating layer.
The conductive linear material is a metal wire or a linear carbon nanotube structure. The metal
wire is made of pure metal or alloy. The pure metal is aluminum, copper, tungsten, molybdenum,
gold, titanium, neodymium, palladium or cesium. The alloy is composed of two or more of
aluminum, copper, tungsten, molybdenum, gold, titanium, neodymium, palladium and cesium.
The insulating layer is resin, plastic, silicon dioxide or metal oxide. In the same embodiment, the
structures and materials of the plurality of first linear structures 408a and the plurality of second
linear structures 408b may be the same or different. In the present embodiment, the plurality of
first linear structures 408a and the plurality of second linear structures 408b are linear carbon
nanotube structures coated with silicon dioxide.
[0035]
The linear carbon nanotube structure includes at least one carbon nanotube wire. The carbon
nanotube wire comprises a plurality of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes may be one or
more of single-walled carbon nanotubes, double-walled carbon nanotubes, and multi-walled
carbon nanotubes.
[0036]
The carbon nanotube wire may be a non-twisted carbon nanotube wire or a twisted carbon
nanotube wire. Referring to FIG. 10, when the carbon nanotube wire is a non-twisted carbon
nanotube wire, the carbon nanotube wire includes a plurality of carbon nanotube segments (not
shown) connected end to end. The carbon nanotube segments have the same length and width.
Furthermore, a plurality of carbon nanotubes of the same length are arranged in parallel to each
of the carbon nanotube segments. The plurality of carbon nanotubes are arranged parallel to the
central axis of the carbon nanotube wire. The length, thickness, uniformity and shape of the
carbon nanotube segment are not limited. The length of one non-twisted carbon nanotube wire is
not limited, and its diameter is 0.5 nm to 100 μm.
[0037]
Referring to FIG. 11, a twisted carbon nanotube wire can be formed by applying opposing forces
to opposite ends along the longitudinal direction of the non-twisted carbon nanotube wire.
Preferably, the twisted carbon nanotube wire comprises a plurality of carbon nanotube segments
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(not shown) connected end to end. Furthermore, a plurality of carbon nanotubes of the same
length are arranged in parallel to each of the carbon nanotube segments. The length, thickness,
uniformity and shape of the carbon nanotube segment are not limited. The length of one twisted
carbon nanotube wire is not limited, and its diameter is 0.5 nm to 100 μm. The method for
producing the carbon nanotube wire is disclosed in Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2.
[0038]
Since the substrate 408 of the thermoacoustic apparatus 40 of this embodiment is the network
structure, the thermoacoustic apparatus 40 has the following excellent points. First, since the
substrate 408 is the network structure, the substrate 408 has good flexibility. When the plurality
of first linear structures 408 a and / or the plurality of second linear structures 408 b are linear
carbon nanotube structures coated with an insulating layer, the diameter of the linear carbon
nanotube structures is Because the size is small, the contact area between the sound wave
generator 402 and the surrounding air is increased, and the thermoacoustic effect of the
thermoacoustic device 40 is enhanced. Third, since the linear carbon nanotube structure has
good flexibility, the linear carbon nanotube structure is not damaged no matter how many times
it is bent, thereby prolonging the working life of the thermoacoustic device 40. be able to.
[0039]
When the substrate 408 is composed of a single linear structure, the linear structure is bent
several times to form a network structure.
[0040]
Example 5 Referring to FIG. 12, the thermoacoustic device 50 of the present example differs
from Example 2 in that it includes a substrate 508 which is a carbon nanotube composite
structure.
The sound wave generator 502 is installed on one surface of the substrate 508. The heater 504
includes a first electrode 504a and a second electrode 504b. The first electrode 504a and the
second electrode 504b are electrically connected to the sound wave generator 502 so as to be
separated by a predetermined distance. In the present embodiment, the first electrode 504a and
the second electrode 504b are disposed on the surface of the sound wave generator 502
opposite to the surface adjacent to the substrate 508, and the sound wave generator 502 is
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opposed Parallel to two sides. The shape, size and thickness of the substrate 508 are not limited.
The substrate 508 is flat or curved.
[0041]
The carbon nanotube composite structure comprises a carbon nanotube structure and an
insulating material (not shown). The carbon nanotube structure comprises a plurality of carbon
nanotubes. The insulating material is coated on the surfaces of the plurality of carbon nanotubes.
A plurality of carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed in the carbon nanotube structure. Each
of the carbon nanotubes is connected by an intermolecular force. In the carbon nanotube
structure, the plurality of carbon nanotubes are arranged in an oriented manner or not oriented.
The carbon nanotube structures are classified into two types of non-oriented carbon nanotube
structures and oriented carbon nanotube structures according to the arrangement of the plurality
of carbon nanotubes. In the non-oriented carbon nanotube structure in this embodiment, the
carbon nanotubes are arranged or entangled along different directions. In the oriented carbon
nanotube structure, the plurality of carbon nanotubes are arranged along the same direction.
Alternatively, in the oriented carbon nanotube structure, when the carbon nanotube structure is
divided into two or more regions, a plurality of carbon nanotubes in each region are arranged
along the same direction. In this case, the alignment directions of carbon nanotubes in different
regions are different. The carbon nanotube is a single-walled carbon nanotube, a double-walled
carbon nanotube, or a multi-walled carbon nanotube. When the carbon nanotube is a singlewalled carbon nanotube, the diameter is set to 0.5 nm to 50 nm, and when the carbon nanotube
is a double-walled carbon nanotube, the diameter is set to 1 nm to 50 nm, and the carbon
nanotube is a multilayer carbon In the case of nanotubes, the diameter is set to 1.5 nm to 50 nm.
The carbon nanotube structure may have a thickness of 0.5 nm to 100 μm. Adjacent carbon
nanotubes are juxtaposed to the carbon nanotube structure so as to have a gap, and the plurality
of micro holes are formed. The diameter of the plurality of pores is set to 50 μm or less.
[0042]
The carbon nanotube structure is formed in the shape of a free-standing thin film. Here, a selfsupporting structure is a form which can utilize the said carbon nanotube structure
independently, without using a support body material. That is, it means that the carbon nanotube
structure can be suspended by supporting the carbon nanotube structure from opposite sides
without changing the structure of the carbon nanotube structure.
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[0043]
Examples of the carbon nanotube structure of the present invention include the following (1) to
(3).
[0044]
(1) Drown Structure Carbon Nanotube Film The carbon nanotube structure includes at least one
carbon nanotube film 143a as shown in FIG.
The carbon nanotube film is a drawn carbon nanotube film. The carbon nanotube film 143a is
obtained by extracting from the super-aligned carbon nanotube array. In the single carbon
nanotube film, a plurality of carbon nanotubes are connected end to end along the same
direction. That is, the single carbon nanotube film 143a includes a plurality of carbon nanotubes
whose ends in the longitudinal direction are connected by an intermolecular force. Referring to
FIGS. 13 and 14, the single carbon nanotube film 143a includes a plurality of carbon nanotube
segments 143b. The plurality of carbon nanotube segments 143b are connected end to end by
intermolecular force along the length direction. Each carbon nanotube segment 143b includes a
plurality of carbon nanotubes 145 connected by intermolecular force in parallel to each other.
The lengths of the plurality of carbon nanotubes 145 are the same in the single carbon nanotube
segment 143b. Toughness and mechanical strength of the carbon nanotube film 143a can be
enhanced by immersing the carbon nanotube film 143a in an organic solvent. Since the heat
capacity per unit area of the carbon nanotube film immersed in the organic solvent is low, the
thermoacoustic effect can be enhanced. The carbon nanotube film 143a has a width of 100 μm
to 10 cm and a thickness of 0.5 nm to 100 μm.
[0045]
In the method of manufacturing the drawn carbon nanotube film, at least one carbon nanotube
film is stretched from the carbon nanotube array using a first step of providing the super-aligned
carbon nanotube array and a tool such as tweezers. And two steps. A detailed description is given
in Patent Document 5.
[0046]
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The carbon nanotube structure may include a plurality of stacked carbon nanotube films. In this
case, the adjacent carbon nanotube films are bonded by an intermolecular force. The carbon
nanotubes in the adjacent carbon nanotube film cross each other at an angle of 0 ° to 90 °.
When the carbon nanotubes in the adjacent carbon nanotube film intersect at an angle of 0 ° or
more, a plurality of micro holes are formed in the carbon nanotube structure. Alternatively, the
plurality of carbon nanotube films may be juxtaposed without gaps.
[0047]
(2) Fluff Structure Carbon Nanotube Film The carbon nanotube structure includes at least one
carbon nanotube film. This carbon nanotube film is a fluff structured carbon nanotube film
(flocculated carbon nanotube film). Referring to FIG. 15, in the single carbon nanotube film, a
plurality of carbon nanotubes are entangled and arranged isotropically. In the carbon nanotube
structure, the plurality of carbon nanotubes are uniformly distributed. The plurality of carbon
nanotubes are arranged without orientation. The length of the single carbon nanotube is 100 nm
or more, preferably 100 nm to 10 cm. The carbon nanotube structure is formed in the shape of a
free-standing thin film. The plurality of carbon nanotubes are formed close to each other by
intermolecular force and mutually intertwined to form a carbon nanotube network. The plurality
of carbon nanotubes are arranged without being oriented to form many minute holes. Here, the
diameter of the single minute hole is 10 μm or less. Since the carbon nanotubes in the carbon
nanotube structure are arranged to be entangled with each other, the carbon nanotube structure
is excellent in flexibility and can be formed to be curved in an arbitrary shape. Depending on the
application, the length and width of the carbon nanotube structure can be adjusted. The
thickness of the carbon nanotube structure is 1 μm to 1 mm.
[0048]
In the method for producing the fluff structure carbon nanotube film, a first step of providing a
carbon nanotube material (a carbon nanotube which becomes a base of the fluff structure carbon
nanotube film), immersing the carbon nanotube material in a solvent, and A second step of
processing to form a fluff structure carbon nanotube structure, and a third step of filtering a
solution containing the fluff structure carbon nanotube structure to remove the final fluff
structure carbon nanotube structure And. A detailed description is given in Patent Document 3.
[0049]
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16
(3) Precid Structure Carbon Nanotube Film The carbon nanotube structure includes at least one
carbon nanotube film. The carbon nanotube film is a pressed carbon nanotube film. The plurality
of carbon nanotubes in the single carbon nanotube film may be arranged isotropically, arranged
along a predetermined direction, or arranged along different directions. The carbon nanotube
film has a sheet-like free-standing structure formed by pressing the carbon nanotube array by
applying a predetermined pressure by using a pressing tool, and tilting the carbon nanotube
array by pressure. is there. The arrangement direction of carbon nanotubes in the carbon
nanotube film is determined by the shape of the pressing device and the direction in which the
carbon nanotube array is pushed.
[0050]
Referring to FIG. 16, carbon nanotubes in the single carbon nanotube film are arranged without
being oriented. The carbon nanotube film includes a plurality of carbon nanotubes arranged
isotropically. Adjacent carbon nanotubes attract and connect to each other by intermolecular
force. The carbon nanotube structure has planar isotropy. The carbon nanotube film is formed by
pressing the carbon nanotube array along a direction perpendicular to the substrate on which
the carbon nanotube array is grown, using a flat tool.
[0051]
Referring to FIG. 17, carbon nanotubes in a single carbon nanotube film are aligned and
arranged. The carbon nanotube film includes a plurality of carbon nanotubes arranged along the
same direction. When simultaneously pressing the carbon nanotube array along the same
direction using a pressing device having a roller shape, a carbon nanotube film including carbon
nanotubes aligned in basically the same direction is formed. In addition, when simultaneously
pressing the carbon nanotube array along different directions by using a pressing device having
a roller shape, a carbon nanotube film including carbon nanotubes arranged in selective
directions along the different directions. Is formed.
[0052]
The degree of tilt of the carbon nanotubes in the carbon nanotube film is related to the pressure
applied to the carbon nanotube array. The carbon nanotubes in the carbon nanotube film and the
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17
surface of the carbon nanotube film form an angle α, and the angle α is 0 ° or more and 15 °
or less. Preferably, carbon nanotubes in the carbon nanotube film are parallel to the surface of
the carbon nanotube film. The greater the pressure, the greater the degree of inclination. The
thickness of the carbon nanotube film is related to the height of the carbon nanotube array and
the pressure applied to the carbon nanotube array. That is, as the height of the carbon nanotube
array increases and the pressure applied to the carbon nanotube array decreases, the thickness
of the carbon nanotube film increases. Conversely, the smaller the height of the carbon nanotube
array and the greater the pressure applied to the carbon nanotube array, the smaller the
thickness of the carbon nanotube film. Patent Document 4 discloses a method for producing the
presidated carbon nanotube film.
[0053]
In order to maintain electrical insulation between the carbon nanotube structure and the sound
wave generator 502, the insulating layer is disposed on the surface of the carbon nanotube
structure adjacent to the sound wave generator 502. Further, the insulating layer is coated on the
surface of each carbon nanotube in the carbon nanotube structure to form a carbon nanotube
composite structure having a plurality of micropores. In this case, a part of the sound wave
generator 502 is suspended with respect to the plurality of fine holes, and the other part is
installed directly on the surface of the insulating layer.
[0054]
Sixth Embodiment Referring to FIGS. 18 and 19, the thermoacoustic apparatus 60 of the present
embodiment includes a substrate 608, a heater 604, and a sound wave generator 602. The
heater 604 includes a plurality of first electrodes 604 a and a plurality of second electrodes 604
b. The plurality of first electrodes 604 a and the plurality of second electrodes 604 b are each
electrically connected to the sound wave generator 602.
[0055]
The plurality of first electrodes 604 a and the plurality of second electrodes 604 b are spaced
apart and alternately disposed on one surface of the substrate 608. The sound wave generator
602 is disposed on the surface of the plurality of first electrodes 604 a and the plurality of
second electrodes 604 b opposite to the surface adjacent to the substrate 608, and the sound
10-05-2019
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wave generator 602 is disposed on the substrate 608. It is suspended against. That is, a plurality
of gaps 601 are formed by the substrate 608, the plurality of first electrodes 604 a, the plurality
of second electrodes 604 b, and the sound wave generator 602. The distance between the
adjacent first and second electrodes 604a and 604b may be the same or different, but preferably
the same. The distance between the adjacent first and second electrodes 604a and 604b is
preferably, but not limited to, 10 μm to 1 cm.
[0056]
The substrate 608 is used to support the plurality of first electrodes 604 a and the plurality of
second electrodes 604 b. The substrate 608 is made of an insulating material having good
insulating properties or a low conductivity material, and its shape and size are not limited. In the
present embodiment, the substrate 608 is made of materials such as glass, resin and ceramics. In
the present embodiment, the substrate 608 is a square glass plate having a side length of 4.5 cm
and a thickness of 1 mm.
[0057]
The single gap 601 is defined by the substrate 608, one of the first electrodes 604 a, one of the
second electrodes 604 b and the sound wave generator 602. The height of the gap 601 is related
to the height of the first electrode 604a and the second electrode 604b. In the present
embodiment, the heights of the first electrode 604a and the second electrode 604b are 1 μm to
1 cm, and preferably 15 μm.
[0058]
The first electrode 604a and the second electrode 604b may be formed in a layered, rod-like,
strip-like or lump-like shape, and their cross sections may be circular, square, trapezoidal,
triangular or polygonal. The first electrode 604 a and the second electrode 604 b are fixed to one
surface of the substrate 608 by bolts or an adhesive. In order to prevent heat generated from the
sound wave generator 602 from being absorbed by the first electrode 604 a and the second
electrode 604 b, the first electrode 604 a and the second electrode 604 b and the sound wave
generator 602 The contact area is preferably small. The first electrode 604a and the second
electrode 604b are thread-like or band-like, and the material is any one kind of conductive
material such as metal, conductive adhesive, conductive paste, ITO, carbon nanotube or carbon
10-05-2019
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fiber . In the present embodiment, the first electrode 104a and the second electrode 104b may
be linear carbon nanotube structures. The structure of the linear carbon nanotube structure is
the same as the structure of the linear carbon nanotube structure in Example 4.
[0059]
The thermoacoustic device 60 further includes a lead 610 of the first electrode and a lead 612 of
the second electrode. The lead wire 610 of the first electrode and the lead wire 612 of the
second electrode are electrically connected to the first electrode 604a and the second electrode
604b, respectively. The thermoacoustic device 60 is electrically connected to an external circuit
by the lead wire 610 of the first electrode and the lead wire 612 of the second electrode. As a
result, the electrical resistance of the sound wave generator 602 is reduced, so that the
thermoacoustic effect of the sound wave generator 602 can be enhanced.
[0060]
In this embodiment, the plurality of first electrodes 604 a and the plurality of second electrodes
604 b may support the sound wave generator 602. In this case, the thermoacoustic device 60
may not include the substrate 608.
[0061]
In the present embodiment, the first electrode 604a and the second electrode 604b are threadlike silver electrodes formed by printing conductive silver paste. The thermoacoustic device 60
includes four of the first electrodes 604 a and four of the second electrodes 604 b. The four first
electrodes 604 a and the four second electrodes 604 b are equally spaced and alternately
disposed on one surface of the substrate 608. The length of each of the first electrode 604 and
the second electrode 604b is 3 cm, and its height is 15 μm. The distance between the adjacent
first electrode 604 and the second electrode 604b is 5 mm.
[0062]
In the thermoacoustic apparatus 60, the sound wave generator 602 is suspended by the plurality
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20
of first electrodes 604a and the plurality of second electrodes 604b. As a result, the contact area
between the sound wave generator 402 and the surrounding air is increased, and the
thermoacoustic effect of the thermoacoustic device 60 is enhanced.
[0063]
Seventh Embodiment Referring to FIGS. 20 and 21, a thermoacoustic apparatus 70 of the present
embodiment includes a substrate 708, a heater 704, and a sound wave generator 702. The
heater 704 includes a plurality of first electrodes 704 a and a plurality of second electrodes 704
b. The first electrode 704 a and the second electrode 704 b are electrically connected to the
sound wave generator 702. The sound wave generator 702 is formed of a graphene structure.
The difference between the present embodiment and the sixth embodiment is that the
thermoacoustic device 70 of the present invention includes at least one spacer 714 between the
adjacent first electrode 704 a and the second electrode 704 b.
[0064]
The spacer 714 can be fixed to the surface of the substrate 708 with a bolt or an adhesive. When
the spacer 714 and the substrate 708 are integrally formed, the spacer 714 and the substrate
708 may be made of the same material. The shape of the spacer 714 is, for example, spherical,
thread-like or band-like. It is preferable that a contact system between the spacer 714 and the
substrate 708 is a point contact or a line contact in order to have a good thermoacoustic effect.
[0065]
In the present embodiment, the material of the spacer 714 is, for example, an insulating material
such as glass, ceramics, resin, or a conductive material such as metal, alloy, or ITO. When the
spacer 714 is made of a conductive material, the spacer 714 may be electrically insulated from
the first electrode 704a and the second electrode 704b. Preferably, the spacers 714 are parallel
to the first and second electrodes 704a and 704b, respectively. The height of the spacer 714 is
not limited, but preferably 10 μm to 1 cm. In the present embodiment, the spacer 714 is a silver
thread formed by silk screen printing, and is disposed parallel to the first electrode 704a and the
second electrode 704b. The height of the spacer 714 is 20 μm, which is the same as the height
of the first electrode 704 a and the second electrode 704 b.
10-05-2019
21
[0066]
The sound wave generator 702 is disposed on the surface of the spacer 714, the first electrode
704a and the second electrode 704b opposite to the surface adjacent to the substrate 708. The
sound wave generator 702 is spaced apart from the substrate 708 by the spacer 714, the first
electrode 704a and the second electrode 704b. The sound wave generator 702 forms a space
701 with the first electrode 704 a or the second electrode 704 b, the spacer 714, and the
substrate 708. The distance between the sound wave generator 702 and the substrate 708 is
preferably 10 μm to 1 cm in order to prevent the generation of a standing wave in the sound
wave generator 702 and to have a good thermoacoustic effect. In the present embodiment, since
the heights of the spacer 714, the first electrode 704a and the second electrode 704b are 20
μm, the distance between the sound wave generator 702 and the substrate 708 is 20 μm.
[0067]
Eighth Embodiment Referring to FIG. 22, a thermoacoustic device 80 of the present embodiment
includes a first heater 804, a second heater 806, a substrate 808, a first sound wave generator
802a, and a second sound wave. And a generator 802b.
[0068]
The substrate 808 includes a first surface (not shown) and a second surface (not shown), and its
shape, size and thickness are not limited.
The first surface and the second surface are flat surfaces, curved surfaces or uneven surfaces. In
the present embodiment, the substrate 808 is a rectangular structure, and the first and second
surfaces face each other. Further, a plurality of through holes 808 a are formed in the substrate
808. The through holes 808 a are disposed in parallel to one another and penetrate the substrate
808.
[0069]
The first sound wave generator 802a is disposed on the first surface of the substrate 808, and at
least a portion of the first sound wave generator 802a is suspended by the through hole 808a.
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22
The second sound wave generator 802b is disposed on the second surface of the substrate 808,
and at least a portion of the second sound wave generator 802b is suspended by the through
hole 808a. The first sound wave generator 802a is made of a graphene structure, and the second
sound wave generator 802b is made of a graphene structure or a carbon nanotube structure. The
structure of the carbon nanotube structure is the same as the structure of the carbon nanotube
structure in Example 5.
[0070]
The first heater 804 includes a first electrode 804a and a second electrode 804b. The first
electrode 804a and the second electrode 804b are electrically connected to the sound wave
generator 802 so as to be separated by a predetermined distance. In the present embodiment,
the first electrode 804a and the second electrode 804b are respectively disposed on the surface
of the sound wave generator 802 opposite to the surface adjacent to the first surface of the
substrate 808, and the sound wave generator Parallel to two opposite sides of 802. The second
heater 806 includes a first electrode 804a and a second electrode 804b. The first electrode 804a
and the second electrode 804b are electrically connected to the sound wave generator 802 so as
to be separated by a predetermined distance. In the present embodiment, the first electrode 804
a and the second electrode 804 b are respectively disposed on the surface of the sound wave
generator 802 opposite to the surface adjacent to the second surface of the substrate 808, and
the sound wave generator Parallel to two opposite sides of 802.
[0071]
In the present embodiment, since the thermoacoustic apparatus 80 includes the first sound wave
generator 802a and the second sound wave generator 802b, the thermoacoustic apparatus 80 is
configured by the first sound wave generator 802a and the second sound wave generator 802b.
The sound produced by the thermoacoustic device 80 is propagated widely. In the
thermoacoustic apparatus 80, since any one thermoacoustic apparatus or two thermoacoustic
apparatuses of the first acoustic wave generator 802a and the second acoustic wave generator
802b generate acoustic waves, the application range is expanded. Furthermore, if one
thermoacoustic device has a defect in one thermoacoustic device, the other thermoacoustic
device can also operate. Thereby, the working life of the thermoacoustic device 80 can be
extended.
[0072]
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23
Ninth Embodiment Referring to FIG. 23, the difference between the present embodiment and the
eighth embodiment is that the thermoacoustic apparatus 90 of the present embodiment is a
multifaceted thermoacoustic apparatus. The thermoacoustic apparatus 90 of this embodiment
includes a substrate 908, four sound wave generators 902, and four heat generators 904. In the
present embodiment, the substrate 908 is rectangular, and four of the six surfaces are uneven.
The four sound wave generators 902 are respectively installed on the four uneven surfaces. In
the four sound wave generators 902, at least one sound wave generator 902 may be formed of a
graphene structure, and the other sound wave generator 902 may be formed of a carbon
nanotube structure.
[0073]
Each of the heaters 904 includes a first electrode 904a and a second electrode 904b. The first
electrode 904a and the second electrode 904b are electrically connected to the sound wave
generator 902 so as to be separated by a predetermined distance. In the present embodiment,
the first electrode 904 a and the second electrode 904 b are disposed on the surface of the
sound wave generator 902 opposite to the surface adjacent to the substrate 908, and the sound
wave generator 902 is opposed Parallel to two sides.
[0074]
Since the thermoacoustic device 90 is a multi-faceted thermoacoustic device, it can transfer
sound in different directions.
[0075]
Tenth Embodiment Referring to FIG. 24, the difference between the present embodiment and the
second embodiment is that the heater 1004 of the present embodiment is an electromagnetic
wave signal device such as a laser.
The electromagnetic wave signal 1020 from the heater 1004 is transferred to the sound wave
generator 1002, and the sound wave generator 1002 generates a sound wave.
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[0076]
The heat generator 1004 may be installed opposite to the sound wave generator 1002 at
intervals, or may be installed corresponding to the substrate 1008 via the substrate 1008. In the
present embodiment, the heater 1004 is a laser, and is disposed to face the sound wave
generator 1002 at an interval. The laser beam emitted from the laser is transmitted through the
substrate 1008 to the sound wave generator 1002.
[0077]
The electromagnetic wave signal 1020 from the heater 1004 is received by the sound wave
generator 1002 and radiated as heat. The sound wave generator 1002 is made of the graphene
structure and has a small heat capacity per unit area, so that the pressure wave can be generated
in the surrounding medium by the temperature wave generated by the sound wave generator
1002. When the electromagnetic wave signal 1020 is transferred to the graphene structure of
the sound wave generator 1002, heat is generated in the graphene structure by the signal
strength and / or the signal. The diffusion of the temperature wave thermally expands the
surrounding air to produce a sound.
[0078]
The thermoacoustic device of the present invention includes a graphene structure. Because of the
excellent mechanical strength and toughness of the graphene structure, it is possible to provide
the graphene structure in the desired shape and size, which allows thermoacoustic devices of
many desired shapes and sizes. It is possible to get. The thermoacoustic apparatus can be used
for electronic devices such as an acoustic system, a mobile phone, an MP3 player, an MP4 player,
a TV, and a computer. The thermoacoustic device may be installed in the housing of the
electronic device or on the outer surface of the housing. Furthermore, it may have the same
power source or the same processor as the thermoacoustic device and other electronic
components in the thermoacoustic device. It is connected to the electronic device by a wireless
system such as Bluetooth or a wired system such as a signal line.
[0079]
10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 Thermoacoustic devices 102, 202, 302, 402, 502, 602,
702, 802, 902, 1002 Sound generators 104, 204, 304, 404, 504, 604, 704, 804, 04, 1004
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Heaters 104a, 204a, 304a, 404a, 504a, 604a, 704a, 804a, 904a, 1004a First electrodes 104b,
204b, 304b, 404b, 504b, 604b, 704b , 804b, 904b, 1004b Second electrode 143a Carbon
nanotube film 143b Carbon nanotube segment 145 Carbon nanotube 208, 308, 408, 608, 708,
808, 908, 1008 Substrate 208a, 808a 308 308a groove 408a first linear structure 408b second
linear structure 408c mesh 601 gap 610 lead of first electrode 612 lead of second electrode 714
spacer 802a first acoustic wave generator 802b second acoustic wave generator 804 first heater
806 second heater 1020 electromagnetic wave signal
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