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JP2013118442

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DESCRIPTION JP2013118442
Abstract: To provide an electrostatic speaker that reproduces a sound field including a plurality
of sound images each having a different sense of distance. An electrostatic speaker (1) includes a
conductive vibrator (10), first and second electrodes respectively facing the vibrator (10), a
vibrator (10) and a first electrode, a vibrator (10) and a first electrode (14). An insulating
separating member (spacer 30) for separating two electrodes, a first applying unit for applying a
voltage according to a first acoustic signal to the first electrode, the first acoustic signal, and a
second acoustic And a second application unit that applies a voltage corresponding to an acoustic
signal mixed with the signal to the second electrode. The electrode 21 constituting the first
electrode is on the same side as viewed from the vibrator 10, and is adjacent to the electrode 22
constituting the second electrode at one end thereof, and at the other end opposite to the one
end It is arranged to be adjacent to each other. [Selected figure] Figure 2
Electrostatic speaker and electrostatic microphone
[0001]
The present invention relates to an electrostatic speaker and an electrostatic microphone.
[0002]
Acoustic technology is being researched to make the listener feel the distance to the sound.
In Patent Document 1, a plurality of speakers are arranged in a spherical shape or a planar
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shape, a variable delay element and a variable volume adjuster are attached to each speaker, and
three-dimensional sound reproduction is performed to control the delay amount and the volume
to make a plurality of sound waves focus. A method is disclosed. Patent Document 2 includes an
acoustic vibration radiation plate in which a plurality of sound emitting elements are arranged
inside a concave curved surface whose shape can be freely changed, and the sound output from
each sound emitting element corresponds to the position of the listener. A directional speaker is
disclosed which converges the vibration. Patent Document 3 discloses a directional speaker
device in which a part of a spherical shell of a reflector horn is used as a diaphragm of a bass
speaker. Patent Document 4 discloses a speaker device that controls the sound output direction
using a capacitor speaker that can be deformed to any of a concave surface shape, a planar
shape, and a convex surface shape. Patent Document 5 includes a main speaker and a subspeaker disposed around the main speaker, and excites each of these speakers within the
frequency range of a piston vibration region and in the same phase, and generates an acoustic
wave generated by the main speaker A speaker system is disclosed that generates a pseudospherical wave centered on the main speaker as a whole by setting the radiation speed of the
sound wave generated by the excitation of the sub-speaker smaller than the radiation speed of
the sub-speaker.
[0003]
JP-A-03-159500 JP-A-11-239394 JP-A-04-339494 JP-A 2007-158658 JP-A 2004-297752
[0004]
The techniques according to Patent Documents 2, 3 and 4 require a space for threedimensionally arranging speakers and the like.
Further, in the techniques according to Patent Documents 1 and 5, it is necessary to perform
complicated processing such as delaying an acoustic signal. Furthermore, the electrostatic
loudspeaker has the property of outputting a plane wave in the direction perpendicular to the
vibration plane. Therefore, even if the technology according to the above patent document using
a speaker other than the electrostatic speaker is applied to the electrostatic speaker, it is difficult
to control the sound image localization, and localize a plurality of sound images having different
senses of distance. There was a problem that I could not
[0005]
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Moreover, it is also possible to use the structure of this electrostatic speaker as a structure of an
electrostatic microphone. In this case, a sound (sound wave) is converted into an acoustic signal
(electric signal) by the sound wave generated outside vibrating the diaphragm. In this
electrostatic microphone, it is desired to expand or narrow a space in which sound converted into
an acoustic signal is collected without deforming the shape of the diaphragm or moving the
position. .
[0006]
An object of the present invention is to provide an electrostatic speaker that reproduces a sound
field including a plurality of sound images having different senses of distance. Another object of
the present invention is to provide an electrostatic microphone which picks up a sound field
including a plurality of sound images each having a different sense of distance.
[0007]
In order to solve the problems described above, the electrostatic loudspeaker according to the
present invention comprises a vibrator having conductivity, a first electrode and a second
electrode respectively facing the vibrator, the vibrator and the first electrode. And an insulating
separating member for separating the vibrator and the second electrode, a first applying unit for
applying a voltage according to a first acoustic signal to the first electrode, and the first acoustic
signal. And a second application unit for applying a voltage corresponding to an acoustic signal
mixed with a second acoustic signal to the second electrode, wherein the first electrode is the
second electrode and one end of the second electrode. They are adjacent to each other, and are
disposed adjacent to each other at the other end opposite to the one end of the second electrode.
[0008]
Further, in the electrostatic loudspeaker according to the present invention, a first vibrating body
having conductivity, a first electrode facing the first vibrating body, and an insulation for
separating the first electrode and the first vibrating body from each other. Electrostatic sound
emitting portion having a first separating member of the second property, a second vibrating
body having conductivity, a second electrode facing the second vibrating body, the second
electrode and the second vibration A second electrostatic sound emitting portion including an
insulating second separating member separating the body from the body, a first applying portion
applying a voltage according to a first acoustic signal to the first electrode, and the first applying
portion And a second application unit for applying a voltage corresponding to an acoustic signal
obtained by mixing an acoustic signal and a second acoustic signal to the second electrode,
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wherein the first vibrator and the second vibrator are the same. And the first electrode is
adjacent to the second electrode at one end of the second electrode and one end of the second
electrode. Characterized in that it is arranged so as to be adjacent the opposite side of the other
end.
[0009]
Further, in the electrostatic microphone according to the present invention, a vibrator having
conductivity, a first electrode and a second electrode respectively facing the vibrator, the
vibrator, the first electrode, and the vibrator According to the vibration of the vibrator, an
insulating separating member which separates each from the second electrode, a first output unit
for outputting a first acoustic signal generated in the first electrode according to the vibration of
the vibrator, and A second output unit for outputting a second acoustic signal obtained by adding
the first acoustic signal to an acoustic signal generated at the second electrode, the first electrode
comprising the second electrode, and the second electrode One end of the electrode is adjacent,
and the other end opposite to the one end of the second electrode is adjacent.
[0010]
Further, in the electrostatic microphone according to the present invention, a first vibrating body
having conductivity, a first electrode facing the first vibrating body, an insulation for separating
the first electrode and the first vibrating body from each other. First electrostatic sound
collecting portion having a first separating member of the second property, a second vibrating
body having conductivity, a second electrode facing the second vibrating body, the second
electrode and the second vibration A second electrostatic sound collecting unit including an
insulating second separating member that separates from the body, and a first output unit that
outputs a first acoustic signal generated in the first electrode according to the vibration of the
vibrating body And a second output unit that outputs a second acoustic signal obtained by
adding the first acoustic signal to an acoustic signal generated at the second electrode according
to the vibration of the oscillator, and the first oscillator The second vibrating body is disposed on
the same plane, and the first electrode is the second electrode, Together adjacent one end of the
second electrode, characterized in that it is arranged so as to be adjacent to each other on the
opposite side of the other end of the one end of the second electrode.
[0011]
According to the present invention, it is possible to provide an electrostatic speaker that
reproduces a sound field including a plurality of sound images each having a different sense of
distance.
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Further, according to the present invention, it is possible to provide an electrostatic microphone
which picks up a sound field including a plurality of sound images each having a different sense
of distance.
[0012]
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing the appearance of an electrostatic speaker according to an
embodiment of the present invention.
It is an exploded perspective view of an electrostatic type speaker.
It is a figure which shows the shape of an electrode.
It is the figure which showed the electric constitution of the electrostatic-type speaker. It is a
figure for demonstrating the function of a mixing part. It is a figure for demonstrating the space
where a sound is output by an electrostatic type speaker. It is a figure for demonstrating the
wave front of the sound output by an electrostatic type speaker. It is a figure which shows a
circular electrode. It is a figure which shows an example of the electrode which has a nested
structure which is not concentric. It is a figure which shows an example of each electrode in
which the shape of an outer edge is not mutually similar. It is an example of the electrode which
has a nested structure only in one direction. It is a figure which shows an example of the
electrode which adjoins so that mutually may mesh on a comb-tooth shaped boundary. It is a
disassembled perspective view of the electrostatic-type speaker which concerns on a
modification. It is a figure for demonstrating the wave front of the sound inputted by the
electrostatic type microphone concerning a modification. It is a figure showing the electric
composition of an electrostatic type microphone. It is a figure for demonstrating the function of a
mixing part.
[0013]
Embodiment FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing the appearance of an electrostatic speaker 1
according to an embodiment of the present invention. In the following figures, X, Y, Z mean
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coordinate axes of a three-axis orthogonal coordinate system. The X axis and the Y axis
orthogonal to each other are both parallel to the sound output surface of the electrostatic
speaker 1, and the Z axis is perpendicular to the sound output surface of the electrostatic
speaker 1. The electrostatic loudspeaker 1 includes a vibrator 10, electrodes 21U, 22U, 23U,
electrodes 21L, 22L, 23L (see FIG. 2 for the electrodes 22L, 23L), and spacers 30U, 30L.
[0014]
The configurations and functions of the spacers 30U and 30L, the configurations and functions
of the electrodes 21U and 21L, the configurations and functions of the electrodes 22L and 22U,
and the configurations and functions of the electrodes 23L and 23U are respectively the same.
When there is no need to distinguish between the two, the descriptions of "L" and "U" are
omitted. The electrodes 21, 22 and 23 are collectively referred to as an electrode 20. Moreover,
if an example of the size of the electrostatic speaker 1 is mentioned, although the length of an Xaxis direction and a Y-axis direction is about several tens cm-several m, for example, the
electrostatic speaker 1 is comprised in the following figures The dimensions of each part are
different from the actual dimensions so that the shape of each part can be easily understood. The
thickness (length in the Z-axis direction) of the electrostatic speaker 1 is actually smaller than
that shown in FIG. 1, and the electrostatic speaker 1 has a sheet-like shape as a whole. Further, in
the following drawings, those in which “·” is described in “o” means an arrow directed from
the back to the front of the drawing among the arrows indicating the direction of the abovementioned coordinate axes.
[0015]
(Configuration of Each Part of Electrostatic Speaker) First, each part constituting the electrostatic
speaker 1 will be described. FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective view of the electrostatic speaker 1.
The vibrating body 10 is made of, for example, a film (insulating layer) of an insulating and
flexible synthetic resin such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene terephthalate) or
PP (polypropylene, polypropylene) as a base material, and is a conductive metal. A conductive
film is formed. The vibrating body 10 has a thin film shape with a thickness of about several μm,
so it freely deforms when receiving an external force. The vibrating body 10 has a rectangular
shape as viewed in the Z-axis direction.
[0016]
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The spacer 30 is flexible and insulative, and is a spacing member for spacing the vibrating body
10 and the electrode 20 to form an air layer between the vibrating body 10 and the electrode 20,
and is air or It is possible to pass sound waves. The spacer 30 is, for example, a non-woven fabric
or a cushioning material. Also, the spacer 30 has elasticity, and is deformed when an external
force is applied, and returns to its original shape when an externally applied force is removed.
The elastic member 30 may be a member having insulation, sound transmission, and elasticity,
and it may be formed by applying heat to the batt and compressing it, woven cloth, and synthetic
resin having insulation. Or the like. The spacer 30 has a rectangular shape as viewed in the Z-axis
direction. The length of the spacer 30 in the X-axis direction is the same as the length of the
vibrating body 10 in the X-axis direction, and the length of the spacer 30 in the Y-axis direction
is the same as the length of the vibrating body 10 in the Y-axis direction. Further, the lengths in
the Z-axis direction of the spacer 30U and the spacer 30L are the same.
[0017]
The vibrating body 10 is sandwiched between the spacer 30U and the frame of the spacer 30L in
a tensioned state so as not to cause slack. The vibrating body 10 is coated with an adhesive with
a width of several mm inward from the edge in the X-axis direction and the edge in the Y-axis
direction, and is fixed to the spacer 30U and the spacer 30L. The portion of the vibrating body
10 to which the adhesive is not applied is not fixed to the spacer 30U and the spacer 30L.
[0018]
The electrodes 21, 22, and 23 are so-called punching metals, and a plurality of through holes
penetrating from the front surface to the back surface of the conductive metal plate are provided
at predetermined intervals. In the drawings, the illustration of the through holes is omitted.
[0019]
FIG. 3 is a view showing the shape of the electrode 20. As shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 3, the
electrode 21, the electrode 22 and the electrode 23 have a nested structure as viewed from the
Z-axis direction. Specifically, a rectangular electrode 23 is disposed at the center, and the
electrode 22 surrounds the periphery of the electrode 23. An electrode 21 surrounds the
periphery of the electrode 22. Therefore, the shape of each of the electrodes 21 and 22 is a
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rectangle in which a rectangular hole is formed inside. These rectangles may be square. The
electrodes 21 and 22 and the electrodes 22 and 23 are all separated from each other because
they are separated from each other.
[0020]
Moreover, the arrangement described above can be reworded as follows. That is, in a straight line
Sf parallel to the X axis and passing through the electrode 23, the electrode 22 is disposed
adjacent to the electrode 23 at one end thereof and at the other end opposite to the one end.
Further, in the straight line Sf, the electrode 21 is adjacent to the electrode 22 at one end thereof
and is also adjacent to the other end opposite to the one end.
[0021]
(Electrical Configuration of Electrostatic Loudspeaker) Next, the electrical configuration of the
electrostatic loudspeaker 1 will be described. FIG. 4 is a diagram showing an electrical
configuration of the electrostatic speaker 1. As shown in FIG. 4, in the electrostatic speaker 1,
transformers 51, 52 and 53 and input units 61, 62 and 63 to which different acoustic signals are
inputted (hereinafter, when it is not necessary to distinguish, These are collectively referred to as
“input unit 60”, and a bias power supply 70 for applying a DC bias to the vibrator 10.
[0022]
The bias power supply 70 is connected on the positive electrode side to the conductive film of
the vibrator 10 and on the negative electrode side to the middle point on the output side of the
transformers 51, 52, 53. One end of the output side of the transformer 51 is connected to the
electrode 21U, and the other end is connected to the electrode 21L facing the electrode 21U. The
input side of the transformer 51 is connected to the input unit 61, and when an acoustic signal is
input to the input unit 61, a voltage corresponding to the acoustic signal is applied to the
electrode 21U and the electrode 21L. In this configuration, a voltage according to the acoustic
signal input to the input unit 61 is applied to the electrodes 21U and 21L facing each other
across the vibrating body 10, whereby the electrostatic speaker 1 is a push-pull type. Operates as
an electrostatic speaker. That is, the electrode 21U and the electrode 21L constitute an electrode
pair facing each other with the vibrating body 10 interposed therebetween.
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[0023]
One end of the output side of the transformer 52 is connected to the electrode 22U, and the
other end is connected to the electrode 22L facing the electrode 22U. The input side of the
transformer 52 is connected to the input unit 62. When an acoustic signal is input to the input
unit 62, a voltage corresponding to the acoustic signal is applied to the electrode 22U and the
electrode 22L. In this configuration, a voltage according to the acoustic signal input to the input
unit 62 is applied to the electrodes 22U and 22L facing each other across the vibrating body 10,
whereby the electrostatic speaker 1 is a push-pull type. Operates as an electrostatic speaker. That
is, the electrode 22U and the electrode 22L constitute an electrode pair facing each other with
the vibrating body 10 interposed therebetween.
[0024]
One end of the output side of the transformer 53 is connected to the electrode 23U, and the
other end is connected to the electrode 23L facing the electrode 23U. The input side of the
transformer 53 is connected to the input unit 63, and when an acoustic signal is input to the
input unit 63, a voltage corresponding to the acoustic signal is applied to the electrode 23U and
the electrode 23L. In this configuration, a voltage according to the acoustic signal input to the
input unit 63 is applied to the electrodes 23U and 23L facing each other across the vibrating
body 10, whereby the electrostatic speaker 1 is a push-pull type. Operates as an electrostatic
speaker. That is, the electrode 23U and the electrode 23L constitute an electrode pair facing each
other with the vibrating body 10 interposed therebetween.
[0025]
Three sound sources are connected to the electrostatic speaker 1, and sound signals SG1, SG2,
and SG3 are output from the respective sound sources. The mixing unit 80 is provided with
mixers 81, 82, 83, and these three acoustic signals SG1, SG2, SG3 are mixed in the following
manner and sent to the input unit 60. FIG. 5 is a diagram for explaining the function of the
mixing unit 80. As shown in FIG. For example, as shown in FIG. 5A, the sound signal SG1 is input
to the input unit 61, and is branched at two places and supplied to the mixers 81 and 82.
[0026]
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The acoustic signal SG2 is branched and one is supplied to the mixer 83, and the other is
supplied to the mixer 81. The acoustic signal SG2 supplied to the mixer 81 is mixed with the
acoustic signal SG1 and then input to the input unit 62.
[0027]
The sound signal SG3 is supplied to the mixer 82, mixed with the sound signal SG1, and further
supplied to the mixer 83, mixed with the sound signal SG2, and then input to the input unit 63.
Therefore, the acoustic signal SG1 is input to the input unit 61. Further, an acoustic signal
(acoustic signal SG1 + acoustic signal SG2) in which the acoustic signal SG1 and the acoustic
signal SG2 are mixed is input to the input unit 62. Then, an acoustic signal (acoustic signal SG1 +
acoustic signal SG2 + acoustic signal SG3) in which the acoustic signal SG1, the acoustic signal
SG2, and the acoustic signal SG3 are mixed is input to the input unit 63.
[0028]
The configuration of the mixer of the mixing unit 80 is not limited to that described above. For
example, as shown in FIG. 5 (b), there may be a branch point after the mixer 81. Specifically, it is
as follows. That is, the acoustic signal SG1 is branched at one place and one is input to the input
unit 61, and the other is supplied to the mixer 81. The acoustic signal SG2 is supplied to the
mixer 81 and mixed with the acoustic signal SG1. The acoustic signals mixed by the mixer 81 are
branched and one is input to the input unit 62 and the other is supplied to the mixer 82. Then,
the mixer 82 may mix the acoustic signal (sound signal SG1 + acoustic signal SG2) supplied from
the mixer 81 and the acoustic signal SG3 instead of the acoustic signal SG1 and input the mixed
signal to the input unit 63. In this case, the mixing unit 80 may not include the mixer 83.
[0029]
(Operation of Electrostatic Speaker) Next, the operation of the electrostatic speaker 1 will be
described. FIG. 6 is a view for explaining a space in which the electrostatic speaker 1 outputs a
sound. The region R3 is a region on the space extending from the electrode 23 in the positive Zaxis direction. The region R2 is a region on the space adjacent to the electrode 23 in the
electrode 22 and extending in the positive Z-axis direction from the portion of the electrode 23
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disposed in the positive X-axis direction. The region R4 is a region on the space adjacent to the
electrode 23 in the electrode 22 and extending in the positive Z-axis direction from the portion of
the electrode 23 disposed in the negative X-axis direction. The region R1 is a region on the space
adjacent to the electrode 22 in the electrode 21 and extending in the positive Z-axis direction
from the portion of the electrode 22 disposed in the positive X-axis direction. The region R5 is a
region on the space adjacent to the electrode 22 in the electrode 21 and extending in the positive
Z-axis direction from the portion of the electrode 22 disposed in the negative X-axis direction.
The electrodes 21, 22, 23 sandwich the vibrating body 10 (not shown in FIG. 6) via the spacer
30, and vibrate the corresponding portions of the vibrating body 10 according to the applied
voltage to output sound. . These sounds become plane waves and go straight in the positive Zaxis direction. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 6, the acoustic wave outputted from the vibrator 10 by
the voltage applied to the electrode 21 is mainly directed from the electrode 21 to the region R1
and the region R5 which are spaces spreading in the positive Z-axis direction as a plane wave.
Output. A sound wave output from the vibrator 10 by the voltage applied to the electrode 22 is
mainly output as a plane wave toward the region R2 and the region R4. A sound wave output
from the vibrator 10 by the voltage applied to the electrode 23 is mainly output as a plane wave
toward the region R3.
[0030]
FIG. 7 is a view for schematically explaining the wave front of the sound outputted by the
electrostatic speaker 1. FIG. 7A shows a wavefront Wa of the sound indicated by the acoustic
signal SG3 among the sounds output from the vibrator 10 (not shown in FIG. 7). Since the
acoustic signal SG3 is input only to the input unit 63, a voltage corresponding to the acoustic
signal SG3 is not applied to the electrodes 21 and 22 but only to the electrode 23. When the
portion of the vibrating body 10 sandwiched between the electrode 23U and the electrode 23L
vibrates due to the voltage applied to the electrode 23, in the region R3 shown in FIG. Propagate
to On the other hand, the other part of the vibrating body 10, for example, the part sandwiched
between the electrode 21U and the electrode 21L and the part sandwiched between the
electrode 22U and the electrode 22L does not output the sound indicated by the acoustic signal
SG3. Therefore, the sound indicated by the acoustic signal SG3 reaches the region R1 and the
region R2 as a sound wave that is not a plane wave that diffuses from the portion of the vibrating
body 10 sandwiched between the electrode 23U and the electrode 23L. That is, the sound
indicated by the acoustic signal SG3 is output by the electrostatic speaker 1 as a sound wave
forming the wavefront Wa shown in FIG. 7A. The wavefront Wa is a plane in the region R3 but is
a curved surface in the regions R1 and R2. Therefore, a wavefront closer to a spherical wave than
a wavefront Wc forming a plane wave in the entire region from the region R1 to the region R5
described later Form.
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[0031]
FIG. 7B schematically shows the wave front Wb of the sound indicated by the acoustic signal SG2
among the sounds output from the vibrating body 10. The acoustic signal SG2 is input to the
input unit 62 and the input unit 63, and is not input to the input unit 61. Therefore, a voltage
corresponding to the acoustic signal SG2 is not applied to the electrode 21, but is applied to the
electrode 22 and the electrode 23. When the portion of the vibrating body 10 sandwiched
between the electrode 22U and the electrode 22L vibrates due to the voltage applied to the
electrode 22, the sound due to this vibration acts as a plane wave in the positive direction of the
Z-axis in the region R2 shown in FIG. Propagate to Then, when the portion of the vibrating body
10 sandwiched between the electrode 23U and the electrode 23L vibrates by the voltage applied
to the electrode 23, in the region R3 shown in FIG. It propagates in the positive Z-axis direction
in phase with the plane wave of R2. On the other hand, the other part of the vibrator 10, that is,
the part sandwiched between the electrode 21U and the electrode 21L does not output the sound
indicated by the acoustic signal SG2. Therefore, the sound indicated by the acoustic signal SG2
reaches the region R1 as a sound wave that is not a plane wave that diffuses from the portion
sandwiched between the electrode 22U and the electrode 22L adjacent to the electrode 21U and
the electrode 21L in the vibrator 10, respectively. . That is, the sound indicated by the acoustic
signal SG2 is output by the electrostatic speaker 1 as a sound wave forming the wavefront Wb
shown in FIG. 7B. The wavefront Wb is a plane in the regions R2, R4 and R3, but is a curved
surface in the regions R1 and R5, so it is a wavefront closer to a plane wave than the wavefront
Wa described above A wavefront closer to a spherical wave is formed than the wavefront Wc
forming a plane wave in the entire region up to R5.
[0032]
FIG. 7C schematically shows the wave front Wc of the sound indicated by the acoustic signal SG1
among the sounds output from the vibrating body 10. The acoustic signal SG1 is input to the
input units 61, 62, 63. Therefore, a voltage corresponding to the acoustic signal SG1 is applied to
all of the electrodes 21, 22, 23. When the portion of the vibrating body 10 sandwiched between
the electrode 21U and the electrode 21L vibrates due to the voltage applied to the electrode 21,
in the region R1 shown in FIG. Propagate to Then, when a voltage applied to the electrodes 22
and 23 vibrates the portion of the vibrating body 10 sandwiched between the electrodes 22U
and 22L and the portion of the vibrating body 10 sandwiched between the electrodes 23U and
23L, respectively, as illustrated in FIG. In the regions R2 and R3 shown in FIG. 7 (c), the sound
due to these vibrations propagates as a plane wave in the positive Z-axis direction in phase with
the plane wave of the region R1. Therefore, the sound indicated by the acoustic signal SG1 forms
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a wave front Wc which is a plane wave as shown in FIG. 7C in any of the regions R1, R2, R3, R4,
and R5.
[0033]
Here, assuming that an electrode pair configured by the electrode 21U and the electrode 21L is a
first electrode in the present invention and the acoustic signal SG1 is a first acoustic signal in the
present invention, a voltage corresponding to the first acoustic signal is an input unit The voltage
is applied to the first electrode by a transformer 61 and a transformer 51.
[0034]
And in this case, acoustic signal SG2 turns into the 2nd acoustic signal in the present invention,
and the 1st acoustic signal (acoustic signal SG1) and the 2nd acoustic signal (acoustic signal SG2)
are mixed by mixer 81.
A voltage corresponding to the mixed acoustic signal is applied by the input unit 62 and the
transformer 52 to the electrode pair formed by the electrode 22U and the electrode 22L.
[0035]
The electrode 21U constituting the first electrode is disposed adjacent to the electrode 22U on
the same side as viewed from the vibrating body 10 at one end of the electrode 22U and adjacent
to the other end on the opposite side of the one end . Further, the electrode 21L constituting the
first electrode is disposed adjacent to the electrode 22L on the same side as viewed from the
vibrator 10 at one end of the electrode 22L and adjacent to the other end opposite to the one
end Be done. That is, in this case, the electrode pair configured by the electrode 22U and the
electrode 22L is the second electrode in the present invention.
[0036]
Here, let an electrode pair formed of the electrode 22U and the electrode 22L be a first electrode
in the present invention, and an acoustic signal obtained by mixing the acoustic signal SG1 and
the acoustic signal SG2 by the mixer 81 be a first acoustic signal. The voltage corresponding to
the first acoustic signal is applied to the first electrode by the input unit 62 and the transformer
52.
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[0037]
In this case, the acoustic signal SG3 is the second acoustic signal in the present invention, and the
first acoustic signal (acoustic signal obtained by mixing the acoustic signal SG1 and the acoustic
signal SG2) and the second acoustic signal (acoustic signal SG3) are shown in FIG. Mixing is
performed by the mixer 82 in the example shown in 5 (b), and by the mixer 82 and the mixer 83
in the example shown in FIG. 5 (a).
A voltage corresponding to the mixed acoustic signal is applied by the input unit 63 and the
transformer 53 to the electrode pair formed by the electrode 23U and the electrode 23L.
[0038]
The electrode 22U constituting the first electrode is disposed adjacent to the electrode 23U on
the same side as viewed from the vibrating body 10 at one end of the electrode 23U and adjacent
to the other end on the opposite side of the one end . In addition, the electrode 22L constituting
the first electrode is disposed adjacent to the electrode 23L on the same side as viewed from the
vibrating body 10 at one end of the electrode 23L and adjacent to the other end on the opposite
side of the one end Be done. That is, in this case, the electrode pair configured by the electrode
23U and the electrode 23L is the second electrode in the present invention.
[0039]
It has been found that the shape of the wave front of the output sound makes the listener feel
different distances to the sound. Specifically, for the listener, the sound arriving by the plane
wave is felt closer to the sound arriving by the spherical wave. As described above, the sound
indicated by the acoustic signal SG2 forms a wavefront Wb, and the sound indicated by the
acoustic signal SG3 forms a wavefront Wa. Then, since the wavefront Wb is relatively closer to a
plane wave than the wavefront Wa, the listener feels that the sound indicated by the acoustic
signal SG2 is closer than the sound indicated by the acoustic signal SG3. Similarly, the sound
indicated by the acoustic signal SG1 forms a wave front Wc closer to a plane wave than the wave
front Wb. Therefore, for the listener, the sound indicated by the sound signal SG1 is closer to the
sound indicated by the sound signal SG2. felt. That is, due to the sound indicated by the acoustic
04-05-2019
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signals SG1, SG2, and SG3 emitted by this configuration, a plurality of sound images having
different senses of distance are localized for the listener. The size of the regions R1, R2, and R3
may be determined according to the length between human's ears. Thus, the wavefronts Wa, Wb,
and Wc can be emitted to the listener such that the shapes of the wavefronts Wa, Wb, and Wc
from the plane wave to the spherical wave are different in an arbitrary manner.
[0040]
The wavefronts Wa, Wb, Wc are different in the radiation area of sound in the vibrating body 10,
and the distance attenuation is smaller as the radiation area is larger. The volume difference of
the sound emitted from 23 becomes large. For this reason, when it is desired to adjust the
volume for each acoustic signal, a gain adjustment means for adjusting the volume may be
separately provided between the input unit 60 and the electrode 20.
[0041]
Further, since the electrostatic speaker 1 has the plurality of electrodes 21, 22, and 23 arranged
in a plane, it does not require space and is not bulky as compared to the case where the sound
output surface is arranged in a spherical shape. . And since it is not necessary to perform a delay
process with respect to an acoustic signal, electrostatic type speaker 1 is simple compared with
the speaker provided with the control apparatus which performs a delay process. Further, the
electrostatic speaker 1 causes the vibrating body 10 to emit sound with directivity respectively
by the electrodes 21, 22, 23. For example, in the case where a plurality of nondirectional
speakers are arranged, the sounds emitted from the plurality of speakers diffuse and overlap or
interfere with each other, which may cause disturbance of the wavefront. On the other hand,
when the sound indicated by the same acoustic signal is emitted by a plurality of electrodes of
the electrostatic speaker 1, the sounds emitted from the vibrating body 10 corresponding to the
respective electrodes have directivity, and thus the disturbance described above It is easy to form
a plane wave that is less likely to occur.
[0042]
Modified Example The contents of the above-described embodiment may be modified as follows.
Each modification shown below may be combined and implemented as needed.
04-05-2019
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[0043]
(Modification 1) In the embodiment described above, the electrodes 21, 22, 23 are formed of a
conductive metal, but may be a cloth in which a conductive yarn is woven. According to this
configuration, the electrostatic speaker 1 can be freely deformed, for example, the shape thereof
can be curved or bent.
[0044]
(Modification 2) Although three electrodes 20 were used in the embodiment described above,
two electrodes may be provided, or four or more electrodes may be provided. In short, the
electrodes 20 constitute a plurality of electrode pairs constituted by two electrodes facing each
other with the vibrating body 10 therebetween, and one of the electrodes on the same side with
respect to the vibrating body 10 is the other electrode The other electrodes may be adjacent to
each other at one end, and the other end opposite to the one end may be adjacent to each other.
[0045]
(Modification 3) In the embodiment described above, the electrode 23 is rectangular when
viewed from the Z-axis direction, and the shapes of the electrodes 21 and 22 are both
rectangular holes inside when viewed from the Z-axis direction. The shape of the electrodes 20 is
not limited to the rectangular shape. For example, it may be a circular or oval shape surrounded
by a curve. FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a circular electrode 20a. Even in this case, in the straight
line Sf passing through the electrode 23a, the electrode 22a is disposed adjacent to the electrode
23a at one end thereof and at the other end opposite to the one end, and The electrode 21a is
adjacent to the electrode 22a at one end thereof and is also adjacent to the other end opposite to
the one end.
[0046]
(Modification 4) In the embodiment and modification 3 which were mentioned above, although
electrode 20 was arranged so that it might become concentric nesting structure in a plane,
arrangement of each electrode 20 does not need to be concentric. . FIG. 9 is a view showing an
04-05-2019
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example of the non-concentric eccentricity nested electrode 20b. The term "eccentric" as used
herein refers to a state in which the centers of point symmetry of the electrodes 20 are
respectively offset and not coincident with each other.
[0047]
In the example shown in FIG. 9, for example, the electrode 23b is surrounded by the electrode
22b, but is located in the positive X-axis direction from the center of the electrode 22b.
Therefore, the electrode 22 b and the electrode 23 b are not arranged concentrically. Even in this
case, the electrode 22b is adjacent to the electrode 23b at one end thereof and is also adjacent to
the other end opposite to the one end, and the electrode 21b is adjacent to the electrode 22b at
one end thereof And the other end opposite to the one end is also arranged adjacent to each
other.
[0048]
(Modification 5) In the embodiment described above, the shapes of the outer edges of the
electrodes 20 are similar, but the shapes of the outer edges of the electrodes 20 may not be
similar. FIG. 10 is a view showing an example of the electrodes 20c whose outer edge shapes are
not similar to each other. In the example shown in FIG. 10, the shapes of the outer edges of the
electrodes 21c, 22c, and 23c are rectangular, but the aspect ratios are different from each other.
Even in this case, the electrode 22c is adjacent to the electrode 23c at one end thereof and is also
adjacent to the other end opposite to the one end, and the electrode 21c is adjacent to the
electrode 22c at one end thereof And the other end opposite to the one end is also arranged
adjacent to each other.
[0049]
(Modification 6) In the embodiment described above, the electrode 20 has a nested structure in
the plane not only in the X-axis direction but also in the Y-axis direction, but may be a nested
structure in any one direction. FIG. 11 is an example of the electrode 20 d having a nested
structure only in one direction. In the example shown in FIG. 11, the electrode 22d is disposed
adjacent to the electrode 23d at one end thereof and at the other end opposite to the one end in
a straight line Sf along the X-axis direction, and The electrode 21 d is adjacent to the electrode
22 d at one end thereof and is also adjacent to the other end opposite to the one end. Since the
04-05-2019
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length in the Y-axis direction of each electrode 20d is the same, the arrangement of the
electrodes 20d is not nested in the Y-axis direction. Even in this case, the listener captures the
sound with the left and right ears in the X-axis direction, so if the electrode 20 has a nested
structure in the X-axis direction, whether the emitted sound is close to a plane wave It is possible
to determine if it is close to a spherical wave. Therefore, a plurality of sound images having
different senses of distance are localized for the listener.
[0050]
(Modification 7) In the embodiment or modification described above, each electrode 20 is
adjacent by one straight line or curve, but may be adjacent by a plurality of straight lines, curves,
and a combination of these. For example, they may be adjacent to each other so as to mesh with
each other at a so-called comb-like boundary having irregularities. FIG. 12 is a view showing an
example of the electrodes 20e adjacent to each other so as to mesh with each other at the combtooth-like boundary. In the example shown in FIG. 12, the electrode 21e has a portion protruding
toward the electrode 22e, and the electrode 22e has a portion protruding toward the electrode
21e. Similarly, the electrode 22e has a portion projecting toward the electrode 23e, and the
electrode 23e has a portion projecting toward the electrode 22e. Since these projecting portions
are adjacent to each other so as to mesh with each other, each sound generated from the
vibrating body 10 by the voltage applied to these portions is different from the sound generated
from the other portion of the vibrating body 10, It becomes easy to mix with each other. In order
to make a sound go straight from an output surface, an electrostatic speaker outputs a sound
mainly as a plane wave, but the boundary part of an output surface diffuses a sound. As shown in
FIG. 12, when the adjacent electrodes 20 intermingle the boundary portion, the above-described
diffused sounds are mixed with each other, and thus the adjacent electrodes 20 do not
intermingle the boundary portion. Compared to the case, the connection of the sound that the
listener listens to in each area is smoothened.
[0051]
(Modification 8) In the embodiment described above, the electrodes 21, 22, 23 are arranged to
sandwich one vibrating body 10, but the vibrating bodies sandwiched by the electrodes 21f, 22f,
23f are separated from each other It may be done. FIG. 13 is an exploded perspective view of the
electrostatic loudspeaker 1 according to this modification. As shown in FIG. 13, the electrostatic
speaker 1 includes a sound emitting portion 41 corresponding to a first electrostatic sound
emitting portion, a sound emitting portion 42 corresponding to a second electrostatic sound
emitting portion, and a third And a sound emitting unit 43 corresponding to the electrostatic
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sound emitting unit. The sound emitting unit 41, the sound emitting unit 42, and the sound
emitting unit 43 are configured as electrostatic type speakers that can function alone.
[0052]
Unlike the embodiment described above, in this modification, the spacers 30f are divided into the
spacers 31, 32, and 33 so that the shapes on the XY plane correspond to the electrodes 21f, 22f,
and 23f, respectively. The vibrating body 10f is divided into the vibrating bodies 11, 12, 13 so
that the shapes on the XY plane correspond to the electrodes 21f, 22f, 23f, respectively. The
sound emitting portion 41 sandwiches the vibrating body 11 in the Z-axis direction by the spacer
31U and the spacer 31L, and further, sandwiches the vibrating body 11 in the Z-axis direction by
the electrode 21Uf and the electrode 21Lf. That is, the electrode 21Uf and the electrode 21Lf
constitute an electrode pair facing each other with the vibrating body 11 interposed
therebetween. The sound output unit 42 is formed by sandwiching the vibrating body 12 in the
Z-axis direction by the spacer 32U and the spacer 32L, and further sandwiching the vibrating
body 12 in the Z-axis direction by the electrode 22Uf and the electrode 22Lf. That is, the
electrode 22Uf and the electrode 22Lf form an electrode pair facing each other with the
vibrating body 12 interposed therebetween. The sound output unit 43 sandwiches the vibrating
body 13 in the Z-axis direction by the spacer 33U and the spacer 33L, and further, sandwiches
the vibrating body 13 in the Z-axis direction by the electrode 23Uf and the electrode 23Lf. That
is, the electrode 23Uf and the electrode 23Lf form an electrode pair facing each other with the
vibrating body 13 interposed therebetween.
[0053]
The sound emitting unit 42 is disposed so as to surround the sound emitting unit 43 on the XY
plane. And the sound emission part 41 is arrange | positioned so that the circumference |
surroundings of the sound emission part 42 may be enclosed on XY plane. That is, the electrode
21f is adjacent to the electrode 22f at one end, and is also adjacent to the other end opposite to
the one end. Further, the electrode 22f is adjacent to the electrode 23f at one end thereof and is
also adjacent to the other end opposite to the one end. At this time, the vibrators 11, 12, 13 may
be disposed on the same plane. In this configuration, since each sound emitting unit is separated,
it is easy for the vibrator corresponding to each electrode to vibrate independently. In addition,
even with this configuration, a plurality of sound images having different senses of distance are
localized for the listener.
04-05-2019
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[0054]
(Modification 9) In the embodiment described above, the electrostatic speaker 1 has a push-pull
configuration in which the vibrating body 10 is sandwiched between a pair of electrodes, but the
configuration of the electrostatic speaker 1 is limited to this configuration It is not something to
be done. For example, a single type (push type) configuration in which one spacer 30 is
sandwiched by a pair of conductive films facing each other, one of the conductive films is used as
an electrode, and the other conductive film is used as a vibrator.
[0055]
(Modification 10) Although the above-described embodiment and modification describe the
electrostatic speaker 1 that emits sound based on the input acoustic signal, the configuration of
this electrostatic speaker 1 is an electrostatic microphone And the like. That is, based on the
reciprocity theorem (reversibility) concerning the sound of the electroacoustic transducer, an
electrostatic speaker that converts an electrical signal to a sound (sound wave) is applied to an
electrostatic microphone that converts a sound (sound wave) to an electrical signal do it.
[0056]
FIG. 14 is a diagram for explaining the wave front of sound input by the electrostatic microphone
1M according to this modification. The electrostatic microphone 1 </ b> M includes the same
vibration body 10 and electrode 20 as the electrostatic speaker 1 described above.
[0057]
As described above, as the sound source is closer to the sound source, the shape of the wavefront
of sound incident on the electrostatic microphone 1M is closer to a spherical surface than a
plane. As shown in FIG. 14 (a), the sound generated at a point near the electrostatic microphone
1M reaches the electrodes 21, 22, 23 as a wavefront Wd having a shape relatively close to a
spherical wave, and corresponds to these. The vibrating body 10 is vibrated at the position to
Here, assuming that it is easy to convert a sound component having a wavefront shape close to a
plane when it reaches the electrode, the shape of the portion of the wavefront Wd reaching the
electrode 23 is closest to the plane, The shape of the part that has reached the electrodes 21 and
04-05-2019
20
22 other than the other is closer to a spherical surface than a flat surface. Therefore, in the case
shown in FIG. 14A, the portion of the vibrator 10 corresponding to the electrode 23 vibrates well,
and the component of this sound is mainly converted to an acoustic signal (hereinafter referred
to as an acoustic signal SGd) by the electrode 23 Be done.
[0058]
Next, the sound generated at a position farther from the electrostatic microphone 1M than the
sound forming the wave front Wd described above forms, for example, a wave front We closer to
a plane wave than the wave front Wd as shown in FIG. Do. The shape of the portion of the
wavefront We that reaches the electrodes 22 and 23 is close to a plane, but the shape of the
portion that reaches the electrode 21 is close to a spherical surface. Therefore, in the case shown
in FIG. 14B, the portion of the vibrating body 10 corresponding to the electrodes 22 and 23
vibrates well, and the component of this sound is mainly an acoustic signal (hereinafter referred
to as an acoustic signal SGe) by the electrodes 22 and 23. Converted to
[0059]
Then, a sound generated at a position farther from the electrostatic microphone 1M than the
sound forming the wavefront We forms a wavefront Wf closer to a plane wave than the
wavefront We, for example, as shown in FIG. 14C. . The wave front Wf reaches a substantially
entire surface of the electrodes 21, 22, 23 as a plane wave. Therefore, in the case shown in FIG.
14C, the portions corresponding to the electrodes 21, 22, 23 which are almost the entire surface
of the vibrating body 10 vibrate, and the component of this sound is acoustic in any of the
electrodes 21, 22, 23. It is converted into a signal (hereinafter referred to as an acoustic signal
SGf).
[0060]
FIG. 15 is a diagram showing the electrical configuration of the electrostatic microphone 1M.
This configuration is common to the electrostatic speaker 1 shown in FIG. 4 in almost all points,
and instead of the input unit 60 (ie, the input units 61, 62, 63), the output unit 90 (ie, the output
unit 91). , 92, 93) are different. In the electrostatic microphone 1 </ b> M, the direction of signal
transmission is opposite to that of the electrostatic speaker 1.
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[0061]
As described above, the electrode 21 converts the sound forming the wavefront Wf into an
acoustic signal SGf, and it is difficult to convert each sound forming the wavefronts Wd and We.
Therefore, only the acoustic signal SGf derived from the sound forming the wavefront Wf is
transmitted to the output unit 91 corresponding to the electrode 21 through the transformer 51.
[0062]
The electrode 22 converts the sound forming the wavefront Wf into an acoustic signal SGe in
addition to converting the sound forming the wavefront Wf into an acoustic signal SGf. However,
since the wave front Wd is close to a spherical wave, the sound derived from the wave front Wd
is hardly converted into an acoustic signal at the electrode 21. Therefore, the acoustic signal SGe
generated from the electrode 22 and the acoustic signal SGf are mixed and transmitted to the
output unit 92 corresponding to the electrode 22 through the transformer 52.
[0063]
The electrode 23 converts the sound forming the wavefront Wd into an acoustic signal SGd.
Therefore, the acoustic signal SGd generated from the electrode 23, the acoustic signal SGe and
the acoustic signal SGf are mixed and transmitted to the output unit 93 corresponding to the
electrode 23 through the transformer 53.
[0064]
Here, the electrostatic microphone 1 </ b> M includes a mixing unit 80 a that separates each
sound source by performing a predetermined operation on the acoustic signal converted by each
electrode 20. FIG. 16 is a diagram for explaining the function of the mixing unit 80a. For
example, as shown in FIG. 16A, the sound signal SGf output from the output unit 91 is branched
at two places in the mixing unit 80a, but no operation with another sound signal is performed,
and the sound signal SG1 is used as it is as the sound signal SG1. It is output.
04-05-2019
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[0065]
The acoustic signal output from the output unit 92 is a mixture of the acoustic signal SGe and the
acoustic signal SGf. The mixing unit 80a separates (removes) the acoustic signal SGf from the
acoustic signal by the mixer 84. Therefore, after passing through the mixer 84, only the acoustic
signal SGe is output as the acoustic signal SG2.
[0066]
The acoustic signal output from the output unit 93 is a mixture of the acoustic signal SGd, the
acoustic signal SGe, and the acoustic signal SGf. The mixing unit 80a separates (removes) the
acoustic signal SGe from the acoustic signal by the mixer 85, and separates (removes) the
acoustic signal SGf from the acoustic signal by the mixer 86. Therefore, after passing through the
mixers 85 and 86, only the acoustic signal SGd is output as the acoustic signal SG3.
[0067]
In addition, the structure of the mixer which comprises the mixing part 80a is not restricted to
what was mentioned above. For example, as shown in FIG. 16 (b), the mixer 84 may be provided
after the acoustic signal is branched to the mixer 85. The acoustic signal output from the output
unit 93 is a mixture of the acoustic signal SGd, the acoustic signal SGe, and the acoustic signal
SGf. In this case, the mixing unit 80a uses the mixer 85 to generate the acoustic signal SGe from
the acoustic signal. And separate (remove) the acoustic signal SGf. Therefore, after passing
through the mixer 85, only the acoustic signal SGd is output as the acoustic signal SG3.
[0068]
The acoustic signal output from the output unit 92 is a mixture of the acoustic signal SGe and the
acoustic signal SGf, but the mixing unit 80a separates (removes) the acoustic signal SGf from the
acoustic signal by the mixer 84. Do. Therefore, after passing through the mixer 84, only the
acoustic signal SGe is output as the acoustic signal SG2. The acoustic signal SGf is output as an
acoustic signal SG1. That is, even in the case shown in FIG. 16B, SG1 to SG3 are separated
according to the sound source. And, in this case, the mixing section 80a may not have the mixer
86.
04-05-2019
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[0069]
The electrostatic microphone 1 </ b> M separates and collects the sound emitted from the sound
source according to the shape of the wavefront (for each distance to the sound source) from the
vibrating body 10. When the impedances of the transformers 51, 52, 53 are low, the electrical
signals output from the output units 91, 92, 93 may be amplified by amplifiers. In the
electrostatic microphone 1 </ b> M, as shown in the eighth modification, the vibrators may be
separated from each other. In this case, the electrostatic microphone 1 </ b> M may include, for
example, a plurality of electrostatic sound collecting units. That is, the plurality of electrostatic
sound collection units may be provided with the vibrator having conductivity, the electrode
facing the vibrator, and the insulating spacer for separating the electrode from the vibrator. .
[0070]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Electrostatic type speaker, 1M ... Electrostatic type microphone,
10 ... Vibrator, 20, 21, 22, 23 ... Electrode, 30 ... Spacer, 41, 42, 43 ... Sound emission part, 51, 52,
53 ... Transformation 60, 61, 62, 63: Input unit 70: Bias power supply 80, 80a: Mixing unit 81,
82, 83, 84, 85, 86: Mixer, 90, 91, 92, 93: Output unit
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