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JPH09107594

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DESCRIPTION JPH09107594
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an
ultrasonic apparatus, and more particularly, it is possible to focus ultrasonic waves regardless of
the use of a concave transducer or a combination of a flat transducer and a concave lens.
Structure of the ultrasound system with simple structure that can improve the resolution.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art Medical ultrasonic diagnostic devices, ultrasonic flaw detection
devices and the like are conventionally known as devices utilizing ultrasonic waves. These
devices are equipped with an ultrasonic probe composed of a piezoelectric body, an acoustic
matching layer, an acoustic lens, packing, etc. according to the application. In these devices, first,
ultrasonic waves are transmitted from the ultrasonic probe toward the object to be measured. At
this time, the ultrasonic wave transmitted from the piezoelectric body in the ultrasonic probe is
transmitted to the object to be measured through the adhesive layer, the acoustic matching layer,
the adhesive layer, the acoustic lens layer and the like. Next, various information is obtained by
measuring the reflected wave from the object to be measured.
[0003]
However, in the ultrasonic probe, since the acoustic impedances of the layers such as the
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adhesive layer, the acoustic matching layer, and the acoustic lens layer are different from each
other, ultrasonic waves passing through the layers are reflected at the interface of the layers and
attenuated. It will Therefore, there is a problem that measurement can not be performed
efficiently with high sensitivity. It is desired to develop an ultrasonic probe having a simple
structure without such problems.
[0004]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION One of the problems of the present invention is to solve the
problems in the prior art. The other one is an ultrasonic device capable of focusing ultrasonic
waves and improving spatial resolution, regardless of the use of a concave transducer or the
combination of a flat transducer and a concave lens. It is to provide. Another is to provide an
ultrasonic device that is simple in structure and easy to manufacture. Another one is to provide
an ultrasonic apparatus that can be suitably used as an ultrasonic probe in various ultrasonic
measurement devices such as a medical ultrasonic diagnostic device and an ultrasonic
nondestructive inspection device.
[0005]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, the present
invention has been made by the inventors of the present invention as a result of intensive
studies, and as a result, the adhesive layer, the acoustic matching layer, the acoustic lens layer,
etc. in the conventional ultrasonic probe are It is based on the finding that formation in one layer
can solve the problems in the prior art, and can provide an ultrasonic device having a simple
structure and easy manufacture.
[0006]
The means for solving the above problems is applied to an ultrasonic transducer and the
ultrasonic transducer, and the density is lowered from the outer edge to the central region in the
area adjacent to the ultrasonic transducer. An ultrasonic apparatus comprising: an adhesive layer.
[0007]
In this ultrasonic device, an embodiment in which the adhesive layer contains an adhesive and a
filler is preferable.
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Further, a preferable mode is one in which the adhesive layer has its density continuously or
discontinuously reduced from the outer edge to the center in the region adjacent to the
ultrasonic transducer.
[0008]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION The ultrasonic apparatus of the present
invention comprises an ultrasonic transducer and an adhesive layer.
In the present invention, the ultrasound apparatus may further have other elements.
[0009]
-Ultrasonic Transducer-The ultrasonic transducer has a transducer and an electrode.
[0010]
The vibrator is not particularly limited as long as it is a material having a piezoelectric effect, an
electrostrictive effect, or a magnetostrictive effect, and can be appropriately selected according to
the purpose. For example, a single crystal piezoelectric material or a ceramic piezoelectric
material And piezoelectric polymer materials, semiconductor piezoelectric film materials, and
magnetostrictive materials.
[0011]
Examples of the single-crystal piezoelectric material include quartz, LiNbO3, LiTaO3, TeO3, Ba2
NaNb5 O15 and the like.
[0012]
Examples of the ceramic piezoelectric material include barium titanate (BaTiO3), lead titanate
(PbTiO3), and lead zirconate titanate (Pb (ZrTi) O3).
[0013]
Examples of the piezoelectric polymer material include polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and the
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like.
[0014]
Examples of the semiconductor piezoelectric film material include ZnO and CdS.
[0015]
Examples of the magnetostrictive material include pure nickel, Alfell (Fe-Al alloy), Ni-Cu ferrite
and the like.
[0016]
Among these vibrators, ceramic piezoelectric materials are preferable, and in particular, lead
zirconate titanate (Pb (ZrTi) O3) may be referred to as "PZT" hereinafter.
Is preferred.
The phase transition does not occur at the normal operating temperature (100 ° C. or lower) of
the ultrasonic device, and therefore, the use of the PZT as a transducer is advantageous in that
the temperature characteristics of the ultrasonic device are stabilized.
In addition, since the PZT has a large electromechanical coupling coefficient, it is advantageous
to use this as a transducer because the output of ultrasonic waves can be easily increased.
[0017]
The shape, thickness, size, etc. of the vibrator can be selected according to the purpose, and can
not be generally defined. However, in many cases, as the shape, an ultrasonic wave transmission
surface or ultrasonic wave reception A shape is selected whose surface is circular.
Moreover, as said thickness, when the use of an ultrasonic device is a blood-flow measurement, it
is 10 micrometers-5 mm normally, and 1-3 mm is preferable.
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The thickness in the above range is advantageous in that the thickness of the adhesive layer can
be easily controlled in the coating step.
[0018]
The electrode is not particularly limited as long as it has a function as an electrode, and can be
selected according to the type, size, shape, and the like of the vibrator.
[0019]
The ultrasonic transducer generally comprises the transducer and the electrode housed in a
container.
[0020]
The container is not particularly limited and may be selected according to the purpose. For
example, when using an ultrasonic device as a medical echo, a probe in a nondestructive
inspection device, etc., a box-shaped container is selected. When used as a probe or the like in a
Doppler blood flow meter, a cylindrical container can be selected.
[0021]
There is no restriction | limiting in particular as a material of the said container, According to the
objective, it can select from metal, ceramics, plastics, a composite material etc.
[0022]
In addition, in this invention, when accommodating the said vibrator | oscillator and the said
electrode in the said container, various layers, packing, etc. can be provided.
[0023]
In the present invention, the ultrasonic transducer is connected to various devices according to
the purpose, for example, a high frequency pulse generator, a continuous wave generator, a
Schmitt trigger oscillator, a frequency counter, a gate, an amplifier, etc. The ultrasound can be
directed towards the object to be measured.
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In the present invention, these various devices may be connected to the ultrasonic transducer via,
for example, a backing material.
The backing material is generally disposed for the purpose of improving the responsiveness of
the ultrasonic transducer, and the type and the like can be appropriately selected according to
the purpose.
[0024]
The ultrasonic waves transmitted from the ultrasonic transducer toward the object to be
measured may be measured using a separately prepared ultrasonic receiving apparatus, but may
be measured as follows.
For example, measurement may be performed using a device in which various devices such as an
amplification detector, an oscilloscope, a calculator, an analyzer, a monitor display, a monitor
speaker, and a computer are connected to the ultrasonic transducer.
In this case, it is not necessary to separately prepare an ultrasonic wave receiving apparatus, the
ultrasonic wave apparatus can directly measure the reflected wave from the measurement object,
and the reflected wave data can be obtained visually or aurally. And an ultrasonic device capable
of transmitting and receiving ultrasonic waves.
[0025]
-Adhesive layer-The adhesive layer contains an adhesive and a filler.
[0026]
The adhesive can be applied to the ultrasonic transducer, and is not particularly limited as long
as an adhesive layer can be formed, depending on the material, size, shape, structure, etc. of the
ultrasonic transducer. It can be selected appropriately.
[0027]
Examples of the adhesive include inorganic adhesives, thermoplastic adhesives, thermosetting
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adhesives, rubber-based adhesives, structural adhesives, heat-resistant adhesives, cyanoacrylates
and anaerobic adhesives, synthetic water-soluble adhesives Agents, emulsion adhesives, liquid
polymer adhesives and the like.
[0028]
Examples of the inorganic adhesive include low melting glass adhesives, crystallized low melting
glass adhesives, alkali metal silicate inorganic adhesives, phosphate inorganic adhesives, colloidal
silica inorganic adhesives, and the like. .
[0029]
Examples of the thermoplastic adhesive include polymer and copolymer adhesives of vinyl
acetate, acrylic adhesives, ethylene copolymer adhesives, dope cement adhesives, monomer
cement adhesives, thermoplastic polyamide adhesives, Polyester adhesives, polyurethane
adhesives and the like can be mentioned.
[0030]
Examples of the thermosetting adhesive include amino resin adhesives such as urea resin
adhesives and melamine resins; phenol resin adhesives such as resol and novolac; resorcinol
formaldehyde resin adhesives; and xylene resins such as m-xylene formaldehyde resin Adhesive;
furan resin adhesive; epoxy resin adhesive such as bisphenol type or multifunctionality;
polyisocyanate resin adhesive such as polyurethane; unsaturated polyester adhesive;
thermosetting acrylic resin adhesive; phenol poly (vinyl acetal D) adhesives, phenol / nitrile
rubber adhesives, phenolic chloroprene adhesives, modified polymeric compound adhesives by
reaction with isocyanate, and composite thermosetting resin adhesives such as nylon epoxy
adhesives.
[0031]
Examples of the rubber-based adhesive include polychloroprene-based adhesives, nitrile rubberbased adhesives, regenerated rubber-based adhesives, SBR-based adhesives, natural rubber-based
adhesives and the like.
[0032]
Examples of the structural adhesive include vinyl / phenolic adhesive, polychloroprene / phenolic
adhesive, nitrile / phenolic adhesive, nitrile / epoxy adhesive, liquid nitrile rubber / epoxy
adhesive, nylon / epoxy adhesive, epoxy And phenolic / adhesives, urethane / epoxy adhesives,
adhesives for composites such as polyester / epoxy, and the like.
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[0033]
As the heat resistant adhesive, for example, epoxy phenol adhesive, metalloxane adhesive, boronsilicon adhesive, aromatic heterocyclic polymer adhesive, polybenzimidazole adhesive, polyimide
adhesive, condensation And heterocyclic adhesives.
[0034]
Examples of the cyanoacrylate and the anaerobic adhesive include a methyl α-cyanoacrylate
adhesive, a cyanoacrylate monomer adhesive such as ethyl α-cyanoacrylate, and a tetraethylene
glycol dimethacrylate adhesive.
[0035]
Examples of the synthetic water-soluble adhesive include polyvinyl alcohol adhesive, isobutenemaleic anhydride copolymer adhesive, polyacrylamide adhesive, polyethylene oxide adhesive,
polyvinyl pyrrolidone adhesive, vinyl acetate copolymer adhesive, Acrylic copolymer adhesive
etc. are mentioned.
[0036]
Examples of the emulsion adhesive include polyvinyl acetate adhesives, vinyl acetate-ethylene
copolymer adhesives, polyacrylic ester adhesives, polyvinyl chloride emulsion adhesives, and the
like.
[0037]
As the liquid polymer adhesive, for example, 1,4-liquid diene polymer adhesive, low
polymerization degree diene polymer adhesive such as 1,2-liquid diene polymer, resol resin
adhesive, unsaturated polyester resin adhesive, liquid Polysulfide-based polymer adhesives, liquid
silicon polymer adhesives, polyether diol adhesives, polyester diol adhesives and the like can be
mentioned.
[0038]
These adhesives may be used alone or in combination of two or more.
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These adhesives may be synthetic or commercially available.
[0039]
In the present invention, among the above-mentioned adhesives, epoxy resin adhesives,
cyanoacrylate adhesives, acrylic resin adhesives, silicone resin adhesives are preferable, and they
have high solvent resistance, and are generally used in ultrasonic devices. An epoxy resin
adhesive is particularly preferable in that the heat resistance at a temperature (100 ° C. or less)
is sufficient and the harmony of the acoustic impedance with the living body is good.
The use of these adhesives is generally advantageous in that variations in acoustic impedance at
the interface with the ultrasonic transducer can be reduced, and ultrasonic attenuation can be
effectively prevented.
In addition, since these adhesives have many types and many commercial items, they are easy to
obtain and select.
[0040]
There is no restriction | limiting in particular as said filler, For example, an inorganic filler, an
organic filler, etc. are mentioned.
[0041]
Examples of the inorganic filler include metal powders such as aluminum, copper, iron, lead,
silver and steel; silica, silica (silica), finely powdered silica, silica gel, dolomite (calcium silicate,
magnesium silicate) ), Silica silicates such as zirconium silicate, attapulgite and the like; clays
such as alumina; calcium carbonate, precipitated calcium carbonate, light calcium carbonate,
ground calcium carbonate, highly oil-absorptive calcium carbonate, activated calcium carbonate
Limestone such as gypsum; clay silica such as mica and clay; clay silicate such as talc and
asbestos carbon such as graphite and carbon black; carbide such as glass fiber, glass beads and
glass powder Oxides such as antimony oxide, magnesium oxide, titanium oxide, iron oxide;
magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide Hydroxides such um; cement, barium sulfate,
molybdenum disulfide, feldspar powder, Sari site, kaolin, kaolin clay, pyrophyllite clay, and the
like slate powder.
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[0042]
Examples of the organic filler include plant-based or animal-derived natural products such as
linters, linens and sisal wood powder, etc., and artificial or synthetic products such as viscose,
acetate, polyamide, vinylon and vinyl chloride, and polystyrene , Acrylic, fluorine-based resin,
polycarbonate and the like.
[0043]
These fillers may be used alone or in combination of two or more.
In general, the filler is selected according to the type of the vibrator such that the acoustic
impedance is matched with the selected vibrator.
Among the above-mentioned fillers, inorganic fillers are preferred, and glass beads and silica
(silica) are particularly preferred.
When the filler is glass beads or silica (silica), it is advantageous in that the particle diameter of
the filler can be easily made uniform and an ultrasonic device can be manufactured at low cost.
When the vibrator is PZT, it is preferable to select a glass bead as the filler from the viewpoint of
harmonization of acoustic impedance.
[0044]
There is no restriction | limiting in particular as a shape of the said filler, For example, powdery
shape, flat form, flaky shape, hexagonal plate shape, needle shape, spherical shape, fibrous shape,
fibrous fabric shape, irregular shape etc. are mentioned.
Among these, powdery form is preferable, and spherical form is particularly preferable.
The spherical shape of the filler is advantageous in that the influence of the orientation of the
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filler on the ultrasonic wave can be reduced and the dispersibility in the adhesive can be
improved.
[0045]
The size of the filler can be appropriately selected according to the thickness of the adhesive
layer, purpose and the like, but in general, the smaller the average particle diameter, the more
preferable because the reflection of ultrasonic waves can be reduced. .
When the average particle diameter is 10 nm to 100 μm, ultrasonic waves of several Mhz are
hardly reflected, and it is preferable that the average particle diameter is 10 to 20 μm because
the effect is further enhanced.
[0046]
The content of the filler in the adhesive layer can be appropriately selected according to the
purpose, but is, for example, usually 10 to 50 wt%, preferably 15 to 30 wt%, and particularly
preferably 20 to 30 wt%. .
When the content is 20 to 30 wt%, the resolution of the ultrasonic waves in the space can be
improved, which is advantageous in that the peel strength of the adhesive layer can be improved.
[0047]
In the present invention, the adhesive layer may further contain other components.
Examples of the other components include stabilizers, reinforcing agents, antioxidants, and
ultraviolet light absorbers.
There is no restriction | limiting in particular as content of the said other components in the said
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adhesive bond layer unless the objective of invention is impaired, According to the objective, it
can select suitably.
[0048]
The thickness of the adhesive layer is not particularly limited and may be appropriately selected
depending on the purpose, but is usually 10 μm to 1 cm, preferably 300 to 500 nm.
The thickness of 300 to 500 nm is advantageous in that the attenuation of ultrasonic waves can
be reduced, and the influence on the focusing of ultrasonic waves by the adhesive layer can be
increased.
[0049]
In the present invention, the density of the adhesive layer is reduced from the outer edge to the
center in the area adjacent to the ultrasonic transducer.
When the adhesive layer is in such a mode, the ultrasonic waves passing through the adhesive
layer are focused.
[0050]
As an aspect of the reduction of the density in the adhesive layer, it may be a gradual reduction
which reduces continuously, or a discontinuous reduction which reduces stepwise.
In the case of the gradual decrease, the density may be linearly reduced, quadratically reduced,
or exponentially reduced.
Among these embodiments, gradual reduction is preferable, and in particular, linear reduction
and quadratic reduction.
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It is advantageous to select an aspect of reducing linearly or an aspect of reducing 2 o'clock as an
aspect of the reduction, since focusing of ultrasonic waves can be easily controlled.
[0051]
In order to reduce the density in the adhesive layer, for example, a method of applying an
adhesive paint prepared by adding, mixing, etc. the filler to the adhesive according to an
appropriately selected application method to the ultrasonic transducer is used. It can be adopted.
[0052]
Specifically, a method may be employed in which a plurality of adhesive paints having different
contents of the filler are prepared, and this is sequentially applied to the ultrasonic transducer.
As the application method, for example, brush coating, tape coating, spray coating, hot spray
coating, air spray coating, electrostatic coating, roller coating, curtain flow coating, flow coating,
dip coating, electrodeposition coating, roller coating, ironing It may be painted or spatula.
In the present invention, two or more of the coating methods may be combined at the time of
coating. Among these coating methods, a method that can be mechanically coated is preferable,
and air spray coating is particularly preferable.
[0053]
In addition, it is possible to adopt a method of preparing one kind of adhesive paint in which the
content of the filler is constant and applying the centrifugal force. Examples of the centrifugal
coating include a method in which the ultrasonic transducers are placed on a rotating base and
the adhesive paint is dropped on the center of the members, and a method in which spin coating
is performed using a spin coater. .
[0054]
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After the application process as described above is completed, the adhesive paint is cured to form
an adhesive layer. The curing method of the adhesive coating can be appropriately selected
according to the type of adhesive, but generally, heating, drying, use of a curing agent, and the
like can be mentioned.
[0055]
When the adhesive paint is applied to the ultrasonic transducer, the filler having a specific
gravity larger than that of the adhesive in the adhesive paint settles after a while and is deposited
on the ultrasonic transducer. For this reason, it is necessary to prevent the adhesive present on
the sedimented filler from sticking out and flowing out from the coated surface, and a mold can
be used as the means. When the adhesive paint is applied using the spin coater or the like, the
adhesive paint may be scattered, but if the mold is used, such adhesive paint can also be
prevented from being scattered.
[0056]
The state of reduction in density in the adhesive layer can be confirmed as follows. First, the
adhesive layer is thinly sliced. The specific gravity of this slice piece is measured by the
Archimedes method. This can be confirmed by comparing the specific gravity of the measured
slice with the known specific gravity of the adhesive and the filler.
[0057]
The focal length of ultrasonic waves can be measured, for example, according to the Schlieren
method known to those skilled in the art of ultrasonic waves.
[0058]
-Other Elements-In the present invention, for example, an ultrasonic wave can be used as the
other elements in the ultrasonic apparatus.
[0059]
The ultrasonic transducer is generally used when direct contact of the adhesive layer in an
ultrasonic device with an object to be measured is undesirable.
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[0060]
If it has a function capable of propagating an ultrasonic wave transmitted from the ultrasonic
transducer to the object to be measured without interference, the material, shape, size, and so on
of the ultrasonic transducer. There is no restriction | limiting in particular about a structure etc.,
According to the objective, it can select suitably.
The shape of the ultrasonic transducer can be designed to be, for example, a box shape when the
ultrasonic transducer is a box shape, or a cylindrical shape when the ultrasonic transducer is a
cylindrical shape.
The structure may be, for example, a hollow body.
[0061]
Since the ultrasonic down-converter is usually in direct contact with the object to be measured, it
is preferable that appropriate surface treatment or the like be applied depending on the object to
be measured.
[0062]
For example, when using an ultrasonic apparatus as a probe or the like in a medical ultrasonic
diagnostic apparatus as the material of the ultrasonic transducer, an inorganic material such as
quartz glass, sapphire, iron, copper, acrylic resin, polystyrene resin And organic materials such as
polyacetal resin and polycarbonate resin.
Among these materials, acrylic resin and polycarbonate resin are preferable.
The use of an acrylic resin or a polycarbonate resin as the material is advantageous in that the
reflection of ultrasonic waves on the surface in contact with a living body can be reduced.
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[0063]
The ultrasonic wave converter is bonded to the ultrasonic transducer through the adhesive paint
after the application of the adhesive paint. The conditions for this bonding may be appropriately
determined according to the type of the adhesive and the filler.
[0064]
The ultrasound system of the present invention works as follows. The ultrasonic transducer
transmits ultrasonic waves toward the object to be measured. The ultrasonic waves transmitted
by the ultrasonic transducer pass through the adhesive layer and propagate to the object to be
measured. At this time, since the adhesive layer is formed of one layer, and the density in the
adhesive layer is reduced from the outer edge to the central portion in the area adjacent to the
ultrasonic transducer, the ultrasonic wave is formed. The ultrasonic waves transmitted from the
transducer toward the measurement object are focused and focused.
[0065]
The ultrasound device thus obtained has the following advantages. That is, since it is not
necessary to use an acoustic lens or the like to focus the ultrasonic waves or to make the shape
of the ultrasonic transducer convex, the ultrasonic waves can be focused only by the adhesive
layer. The structure is simple and compact and can be manufactured without complex
affirmations. In addition, it is possible to easily control the focal length of the ultrasonic wave and
diffuse the ultrasonic wave only by selecting the adhesive layer appropriately. In addition, since it
is not necessary to provide an acoustic lens, an acoustic matching layer or the like, that is, since
there is little opportunity for ultrasonic waves to pass through the interface between layers
having different acoustic impedances, attenuation of ultrasonic waves can be reduced.
Furthermore, since the acoustic impedance can be changed continuously by the adhesive layer,
the attenuation of ultrasonic waves can be reduced.
[0066]
The ultrasonic apparatus according to the present invention has the advantages as described
above, and therefore, an ultrasonic microscope, an ultrasonic nondestructive inspection
apparatus, including a medical ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus such as a medical echo diagnostic
apparatus and an ultrasonic Doppler blood flow meter. Can be suitably used as an ultrasonic
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probe or the like in various ultrasonic measurement devices such as, etc.
[0067]
EXAMPLE A PZT (acoustic impedance: 30.1 g / cm.s.105) was used as a vibrator, and an
electrode was sandwiched between the vibrators, and the vibrator and the electrode were fixed
using a backing material.
This was used as an ultrasonic transducer. An oscillator was connected to the ultrasonic
transducer via a lead wire.
[0068]
Next, add 0.1 g of glass beads (acoustic impedance: 13.55 g / cm · 105) that have passed 300400 mesh as a filler to 0.5 g of the liquid epoxy resin adhesive, and mix The adhesive paint was
prepared.
[0069]
The adhesive paint was spin-coated at 3000 ppm for 30 seconds on a surface of a diameter 8
mm of an ultrasonic transducer using a spin coater (Mikasa Co., Ltd., spin coater 1H-DXII type).
Thereafter, the applied adhesive paint was heated to 50 to 60 ° C. and degassed using a vacuum
dryer while maintaining its viscosity low. During this time, the glass beads in the adhesive paint
sedimented and were deposited on the ultrasonic transducer. Thereafter, the adhesive paint was
heated to 150 ° C. and thermally cured to form an adhesive layer, thereby producing an
ultrasonic probe.
[0070]
The acoustic velocity of the shear wave of epoxy resin adhesive is 2.68 × 105 cm / s, and the
acoustic velocity of the shear wave of glass beads is 5.33 × 105 cm / s, so (2.68 × 105 cm / s) /
Since the relationship of (5.33 × 10 5 cm / s) = 0.53 <1 holds, the ultrasonic waves passing
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through the adhesive layer in this ultrasonic probe theoretically move while focusing. In fact, as a
result of transmitting ultrasonic waves to blood using this ultrasonic probe, it was observed that
the transmitted ultrasonic waves were focused and focused. The state of density reduction in the
adhesive layer was measured by the Archimedes method. As a result, it was confirmed that the
density of the adhesive layer was reduced in a quadratic curve from the outer edge to the center
in the region adjacent to the ultrasonic transducer. Moreover, it was 15 mm when the focal
distance of this ultrasonic probe was measured according to the said Schlieren method, and it
turned out that this ultrasonic probe has high spatial resolution.
[0071]
According to the present invention, ultrasonic waves can be focused without using a concave
vibrator or using a planar vibrator and a concave lens in combination, and spatial resolution can
be improved. It is possible to provide an ultrasonic device with a simple structure that can be
used. The ultrasonic device of the present invention can be suitably used as an ultrasonic
transducer in various ultrasonic measurement devices such as medical ultrasonic diagnostic
devices, ultrasonic microscopes, ultrasonic nondestructive inspection devices and the like.
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