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DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Title Coding Method 1 In a coding method
for coding directional acoustic signals for delivery to one or both of two coded signal channels A
and B, each of the front F channels Yannel A and The component of each tone signal to be
delivered to B is related to the A and B components of the delivered acoustic signal in a ratio of
1% to 1%, this α being measured in the first plane A coding method characterized in that it is a
position angle over which the preselected directional characteristic of the transmitted acoustic
signal is transmitted.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a decoder device
for use in a multidirectional sound system. The complete multi-directional sound system
comprises a multi-directional sound pick-up device, an encoder for converting the multi-channels
from this pick-up device into two independent electronic satellite channels, a recording and
playback device (or a transmission and reception device) A decoder device for generating
electrical signals of multidirectional sound, each correlated to a directional sound input signal, an
audio ang and a loudspeaker for providing multidirectional sound effects to one or more
listeners. And equivalent devices. The term "multi-directional sound" as used herein refers to a
sound in at least three directions, and is typically interpreted as meaning sound in four
directions. Certain parts of the acoustic system as described above may be conventional, and it is
highly desirable in practice to use conventional ones. For example, the transmitting and receiving
unit of the audio system may be constituted by a conventional stereo FM broadcast transmitter
and an FM receiver, which will be representative of EndPage: 1. It is commonplace to enjoy
stereo or bi-directional sound reproduction over many yearst6, but as such bi-directional sound
reproduction devices also approach the effects of live performance, other acoustical things on
music It has become extremely unsuitable for regeneration. Two-way sound systems can only
simulate sources that are within a limited range of about 180 degrees or less, while multidirection front-end systems can simulate sounds from any direction, ie, 360 degrees It is
intuitively clear that, after learning, multi-directional sound systems can be timed beyond bidirectional sound systems. Realism and impact of multi-directional sound more than bidirectional sound are derived from actual experience. In theory, there are no 7 obstacles in
constructing multi-directional sound systems. Therefore, the four-way sound system for magnetic
tape is a clear line from the stereo tape system! Come on. Instead of the world's 2 tracks, 4 tracks
are used. In practice, a stereo system obtained by effectively doubling the monophonic system is
doubled again to obtain a four-way system. Such a four-track sound system that can theoretically
be implemented is also unable to solve many practical difficulties. Of these difficult problems, the
most important ones are for sound reproduction as a whole. It is to actually double the system.
Therefore, if it is going to transmit four-direction sound by radio wave, it will be twice as
compelling as one stereo FM broadcast station required to broadcast a bidirectional blue tatami.
In the case of magnetic recording, the four-way sound system requires twice as many recording /
reproducing heads, magnetic tracks, and the number of tapes as those used in the two-way sound
system. In the case of a disc recording, for a four-way tatami mat recording, the disc should be
provided with two grooves or tracks, or equivalent to that obtained from two tracks using other
complex mechanisms. You have to get a recording ability, but since there is no known method to
realize both of these, it is more difficult to extract than magnetic recording. In the context of the
present invention, almost all the directional information that can be reproduced with four
speakers and that the listener can perceive as multi-directional sound can be achieved without
doubling the system and indeed in conventional manner. The decoder payload of the present
invention has been found to be able to record and transmit, with the basic information carrying
capacity of the two Eode Iochsennel (e.g. channels of stereo records or stereo FM broadcasts)
being sufficiently large. In the system used, information on the direction is digitally coded in
phase (or polarity) relationship with the amplitude of each multidirectional input signal of one
stereo channel. Information about the direction is not recorded with the same precision as
configured for the frequency components that make up the audio information itself, but the
entire system (also the listener! This is not important for children who do not reproduce and
evaluate information regarding the direction leading to 1). For example, any directional sound
system has only a limited number of speakers, and sounds coming from locations other than
those where these speakers are installed will operate different amplitude speakers with equal
amplitude Note that we have to approximate it. In this way, "the sound coming straight from the
loser must be approximated by the sound coming from the loudspeakers provided on the left
front and on the right front. In the six systems described above, the encoding and decoding
arrangements for the basic direction, using the amplitude and phase relationship between the
two stereo channels, can be augmented by the gain adjustment arrangement of the output signal.
Such a gain adjustment device allows the sound to be concentrated on one loudspeaker to a
much wider extent than can be obtained with a basic encoding and decoding device. The audio
system using the decoder device of the present invention is at the highest level compatible with
conventional stereo FM broadcast and stereo disc recording.
For example, if a disc recording for the system of the present invention is performed and it is
reproduced by a monophonic amplifier or a monophonic FM broadcast receiver, or by a
stereophonic amplifier or a stereophonic FM broadcast receiver, the result EndPage: Depending
on the case, the two fruits are very good for mono-sil 1 rendition or stereo sound reproduction.
In any of the systems, Yanagio includes a total of four recorded sound inputs, but if it is
reproduced in a four-speaker configuration, the amplitude of the rear sound input becomes
smaller than the original amplitude. The right and left channels are played equally well in the
case of monaural playback, and in the case of stereo, so that the width can be well approximated
to the 4-speaker noble, so in the case of seven-aural and stereo playback. There is no directional
distortion. In order to simplify the explanation, it has playback equipment having four speakers
provided at each corner of a # 1 square room, and four input signals corresponding to these four
speakers in the direction. It is convenient to think about multi-directional sound system.
However, the number of inputs to the encoder device is not limited to four, nor is it limited to the
direction to be represented by the output. In fact, the direction represented by the input signal is
determined by the value of a certain resistance, and the direction represented by the open 532830: h, ~) is also arbitrarily changed in the input! ! It is also easily possible to obtain a variable
resistance network so that it can be set in any desired direction. Similarly, the direction expressed
by the output casbica can also be changed from the 90 'variant described above to other values.
The direction determined by the output of the speaker can also be changed in this way, so that
the speaker can be installed at a position other than the regular device. However, the position
represented by the loudspeaker output does not necessarily have to correspond to that physical
position. This gives us an interesting effect. It can also be seen that the spread angle of the sound
can be increased or decreased as opposed to a dispersed source such as an orchestra. Also, from
the back of the hall where the orchestra meets at a relatively narrow angle, the signal supplied to
the speakers to create an effect that moves the orchestra towards the front of the hall (or a
podium) with wide corners. It can control. In the living room or in a studio, it is best to place the
speakers in a different position than in the front left, right front, left rear and right rear, as in the
case of a broom apparatus provided in a car. In some cases, it has also been found desirable to
assign the desired direction to the speaker output.
According to the present invention, input acoustic signals having at least three orientations can
be encoded in the A and B audio channels, and four output acoustic signals having orientations
correlated with these input signals are A and A decoder device for use in a multi-directional audio
system capable of reproducing from a B audio channel, comprising: an A input and a B input;
Generating third and fourth directional blue output signals; 2nd. The third and fourth devices 2
are connected to the respective A and B inputs, and the amplitude of the input in the output
acoustic signal is assigned to the output position angle and the A input or the B input. At least
three directional input sounds which are obtained approximately in proportion to the function of
the angular difference between the angles and which are obtained according to the invention,
and which according to the invention are encoded in the A and B audio channels by the encoder
device In a multi-directional audio system having a decoder arrangement for generating four
directional input sound I # signals from the signal, the encoder device or at least three inputs
receiving at least three input sides each receiving an input audio signal having a position angle,
and at least the front 13 inputs A first device for generating an A channel signal applied to the
side, and a second device for generating a B channel signal applied to at least the three inputs.
And a location, the first of instrumentation f! It causes the phase of at least one of the input
acoustic signals in the A channel to be different from the phase of the one in the B channel, and
the second device selects one of the input acoustic signals in the A channel. A multidirectional
system is obtained, wherein the phase of at least one is made to be the same as the phase of the
one in the B channel. Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail with reference
to the embodiments shown in the drawings. Amplitude and polarity for encoding and decoding,
as described above, audio system Fi using the decoder device Three or more directions EndPage:
receive tri-state input signal and transmit multi-directional acoustic direction information λ In
such a manner, the signals are incorporated into the two conventional audio information
channels (such as stereo recording or stereo broadcasting) flH. There are essentially two
parameters to be confused when processing multidirectional acoustic signals. The two
parameters 7 are the phase and S @. Discussion of Position Correlation̶It is convenient to look
at two different, different phase relationships, namely 0 degrees (in phase) and 180 degrees
(antiphase) VC.
These phase relationships can also be treated as mere reversal of polarity or sign, although we
will firstly consider the amplitude relationship, but supply it to the A channel (left channel) of a
conventional stereophonic recording or transmission device. Note that we want to obtain a
formula that determines the amplitude of the particular input acoustic signal to be and the
amplitude of the particular acoustic signal to be provided to the B channel (right channel). The
respective amplitude relationships for the A% B channel are a function of the direction assigned
to the particular input signal and a direction that is $ IIA for the manual signal as X for the 1st
signal and for the 2nd signal. The distinction between X and so on and so on. A value of 0
degrees is arbitrarily set to 角度 11 for the angle immediately to the right of the person, and the
advance of the angle is counterclockwise. Therefore, for example, the positions of right front, left
front, left rear and cloth material shown in FIG. 1 occupy angular positions of 45 degrees, 135
degrees, 225 degrees and 315 degrees (see also FIG. 4). A). Using c and cD law f, the amplitude 1
of the Ska post supplied to the A channel is equal to the amplitude of one half of the input signal
position angle (-'L-. The amplitude of the signal supplied to this channel or B chunk is equal to
the amplitude of ヰ multiplied by the cosine of the position angle by the input signal, and the
amplitude of the B channel signal is given by Be In these two equations, fs = fs... Fn each
represents an amplitude. It should be noted that although each term in the equation (1'l, (2) has a
positive sign, it is not intended to indicate the polarity or phase of the signal. The polarity is
determined according to the quadrant in which the azimuth is included as described later. It is of
course also necessary to define a suitable decoding method for generating an output signal
having the desired directional characteristics, correlated with three or more input signals. The
rules for angular position in the case of encoding are also the same as in the case of encoding.
The amplitude of each output signal g □ + gg... Etc. is the amplitude of channel A multiplied by
the sine of half of the position angle of output signal, the amplitude of channel B and the position
angle of output signal The equation for coding is equal to the product of the cosine of one half
plus the cosine of the following. Similar to the generation of XnXngn = Astn + Bcos (3) 2, the
polarity or sign of these signals is determined by the quadrant in which the position angle is
included rather than determined by equation (3). An important aspect of the present invention is
the manner in which the phase or polarity relationship for different angular position-selection of
output and input is related to the polarity of the A and B channel signals.
In order to gain some intuitive understanding of the above mentioned encoding and decoding
criteria, it is useful to know the operation of the device on the input signal of the% U signal.
Consider an input signal that is assigned the front left, ie 135 degrees, as the position angle.
According to the above encoding and decoding criteria, and assuming that the angular position of
the output speaker is 45 degrees, 135 degrees, 225 degrees, 315 degrees, the output correlated
to the assumed input No. 8 is in the position forward left, ie at 135 degrees. The one from a
certain speaker is the largest. There is no output from the right rear speaker, and some output
from the right front and left rear speakers. The output from the right front and left front spin
forces is one half (0.7 times the amplitude) of the output from the speaker front speaker. It is
desirable that the phase -1 ′ ′ polarity of the signal EndPage: 4 from the front right and front
left speakers be the same as the polarity from the front left and rear left speakers. The kneader is
indicated in FIG. 1 by the number 1 on the left back and the left front cassette force, and on the
minute (IN) connecting the right front and right rear speakers. Another important consideration
is that standardized FM stereo broadcasts reproduce signals equivalent to monaural receivers [, A
and B channels with equal amplitude. If you think about the relationship of the de-coating, you
can see that the position angle that produces a bad A, 13 伽 @ is 90 degrees and 270 degrees.
Suppose that it is desired to place the monaural receiver at a position corresponding to the front
center portion, that is, 90 degrees. Then, both the A and B channels should have the same
polarity, i.e., the same phase, i.e., -1 phase, with respect to the front central portion, i.e., the 90
DEG position. This also means that the four-way broadcast content received by the stereo's FM
receiver generates in-phase (same polarity) left front sound and right front sound from the left
and right speakers. This is clearly the desired state. In other words, without being compatible
with the reproduction in two directions and in the present invention, the present invention makes
the A channel and the B channel equal and have the same polarity L in the front center direction,
that is, position X 90 軛 vc , A is made to be represented by making left and Bi right.
Reproduction VC of four-way sound The most overlapping direction is obviously the front center.
Since the arrangement of the speakers is predetermined at the four corners, the sound image for
the front center direction input is inevitably a pair of fronts. It becomes a ghost image of the
In this case, in addition to having equal amplitude, it is also important that the front speakers be
in phase. Such a situation is shown in FIG. It is desirable that this front center tone input be
reproduced with the same polarity, that is, the same phase, by the one that can be reproduced by
the rear speakers. This is shown in FIG. The situation for these sounds that exist between the
front speaker and the corresponding rear speaker is not very critical, and the other rear speaker
must not expand the 'h' and reproduce the signal of the opposite polarity. Is hopeful. The state θ
is also shown in FIG. As mentioned above, it is desirable to generate ghost sound images present
between the two loudspeakers in phase in each side loudspeaker, and such a situation is
maintained to the maximum possible extent as shown in FIG. (Except for the ghost sound in the
rear quadrant). A special assignment of polarity or phase relationship to the encoding and
Tecode ink systems must be dosed to achieve the desired regeneration relationship as shown in
FIG. The above (1). The appropriate polarity can be summarized as follows by referring to (2L (3):
All sine terms must be assigned positive values for the left front, right front and left rear
quadrants and negative values for the right rear quadrant. All cosine terms must be assigned stop
values for the left front, right front and right back quadrants and negative values for the left back
quadrant. These polarities or signs are an alternative to the signs of trigonometric functions for a
particular quadrant. It is interesting to note that the difference in the angle between 0 and rN36Qli between the value to be added and the triangle value is the difference in the fourth
quadrant, i.e. right rear. Assuming that the right rear quadrant is allocated angles from 1 90
degrees to 0 degrees instead of 270 degrees to 360 degrees, the algebraic sign of the
trigonometric function matches the desired values obtained from the analysis shown in FIG.
Encoder Apparatus A suitable apparatus for performing the encoding according to the acoustic
system discussed herein is shown in FIG. It should be noted that the illustrated encoder
arrangement can be modified in many ways. As can be understood from the equations (1) to (3),
the operations to be performed to obtain the A channel and B channel signals are as follows: each
audio size input is multiplied by a predetermined constant and the result is heated or subtracted
Because there is, its operation is extremely easy. Many analog computer circuits or components
conventionally used and readily available can be used to perform this operation.
Referring to FIG. 2, multiple direction signals ft, h, f- and f4 are obtained from the multiple signal
source II. This multiplex signal EndPage: 5 source consists of a multitrack tape recording
obtained by various microphones or other audio input devices, representing an acoustic input
signal whose angular position is corrupted 11 for multidirectional input signals during recording.
The thing is representative. The angular position assigned to the particular sound signal recorded
can correspond to the actual direction from the position of the listener during actual recording.
However, the value of the angular position assigned to a particular acoustic signal can also be
assigned quite arbitrarily to give the desired direction of the bluing effect. A schematic circuit
diagram of the encoder is shown by the dashed line 12 in FIG. Although the illustrated encoder
circuit is shown to have four inputs that receive separate audio input signals, more inputs may be
provided, and the number of inputs may It should be noted that in the case of four or more
inputs, the same quadrant, ie the same position angle, is assigned to two or more inputs, so that
this is not determined by It will be appreciated that the encoder not only acts as an encoder, but
also performs the function of a mixing and sound effect control device. One acoustic signal can
also be applied to the two inputs of the encoder for special effects. The function of the encoder
shown in FIG. 2 is to process the signals fx, f * and fm-fa according to the equations (1) and (2) to
obtain the output signals A and B. A pair of operational amplifiers 13.14 are used to derive the
output signals A, B using appropriate input resistors, feedback resistors and other resistors in a
known manner. These amplifiers 13.14 are, for example, 1 (J11 type amplifiers of philbrickNexus, a manufacturer of the United States), which have the advantage of directly driving an
output line with a characteristic impedance of 600 ohms. Have. Of course, many other amplifier
amplifiers can be used, but these amplifiers must of course have a suitably high gain over the
entire audio frequency band targeted by the encoder. It is sufficient to cover frequencies from 15
Hz to 15000 Hz. In FIG. 2, resistors R1-R8 are input resistors whose resistance can be used to
determine the angular position assigned to the four multidirectional input signals. The circuit
shown in FIG. 2 is intentionally selected so as not to be limited to a defined set of position angles
for each input signal.
Rather, to be precise, an equation is obtained that makes the position angle different over a wide
range. (1)。 Since one position angle with respect to the sine and cosine of the equation (2)
has a negative polarity and the other position angle has a positive polarity, the assignment of the
position angle to each input is somewhat limited. Therefore, the signals f and f9 can be placed at
any positions in the first and second quadrants, the signal nine at any position in the third
quadrant, and the signal f4 at any position in the fourth quadrant. it can. Note also that, to save
on circuitry, the negative input of amplifier 13.14 has three inputs (not counting the feedback)
and only one positive input. I want to. An inverting amplifier can be connected to any input
terminal to which one negative input terminal is given all the inputs given to the amplifier and
the input is desired to be given in reverse polarity. In the circuit of FIG. 2, resistors R, R, are
feedback resistors and resistor R □. , Ro are grounding resistors, resistors R7, R, 4 are trimming
resistors, and resistors R □, R1, are output resistors. According to known analog computer
technology, the resistances of the resistors R1 to R19 make it possible to bring the value of the
circuit into a convenient range and to make the input impedance sufficiently high so that the
circuit does not load 9 sources It can be done. These values are usually in the range of 10
kiloohms to several hundred kiloohms. The values of resistors R ,,, R, 4 are chosen according to
the instruction of the operational amplifier manufacturer to make the DC offset zero. The
resistors R1, R become loads of operational amplification and affect the stability. It is a low
separation resistance to avoid giving, its value is in the order of an ohmic. The values of the
resistances R1 to Rs relate to the angular position assigned to the inputs given by the following
equations (4) to (11). EndPage: 6-cos attempt. As a special example of a two-engine circuit, a
basic input position angle diagram as shown in FIG. 4 can be used. As shown in FIG. 4, the input
signal f1 is located at 135 degrees, f * + 145 degrees, f at 225 degrees, and +4 at 315 degrees.
The amplitudes of the A channel signal and the B channel signal are given by the following
equations (12) and (13), and the values of the resistors R □ to R111 are as follows. A = 0.9239 ft
+ 0-3827f * + 0.9239f noble 03827f * (1: 2) B- (1, 38 ';! 7f、
R,=422.1に、R,=26.1.3に、R11=108.2K。 R? =IOR,2に、
R,t=422.1に、R,=l00. (JK。 R,、+=50. OK、R,、=1.00.
OK、R,、=5o、oK。 Rxs, RIM = 30.811 RI 4 hN width m0 Dc OR 1 = y) is chosen to be
such a value as to cancel out. The unit of each resistance value is an ohm. If all the inputs (four or
more) applied to each operational amplifier are added to the negative terminal K, and an inverter
is provided for inputs with different signs, for all input resistances It can be seen that the two
resistors (with respect to R and R6) have a value that is determined by the position angle of the
input. Thus, variable resistors can be used that are calibrated to provide the desired position
angle for each input. Decoder Apparatus FIG. 3 shows an example circuit of a decoder which is
part of the playback section of the overall system. Similar to the circuit diagram of the encoder K,
the circuit shown in FIG. 5 shows one method for realizing the equation (3). Other known analog
computer circuits can also be used within the scope of the present invention. In FIG. 3, an
encoder signal source 21 // iA channel and two electrical signals representative of the B channel
are generated. For example, the encoder signal source may be a conventional stereo record
player reproducing a sea-encoded recording by the apparatus shown in FIG. Alternatively,
encoder signal source 2 to be reproduced via Fivyt stereo broadcast, encoded from live broadcast
or # -i2 channel tag or disc encoded and mourning transmitter Calano, stereo FM to receive
encoded sound It can also be a broadcast receiver. The audio signal channels A and B are
standard stereo transmission channels even in the case of a skew. The A% B output from the
encoder signal source is contained in the part η enclosed by a dashed line in FIG. 3 which is the
full input to the decoder circuit, to the decoder 複数 several operational amplifiers 23.24.25 An
amplifier is provided, each of which produces four directional outputs for four speakers. The A
and B channel inputs are provided to the operational amplifier with a particular amplitude ratio
and polarity relationship, which is determined by the particular de-energization amplifier and the
position angle assigned to the loudspeaker driven thereby. .
The input resistors R1 and Rn determine the amplitude ratio of the A channel signal and the B
channel signal applied to the amplifier, and the resistors R and R 14 transmit to the amplifier 24
resistors R, R, and R, R and Ma respectively determine the amplitude ratio of the signals of the m
and B channels applied to the respective amplifiers with respect to the h amplifier b1. The
resistors R 鴫, R110, R91, R, are feedback resistors. R19, R * a # i grounding resistance, R, Rol,
RII? , R38EndPage: 7 are trimming resistors, and these resistors are selected and used according
to known analog computer technology. The outputs gtsgosga, from u125.26, are supplied to the
corresponding power amplifiers r%, 汐, I, respectively. The gravity amplifiers 茨 -I provide
outputs to the speakers 31-34. The speakers 31 to 34 are, of course, arranged to give a
directional acoustic effect as shown in the example f, b. The amplifier 'Xi = 30 and the speakers
31 to 34 are conventional. Although only one speaker is shown in the figure, each of the
speakers 31 to 34 can be equipped with a speaker system and a speaker box to improve the
audio reproduction effect. Similarly, amplifiers T- (9) may have controls, indicators and other
features normally associated with audio power amplifiers. The inputs provided to the amplifier
from the A and B channels are opposite in polarity from the input provided to the amplifier U and
the input from the t channel and the input from the A channel provided to the amplifier. With a
particular polarity as shown, the output of the amplifier 有 し has an output that can be assigned
any position angle of the left front or right front quadrant, as is the output of the amplifier
abbreviation. The output of the amplifier 5 can be assigned any position angle in the left rear
quadrant, and the output of the amplifier can be assigned any position angle in the right rear
quadrant. As mentioned above, the position angle assigned to the output of the operational
amplifier given to a particular speaker may or may not coincide with the actual rational position
of the speaker in the listening room. If it is desired to match the position angle with respect to
the speaker 31.32.33 and the father as the position angle K shown in FIG. 1 (therefore to the
input position angle shown in FIG. 4), in the output signals gx and ga of each operational
amplifier It can be easily calculated from the relative root square # '1 (3) of the stereo channels A
and B, and the result is given by the following equations (14) to (17).
g + = 0.9239 A 4 0.3 827 B (4) g, 0.338 A + 0.9 239 B (15) g, 0.9293 A-0, 3827 B (16) g,-0,
3827 A-4 0, 9239 B, (17) In order to realize these four equations in the decoder circuit shown in
FIG. 3, the following resistance value (unit ohm) is appropriate. Rq+=I08.2に、
Rqq=261.3K、R911=261.3K。 g・4=108. ’2に、Rえ
=1r18.2に、Rお=201.4K。 R*t=108.2K、Rqs、−201,4K。 R
wholesale, R a. , R8 R work = 100K. R,、、R□=50K。 R 鮪, R jaw, R dew, R−R, are chosen
to be such values as to cancel the DC offset of the amplifier. The requirements for the amplifier
n%, 5, Han are the same as for the amplification used in the circuit of FIG. The resistors R1 to
R14 are chosen to put the value of the circuit into the good range of IIS. Referring to the
complete device shown in FIG. 2.3, where the position angle is as shown in FIG. 1.4, the operation
of the device can be described quite simply. It can be shown that in the output signal g applied to
the speaker 31, the input signal f1 appears at the maximum amplitude. This input signal f also
appears at a low level on the output signals g9 and g supplied to the speaker 32 and オ,
respectively. The speaker 32, its output level is reduced to a level of 2 I (3 dB) in power or 0.707
in amplitude. The signal g4 has no output corresponding to the input signal f1. Generalized from
the all-wire, half-power and zero-power relationships described above for the devices shown in
FIGS. 1-4, the output for a given input signal is the position angle of the output signal. It can be
said that the maximum is at the same time as the signal position angle. If the position angle of
the output signal differs from the position angle of the input signal (by the angle dx), the output
is reduced by its amplitude times the cosine of half the angle difference equal to a constant. An
expression expressed in decibels SdB of attenuation that an input signal at a specified position
angle receives at a specific output signal is given by the following equation (18). x8ds = 201ogl,
cos- (18) EndPage: 8 This is also the degree of separation of the signal levels obtained between
the two output signals with the difference of the spread position angle (dx)-. Position angle
arrangement as shown in FIG. 4 with inputs at 45 degrees, 135 degrees, 225 degrees, and 315
degrees It is convenient to use as a reference to give a brief explanation, but to better understand
the operation of this system To do so, consider other inputs at other angular positions.
An input that is 90 degrees, ie in the front center, is of particular interest. It is clear that the front
center input is given equally to the speakers 31 and 32 (left front and right front) with slight
attenuation (about 0.7 dB). The front center input also appears at a small level on the outputs
g8g (and 71-force 34). The level of this output is attenuated by about 8 dB, so it is very hobbing.
The particular input and output position angles shown in FIG. 1.4 as a specific example for
demonstration are not the only possible examples, and are necessarily the best example for all
purposes. Absent. Of course, the arrangement of the loudspeakers at the four corners of the
sunning room as shown in FIG. 1 is only a practical specific loudspeaker distribution. Mono and
stereo compatibility The input position angle shown in FIG. 4 is useful to consider the possibility
of the heterozygous input position angle, as well as in FIG. 4 shown in FIG. It is also useful to
consider output position angles that differ from the corresponding output position angles. This is
particularly useful when considering compatibility with existing stereo and mono audio
equipment. It can be seen that this existing device has corresponding position angles which can
be evaluated according to the invention, in particular the mono and stereo reproduction of the
audio signal encoded by the device shown in FIG. It is well known that when considering stereo
reproduction first, in this case the stereo channel Al-j left speaker and the stereo channel B can
be seen as the right speaker 410. (3) With reference to equation (3), reproduction of channel A
alone without contribution from channel B can easily correspond to 180 ° position angle (onehalf cosine of 180 degrees j-tO ') IC Recognize. Similarly, agitation of the B channel alone without
contribution from the A channel corresponds to a position angle of 0 degrees (a half sine of 0
degrees equals 0). From the foregoing description of the operation of the present system, the
conventional stereo reproduction system operates to reproduce the signal reproduced by the left
front and left rear speakers of the four-way system of the present invention by the left nonpeaker It is clear. Similarly, the right speaker of the conventional Neteleo system reproduces the
signal reproduced by the right front and right rear speakers of the four-way system. Using the
same approach as above for reproducing signals in a 4-way system with monaural equipment (eg
mono FM broadcast receiving broadcasts from a stereo FM station), the in-phase of the stereo
channel and B channel reproduced in such a system And the equal combination corresponds to
the 90 degree position angle, ie to the front center position (equal to the half of 90 degree sine
Fi, the half cosine of 90 degree Fi).
The effect of the conventional stereo or monophonic four-direction playback on the listener is
shown schematically in FIG. 5.6. Referring to FIG. 5, a set of speakers 51.52 is shown with a dose
indicating typical sound for a four directional sign received by the stereo device. It should be
noted that the sound image for the left front four-way audio signal is at the left front of the actual
two-speaker playback, and similarly the right front sound image is at the right front, and the left
and right signals are balanced. It should be noted that the sounds for the front left and front right
signals are slightly offset to the inside of the position of the speakers. However, it does not cause
any adverse effects, and it allows you to reserve the extreme speaker positions available on the 2
SVN stems for the maximum left position at 0 and 180 degrees and for the maximum left
position. is necessary. The sound image of the rear signal from the left speaker 51 is shown by a
small X size. This is an illustration of the actual situation, and the backward, or reverse, EndPage:
9 channel signal is based on the reverse phase, or reverse polarity open collar, of the backward
position angle signal, with shadowing due to a slight outward shift and spread effect. I will
receive a bribe. This effect causes these position angles to be used as desired to create a
"surround". The signal from the rear position angle is known to be generated when the power is
reduced by about 34'B. Thus, two-way reproduction (stereo reproduction) of the four-way signal
emphasizes the front somewhat without losing the rear signal completely. As such, regeneration
on a stellate instrument is nearly as close to the choice as it is to obtain good compatibility.
Referring to FIG. 6, a single speaker 53 represents a mono system speaker, such as a mono-sil
2M broadcast receiver, which may be stereo FM broadcast Kri'Qilil. In this case, the sound gI! Is
clearly in line with the speaker, and the relative power levels for the original four-way signal are
balanced against the left front and right front signals in a pair of OtdB and small for the left rear
and right rear signals. (-7, 6 dB) is still present. Only the signal encoded exactly at the back
center (270 degrees) completely disappears and sweetens in monaural reproduction. For
monaural reproduction, it is desirable to make the back signal, if any, very small. As it is more
common in noisy environments than in an ideal environment to listen in monaural, it emphasizes
the main direction (1i1) information, as is the fact that results from the mono regeneration of
four-way signals. It is important to.
With respect to both mono and stereo reproduction of the 4-way signal, by selecting the position
angle of the input provided to the encoder K, considerable control can be added to the manner in
which the signal is reproduced in stereo or mono. This should be noted. With the right
knowledge of how the signal is affected in stereo or monaural playback, four-way playback can,
of course, perform very good quality seven-aural and stereo playback. This is of course also the
object of the present invention. Encoding of Position Angle Inputs FIG. 7 shows an azimuth angle
input that is particularly suitable for encoding certain musical sounds in accordance with the
multi-directional system of the present invention. The forward encoder input is required to carry
the most critical key performance information, the backward encoder. In the case of a music halllike situation where the input Fir7 siege rambineee J, ie giving a reciprocity, one would like to
emphasize the separation between the forward encoder inputs even though paying a small
amount of separation of the lateral encoder inputs . For example, as shown in FIG. 7, the
difference in position angle between a pair of inputs in front (dx) f and the difference in position
angle between a pair of inputs in rear and a small value. Can be done by As shown in FIG. 7, X is
equal to 150 degrees, X is equal to 30 degrees, X is equal to 240 degrees, and X4 is equal to 300
degrees. The resulting encoding equations for channel A and channel B are shown below. A =
0.96591 + 0.2588 A '+ 0-8660. fqo, 5 ooof 4 (19) B = 0.2 s 88. The resistance value of each
resistor of the encoder shown in FIG. 2 which gives the input position angle shown in FIG. 7 is
shown below (unit: ohm) ). 爬 = l (G ', 5% island = 386.4 K, bird = 115.5 KR4 = 259.1 K, R, =
386.4 K, bird = 103.5 KRy = 115.5% & = 259.1 % Re-Rti = 100.0 KRxn% R19 = 50. OK, Rts-Rts =
30R18, R14 is left to cancel the DC offset of the amplifier. The use of the position angle as shown
in FIG. 7 as the input position angle may or may not include using the same value of the decoder
output position angle. Clearly, the decoder output position angle can be varied as well without
changing the input position angle. The following resistance values can be used in the device
shown in FIG. 3 (units in ohms) to obtain an output position angle as shown in FIG.
R, l □ = 103.5% RH = 38F1.4K, RU = 386.4KR * 4 = 103.5K-Ru = 115.5% R process =
136.6KR117 = 115, 5% Rss = 136 , 6K. もosR4n5R41%Rg=lOO,OK。 EndPage:
10 ′ ′ 4 ′, R 44 = 50, OK ′ R... R... R 2 · R · · · is arranged to clear the DC offset of the
amplifier. The idea of separating the position angle for the input or output in the system to an
angle greater than 90 It for the i-way input signal or the company's forward output signal is of
course not limited to the specific position angle shown in FIG. A limiting case for such separation
is shown in FIG. In this case, the forward position angle is extended to 180 degrees. The rear
position angle is set to a negligible size. Therefore, the position angles shown in FIG. 8 are 180
degrees for signal 1, 0 degrees for signal 2, 269 degrees for signal 3, and 271 degrees for signal
4. Signal 3 is still shown in the third quadrant and has nine polarity relationships with respect to
that quadrant, while signal 4 is shown in the fourth quadrant with respect to that quadrant It is
noted that it has polarity compatibility. If an extreme case such as the eighth case is used where
position angle selection for the decoder output is used when the speakers are located at the four
corners of the room, the left front speaker will only provide the given A-channel signal. The
speaker has only B-channel applied: 'JA signal, left rear speaker has small amplitude signal of A
channel minus B channel, right rear speaker has small amplitude of B channel minus A channel
Have a signal. Thus, the two rear speakers have the same content except that they are out of
phase with each other. The arrangement shown in FIG. 8 is unlikely to be used in practice as it is,
but this figure shows that any desired separation of the left front and right front channel
speakers from K by specifying an appropriate decoder output position angle The way it can be
scaled up to Note that for large skewed position angle assignments as shown in FIG. 8, some
adjustments in signal level are indicated. For example, since the two rear speakers in FIG. 8
reproduce the rear center sound, the volume must be reduced accordingly (or one less speaker).
Despite recent orientations where it is preferred to provide speakers at the four corners of a
room or the like so that the relationship between the speaker and the listener is left front, right
front, left rear, right rear, left, right, front, rear It should also be noted that it is entirely possible
to construct a four-way system, with the loudspeakers located at or in the central part of the wall
of the room.
In such an arrangement, the position angles for both the input and output can be matched to the
speaker position, so the position angles are 0 degrees, 90 degrees, tSO degrees, 270 degrees.
Equations of encoding for this arrangement are given by the following equations (21) and (22),
and equations of decoding are given by the following equations (23) to (26). k = ft + 0.707 fs' +
0.707 fa (21) B = f +, + 0.707 f *-0, 707, f 4 (22) g x = A (23), = B (24) g ++ = 0.707 A + 0.707 B
(25) g4 = 0.707A-0, 707B (26) It is clear that C can be used in an infinite number of circuits
other than those shown in Figure 2.3 to obtain the function of the encoder and decoder. For
example, the appropriate configuration of the operational amplifier or transformer, or a
combination thereof, may be used in either the encoder or the decoder, or in the two devices to
obtain the required functionality. A transformer deco 7 can also be provided before or after the
power amplifier. In the latter case, a total of four channels and two power amplifiers are required.
This means that existing stereo devices can be used in the four-way system of the present
invention simply by adding a decoder and two speakers to the receiver or playback unit. Gain
Control Device The separation between adjacent loudspeakers provided by the encoder and
decoder shown in FIG. 2.3 by itself only gives the desired result, ie placing an arbitrary fltK
virtual sound source on the circle surrounding the listener. Be However, in order to further
emphasize the effects associated with extremely concentrated sound sources, it is desirable to
provide an EndPage: 11 separation that is not sufficiently limited between adjacent speakers
producing such extremely concentrated sounds. Sometimes. This can be done in many ways.
Some of them are of special utility according to the present invention, and can by themselves be
exploited with the improvement of the synthetic residual synutames shown in FIGS. Four such
improvements are described below with reference to FIGS. 9-12. FIG. 9 shows a simplified block
diagram of the gain control circuit, wherein the gain of any one pair of "diagonal" channels (eg,
front left and back right) is varied with respect to other diagonal channels . From now on, any
given input shall be taken to mean the channel combining left front and right rear in FIG. 1 or the
channel combining right front and left rear in accordance with the term diagonal channel. Since
the gain of the speaker channel corresponding to the input channel is maximized and appears on
the adjacent three speaker channels, the gain of the two speakers of both the desired speakers is
reduced by one. , Can emphasize the direction effect.
In the arrangement of FIG. 1, the two speakers must always be diagonal channels. If the LF
doubled signal absolute value is equal to the RR doubled signal absolute value (ie wave 1 shape is
identical except that the polarity may be different), then the sound source is either in the right
front or left rear speaker It can also be shown that it must be Thus, when such conditions exist, it
is desirable that the gains for the right front and left rear signals be maximum for the gains for
the left front and right rear signals. Similarly, when the RR doubled signal is an LF doubled signal
is zero, ie, the RR doubled signal is not related to an LF doubled signal waveform, the sound
source must be placed at the left front speaker or the right rear speaker. In that case, the gains
for the right front and left rear signals should be minimal with respect to the gains for the left
front and right rear signals. The above explanation shows that the separation between the
outputs of FIG. 1 (and thus the directional characteristics of the audio output) alternates the
gains of the individual channels to simultaneously change the gain of each pair in the two
diagonal outputs It shows that it can be emphasized. It is also desirable that the gain of the
father, one pair of diagonal channels be accompanied by a reduction of the gain of the other
diagonal channel. Otherwise, thickening the gain (for example) to emphasize the directional
characteristics of the signal will change the volume of the overall audio output as a function of
the direction. However, while increasing the power gain of one diagonal channel (for example 1
to 2), simultaneously reducing the power gain of the other diagonal channel (for example 1 to O),
the total power given to the loudspeaker Can be kept constant, and the separation between
adjacent speakers can be increased without changing the overall volume of the system. These
functions can be performed by the device shown in FIG. In FIG. 9, the output of the decoder is
shown on the left, and the four stake signals LF% RR% RF, LR are coupled to the respective
variable gain amplifiers 110LF, 110RR% ll0RF% 110LR. These amplifiers generate outputs that
drive four speakers. The LP and RF channels are high-pass filters l12A and 1128! The absolute
value circuits 114LF and 114RRK are coupled to each other via the circuit. The absolute value
circuit 114 can be equipped with a full wave rectifier. The signal representing the LPi number
and the RR doubled signal absolute value is each logarithmic amplifier! It is given to 16A and
116B. These logarithmic amplifiers generate an output voltage approximately equal to the
logarithm of the input voltage applied over the useful signal voltage range in known
The outputs of these amplifiers 116A and 116B are applied to the positive input side and the
negative input side of the operational amplifier 118 through the filter 117A1117B. This
amplifier 118 produces a total of the difference between the two signals-equal to log j LF 1 -log i
RR t or lo 2 jan '. This signal is then applied to the gain control generator 123 via another
absolute value circuit 120 and an averaging circuit # + 122 (an integrating circuit). This
generator 123 controls the gain of the two sets of variable gain amplifiers 110LF and 110RR%
ll0RF and tioLR as a function of the output of amplifier 118. As indicated above, when the LF
doubled signal RF doubled signal absolute EndPage: 12 values are equal, the gains of the
amplifiers 110LF and 110LR are maximum and the gains of the amplifiers 110LF and 110RR are
minimum. When such conditions exist, the output from the operational amplifier 118 is equal to
zero, the power gain of the amplifiers 110RF and 110LR is maximum (ie 2) and the power gain
of the amplifiers 110LF, 110RH is minimum "(ie O ). The output of amplifier 118 is at a
maximum (theoretically infinite) in other extreme situations where the RR doubled signal is such
that either of the LF scratch signals is sensible to zero, ie the RR and LF waveforms are not
related But in practice it is limited to a finite value, eg 9 volts). This maximum voltage causes the
gain control generator 123 to generate an output voltage which maximizes the gains of the
amplifiers 110LF and 110RH and minimizes the gains of the amplifiers 110LR and 110RF. For
the middle condition of the above-mentioned extreme conditions, the gain of each amplifier l16 is
appropriately controlled by the generator 123. Mathematically, given the example shown in FIG.
4, the curve of gain required as a function of layA−log B (the output of amplifier 118)
approximates a square root curve to produce a constant total acoustic power output, The gain of
each diagonal 亭 channel at that time is equal to about 2.4 when the amplitude ratio of LF signal
to RR signal (or RR to l) is equal when the waveforms are the same. The following equations (27)
and (28) can be used to determine the gain control circuit from the generator 123. Here, the KT
Fi averaging circuit 1 is a RF-LR control voltage. The high-pass filter 1i2A, 112B's typical
function is to block low frequencies that may appear at the input of the variable gain amplifier
1100 and modulate the input of the amplifier. It has also been found that it is desirable to
discriminate across the entire frequency band (an octave more than 6 dll).
The filters 112A, 112B also perform this function, the filter 117A1 117B being 100 to t'ooo
microseconds so that the output or part is responsive to the envelope portion of the input and
the other part is responsive to the instantaneous value of the input. It can have a time constant.
Each type of response may be compromised in different circumstances, so that the desired
cooperation is provided by the filters 117A, 117B. Averaging circuit 122 #: should be fast
enough so that the listener does not notice the delay, but not so fast that the actual waveform
can be sent to the spreader +10, and should respond to changes in the output of amplifier 118 .
As an example, it has been found that a charge rate of 20 milJ seconds should be satisfactory for
practical purposes. In order to stabilize the operation of the decoder's gain control circuit, the LF
scratch signal RF multiplication signal is slightly mixed at the output of the encoder (or the left
and right inputs of the encoder) to minimize the movement of the LF / RR signal ratio It is
desirable, conversely, to prevent the logarithm of this ratio from becoming zero), it is also
possible to introduce a fixed amount of phase between each of the signals applied to the A and B
channels of the encoder. This has the effect of limiting the gain control operation to a relatively
narrow range so that the gain control operation is not heard by the listener. Such mixing can be
done proportionally to achieve the desired effect without significantly altering the audio signal. If
extreme channel separation is required KFi this technique is not used. As pointed out above,
there are many ways to control the gain of each channel to emphasize the desired directionality
in the speaker. The embodiment described with reference to FIG. 9 is a method by which the
desired gain can be obtained relatively inexpensively. FIG. 10 shows another gain control device,
a gain control element in which the gain for each speaker is connected in series to the input side
of each speaker, and a gain control voltage generator whose output side is connected to the gain
control element To determine the gain by a combination K of. An audio signal appearing at the
output of each decoder is given to the speaker through EndPage: 13 gain control elements. Next,
the signal in the gain control element is strengthened or attenuated according to the output of
the control voltage generator. When the output of the control voltage generator is maximum, the
output 48 of the gain control element is large, and when it is minimum it is minimum. The gain
control elements 203, 204 are thus controlled by the output voltage v1 generated by the control
voltage generator 210.
The gain control elements 208 and 216 are controlled by the output voltage Vg generated by the
control voltage generator 212. If desired, separate control voltage generators can be connected
to each gain control element. The representation for each control voltage vI, v1 is based on the
design of the various control voltage generators that generate these representations, as well as
the particular phases, waveforms, and trains of levels present in the original signals A and B that
operate the loudspeakers. It is directed by the consideration of For example, the desired blue
color reproduction needs to be controlled so that the gain related to the speaker 31.32 becomes
larger as the intensity level ratio of the signal glsWa deviates from 1 and the signal 1 waveforms
of the signals are no longer similar. The control voltage V applied to the elements 203 and 204
can be represented by one of various expressions. vl can be proportional to the average absolute
value of the logarithm of the quotients of g and g4. Alternatively, it can be proportional to the
average absolute value of the logarithm of the quotient sum and the sum of absolute values of 1,
gl, and g4. K more. ■ + proportional to the average of the sum of the absolute values of Figsbfb
and the quotient of the difference. The following formulas (29) to (31) show some expressions of
V. Similar expressions can be used in addition to, or in combination with, the above expressions.
In this representation, the envelopes of g] and g4 are used instead of the instantaneous values.
Speaker! , The gain must change in a complementary manner to the gain for the speaker 31, the
words so that the voltage v1 from the control voltage generator 212 is proportional to the
constant minus the voltage V, . The control voltage v1 increases as the loudness level associated
with the gl or g4 signal becomes stronger than in other books, or the waveform becomes
increasingly dissimilar. The gain for the lower speaker 32.33 approaches the intensity level ratio
red 1 of each signal g1 and g, and increases as the waves become similar. The structure of the
control voltage generator 210.212.218 is based on the known analog computer giving these
control voltages VLR-, VF, VXf For example, to detect the loudness level difference, the intensity
of the signals A, H We need a circuit to get the log ratio of the levels. Gain Control Signal Device
FIG. 11.12 shows a further example of a gain control device, so in this device, in order to control
the gain of the two sets of diagonal channels from the decoder, it is possible to reduce the
audible sound below. A control tone is applied to the A% B channel. In describing the operation of
the apparatus of FIG. 11.12, it serves the same function as the microphone, speaker, encoder,
tequator front, so they will not be described.
To facilitate understanding of this embodiment, it is more convenient to base the power ratio
than to base the voltage ratio. The power that can be extracted from a given signal is
proportional to the square of the voltage level of that signal. Figure 11 F! A signal recording
device is shown. The outputs of the right front and left rear microphones 2RF and 2LR are
detected and applied to the power adding circuit I3 ") to add the power output from the similar
power adding circuit 131 [microphones 2LF and 2RR. These two power circuits are devices that
generate an output voltage that is regulated to the full power available from the applied input
voltage. The output voltages of these circuits are applied at summing circuit 132. The output of
circuit 132 is thus proportional to the total power of the four input channels. Power addition
circuit 130 and addition circuit! The 32 outputs are applied to the ratio circuit 134. The ratio
circuit 134 or each A, B modulator 136. 138 modulates the tone EndPage: 14 of the applied
Hertz (or any other frequency below the audible range) from the oscillator 140 ≧. The ratio
circuit 134 may use any known circuit capable of generating a direct output voltage having, for
example, an amplitude proportional to the ratio of the applied input voltages. The modulation
6136.138 amplitude modulates the λ 1 Hz tone from the oscillator 140 with respect to a
predetermined level with the magnitude of the control voltage from the ratio circuit 134. When
the A modulator 136 provides a tone of increasing amplitude, the B modulator 1381 must
provide a tone of decreasing amplitude in proportion to it. These modulated tones are then
applied to the A and B outputs of encoder 18 for transmission over a two channel transmission
path A ', B1. The receiving end of the device is shown in FIG. High pass filters 142 and 144 are
used to separate the audio control tones from the A, B audio signals on the AI, B1 channels. The
A1B signal from filter 142.144 is applied to the decoder to obtain the four output channel
described above. The control tone from filter 142.144 is applied to the gain control generator] 46. The generator 146 controls the gains of the variable gain amplifiers 148RR, 148RF, 148LF,
148LR to appropriately reduce the gain of one pair of diagonal-line channels while obtaining the
other pair of diagonal channels. Increase From the previous discussion of FIG. 11, it can be seen
that the amplitude of each control tone is equal to the desired power in the corresponding
diagonal input channel that is divided by the total power of the system.
Each of these signals varies in value from zero to one, but their sum must always be equal to one.
Thus, since the desired power ratio (i.e., the power ratio at the microphone) is directly
represented by the control tone signal, it is known to gain control generator 146 to control the
gains of amplifiers 148RR and 148LF, 148LR and 148RF. It is a simple matter to recreate the
same ratio at the output of the amplifier 148 using the ratio of. This will (inevitably) emphasize
these desired signals while at the same time these signals t-gathering in the corresponding non-
channels. The total power does not change because the change is directional. The generator 146
also acts as a normalizer to maintain the total power of the four channels so that the sum of the
power in each channel is kept constant. This prevents the amplitude of the control tone from
being erroneously changed and the volume of the output from each speaker being affected,-more
than for various embodiments of multi-directional sound systems using a decoder device
according to the invention We can see from the description that a very effective system can be
obtained that can reproduce almost any important directional information without compromising
the reliability 1 frequency response and the quality of the other audio information. . Also,
transmission and recording are possible using only two conventional stereo channels. The
particular system disclosed herein is not intended to be suitable for economical fabrication, but is
for ease of explanation and the manner in which the system is assembled from the components
and circuits of a known existing analog computer. It should be understood that it is for showing.
In fact, more economical transistor circuits can be used instead of expensive operational
amplifiers, and resistances can also be used with larger tolerances than the resistance values
illustrated in the description, Other practical savings can be made. The gain control features
described herein are useful for the system of the present invention but are not necessary in all
cases. In addition, other variations of gain control devices to emphasize separation of speakers or
concentration of sound directions may be used in embodiments other than those described
herein. More sophisticated gain control devices may use analysis circuits similar to those
described herein, but each analysis circuit may be dual or dual so that it analyzes different
frequency bands within the entire audio frequency band of the system. It needs to be used in
triples. Gain control (more than diagonal pair power ratios) to adjust for forward power and
backward power ratios is also potentially useful.
Such an adjustment can typically increase the inequalities between the forward and backward
powers and cause the power ratio to be stored to be the power ratio of the input signal. :
Extension to 3D Intermediate In the above description, one plane (360 degrees), EndPage: 15
encoding and decoding have been described. This was done by establishing a function of
amplitude and phase for the input, transmission, transmission and output channels. Previously,
the phase relationship was limited to two values of 01 and 180 degrees (these two values are
sometimes expressed as positive and 9 polarities). According to the present invention, the phase
relationship need not be limited to these two values, it is very practical to use phase relationships
other than 0 degrees and 180 degrees ". This is done by means of a wide band 竣 phase shifter.
By using the phase shift between 0 degrees and 180 degrees, the azimuth encoded according to
the invention can be extended to a three dimensional space. Thus, in addition to left, right, front
and back, up and down directions and any combination thereof can be encoded. Since the
relationships described above for channel separation as a function of differences between
azimuthal angles also apply to three-dimensional space encoding, greater separation can
generally be achieved by utilizing three-dimensionality. This can be understood by considering
that the maximum mutual separation angle of four points in one plane is an opening degree,
while it is 109.5 degrees in a three-dimensional (spherical) plane. The extension of the device of
the invention to three dimensions will be understood by reference to FIGS. 13-16. 7Any spherical
position has a unit space vector with coordinates (X% y, z) (this The coordinate system is a righthanded system) 0 where X% y% 2tj Vx '+ y "+ z' = constant relation is satisfied. Assuming that α
= an angle for amplitude determination and β = an angle for phase determination in encoding
and teaching, respectively, in the above coordinate system, β == tan-i 王 = “− ′ q7 It is. Thus,
<32. 33 below gives a relationship encoding any private symbol f n that has an assigned
spherical angular position defined by the coordinates (x n syn% z n) or the angles α and β.
Here, there are KA% B & j two information channels (in the case of S. Teleo application, it is Lt%
Rt conventionally). The relationship for taking 1 out of the decoded output signal gn is given by
equation (ii). β can have a value in the range of 0190 degrees.
The sine and cosine are either positive or negative as described above in connection with
equations (1), (2)% (3). Therefore, it is a point where the sign (polarity) of α = 270 degrees FiA%
B changes, or one is a discontinuous point. To visualize this system, we assume an in-phase plane
passing through the X-axis (ie, σ = 0 axis or AB axis). The origin + is in the zero phase position
(viewed as horizontal) that includes the in-phase plane z-axis. The first step in the encoding
visualization is to rotate the in-phase plane to include the direction vector or space vector
assigned to the signal fn in question. This is done by rotating the in-phase plane from its original
zero phase (i.e. horizontal) position within a nodal range of corporation degrees. The rotation of
the in-phase plane from the zero phase position is the phase determination angle β of the above
equations (32), (33) and (34). The second step is to determine the angle α (amplitude
determination). This angle is an angle on the in-phase plane of the space vector, and turns
counterclockwise from the positive direction (α = 0) of the X axis. In the in-phase plane, the
amplitude coefficients (sin α and ω S α) and the sign are determined exactly as in the previous
embodiment. The same angle as f14 degrees X in the previous embodiment will be called α in
this embodiment to avoid confusion with Cartesian coordinates. Three-Dimensional (Spherical)
Angled Encoding EndPage: 16 Any signal fn (angular position assigned to it) ヲ This signal is
through an attenuator (or other device that adjusts gain) to en-code Is added to information
channel A. The normalized gain of the #L attenuator is approximately proportional to the value of
the sine of half an angle α n-this signal is applied to the information channel B via an attenuator.
The normalized gain of the attenuator is roughly proportional to the value of the cosine of half
the angle α. The components of the signal fn applied to the two information channels A% B via
the two attenuators are out of phase with one another by an amount equal to the value of β. In
equations (32) and (33), + β / 2 is added to the A channel, and ~ p / 2 is added to the B channel.
For correct encoding, the phase shift amount A to the phase shift amount Bi minus is equal to β.
Similarly, channel A. The encoding is correct when the gain ratio of the attenuators used to add
the signal to B is numerically approximately equal to the one-half tangent value of the angle α.
Gtff encoding na signals in two information channels: shown in FIG. Devices for transposing
frequencies over a significant bandwidth by a fixed amount (i.e. phase difference) are known (U.S.
Design (El @ ctronic Design J, Vol. 18, September 11, 1970, pp. 62-66, jfl'l), decoding 'encoded
(angular position) information of 3 dimensional (spherical) angular position For decoding, several
decoded output channels (typically four Fi) are prepared by assigning selected values for α and
β to each desired output signal gn, each decoding The encoded signals having the phase
difference and gain ratio characterizing the specified values of α and β with respect to the
output to be recombined are combined in the two information channels A and B. Each decoded
output #: Two information channels; obtained by combining the encoded composite signal in the
channel, the component obtained from the channel person has the attenuator normalized gain at
the specific output The attenuator is also proportional to the sine of 1/2 of the angle α specified
against l'i obtained via the adjustable gain ft), while the normalized gain of the W-minute Fiy
attenuator obtained from the B-channel is not equal to 1 for a particular output. It is obtained via
an attenuator as exemplified by the cosine of a half of the spur angle α. For each particular
decoded output, a relative phase difference, which is in excess of the value of β for that
particular output, is taken out via an attenuator, which is combined to make a particular decoded
output gnt Is added to the component of the encoded composite signal -j4A, H. Each input signal
fr + is an output channel itc! # Appears again with great strength. The specified values of α and
β of this output channel most closely match the values of α and β of a particular input signal.
Also, each input signal fn reappears as the spherical angular position of a particular input signal
is increasingly reduced in intensity to different output channels. Alternatively, each input signal
fn does not appear at all in the output channel where the spherical angular position differs by
180 degrees. A reduction in the level for the input signal encoded at one angular position and
decoded at another spherical angular position is a separation aid for the encoding and decoding
device and has the form as in the Qe equation above. Where dx is the spherical angle between
the encoding vector and the decoding vector. This spherical angle can be expressed by .alpha.
And .beta. By Cartesian coordinates by converting to spherical coordinates by spherical
Equation (34) above shows the decoding process. As in the case of encoding, what is essential for
correct decoding--the gain ratio (-.alpha./2) and the phase difference. It is possible to be
encorched by setting β = 0 (using α instead of X). An apparatus for decoding n signals is shown
in FIG. If there is a need to greatly separate between a set of outputs and there is no need to
increase the separation between other outputs EndPage: 17 encoding or encoding, or 9 both
Coordinates (α, β or X% yst) can be used because of the uneven spacing between the space
vectors of the signal. The separation between one set of constellations can be made relatively
larger (more maximized) by making the angular spacing of the other sets of signals relatively
narrow (and smaller). -As an example, the channel sound system may be separated behind the
rear (one set of rears) or partly by the separation between the rears and partly by the separations
in the front-back direction The front separation can be broadened, or the front separation
between the left and the right and the front-back separation is # #! ! It is possible to make all the
scales wide and wide. When the distance between one pair of signals is up to 180 degrees, the
separation index becomes infinite for the one pair of signals (equation 18),? In the Yannel + 1 FL
uncoding / decoding system, two sets of signals out of six sets of outputs (1, 2: 1, □ 3 × 1, 4:
2.3 = 2.4 = 3.4) 'Infinity isolated' relationship can have gold. Three-Dimensional Space
Representation Referring to FIG. 13, a cube 511 is shown as a reference frame to a Cartesian
coordinate system, which is considered a room in which audio signals played to one or more
listeners are reproduced And wisdom is good. Alternatively, the cube can be viewed as a room or
hall where the performance is recorded. From such a point of view, the left front force, the right
front, the left back, and the horizontal positions on the right are indicated by symbols LF, RF% LR,
and RR, respectively. The zero phase surface is represented by reference numeral 513 and is
indicated by β = O. Output channels (or input channels) can be assigned to any desired
orientation of the coordinate system with origin ヲ 512. As a specific example, an input f1 or an
output g of the following equations (35) to (40) is indicated by an arrow 517. 9A = 0.9531, 40 °
+ 0.303640 ° + 0.707f 會 427-3 °-(1, 707f4427- (35) 3 ° + O, 7 o 7t 4427- (36) g + = 0.953
AJO '-+ 0.303B / IO '(37) g * = 0.303 A'n 0' '' + 0.953 B /!
Similarly, the input f ++ or the output g 9 is represented by an arrow 519 at 0 ° (38). The unit
vectors 517 and 5 "9 represent the phase of 1" 6 "3 · second phase plane 521tri + 54-1 at the
reference circle 515. A reference circle 523 is drawn on this surface. The 3-degree third phase
surface 525 represents a phase of -51-. The reference circle 527 is called rc on this phase plane.
The f or g angle of the equations (35) to (4o) is represented by an arrow 529, and the f4 or g is
represented by an arrow 531. The alpha nominal for arrows 531 and 529 is 270 degrees, but f, l
is placed at any position in the third quadrant, f. Note that it may be placed at any position in the
fourth quadrant. It should be noted from FIG. 13 that the points of arrows 517.519. 529, 531
represent the vertices of a regular tetrahedron (not shown). Thus, the arbitrarily given ones of
the arrows are equally spaced from the other three arrows, and the separations between the
channels shown in FIG. 13 are equal. Furthermore, since none of the channels are just opposite
the other channels, the spurious powers resulting from mixing in the entire system, if only one
channel is used, are three channels not used. Divided equally between Alternatively, the
amplitude of the signal in a channel other than the one used is equal to the square root of one
third of the amplitude in the channel used. The installation of the microphone phone or the
speaker is not usually arranged as shown in FIG. 13. However, as described above, in order to
utilize the advantages of this system, the microphone EndPage: in agreement with the illustration
in the installation of 18 phones etc. Is not necessary. It should be noted that the conventional
stereo reproduction Fi corresponds to the A channel provided at α = 180 °, ie, the left @IK, and
the B channel provided at the right side, ie, α = 0 °. Similarly, conventional monaural
reproduction agrees with the direction of α = 90 ° and β = 0 ° (indicated by F in FIG. 13). FIG.
14.15 shows another embodiment of the present system where only +45 degrees of phase is
used. Phase plane · Includes reference circle 535 in the direction of 533d + 45 degrees. Zero
phase surface 513 and zero phase reference circle 515 are shown to indicate a 53 ° C. tilt for
reference surface. Arrow 537 Fi The snow corresponding to fl or gl in the following formulas
141) to (46) is indicated, and the arrow 539 affi or bleak is indicated. In FIG. 15, 545 is a phase
plane, and 547 is a reference circle for one 45 degree phase.
Arrow 551 indicates (41) to (45) 弐 f, g9, and indicates arrow 549 f4 or g4. Arrow 537%
539.549.551Fi Also shown in FIG. In this figure, the 45 ° phase plane is omitted for the sake of
simplicity. The points of the arrows are connected by a line. These lines thereby form the sides of
the tetrahedron 553. The arrows in FIG. 16 represent the vertices of a regular tetrahedron
rotated 45 degrees about the Z = Q axis relative to the regular tetrahedron determined by the
arrows shown in FIG. Thus, what has been said about the system shown in FIG. 13 applies
generally to the system shown in FIG. While the tetrahedral shape offers several advantages to
the system of the present invention, it is not essential that the tetrahedron be a tetrahedron. For
example, referring to FIG. 14, it is possible to change the angle with respect to .alpha. Indicated
by arrows 541 and 543 respectively representing fl or g and f or g in the following equations
(47) to (52). it can. By changing the angle with respect to α relative to the above described
system, the separation between the left and right channels is increased and the division #I
between the front and back channels is decreased. It can be seen that the arrows in the -45
degree phase plane are similarly swung together (not shown in FIG. 15 for simplicity). There is
no limit to the number of inputs f and outputs g, but if the number is four, the output speakers
can be placed at the four corners of the room, and it is convenient for the encoding channel, so is
there. FIG. 17 shows a variant f # suitable for use as an encoder. FIG. 17 shows a variant of the
three-dimensional system described above according to gJ. In FIG. 17-human power signals f1
and b and the desired number of other signals are added to the encoder I? ネる。 An input signal
is applied to each of the two broadband zeta phase shifters 561, 563. The phase shifter Fio U
may be a phase shifter or a variable phase shifter. For example, the (41)-(45) busy-to-threedimensional system uses attenuators 5fi 5.567'i in a manner similar to that described above for
two-dimensional systems. It will be appreciated that this attenuator may also include an amplifier
if desired, allowing the desired polarity of the busy signal to be selected. Similar devices are used
for the input signal f and any other desired number of input signals. The outputs of attenuator
565 are combined to generate the input and output of the encoder; the outputs of attenuator 567
are combined to generate the B output of the encoder.
Decoder Three-Dimensional EndPage: 19 FIG. 18 is a schematic diagram of a tether-dader used in
a three-dimensional system. The channel A% B is respectively applied to the phase shifters
569.571 in the circuit of the output signal g1. These phase shifters are similar to fixed or
variable phase shifters corresponding to a selected one of the aforementioned systems.
Attenuators 573.575 'tl-for the circuit FiA channel and the B channel of the output signal g,
respectively. The function of these attenuators is similar to that of the attenuators of the Vi 2D
system. The output of the subtractor 573.575 is combined to produce the output signal g0 which
is to be decoded. These attenuators can be included, and means must be included to select the
desired polarity of the output signal. The circuit for 1 to the output signal and the path for the
other outputs up to gn are similar to the circuit described for the output g1.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a typical loudspeaker
arrangement for listeners for multiple sound systems and a desired phase or polarity
relationship, and FIG. 2 is a schematic circuit diagram showing an encoder device for a multiple
sound box system. Fig. 3 is a schematic circuit diagram of the decoder according to the present
invention, Fig. 4 is a diagram useful for explaining the directional effect obtained by the multiple
sound system, and Fig. 5 is a four-direction diagram of the conventional stereo reproduction
equipment. Diagram useful for explaining the effect of the subject that reproduces the sound
signal, Fig. 6 is a diagram showing the effect of reproducing a 4-way acoustic signal with a
monaural reproduction device, and Fig. 7 is another type of multi-directional sound box Diagram
showing the directional effect obtained by the system, Fig. 8 # -i Diagram showing the directional
effect of yet another multi-directional sound system, Fig. 9, better sound from each of the four
output speakers Of the present invention to obtain Figure 11 is a schematic diagram of a
controller for a 4-way system suitable for the device, Figure 10 is a schematic circuit diagram
showing another gain controller for use in a 4-way sound system, and Figure 11 is a signal to be
recorded or transmitted 12 is a schematic circuit diagram of a gain control signal generator for
obtaining a low frequency gain control signal in the medium and appropriately controlling the
gain of the device shown in FIG. 12, and FIG. 12 shows a low concentration of acoustic output to
various speakers. Figure 13 is a schematic diagram of a gain controller suitable for use in
conjunction with a four-way tone system as controlled by a frequency signal, Figure 13 is a
direction relative to a three-dimensional space where the directional angle vector coincides with
the vertex of the tetrahedron A graphical representation for determining the angle, FIG. 14 is a
view representing an orientation angle in a three-dimensional space with particular reference to
a plane inclined at about 45 degrees, and FIG. 15 a particular reference to a plane inclined at
about −45 degrees A diagram showing the direction angle in three-dimensional space, Fig. 16
shows the direction FIG. 17 is a diagram showing how to determine the direction angle for a
three-dimensional space in which the vector coincides with the vertex of the tetrahedron and
coincides with four of the eight corners of the rectangular coordinates; FIG. FIG. 18 is a block
diagram of an encoder apparatus used for three-dimensional decoding according to the present
invention. 12: Encoater, 13.14: Operational amplifier, 51.52: Speaker, n: Tek! “110” variable
gain amplifier 112A 112B high-pass filter 114.120.123 absolute value circuit 122 averaging
circuit 130.131 power phase Adder circuit, 116A% 116B ... Logarithmic amplifier, 561, 56
569.571 ... Phase shifter, 565% 567.573.575 ... Finisher.
EndPage: 20FIG, IIFIG, 13EndPage: 22 Warning: Page Discontinuity Procedure Amendment ■,
Display of Ino 1 Showa Patent No. 64605 No. 2 of 2; Name coding method of all dates, person of
correction · 1f And 9 related patent applicants Vita, Shyber "21-EndPage: 23
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