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JP2013012990

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DESCRIPTION JP2013012990
Abstract: To provide a speaker device that has high directivity and can be miniaturized. A first
speaker unit (101) has a diaphragm directed in a predetermined direction. The second speaker
unit 102 directs the diaphragm in a predetermined direction, and is separated from the first
speaker unit by a distance d of 0.17 m or more and less than 0.51 m in a direction orthogonal to
the predetermined direction. The third speaker unit 103 orients the diaphragm in the direction
opposite to the predetermined direction, and is separated from the first speaker unit by a
distance d in the direction opposite to the predetermined direction. The fourth speaker unit 104
orients the diaphragm in a direction opposite to the predetermined direction, and is separated
from the second speaker unit by a distance d in a direction opposite to the predetermined
direction. The supply unit supplies the audio signal to the first and second speaker units in the
same phase, and supplies the opposite phase audio signal to the third and fourth speaker units.
[Selected figure] Figure 1
Speaker device
[0001]
The present invention relates to a speaker device having directivity.
[0002]
In public facilities such as stations and large-scale stores, commercial facilities, etc., PAs (Public
Address, broadcasting equipment) providing guidance broadcasting by voice are widely used.
03-05-2019
1
In PA, when the guidance broadcast reaches the outside of the facility, it becomes a noise, so a
speaker device having directivity is used so that the guidance broadcast can reach only the target
area.
[0003]
As a speaker device having directivity, there is known a dipole speaker device in which speaker
units having the same performance are provided on opposing baffle surfaces of a cabinet and
driven in opposite phase (for example, see Patent Document 1).
[0004]
Also, as a speaker device having directivity, there is also known a tone zone speaker in which a
plurality of speakers are linearly arranged.
(For example, refer to Patent Document 2).
[0005]
JP-A-8-19089 JP-A-2-239795
[0006]
In the speaker device described in Patent Document 1, the outputs of the two speaker units have
opposite phases in the left and right direction in the sound output direction.
As a result, since the sounds cancel each other, the directivity in the front-rear direction generally
increases. However, no special consideration is given to the distance between the two speaker
units. Therefore, even in the front-back direction, depending on the relationship between the
spacing between the two speaker units and the wavelength of the output, the outputs may cancel
each other, and the output level of the sound in the front-back direction decreases, and the
directivity as a whole decreases. Had a problem of
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2
[0007]
Further, it is known that the tone squeeze type speaker device described in Patent Document 2
has high directivity in the front-rear direction with respect to a signal having a wavelength
approximately twice that of the left and right unit interval. However, in order to improve
directivity, it is necessary to increase the number of speakers in the tone zone speaker system,
and many speakers are arranged in a straight line, which causes a problem of increasing the size
of the apparatus.
[0008]
Therefore, the problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a speaker device that
has high directivity and can be miniaturized.
[0009]
In order to solve the above problems, the present invention provides the following apparatus.
1) In the speaker device for amplifying an audio signal, the speaker device is a first speaker unit
(101) with the diaphragm directed in a predetermined direction, and a speaker unit with the
diaphragm directed in a predetermined direction, The second speaker unit (102) has a
predetermined distance between the first speaker unit and the diaphragm at a distance d of
0.204 m or more and less than 0.51 m in a direction perpendicular to the direction of A speaker
unit (103), wherein the speaker unit is directed in the direction opposite to the direction, and the
center of the diaphragm with the first speaker unit is separated by a distance d in the direction
opposite to the predetermined direction. And a speaker unit with the diaphragm directed in a
direction opposite to the predetermined direction, the center of the diaphragm with the second
speaker unit in the direction opposite to the predetermined direction A fourth speaker unit (104)
separated by a distance d, and audio signals are supplied to the first speaker unit and the second
speaker unit in the same phase, and a third speaker unit and a fourth speaker A speaker device
comprising: a supply section (21) for supplying an audio signal of opposite phase to an audio
signal output to a first speaker unit and a second speaker unit to the unit. 2) The speaker device
according to 1), wherein the distance d is 0.306 m or more and less than 0.442 m. 3) The
speaker apparatus according to 1) or 2), wherein the first speaker unit, the second speaker unit,
the third speaker unit, and the fourth speaker unit are speaker units having the same
characteristics. 4) A band division unit (51) for dividing the input acoustic signal into a plurality
of frequency bands, and at least one pair of speakers (4Bn) for outputting the acoustic signal
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3
divided by the band division unit, and one set of speakers When the wavelength of the acoustic
signal of the center frequency of the frequency band output from the first speaker unit (4Bnfr)
with the diaphragm directed in a predetermined direction is λ, the diaphragm in the
predetermined direction A second speaker unit, which is directed to the speaker unit, and is
separated by a distance d of 0.3 λ or more and less than 0.75 λ in the direction perpendicular
to the predetermined direction. (4Bnfl) and a speaker unit in which the diaphragm is directed in
the direction opposite to the predetermined direction, and the center of the diaphragm with the
first speaker unit in the direction opposite to the predetermined direction A third speaker unit
(4Bnrr) separated by a distance d and a speaker unit with the diaphragm directed in the direction
opposite to the predetermined direction, the second speaker unit in the direction opposite to the
predetermined direction The acoustic signal divided by the band division unit is supplied to the
first speaker unit and the second speaker unit in the same phase to the fourth speaker unit
(4Bnrl) separated from the center of the diaphragm with the distance d by the distance d And
providing a supply unit (52n) for supplying an acoustic signal of opposite phase to the acoustic
signal output to the first speaker unit and the second speaker unit to the third speaker unit and
the fourth speaker unit. Characteristic speaker device.
5) The speaker device according to 4), wherein the distance d is not less than 0.45λ and less
than 0.65λ. 6) The speaker apparatus according to 4) or 5), wherein the first speaker unit, the
second speaker unit, the third speaker unit, and the fourth speaker unit are speaker units having
the same characteristics.
[0010]
According to the speaker device of the present invention, it is possible to provide a speaker
device that has high directivity and can be miniaturized.
[0011]
It is a perspective view of 1st Example of the speaker apparatus of this invention.
It is a block block diagram of 1st Example of the speaker apparatus of this invention. It is a figure
which shows the directional characteristic of 1st Example of the speaker apparatus of this
invention. It is a perspective view of 2nd Example of the speaker apparatus of this invention. It is
a block block diagram of 2nd Example of the speaker apparatus of this invention.
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[0012]
Hereinafter, a speaker device of the present invention will be described based on an embodiment
with reference to the accompanying drawings. First Embodiment <Configuration> FIG. 1 is a
perspective view showing a speaker device 1 according to a first embodiment of the present
invention. In FIG. 1, in order to facilitate understanding, the casing and the circuit portion of the
speaker device 1 are not shown, and only the arrangement of the speaker unit is shown. The
speaker device 1 of the present embodiment is mainly used for the purpose of loud-speaking
such as an announcement in a PA, and loud-speaks and outputs human-generated speech in a
frequency band of 250 Hz to 600 Hz with a frequency of 500 Hz as a center. Do.
[0013]
In FIG. 1, speaker units are disposed at vertices V1 to V4 of a square whose one side is d.
Specifically, when A is the front direction of the speaker device 1, the front speaker unit 101 is
disposed with the direction of the diaphragm in the front direction such that the center of the
diaphragm is at the position of the apex V1 on the front side and the right side. . The front
speaker unit 102 is disposed with the direction of the diaphragm in the front direction such that
the center of the diaphragm is at the front of the front speaker unit 101 and the center of the
diaphragm V2 on the front side and the left apex V2 separated by the distance d. Further, the
rear speaker unit 103 is disposed with the direction of the diaphragm in the rear direction such
that the center of the diaphragm is at the position of the apex V3 on the rear side and the right
side separated by the distance d in the rear direction of the front speaker unit 101. Furthermore,
the rear speaker unit 104 is disposed with the direction of the diaphragm in the rear direction
such that the center of the diaphragm is at the position of the apex V4 on the rear side and the
left side separated by the distance d in the rear direction of the front speaker unit 102.
[0014]
The front speaker units 101 and 102 and the rear speaker units 103 and 104 are speaker units
with substantially the same aperture and the same characteristics with substantially the same
frequency characteristics, and used in a state in which the sound from the back is blocked by
attaching to an enclosure Do.
[0015]
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5
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of the speaker device 1.
As shown in FIG. 2, the input unit 20 sends the input audio signal to the supply unit 21. The
supply unit 21 supplies the audio signals sent from the input unit 20 to the front speaker units
101 and 102, and reverses the phases of the audio signals supplied to the front speaker units
101 and 102 to the rear speaker units 103 and 104. Provide an audio signal. <Operation> In the
speaker device 1 of the present embodiment, directivity characteristics when the distance d
between the front and rear speaker units 101 and 102 and the rear speaker units 103 and 104
is changed between the front and rear and the left and right are shown in FIG. FIG. 3 illustrates
the sound pressure of the sound wave output in each direction of the speaker device 1 when the
reference audio signal of the wavelength λ is input to the speaker device 1, using the speaker
unit as a point sound source and showing a circle graph. It is a thing. In FIG. 3, the interval d is a
multiple of λ. In the circle graph of the directivity characteristic of FIG. 3, the downward
direction is the front direction of the speaker device 1. Further, twice the sound pressure of the
sound wave of the output when the reference audio signal is input to one speaker unit is 0 dB
(maximum value of the scale of the circle graph).
[0016]
As shown in FIG. 3a), when d <0.3λ, the waveform of the directivity characteristic is a widelyspread eight-shaped, and the directivity of the speaker device 1 is low. In addition, the sound
pressure of the arrow A (forward direction) is about -6 dB, and the efficiency as the speaker
device 1 is low.
[0017]
As shown in FIG. 3 b), c) and d), when 0.3 λ ≦ d <0.45 λ, the waveform of the directivity
characteristic is a somewhat wide eight-shaped one, and the speaker device 1 is It has directivity.
Further, the maximum sound pressure exceeds −2 dB, and the efficiency as the speaker device 1
is high.
[0018]
As shown in FIGS. 3e), f), g) and h), when the condition of 0.45λ ≦ d <0.65λ, the waveform of
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6
the directivity characteristic is a figure of eight, and the speaker device 1 is high in the front-rear
direction It has directivity. Further, the maximum sound pressure exceeds −2 dB, and the
efficiency as the speaker device 1 is high.
[0019]
As shown in Fig. 3i) and j), when 0.65 λ 指向 d <0.75 λ, when looking at the waveform of the
directional characteristics, although it has some side lobes, it has a figure of eight, and the
speaker The directivity of the device 1 is high. The maximum sound pressure exceeds -4 dB, and
the efficiency of the speaker device 1 is within an allowable range.
[0020]
As shown in FIGS. 3 k) and l), when the waveform of the directivity characteristic is observed
when 0.75 λ ≦ d, a large side lobe is generated, and the directivity of the speaker device 1 is
low. Further, the maximum sound pressure is −6 dB or less, and the efficiency as the speaker
device 1 is low and the practicability is inferior.
[0021]
To summarize the above, the speaker device 1 of the present embodiment has low directivity
when d <0.3λ. When 0.3 λ ≦ d <0.75 λ, directivity is given in the front-rear direction.
Furthermore, when 0.45 λ ≦ d <0.65 λ, the directivity is high in the front-rear direction, and
the efficiency is high. When 0.75 λ ≦ d, directivity is low and efficiency is low.
[0022]
Further, as described above, the speaker device 1 of the present embodiment is mainly used for
the purpose of loud-speaking such as an announcement on the PA, and outputs the sound
composed of the sound wave signal of the frequency band centered on the frequency 500 Hz. .
When the sound velocity is 340 m / s, the wavelength of the sound wave with a frequency of 500
Hz is 0.68 m. At this time, 0.3 λ ≦ d <0.75 λ corresponds to 0.204 m ≦ d <0.51 m, and 0.45
λ ≦ d <0.65 λ corresponds to 0.306 m ≦ d <0.442 m.
03-05-2019
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[0023]
The speaker device 1 of the present embodiment is characterized in that the distance d between
the front and rear speaker units is set to 0.204 m ≦ d <0.51 m. More preferably, 0.306 m ≦ d
<0.442 m.
[0024]
In the speaker device 1 of the present embodiment, the front speaker unit 101 and the rear
speaker unit 103 constitute a dipole speaker. Similarly, the front speaker unit 102 and the rear
speaker unit 104 constitute a dipole speaker. Some conventional dipole speaker devices have a
shielding plate to avoid interference of sound waves between the speaker units in the front-rear
direction. On the other hand, the speaker device of this embodiment outputs the audio signals of
the same phase to two speaker units in which the directions of the diaphragms are opposite to
each other, and the distance between them is approximately one of the wavelength that becomes
the center of the output. It will be / 2. As a result, the phases of the outputs of the two speaker
units become the same in the front-rear direction, and the outputs of the two speaker units
increase. Therefore, not only the shielding plate is unnecessary but also directivity can be further
enhanced.
[0025]
In addition, the front speaker units 101 and 102 constitute a tone zoile type speaker. Similarly,
the rear speaker units 103 and 104 constitute a tone snail type speaker. Since the tone snail type
speaker device has high directivity in the front-rear direction with respect to a signal having a
wavelength approximately twice that of the left and right unit interval, directivity can be further
improved.
[0026]
Further, the speaker device 1 of the present embodiment exhibits high directivity by using four
speaker units, and only needs to arrange two speaker units in the lateral direction with a width of
1/2 wavelength, so that the conventional speaker device 1 Miniaturization is possible compared
with a speaker device.
03-05-2019
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[0027]
In addition, the unit intervals between the front, rear, left, and right of the speaker units are not
necessarily the same as each other as long as they are within the ranges described above.
Second Embodiment <Configuration> Next, a speaker device according to a second embodiment
will be described. The second embodiment is an example of a speaker device having high
directivity over a wider frequency band than the first embodiment. The speaker apparatus 4 of
the second embodiment is provided with n sets (n is an integer of 2 or more) of speaker sets 4Bn
in which the distance between the speaker apparatus 1 of the first embodiment is changed as a
set of speaker sets. It is
[0028]
Hereinafter, an example in which n = 6 is described. FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing the
arrangement of the speaker device 4 of the second embodiment of the speaker device according
to the present invention, wherein FIG. 4a) is a perspective view showing the arrangement place of
the speaker unit, and FIG. It is a perspective view which shows a state. In order to facilitate
understanding, in FIG. 4a, the speaker unit is not shown, and only the positional relationship of
the place where the speaker unit is arranged is shown. Further, FIG. 4 b) does not show the
positional relationship of the place where the speaker unit is arranged, the casing of the speaker
device 4 and the circuit part, but only the arrangement of the speaker unit is shown. In FIG. 4, C
is a front direction of the speaker device 4.
[0029]
In the present embodiment, the speaker unit is disposed so that the center of the diaphragm is at
the apexes Vn1 to Vn4 of the square having one side dn shown in FIG. 4A. Specifically, as shown
in FIG. 4 b), the front speaker unit 4Bnfr is disposed with the direction of the diaphragm in the
front direction so that the center of the diaphragm is at the position of the apex Vn1 on the front
side and the right side. The front speaker unit 4Bnfl is arranged with the direction of the
diaphragm in the front direction so that the center of the diaphragm is on the front side of the
front speaker unit 4Bnfr at the front on the left side separated by the distance dn and the apex
03-05-2019
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Vn2 on the left. In addition, the rear speaker unit 4Bnrr is disposed with the direction of the
diaphragm in the back direction such that the center of the diaphragm is at the position of the
apex Vn3 on the right side behind the front speaker unit 4Bnfr by a distance dn. Furthermore,
the rear speaker unit 4Bnrl is arranged with the direction of the diaphragm in the back direction
so that the center of the diaphragm is at the position of the apex Vn4 on the left side behind the
front speaker unit 4Bnfl by a distance dn.
[0030]
Front speaker unit 4Bnfr, 4Bnfl and rear speaker unit 4Bnrr, 4Bnrl are speaker units with
substantially the same aperture and same characteristics with substantially the same frequency
characteristics, and used in a state where the sound from the back is blocked by attaching to an
enclosure etc. Do.
[0031]
FIG. 5 is a block diagram of the speaker device 4.
As shown in FIG. 5, the input unit 50 sends the input acoustic signal to the band division unit 51.
The band division unit 51 includes n sets of BPFs (Band Pass Filters) 51 n including capacitors
and coils. The BPF 51 n divides the frequency band of the input acoustic signal, and outputs the
band-divided acoustic signal to each speaker set 4 Bn. Further, the distance dn between the front
and rear and the left and right of the front speaker unit and the rear speaker unit in each speaker
set is set to approximately 1/2 of the wavelength of the center frequency of the acoustic signal
divided for each speaker set by the band dividing unit 51.
[0032]
The speaker device 4 includes a first band speaker set 4B1, a second band speaker set 4B2, a
third band speaker set 4B3, a fourth band speaker set 4B4, a fifth band speaker set 4B5, and a
sixth band speaker It has six sets of speaker sets 4Bn of set 4B6.
[0033]
The input unit 50 sends the input acoustic signal to the band division unit 51.
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The division unit 51 includes six sets of BPFs 511 to 516, and divides the input acoustic signal
into six frequency bands whose center frequencies differ by 1/2 octave.
[0034]
The BPF 511 outputs an acoustic signal in a frequency band of center frequency 500 Hz to the
supply unit 521 of the first band speaker set 4B1. The supply unit 521 supplies the band-divided
acoustic signal as it is to the front speaker units 4B1fr and 4B1fl, and inverts the phase of the
band-divided acoustic signal to the rear speaker units 4B1rr and 4B1rl. In addition, an interval d1
between front and rear and left and right of the front speaker units 4B1fr and 4B1fl and the rear
speaker units 4B1rr and 4B1rl is 0.34 m which is a half wavelength of an acoustic signal with a
center frequency of 500 Hz.
[0035]
The BPF 512 outputs, to the supply unit 522 of the second band speaker set 4B2, an acoustic
signal of a frequency band centered on a frequency 707 Hz which is 1⁄2 octave higher than the
center frequency 500 Hz of the BPF 511. The supply unit 522 supplies the band-divided acoustic
signal as it is to the front speaker units 4B2fr and 4B2fl, and inverts the phase of the banddivided acoustic signal to supply it to the rear speaker units 4B2 rr and 4B2 rl. Further, an
interval d2 between front and rear and left and right of the front speaker units 4B2fr and 4B2fl
and the rear speaker units 4B2rr and 4B2rl is set to 0.24 m which is a half wavelength of an
acoustic signal having a center frequency of 707 Hz.
[0036]
The BPF 513 outputs, to the supply unit 523 of the third band speaker set 4B3, an acoustic
signal of a frequency band centered on 1 kHz, which is a half octave higher than the center
frequency 707 Hz of the BPF 512. The supply unit 523 supplies the band-divided acoustic signal
as it is to the front speaker units 4B3fr and 4B3fl, and inverts and supplies the phase-divided
acoustic signal to the rear speaker units 4B3rr and 4B3rl. In addition, an interval d3 between
front and rear and left and right of the front speaker units 4B3fr and 4B3fl and the rear speaker
units 4B3rr and 4B3rl is set to 0.17 m which is a half wavelength of a 1 kHz acoustic signal.
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[0037]
The BPF 514 outputs, to the supply unit 524 of the fourth band speaker set 4A4, an acoustic
signal of a frequency band centered at 1.4 kHz, which is a half octave higher than the center
frequency 1 kHz of the BPF 513. The supply unit 524 supplies the band-divided acoustic signal
as it is to the front speaker units 4B4fr and 4B4fl, and inverts the phase of the band-divided
acoustic signal to the rear speaker units 4B4rr and 4B4rl. Further, an interval d4 between front
and rear and left and right of the front speaker units 4B4fr and 4B4fl and the rear speaker units
4B4rr and 4B4rl is set to 0.12 m which is a half wavelength of an acoustic signal having a center
frequency of 1.4 kHz.
[0038]
The BPF 515 outputs an acoustic signal of a frequency band centered on 2 kHz, which is 1⁄2
octave higher than the center frequency of 1.4 kHz of the BPF 514, to the supply unit 525 of the
fifth band speaker set 4B5. The supply unit 525 supplies the band-divided acoustic signal as it is
to the front speaker units 4B5fr and 4B5fl, and inverts the phase of the band-divided acoustic
signal to the rear speaker units 4B5rr and 4B5rl. In addition, an interval d5 between front and
rear and left and right of the front speaker units 4B5fr and 4B5fl and the rear speaker units
4B5rr and 4B5rl is set to 0.085 m which is a half wavelength of an acoustic signal having a
center frequency of 2 kHz.
[0039]
The BPF 516 outputs, to the supply unit 526 of the sixth band speaker set 4B6, an acoustic
signal of a frequency band centered on a frequency 2.82 kHz, which is a half octave higher than
the center frequency 2 kHz of the BPF 515. The supply unit 526 supplies the band-divided
acoustic signal as it is to the front speaker units 4B6fr and 4B6fl, and inverts the phase of the
band-divided acoustic signal to the rear speaker units 4B6rr and 4B6rl. Further, an interval d6
between front and rear and left and right of the front speaker units 4B6fr and 4B6fl and the rear
speaker units 4B6rr and 4B6rl is set to 0.06 m which is a half wavelength of an acoustic signal
having a center frequency of 2.82 kHz.
[0040]
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12
Even if the distance dn between the speaker units is not exactly λn / 2, as in the first
embodiment, the effects can be obtained as long as 0.3λn ≦ dn <0.75λn. More preferably, if
0.45 λ n ≦ dn <0.65 λ n, a larger effect is obtained. Furthermore, even if the distance between
the front and back of the speaker units and the distance between the left and right are not
necessarily the same, an effect can be obtained as long as each is within the range described
above. In addition, even if the speaker set as described above does not output the sound signals
of all the divided frequency bands, the sound signal of the frequency band for which high
directivity is desired is output as the speaker set as described above. Play.
[0041]
In the n speaker sets 4Bn of the speaker device 4, the front speaker unit 4Bnfr and the rear
speaker unit 4Bnrr constitute a dipole speaker. Similarly, the front speaker unit 4Bnfl and the
rear speaker unit 4Bnrl respectively constitute a loudspeaker of the same dipole type as that of
the first embodiment. That is, the respective speaker sets have high directivity because they
cancel each other's acoustic signals in the left and right direction and enhance the acoustic
signals in the front and back direction.
[0042]
Further, in the n speaker sets 4Bn, the front speaker unit 4Bnfr and the front speaker unit 4Bnfl
constitute a tone zoile type speaker. Similarly, the rear speaker unit 4Bnrr and the rear speaker
unit 4Bnrl constitute a tone zoile type speaker. Since the tone snail type speaker device has high
directivity in the front-rear direction with respect to a signal having a wavelength approximately
twice that of the left and right unit interval, directivity can be further improved.
[0043]
In addition, n sets of speaker sets 4Bn of the speaker device 4 use the four speaker units to
exhibit high directivity, and in the lateral direction, it is only necessary to arrange the two
speaker units with a half wavelength width. Therefore, the size can be reduced as compared with
the conventional speaker device.
[0044]
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Also, since each speaker set has a narrow frequency band, it has a sufficiently high directivity.
Furthermore, since n speaker sets in which the distance between the front and rear and the left
and right are changed are used for each appropriate frequency band, the speaker device as a
whole becomes a speaker device having high directivity over a wide frequency band. Therefore,
even when it is desired to output a sound source in a wider frequency band such as BGM (Back
Ground Music), sufficient directivity can be obtained.
[0045]
Reference Signs List 1 4 speaker device 20 50 input unit 51 51n band division unit 21 52n
supply unit 4Bn Speaker set 101 102 4Bnfr 4Bnfl Front speaker unit 103 104 4Bnrr 4Bnrl Rear
speaker unit
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