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Hideo Fujiwara, President of the Patent Office, and the name of the invention microphone (218)
Sony 41 system company = 1 'J-0' in 'Jan [phase] Japan Patent Office published patent gazette ■
JPA 51- 652817326 326 ・ ・ γ '発 明 名称 明 の マ イ ク ロ フ ォ ン Microphone
3, patent applicant
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION A conventional microphone usually has a large
output level until it is close to the sound source. Thus, for example, if the singer sings in front of
the microphone, the mouth is t! If it is too close to the on-line m7, excessive sound pressure input
causes clipping. Also, the distance between the mouth and the microphone is different depending
on the person using the microphone, or even the same person depending on the time, so the level
of the microphone output largely differs accordingly. Therefore, as means for equalizing this
point, it is conceivable to supply the microphone output to the AGC circuit to perform electrical
processing. However, the AGC circuit hears the attack time and the recovery time, and when the
output through the AGC circuit is reproduced, it is impossible to deny the feeling that the
reproduced sound is unnatural. In this respect, the present invention is different from the
difference between the distance between the microphone and the sound source Ps (the distance
within the normal range of use) i icrophone 'out of the level of the output level is relatively small,
or It is intended to propose a microphone capable of minimizing the level of the microphone
output at a predetermined distance. In the following, the invention will be described with
reference to the facing side to an example thereof, pt1 tsubo #, an example of the invention is
shown in endpage: 1 in FIG. 1 and the microphone according to the invention will be described in
detail. The first and second acousto-electric transducers M, M are sequentially arranged from the
sound wave arrival side while maintaining a predetermined interval d in the main arrival
direction a of the sound wave of 48 ′. And each of the outputs of the second acoustic-electric
converter M □ and the pigeon are mixed in opposite phase with each other with a
predetermined mixing ratio to be a microphone output, and the microphone output is minimized
Distance between the acousto-electrical converter M1 and the sound yiS between the first
acousto-electrical converter M1 and the first acoustic-electrical converter M1 and the source S,
the minimum distance R @ between G of the source S and the normally used maximum distance
Xmax The first and second sound, the echo-electric converter M , Constructed by selecting M, the
distance d between. In this example, for example, the output of the second converter M is
supplied to the inverter circuit (1), and one end of the movable intermediate single-piece variable
resistor (2) serving as the level ratio changing means and the mixing circuit. Supply the output of
the inverter circuit (1) to the other, supply the output of the first converter M directly to the
other end, and derive the output terminal (3) from the movable intermediate terminalと 出力
151--6528 (2) 7 オ ン ° to obtain an on output.
Next, with reference to FIG. 82, the relationship between the microphone output and the distance
X in the case of using the nondirectional θ-order pressure gradient microphone moment of the
open-loop characteristic as the first and second transducers M8 and pigeons described above will
be described with reference to FIG. Explain. For example, 100 Hz is selected as the frequency of
the sound source S, and the strength of the sound is fixed. Also, the first and second transducers
M1. Let M be the spacing di-1 between. Both are shown on a logarithmic scale. (5) is a curve
(straight line) showing the relationship to the above. This curve (straight line 41), which is all (8),
is represented as the microphone output. And if a = 1 (m,) and X is represented by 鴬, equation
(1) is expressed as Thus, this curve (8) becomes X (1: Vm becomes gradually smaller as X
increases in 1), X = X,; = 1 Vm = 0, and X) 1 becomes Vm gradually larger as X increases. And it
returns with a curve which becomes smaller gradually again when it exceeds the sparrow large
value. By the way, the first converter M and the small distance Q) Gnin of the sound source SM
distance yaX are usually determined by the distance between the converter M8 and the
windscreen. Therefore, in this case, if Xmin is selected by 1 (鋤) and slightly large K (for example,
2), clipping does not occur even if the singer brings his mouth close to the microphone, and the
distance is somewhat It can be seen that the level change of the microphone output is small even
if it fluctuates. The upper limit of the operating frequency range of the microphone depends on
the interval d, and the cutoff frequency fc is a localized wave number. It is considered that
clipping when the mouth is brought extremely close to the microphone is usually considered to
occur with a voice component of 1 kHz or less, and if d = 1 ((d)), fc = 4-25 kHz and clipping
occurs Can certainly be avoided. In addition, in the sound component of the WR wave number of
fc or more, the level of the high region rises, and A re-emphasis effect is produced. In the
example of FIG. 92, the first and second transducers M, M. The mixing ratio of the output of -L:
xttc, but changing the mixing ratio by adjusting the variable resistor (2) changes the shape of the
curve (8), and-is a minimum The general analysis of this microphone is described below. In FIG.
1, the first and second acousto-electric converters M I (I and C, etc.) with spherical waves
generated from a sound source (referred to as a point sound source) S The sound pressure
components P1, P at (not) are respectively expressed as follows.
EndPage: 2 λ · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · It is a constant determined by the
characteristics of 11 + 1 @ 11 @ microphone. The difference between the -2 isotone pressure
components P and P is represented by Table xda (kct-θ) · · · · · · (5) as the following equation.
This sound pressure difference p1-p, H This indicates the human-powered sound pressure of this
microphone, and its output voltage Vm is Where K is a constant. And, in the case of λ) d, vm is
expressed as And when the moat is small, in the case of Vm = O in the equation 481 ′ ′, X = X,
then. In the case of .lamda.) D, the minimum value of Vm does not become 0 in the case of acne,
and becomes larger. In equation (9), by selecting Aj, A, according to the field, that is, the position
of the variable resistor (X = X, by adjusting 21) of the IJI diagram) Gnin (X @ (Xfnax, @ * It can be
selected as a11 @ 11 @ (11) 裟 S '. In the example of curve (8) in FIG. 2, d = 1 in equation (19),
and FIG. 3 shows the sound source of sound source S in addition to the curve of the second
factor. In addition, the minimum value of IC is shallow because d can not be ignored for λ, and
the third term in the square root symbol of equation (7) can be ignored, the minimum value v0 of
Vm is It is because it becomes big. The reason is that the increase in the frequency of the sound
wave makes it impossible for the phase difference between the outputs of the first and second
transducers M1 and M to become indistinguishable. As a result, it leads to the deterioration of
the sound quality of the reproduced sound. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 4, the transducer on the
sound wave incoming side, that is, the output side of the first transducer M8 is delayed for a long
time! By inserting 8 + 4) and performing phasing of the outputs of tsl and the second converter
M, M, the above-mentioned intermittent point is eliminated and the deterioration of the sound
quality of the reproduced sound is avoided. . The delay amount τ of the delay circuit (4) is τ =
τ °... You can select K. このようなil! When the extending circuit (4) is provided, the
microphone outputs VmIJ, + 1 #... -A2 are represented, and if the equation (11) is substituted into
the equation 11z, the equation becomes unrelated to λ which is the equation rtah. Formula
.sigma.f) K If d = 1 (ferment) and c = 34000 (0111, '91X)), then .tau. = 29.41 (5vea). In addition,
the first transducer M1, or the first and second transducers M, M, and K acoustics, (pipes) are
provided instead of the delay circuit 14) shown in FIG. It is good even if it is made to delay.
According to the present invention to be described above, the sound source and the receiver also
have the first and second acousto-electric transducers which are sequentially arranged from the
sound wave arrival side with a predetermined interval kept in the main arrival direction of the
wave. Each output of the 1st and 2nd acousto-electric converters is reversed each other with a
predetermined mixing ratio, and EndPage: 3J is mixed and made into Mi〉 オ ン 出力 出力 、,
and this microphone output becomes a minimum faJ And the first and second acousto-electric
transducers such that the distance between the acousto-electric transducer and the sound source
is a distance between the first acousto-electric transducer and the smallest distance between the
sound sources and the normal use maximum distance. Since the microphone is configured by
selecting the distance between the two, the difference in the level of the microphone output is
relatively small with respect to the distance M between the microphone and the sound source
(the distance within the normal working distance range), That is, the dynamic range It widens
also obtain a microphone capable of a level of the microphone output to a minimum at a
predetermined distance - can. The first and second acoustic-electrical conversions a and M,
respectively. The microphone may be unidirectional or omnidirectional, and the microphone may
be configured by combining the same or different types regardless of their types and
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a system diagram showing an embodiment of
the present invention, and FIGS. 2 and 3 are characteristics # J @ o and wc 4 to be described
respectively. FIG. 1 is another embodiment of the present invention. It is ° in the system
diagram shown. S is a sound source, M, M, # c1 and the second sound-electric distortion, etc., (1)
is an inverter circuit, (4) is! ! ! It is a spread circuit. Patent issued / applicant Sony Corporation
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 EndPage: 4
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