Patent Translate Powered by EPO and Google Notice This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate, complete, reliable or fit for specific purposes. Critical decisions, such as commercially relevant or financial decisions, should not be based on machine-translation output. DESCRIPTION JPS5357020 Description 11 Title of Invention Receiving system 3. Detailed description of the invention The present invention also relates to a receiving system having an insensitive property to a predetermined direction, in particular, a receiving system adopting a cardioid type response property / microphone / array. Amateurs and true ssss who have produced veterinarian vocalized films using conventional devices are well aware of the hard work of reducing camera motion 11 to pick up on the shooter. If you can not reduce the camera operation sound t you can pick up at the time of shooting @ 9, at the time of projection, the original sound of the film may be hidden by the camera noise recorded at the time of shooting. During this time, one way to solve the Thk is to separate the microphone and the camera 41 theoretically. However, in this method, the assistant is acclaimed at the same time as recording is performed in accordance with shooting, and it is generally not an adequate method. Therefore, in order to simultaneously perform recording and photographing by one person, a microphone is usually attached at a position outside the body shadow field in front of the camera using an extension member from the camera. In order to make it 1t- # corresponding to the scene, usually, an inexpensive cardioid microphone can be fully effective by pointing the cardioid dead point to the camera and attaching it to the camera by the above-mentioned method. However, the frequency spectrum range of camera operation noise is wide, and even with the above method, a considerable amount of noise is still recorded. The spectrum of the camera noise is about 6 from the low frequency of about 100 Hz. It has been known empirically to have a beak close to 200 Hz, which extends up to OOO Hz and has a maximum hearing area of @KTo. Although K is often sufficient with conventional low-cost cardioid microphones to eliminate low frequency noise generated by the camera, the spatial characteristics of this ax microphone are that the relatively 04-05-2019 1 broad spectral axis of noise associated with the mechanical actuation of the camera It is not constant with respect to the frequency over time. Therefore, the action sound of the camera is superimposed on the child corresponding to the subject field, and the result is that the recording can be made. And, since it is very close to the microphone as compared to the noise source or the subject, most of t0 being t-g becomes camera noise. While it is possible to design a special microphone with the ability to filter out camera noise over a fairly wide range of H, such microphones become very expensive and the microphone boron is inherently fragile. Being possessed, it is susceptible to mechanical damage. The object of the present invention is therefore to provide a new, high-performance recording system characterized in that the rejection characteristics for the incident angle and the frequency are determined by means of signal processing rather than the mechanical content of the microphone elements. . The receiving system of the present invention, which is insensitive to a predetermined direction with respect to incident energy, comprises an array of receiving members, each receiving member being sensitive to incident temporally variable energy, to that energy Output a corresponding temporally variable signal. The receiving system further comprises a signal processing device ? such that the output signal t of each receiving member is substantially insensitive to its energy for a specific frequency and angle of incidence determined by the spacing of the receiving members. I will. In the Gi processor, EndPage: generated from a pair of receiving members: Addition channel / channel for obtaining a sum signal of 2 output signals, and for obtaining a differential signal of output signals generated from a pair of receiving members A subtraction device, an integration channel for obtaining the integration of the difference signal, and a coupling device for combining the outputs of the two channels / s are provided. The phase of the summation signal and that of the integration signal are equal to the energy of an arbitrary frequency incident on the array, and the phases of both signals change with time of the incident energy. As for vibration, the frequency and the predetermined incidence are selected by selecting the gain t-brickly applied to these signals before subtraction operation of both the signals and selecting the interval t-overcutting of each receiving member constituting the array. It is possible to make the amplitudes St of both signals with respect to the angle equal. Specifically, for low-frequency energy incident at a predetermined angle with respect to the array axis (that is, the frequency of energy is close to zero), the gain is thin so that the signal subtraction result value is zero! The relative gain of the lI signal is selected. In addition, the spacing between each pair of receiving members is also selected so that the amplitudes of both gain-adjusted signals are equal to the energy of any frequency incident at a predetermined angle with respect to the array. When the receiving system of the present invention is used in a cinematography system, the signal processing unit operates so that the receiving member array acts as a cardioid microphone in the low frequency region, and in the frequency band that occupies most of camera noise. In contrast, it exhibits perfect removal characteristics on the cardioid axis. The movie shooting system and the camera recording system coupled to the camera and the t-movie shooting system also have the present F! A can all be used. Such a 04-05-2019 2 recording system is fixed to the camera outside the field of view 1il @ of the camera and supports an * i line array microphone array, which does not necessarily mean that it projects in the lower front of the camera. Is preferred-. The microphones are arranged such that the camera operation sound is preferentially removed by the array during camera operation, and a signal processor is provided to combine the output signals of the microphones. Low-frequency sound coming from an ax source along one direction is removed to the same size as the kind of frequency that is most easily felt by the ear generated from the camera. The recording system of the present invention is relatively simple and inexpensive as described above, since all of the predetermined directional rejection characteristics obtained by the present invention are based on the use of the signal processor and the setting of the microphone spacing. It is possible to use a microphone. A description of the preferred embodiment will now be given in contrast to the attached drawings. Referring to FIG. 1, reference numeral 10 denotes a voiced movie system according to the invention comprising a projection T11I photographing camera 11 and a recording system 12 connected to the camera. The recording system 12 comprises a microphone 13 which is arranged in a row with microphone elements (not shown) and is fixed to the camera 11 by means of a dome 14t which together form one microphone. The recording system 12 is also provided with a signal processor 15 which is connected to the camera via a cable 16. The camera 11 is provided with a film housing No. 17 as usual, a film driving device (not shown), and a lens assembly 18, and the photographic field light is in the camera housing via the lens assembly 18t. It is to be introduced on film. A fanda 19 adjusted along the lens system optical axis of the camera is provided for observing the field of the photographer. The camera is further provided with a Grino 7'20, and the user holds the camera with one hand by holding the grip 20, and operates the camera by operating the pull-type mold 21 'with one finger. , The other hand can support the camera stably. The microphone elements of the serial arrangement constituting the microphone 13 are placed on the X axis having a small angle (for example, 20 degrees) downward with respect to the optical axis 2 in the plane including the optical axis 2 and the grid f 20 t ? In this manner, the microphones 13 are fixed to the boom 14 in a state of being protruded to the lower front of the camera, and the EndPage: 3 such that they do not enter the field of view of the lens assembly / pre 18. When operating the camera, the user grips 20t with one hand, stabilizes the camera with the other hand, and observes the field through the finder 19. When the trigger is pulled, the camera and the microphone are activated to capture an object within the field of view of the finder, and at the same time, the sound from the object is also recorded. The microphones 13 are mounted in accordance with the direction of the dome 14 and are positioned to sense ft-from the field. The microphone 13 has a cardioid response characteristic (total characteristic by each microphone element) as described later. Its spatial response as a function of frequency is determined by the signal processor 15. In essence, the 04-05-2019 3 microphone / 13 is sensitive to sound incident from within the camera 11t-included solid cone with a solid angle (referred to as the removal cone), as hydraulically represented by the dashed line 22 in FIG. Not shown. The angle of the X axis with respect to two axes and the distance from the camera to the microphone are four points at the position of the microphone 13. The solid angle of the removal cone The solid angle depends on the operation of the signal processing unit 15, and Can be selected within a wide range of angles so as to fall within the cone region. FIG. 1 shows microphone response characteristics 23.24 for two orthogonal planes, and it can be seen that the response characteristics depend on the direction of the incident sound. Each is symmetrical about the characteristic diagram Hx axis. Although this characteristic diagram is not represented numerically, it shows typical characteristics of the microphone 13 for M consecutive frequency bands. FIG. 2 is a numerical representation of the frequency distribution of noise generated from a typical cinematographic camera. The noise due to the camera operation contains a very low frequency component, and it is known from FIG. 2 that the human ear has a large peak at around 2,00OOHz within the range of 4b Iji & ? frequency i at most. I'm sorry. The highest frequency component of the noise due to the camera operation sharply decreases around 6, 00 Hz. Signal processing device 15t--more particularly than 1. It is possible to adjust the response characteristics of the microphone 13 so that the camera's operation noise can be selectively removed over a fairly wide frequency band, which is a single point above around OOOHz. In FIG. 3, Ml, M2, M3 and M4 are elements of the phycrophone 13, and one plane acoustic wave is used to explain the method of selectively changing the removal characteristics of the microphones 1 and 3 by the signal processing apparatus of the present invention. The interaction between T.30 and a serial array of the four microphone elements Ml, M2, M3, M4 is illustrated. The combined microphone elements that facilitate the following analysis are shown equally spaced on the X-axis, but they need not necessarily be equally spaced. In the figure, the distance between the middle elements M1 and M2 is represented by a distance d1, and the distance between the elements M1 and M4 at both ends is represented by a distance IId2. To simplify the analysis, it is assumed that the spacing of elements M1, M2 is equal to the spacing of elements M3, M ,. In addition, it is assumed that the frequency of the flat sine 1 * 30 is ? and is incident on the microphone element array. The propagation direction of ta is generally directed from the positive direction of the X axis to the negative direction. That is, the sound wave crosses the X axis at a midpoint 31 of the microphone element M2, M3 with an angle ? with respect to the X axis. It propagates along the A axis. Taira Il! Since 1ItIIL changes like a Japanese patent, the position of the wave at a certain moment is shown in FIG. The relative amplitude on the X axis of ti at this instant is shown by chain gA32. The dashed line includes a Yaxis intersecting the X-axis, and is defined as an intersection of a plane perpendicular to a plane defined by the X-axis and the A-axis and the plane fIBL. The Y axis is passing point 31'5r. The amplitude of the wave 32 at any one point on xsl is that of the point f [the magnitude t of the amplitude. The value measured along the distance fA axis between any two points on the flat l1il technique and the value measured along the x axis along fc is related by the cosine of the 04-05-2019 4 incident angle ? of the plane wave. A friend & 30 waves t ? measured along the A axis. Assuming that i blunt X0 and the above ? measured in the flat 33 defined by the X-Y axis. The following relationship stands in between. EndPage: 4 (1) ?0--X. ? ? f where V is the plane wave propagation velocity, fz ? ? /. ???? The taO propagation temperature is 344 tn / 8 @ C at a temperature 20 ░ C. elevation O (sea II). The period T0 of the plane wave is as follows. A point 34 on the wave 30, which is a projection point on the middle point 31t-X axis of the microphone element M3, is a point tx thin-axis projection point at a distance (1/2) dl from the installation point 31 of the microphone element M3. It is apparent from equation 121 that the time to move to point 35 is 1 (3) .tau..sub.1 wing-.intg..alpha..sub.v The time until point 34 of the plane direction temporary tack reaches microphone combination M4 is. Equations (3) and (4) tConsidering the analytical waveform at point 31 taking account of it, analytically show the waveforms at the four microphone element installation positions as relative phase difference with the phase fixed waveform Can. That is, assuming that the waveform at point 31 is represented by blood ? (t??0), the temporary positions at the installation positions of the four microphones are represented by the following equation. (5A) M1 at ?? (t??0 + ?2) (5B) M2 at ?2 (??0 + at 1) (5C) M at blood ? (??0?? ?) (5D) M, ttk, m (t?? 0 ?? 2) where ? 0 is the propagation time during which the wave travels a quarter of the time along the A temperature (thereby, the sine of the equation amplitude scale, which will be described later, cosine) Can be used for any of Since any complex complex can be synthesized using 7-rie sine series or 7-one rise cosine series, each equation in the analysis described below is for a single sine wave of angular frequency- The analysis is of general applicability. The details of the signal processing device 15 are shown in FIG. The microphone elements M1 and M2 output time-varying signals according to their energy when given timevarying energy such as f-wave, and this signal is a block diagram of FIG. Processed in the order shown. The signal processing device 15 includes not only microphone elements but also an adder 40 for adding output signals of the inner microphone elements M2 and M3 and a subtractor 41 for subtracting output signals of the outer microphone elements M1 and M4. The integration channel 42 configured as an integrator integrates the difference signal generated from the subtractor 41 and outputs the integrated signal as an integration signal. A signal processing means is provided in the stone with a coupling device 43t for coupling the mass channel from the summing channel and the integrating channel. This coupling device 43 has two gain control devices t? for each channel 5 and channel 5, and the gain wA! The integrated signal subjected to iiE and the gain-adjusted addition signal appearing at the output end of the amplifier 45 with gain are generated, and these advantages are set so that 4A and B have a relative relationship as described later. It is done. The combining unit 43 further comprises a summing unit for totaladding the two gain-adjusted signals in the upper half, which is illustrated as the summing unit ? -adder 46. The output of summer 46 appears on line 47, which is the output of microphone 13. Assuming that the inputs of the microphones M1 to M4 can be expressed by the expressions (5) to (5B), the sum signal S appearing at the output end of the adder 40 is as follows. EndPage: 5 04-05-2019 5 ? ^ On the other hand, the difference signal appearing at the output end of the subtractor 41 is as follows. The negative sign indicates that the differential signal is out of phase with the sum signal. When the differential signal is integrated in the integrator 42, an integrated signal signal given by the following equation is obtained. That is, an integral value I 'of an arbitrary time t to t ? includes a sine wave component (first term) and a constant term (second term) ?. Therefore, taking out the sine tR acid component by AC coupling and making it an integrated signal, EndPage: 6 Therefore, the sum signal and the integrated signal both have the same frequency and the same phase, regardless of the value of ?0. Sum signal 8 has gain m by amplifier 45 & c. I, its amplitude A (#, &) is 191A ("* ?) = person О 20-? 1-2 person 0-? 1 Also, the integrated signal is gain-adjusted by the amplifier 44 and its amplitude g (" s ? ) Is given by the following equation. It can be understood that the output of the adder 46 can be a tail, considering from the formula (2):-(41, ff) w (-1?) + B (?t??) @. That is, by selecting the relative gain person / B of the gain-adjusted signal and the distance between microphone elements 111k (l, d2 and tproperly select any frequency of the incident wave to the microphone accumulation array For the angle of incidence, it is shown that the complete removal of the incident wave is possible. For low frequency incident tlLK where ? is close to zero, ? ? becomes K as follows. From the equation (12), it can be understood that the output of the adder 46 is zero when the parenthesis is an eport. Arbitrary incidence angle ?. The relative gain A / B of the gain-tuned signal to obtain perfect-pass at low frequencies is Substituting the relative gain of equation (12B) into equation (6), the incident angle ? with respect to the microphone element array 9. The following general equation for the output of the adder 46 is obtained to preserve low frequency rejection with. EndPage: 7 In order to remove the low frequency incident on the microphone element array at the incident angle ?olI + lIO, the equation (d) is as follows. As apparent from the equation (13A), the signal from each microphone is geographically distributed as described above, and it has a cardioid response characteristic with one axis of symmetry (ie, X axis) and T axis (i.e., X axis). It has a monotonically increasing characteristic. The high frequency characteristics of the composite microphone with respect to the energy incident in parallel to the array t are as follows from the equation (d) with ? = 0. The distance dl between the microphone elements provided to obtain the combined g-polarization can be selected so as to be guaranteed for the elimination of the technique of any frequency ?, incident angle ?. Such dlot can be obtained from an equation in which the parentheses in the equation are zero, and K is as follows. When removal with respect to the frequency incident from the positive direction of the X-axis is obtained in the serial micro-mirror 7 array on the X-axis, ?-to dl are as follows as ?1 = ??. FIG. 5 is a graph of the equation (13A), which is expressed as a function of the low mesh characteristic t of the microphone element array when the output of the microphone boron is processed according to FIG. It is a thing. In this way, the serial array, which is an omnidirectional 04-05-2019 6 receiver with a built-in microphone, changes to a composite microphone having a cardioid characteristic by adopting signal processing t by the signal processing device 15. If each microphone has its own or cardioid characteristics, synthetic microbons will have even better cardioid characteristics due to signal processing. The characteristics of the micro / boron array for relatively high frequency tears incident on the microphone boron array along the array (ie ? = 0) are shown at the sixth factor, which is shown in equation (13B) It was created based on that. The curve 50 is a gain-adjusted integrated signal which appears at the output end of (8, 44). It should be noted here that in the case of d '= d2, elements M and M2, M3 and M4 are respectively combined to constitute a 24 accumulation microphone, rather than four microphone elements being combined. It is. Such a microphone has good low frequency rejection but its rejection for relatively high frequencies drops steadily with increasing frequency as curve 52 shows. This curve 52 is the difference of the curve 50.51 and represents the equation (13B), that is, the output of the adder 46. The microphone element of A curve representing a cm (") in this state 6 Lv at one curved edge 53 This curve 53 approximates the curve 51. The curve 54 is the difference of the curve 51.53, and it is clear that at 41 in the condition d ?; d2, the elementary synthesis microphone has an improved removal characteristic for dogs compared to a twoelement synthetic microphone. FIG. 6 is provided with a frequency scale in the case of d2-25.4 m (l-y +) data, and v is zero. If the wave incident along the array belongs to 6,000 J (camera noise region up to z, the ratio of dl and d2 should be properly selected to improve the removal characteristic 'kl etc. for that wave Is possible. Here, dl is chosen so that the gain-adjusted sum signal (ie the frequency of the cosine curve) at a frequency of about 69% of the gain wAa integrated signal is biased towards the gain-adjusted integration signal (ie the sine curve) Preferred, this condition is d2 = 25.4. (L (yf) O and 1 !, 8.0 OOHz are satisfied, dl electric 14wm (0.55 inch) is obtained from the equation (14 persons). Curve 60 in FIG. 6 represents the gain-adjusted sum signal in the above condition, curve 61 represents the gain-adjusted integrated signal, and these two curves a8. They are equal to each other in OOOHz. The difference between the curves 60.61, ie the output 47t of the adder 46-s, ooog, as the curve 62 represents. The removal characteristics in the following frequency bands are very good. Each curve in the figure is applied to the input wave parallel to the array. The gs diagram and the 8149 diagram respectively show the removal characteristics at an incident angle of 30i 60 degrees. In FIG. 8, curve 63 represents the gain-adjusted sum signal at .alpha.50.degree., And curve 64 represents the integrated signal t with gain m adjusted f. Curve 65 represents the difference t-of curve 63 ░ 64. In FIG. 9, the gain-trained apparent signal is represented when the curve ? is ? = 60 ░, and the curve 61 represents the gain-adjusted integrated signal. Curve 68 represents the difference between curves 66.67. Given that dl = 14 (0,55 inches), d2 ? 25,4 (1 inch), from ? = 0 ░ to ? = 500 (TJ (corresponding to a 60 ░ corner removal cone) It is clear that very good removal characteristics are obtained in the range. By selecting the relative gain of the addition channel and the integration channel excessively and selecting the pair to be subjected to the addition processing of the microphone accumulation and 04-05-2019 7 the pair to be subjected to the subtraction processing to the pair of mutual spacing t?a, the other removal characteristics are obtained. It is possible to get. In addition, when the Microkhoff convolution is placed at an unbalance interval, analysis results different from the above are obtained. Although the above B5e light was performed based on the whole relationship between the number of sounds and the microphone, the present invention is also applicable to the case where an element of the right is sensitive to an energy other than f & and an output signal is generated. It is clear. For example, it is possible to use the present invention for the connection between a telephone and a receiving antenna. FIG. 10 is a circuit diagram EndPage: 9 of the fC signal processor constructed in accordance with the present invention to obtain arbitrary signal rejection characteristics. A signal processor (15A) q4 microphone elements M1 to M4 and a preamplifier TO coupled to each element one by one are provided. The output signals of the microphones XM2 and M3 are amplified by the preamplifier 70 and then added by the analog adder 71 to form a sum signal. The output signals of the microphone elements M1 and M4 are amplified by the pre-amplifier 70 and then subtracted and integrated in the two-tone differential integrator 72 to appear as an integrated signal. The above sum signal and integrated signal are added in the analog adder 73 to become an output signal. Various changes and modifications can be made to the present invention without departing from the features and advantages of the method and apparatus according to the present invention. 4. Brief Description of the Drawings FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a movie camera embodying the present invention, and a symmetry low-resolution cardioid characteristic diagram of the movie camera, and FIG. 2 is a typical noise spectrum associated with the movie camera. Graph showing numerically in gold, Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a linear array (a perspective view of a one-member array, showing a plane wave having an arbitrary frequency and an arbitrary incident angle gold incident on the array, Fig. 4 FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a receiving system according to the invention, a block diagram of a signal processing device, FIG. 5 being a pole point of the response characteristic of the receiving system according to the invention with respect to a specific relative gain between summing and integrating channels for low frequency energy. FIG. 6 is a graph of the respective amplitudes of the sum signal and the integral signal in the system of FIG. In addition, in the case of the double, the addition to the energy incidence along the array axis, the graph showing the shadow 41 ? ? ? ? to the displacement of the fi @ of the integrator channel, and FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. , A graph showing the case where the microphone pair spacing is selected so that the amplitude difference of the summing and integrator channels becomes zero with respect to predetermined AC energy entering the array, #! Figure 8 shows the amplitude of the sum and integrated signal with respect to the energy incident on the array at an angle of about 30 degrees St--A graph similar to Figure 1 and Figure 9 a graph similar to Figure 8, at an angle of about 60 degrees FIG. 10 is a graph showing the 04-05-2019 8 situation when energy is incident on the array, and FIG. 10 is a block diagram when a signal processing apparatus suitable for implementing the signal processing method of the present invention is applied to the four microphone element configuration of the present invention. (Explanation of the code) Ml, M2% M311 M4 иии Microphone ииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии ..... recording system 13 ....................... microphone 14 ....................... microphone mounted boom 15 ииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии ........... Adder 41 ................ Subtractor 42 .......... Integrator 43 ииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии .. Adder agent Asamura Yuuka 3 people EndPag : ?? 04-05-2019 9

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