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JPS61240800

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DESCRIPTION JPS61240800
[0001]
INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention is mounted on a manipulator or the like of an
industrial robot to measure the distance to an object and to measure the pressure applied to the
object when the manipulator grips the object. It relates to a combined sensor for distance and
pressure measurement. 2. Description of the Related Art Recently, distance sensors and pressure
sensors have been widely used in the field of industrial robots and the like. As this distance
sensor, a configuration is known in which an acoustic matching layer made of silicone rubber is
formed on the main surface of a piezoelectric vibrator. Hereinafter, a conventional distance
sensor will be described with reference to FIG. In FIG. 5, 1o1 is a piezoelectric vibrator, and
electrodes 102 and 103 are formed on both surfaces by vapor deposition or the like. The
acoustic matching 1 106 formed on the main surface 105 of the piezoelectric vibrator 101 is a
bumping material adhered to the other surface of the piezoelectric vibrator 101. Next, the
operation will be described. First, ultrasonic vibration generated by applying a transmission
signal to the electrodes 102103 formed on both surfaces of the piezoelectric vibrator 101 is
radiated into the air through the acoustic matching layer 104. Further, ultrasonic vibration
propagating in the air is received through the acoustic matching 1i 1104, and a voltage is
generated at both ends of the electrodes 102 and 103 formed on both sides of the piezoelectric
vibrator 101. At this time, the acoustic matching 11104i! The acoustic impedance matching
between the piezoelectric vibrator 101 and the air acting as an acoustic load is performed to play
the role of efficiently transmitting and receiving ultrasonic waves. Problems to be Solved by the
Invention However, in the above-mentioned conventional configuration, since the acoustic
matching layer 104 is formed of silicone rubber, it only causes elastic deformation with respect
to the contact pressure, and the pressure A corresponding electrical output can not be obtained.
Therefore, this distance sensor is attached to the industrial robot soto manipulator, etc. and the
manipulator approaches the object while measuring the distance to the object with this distance
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sensor. When grasping the object after contact, in order to measure the grasping pressure of the
manipulator, a pressure sensor provided separately from the above distance sensor must be used
to use 22 different sensors It has the disadvantage that the configuration of the sensor unit is
complicated. Further, since the distance sensor and the pressure sensor are disposed
substantially adjacent to different positions, it is difficult to make the distance measurement
position and the pressure measurement position on the object to be the same position, and the
object to be measured has steps and inclinations. It was inconvenient to
This situation will be described with reference to FIGS. 6 (a) and 6 (b). In FIGS. 6 (a) and 6 (b), the
107d manipulator, 1081! A distance sensor, a pressure sensor disposed adjacent to the 101Jj
distance sensor 108. Reference numeral 110 denotes an object to be measured, and the surface
of the object to be measured 110 has a step d. FIG. 6 (&) shows the case where the distance
sensor 108 contacts the object 110 but the pressure sensor 109 does not contact the object 110
due to the step d, and FIG. Conversely, the case where the pressure sensor 1091-j is in contact
with the object to be measured 110 but the distance sensor 108 does not contact the object to be
measured 110 due to the step d is shown. In the case of FIG. 6 (a), since the pressure sensor 109
does not contact the object to be measured, it is not possible to measure the gripping force of the
manipulator 107, and in the case of FIG. The distance measurement value is d, and the pressure
sensor 109 contacts the object to be measured 11 o first despite the non-contact state as
distance information, so the precise operation of the manipulator 107 is impeded. . Therefore,
the present invention solves the problems of the prior art as described above, and integrates the
distance sensor and the pressure sensor to simplify the configuration, and at the same time, the
distance measurement position and the pressure measurement position on the object to be
measured are identical. It is an object of the present invention to provide a compound sensor
capable of achieving accurate operation of a manipulator or the like by setting the position. The
means for solving the problems and the technical means of the present invention for solving the
above problems are provided with an acoustic matching layer on the main surface of the
piezoelectric vibrator, and a pressure sensitive conductive rubber having the acoustic matching
11H electrode. It is formed by In the present invention, according to the above configuration, the
pressure-sensitive conductive rubber can achieve acoustic impedance matching between the
piezoelectric vibrator and the air load, and thus acts as a distance sensor and also contacts the
object to be measured. , Acts as a pressure sensor to measure the contact pressure. EXAMPLES
Examples of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. First, a
first embodiment of the present invention will be described based on FIGS. 1 and 2. FIG. FIG. 1 is
a cross-sectional view of the whole. In FIG. 1, reference numeral 1 denotes a piezoelectric
vibrator, and electrodes 2.3 are attached to both surfaces by vapor deposition or the like.
Reference numeral 4 denotes an acoustic matching layer, which comprises a pressure-sensitive
conductive rubber 6 attached to the principal surface 6 of the vibrator 1 by an adhesive or the
like with a conductive adhesive and an electrode 7 attached to the outer surface of the pressuresensitive conductive rubber 6 Become. A backing material 8 is bonded to the other surface of the
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piezoelectric vibrator 1.
The electrode 7 is formed of a metal plate having a plurality of apertures 9 as is apparent from
the front view of FIG. The electrode 7 is set to be flexible to such an extent that the change
amount of the electrical resistance of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 can be
sufficiently detected with respect to the contact pressure with the object to be measured. Next,
the operation of the above embodiment will be described. Ultrasonic vibration generated by
applying a transmission signal to the electrodes 2.3 formed on both surfaces of the piezoelectric
vibrator 1 is radiated into air from the openings 9 of the electrodes 7 through the pressure
sensitive conductive rubber 6. Further, ultrasonic vibration propagating in the air is received
from the opening 9 of the electrode 7 through the pressure sensitive conductive rubber 6, and a
voltage is generated at both ends of the electrode 2.3 formed on both sides of the piezoelectric
vibrator 10. The pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 is formed of a composite material in
which a polymer material such as silicone rubber is used as a base material, and a conductive
material such as carbon black or metal powder is mixed as a filler in this base material. Has a
pressure dependence, the sound velocity is about 800 m / sec, the density ? is about 3 o o kg /
m, the acoustic impedance yxZa Za = ?, = 2 = 2A x 106N, S / w value. It is set. Therefore, the
acoustic impedance is about 3 by adhering the thickness of the pressure-sensitive conductive
rubber 6 to the main surface 6 of the piezoelectric vibrator 1 using a conductive adhesive as the
equivalent of about A wavelength of the ultrasonic wave propagating therethrough. It is possible
to improve the acoustic impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric vibrator 1 of О 107 NoS
/ m 3 and air having an acoustic impedance of about 400 N and S / yl, and as a result, from the
main surface 6 of the piezoelectric vibrator 1 Compared with direct transmission and reception
of ultrasonic waves, the transmission and reception sensitivity can be improved by 30 dB. When
an object to be measured comes into contact with the electrode 7, the contact pressure acts on
the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 through the electrode 7, and a change in electrical
resistance corresponding to the contact pressure can be taken out of the electrode 2.7. The
electrode 2 works as a common electrode with the piezoelectric vibrator 1. The electrode 7 acts
as the other electrode of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 and also has the function of
protecting the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 from coming in direct contact with the
object to be measured and suffering mechanical damage. Further, as described above, even if a
metal plate is used for the electrode 7, the transmission and reception of ultrasonic waves are
performed through the opening 9, so there is no possibility that the transmission and reception
sensitivity is significantly reduced. O Second Embodiment of the Invention This will be described
based on FIG. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the whole. An electrode 10 comprising an
acoustic matching 114H pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 in this embodiment, an electrode
10 attached to the outer surface of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6, and a polymer
thin film 11 having flexibility of the outer surface of the electrode 1o. Is formed on the inner
surface of the polymer thin film 11 by means such as evaporation.
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For the polymer thin film 11, a polymer material having an acoustic impedance of 2 to 3 О 10 N,
s / yl, such as polyvinyl chloride, high density polyethylene, polyamide, etc., is used. In the
present embodiment, when the thickness of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 is made
smaller than the wavelength A, and the total thickness with the polymer thin film 11 is made
substantially violent wavelength, the decrease in sensitivity can be reduced. The other
configuration is the same as that of the first embodiment. Next, the operation of this embodiment
will be described. The pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 performs acoustic impedance
matching between the piezoelectric vibrator 1 and the air load as in the first embodiment. The
electrode 2 on the main surface 5 side of the piezoelectric vibrator 1 acts as a common electrode
with the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6, and the electrode 10 deposited on the polymer
thin film 11 acts as the other electrode of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6. Therefore,
the change in the electrical resistance that occurs when the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber
6 receives a pressure from the object to be measured through the polymer thin film 11 can be
extracted from between these electrodes 10.2. At this time, the polymer thin film 11 can transmit
the contact pressure with the object to be measured to the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber
6 without directly contacting the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 with the object to be
measured. Mechanical damage can be prevented. And since the polymer thin film 11 which has a
value close | similar to the acoustic impedance of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 as
mentioned above is used, the fall of the transmission-and-reception sensitivity of an ultrasonic
sensor is not brought about. Next, a third embodiment of the present invention will be described
based on FIG. FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the whole. The acoustic matching rfi 4 in the
present embodiment is in close contact with the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6, the
electrode 12 deposited on the outer surface of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6, and
the outer surface of the electrode 12 so as to be electrically conductive. The metal ring member
13 and the central portion of the electrode 12 are projected outward, have a cross-sectional area
sufficiently smaller than the area of the main surface 5 of the piezoelectric vibrator 1, and project
beyond the ring member 13 The other structure is the same as that of the first embodiment.
Next, the operation of the above embodiment will be described. The pressure-sensitive
conductive rubber 6 performs acoustic impedance matching between the piezoelectric vibrator 1
and the air load in the same manner as in the first embodiment, and when the projection 14
contacts the object to be measured, the contact pressure is pressure-sensitive. Transmit to the
conductive rubber 6. The change in the air resistance of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber
6 corresponding to the contact pressure can be extracted from between the ring-shaped member
13 and the electrode 12 and the electrode 2 on the main surface 6 of the piezoelectric vibrator 1.
According to this embodiment, since the contact pressure with the object to be measured is
transmitted to the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber e through the projection 14, the object to
be measured does not directly contact the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6, and
accordingly the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber Mechanical damage to the surface of e can
be prevented.
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Further, since the cross-sectional area of the protrusion 14 is sufficiently smaller than the area of
the main surface of the piezoelectric vibrator 1, the decrease in the transmission / reception
sensitivity is extremely small. In the above embodiment, the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber
6 is bonded to the electrode 2 of the piezoelectric vibrator 1 using a conductive adhesive.
However, the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 may be mechanically pressed at a constant
pressure. It is similar. The surface of the pressure-sensitive conductive rubber 6 on the side in
contact with the main surface 6 of the piezoelectric vibrator 1 has been described as having no
vapor deposition electrode, but the same applies to the case of having a vapor deposition
electrode. Effects of the Invention As is apparent from the above description, according to the
present invention, since the acoustic matching II provided on the main surface of the
piezoelectric vibrator uses a pressure-sensitive conductive rubber having an electrode, it is
possible to transmit and receive ultrasonic waves. When the object to be measured comes into
contact, it can function as a pressure sensor, and the operation of the manipulator or the like can
be performed accurately. Further, the distance sensor and the pressure sensor can be integrated
by a simple configuration.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
1 and 2 show a first embodiment of the composite sensor according to the present invention, FIG.
1 is a sectional view, FIG. 2 is a front view, and FIG. 3 is a sectional view showing a second
embodiment of the present invention. Fig. 4 is a cross sectional view showing a third
embodiment of the present invention, Fig. 5 is a cross sectional view of a conventional distance
sensor, and Figs. 6 (tL) and (b) are the conventional distance sensor and pressure sensor It is a
schematic diagram explaining the relative position of a manipulator and to-be-measured object.
1 и и и Piezoelectric vibrator, 2, 3 и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и и Pressuresensitive conductive rubber, 7 ииииииии Electrodes 8 иииииииии Backing material, 1 o ииииииии Electrodes 11 ?
иииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии Polymer
polymer thin film 12; и и и и и и и и и и и и и 13 и и и и и ring-shaped member, 14 и и и и и и и и и и projection.
Name of Agent Attorney Nakao Toshio Other 1 person Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure
5 Figure 6
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