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JP2006197208

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DESCRIPTION JP2006197208
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To detect a difference in distribution of sound waves in a
predetermined area. SOLUTION: A laser beam is reflected a plurality of times between the inner
peripheral surface and the outer peripheral surface of the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3 on the
same plane. Then, a circular area in the reflection ring 20-3, a toroidal area between the
reflection ring 20-3 and the reflection ring 20-2, and a donut shape between the reflection ring
20-2 and the reflection ring 20-1 Sound waves passing through the areas are detected by laser
light passing through these areas. [Selected figure] Figure 1
マイクロホン
[0001]
The present invention relates to a technology for detecting sound using light.
[0002]
As a microphone replacing the conventional dynamic type or condenser type, there is a
microphone disclosed in Patent Document 1.
The microphone emits a laser beam into the air, and converts a change in the amount of
refraction of the laser beam caused by the laser beam contacting the acoustic wave into an
electrical signal. According to this microphone, it is possible to prevent the deterioration of the
vibrating part due to long-term use and the breakage of the vibrating part due to the excessive
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input since the mechanical vibrating part is not required as in the dynamic type or the capacitor
type. There is. Unexamined-Japanese-Patent No. 5-227597
[0003]
Now, in the microphone disclosed in Patent Document 1, it is possible to detect a sound wave
that has passed through a predetermined area by widening the area through which laser light
passes in the air. However, Patent Document 1 does not disclose the measurement of the
distribution of the sound wave in the region through which the laser light passes, and the
difference in the distribution can not be detected.
[0004]
The present invention has been made under the above-described background, and an object of
the present invention is to provide a technology that makes it possible to detect differences in the
distribution of sound waves in a predetermined area.
[0005]
In order to solve the problems described above, the present invention is an annular member
having a reflective surface for reflecting light on its inner circumferential surface, and a plurality
of annular members each having a circumferential length different from each other, and the
plurality of annular members A light source provided for each member for outputting coherent
light with a predetermined beam diameter toward a space inside the inner peripheral surface of
the annular member, provided for each of the plurality of annular members, and output from the
light source Detecting means for receiving the coherent light reflected by the reflecting surface
and detecting a beam position of the received coherent light; signal output means for outputting
a signal corresponding to the beam position detected by the detecting means; There is provided a
microphone having support means for supporting the plurality of annular members such that the
direction of the opening formed by the inner circumferential surface is substantially the same.
[0006]
In a preferred aspect, the plurality of annular members may be annular members, and the
support means may support the plurality of annular members so as to be concentrically located.
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In addition, the annular member may be provided with a reflection surface that reflects light also
on the outer peripheral surface.
Further, the support means may support the plurality of annular members so as to be positioned
forward and backward in the direction of the opening formed by the inner circumferential
surface of the annular member. In the supporting means, the positions of the plurality of annular
members, the first position where the positions of the plurality of annular members are
concentric, and the plurality of annular members are formed by the inner circumferential surface
of the annular member It may be switchable to a second position which is back and forth in the
direction of the opening. The light source may further include control means for changing the
angle of light output from the light source in accordance with the position of the annular
member.
[0007]
According to the present invention, it is possible to detect the difference in the distribution of
sound waves in a predetermined area.
[0008]
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the
drawings.
FIG. 1 is an external view of a microphone 1 according to an embodiment of the present
invention, and FIG. 3 is a side view of the microphone 1. FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing the
hardware configuration of the microphone 1. As shown in FIG. 1, the microphone 1 supports the
housing 10, the stand 50 for supporting the housing 10, the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3, and
the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3. And a supporting portion 60.
[0009]
A support rod 61 and a reflection ring 20-1 are attached to the support portion 60, and a
reflection ring 20-2 and a reflection ring 20-3 are attached to the support rod 61. As shown in
FIG. 3B, the support rod 61 is pivoted to the front side of the microphone 1 by a motor and a
gear device (not shown) built in the support portion 60. Further, the reflection ring 20-2 and the
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reflection ring 20-3 rotate around the attachment portions 62-1 and 62-2 to the support rod 61
by a motor and a gear device (not shown). By rotating the support rod 61 and the reflection rings
20-2 and 20-3 by the motor and the gear device (not shown) in this manner, the reflection ring
20-1 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3A. 20B can be arranged concentrically, or as shown in FIG. 3B, it
can be pulled out to the front side of the microphone 1 and arranged in the front and back.
[0010]
The reflection ring 20-1 is an annular member, and the outer peripheral surface and the inner
peripheral surface are mirror surfaces by, for example, an aluminum deposition process. A part
of the inner peripheral surface of the reflection ring 20-1 is provided with a discharge port 31-1
for emitting a laser beam, and a predetermined wavelength and a predetermined beam are
provided inside the discharge port 31-1. Laser emitting unit 30-1 including a light source (not
shown) for outputting laser light of a diameter (coherent light) and a tilt device (not shown) for
varying the tilt angle of the light source by a motor and a gear device ing. In addition, the
wavelength of the laser beam which a light source outputs can be arbitrarily selected from a
visible region and an infrared region. In addition, the laser which is a part of the inner peripheral
surface of the reflection ring 20-1 and which is output from the laser emitting unit 30-1 and
reflected by the outer peripheral surface or the inner peripheral surface in a part adjacent to the
outlet 31-1. An incident port 41-1 through which light is incident is provided, and inside the
incident port 41-1, as shown in FIG. 4, a laser light receiving unit 40-1 in which photoelectric
conversion elements are arranged in an array is provided. It is buried. When laser light enters the
laser light receiving unit 40-1, among the photoelectric conversion elements arranged in an
array, the photoelectric conversion element that detects the light converts the light into an
electric signal, and outputs the generated electric signal. Do.
[0011]
The configuration of the reflection ring 20-2 and the reflection ring 20-3 is the same as that of
the reflection ring 20-1 except for the diameter of the ring, and the reflection ring 20-2 has a
discharge port 31-2, a laser emitting portion 30-2. , And an incident port 41-2 and a laser light
receiving unit 40-2, and the reflection ring 20-3 includes an emission port 31-3, a laser emitting
unit 30-3, an incident port 41-3 and a laser light receiving unit 40-3. Have. The configurations of
the reflection rings, the laser emitting unit, and the laser light receiving unit are the same, and
therefore, in the following, when it is not necessary to distinguish between the reflection rings,
the laser emitting unit, and the laser light receiving unit .
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[0012]
In the region inside the reflection ring 20, when no sound wave is generated in the air, the laser
light output from the light source goes straight in the air and is reflected by the outer peripheral
surface or the inner peripheral surface of the reflection ring 20 to receive the laser Light enters
the center of the unit 40. On the other hand, when a human emits a voice, a compressional wave
is generated in the air, and the dense portion and the coarse portion of the air propagate in the
air and pass inside the reflection ring 20. Then, the laser beam reflected by the reflection ring 20
passes through the air density. FIG. 5 is a view schematically showing the distribution of
compression and compression waves and the state of laser light refracted by the compression
and compression waves. As light travels through the medium and is refracted to the higher
density of the medium, in FIG. 5, the laser light is refracted toward the dense portion of the air.
Here, the amount of refraction of the laser light increases when the laser light passes through a
portion where the amount of change in air density is large (that is, the dense or rough portion of
the compressional wave), and the air density when no sound is generated It becomes smaller
when passing at the same density as. When the laser light is refracted, the incident position of
the laser light is displaced from the center in the laser light receiving unit 40, and the
displacement amount changes according to the period of the compressional wave (that is, the
frequency of the sound). That is, the amount of displacement increases in accordance with the
sound pressure level of the voice. That is, the displacement of the incident position of the laser
light represents a sound.
[0013]
As shown in FIG. 2, the audio signal output units 110-1 to 110-3 are connected to the laser light
receiving units 40-1 to 40-3 corresponding to the respective branch numbers. Each audio signal
output unit analyzes the electric signal output from the photoelectric conversion element of the
laser light receiving unit 40, and specifies the photoelectric conversion element that has received
the light. Then, the distance from the position of the photoelectric conversion element receiving
the light to the center point of the laser light receiving unit is determined. For example, the
voltage value is 0 at the center point, and the voltage corresponding to the distance when the
distance from the center point is long. Output a signal that becomes a value. As described above,
since the displacement of the position of the laser light in the laser light receiving unit 40
represents sound, the signal output corresponding to the detected position of the laser light
represents sound.
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[0014]
On the surface of the housing 10, a power switch 11 for supplying power from a power source
(not shown) to each part of the microphone 1 and a changeover switch 12 are disposed. Further,
a microcomputer 100 is embedded in the housing 10. The changeover switch 12 is a switch for
switching the arrangement of the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3 and the locus of the laser beam
output from the light source, and supplies a signal representing the position of the slider to the
microcomputer 100. In the present embodiment, the disposition of the reflection ring 20 and the
trajectory of the laser light can be switched in two ways, and the microcomputer 100 responds to
the signal supplied from the changeover switch 12 so that the laser emitting unit 30 can be used.
Control the motor and tilt the light source to a predetermined angle.
[0015]
The output angle and the trajectory of the laser beam for each position of the slider in the
changeover switch 12 are shown in FIG. When the slider of the changeover switch 12 is at the
position "1" at the left end, the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3 are arranged concentrically (Fig. 6
(a), Fig. 3 (a)), and the laser beam Is output from the laser emitting unit at the angle shown in FIG.
The laser beam output from the laser emitting unit 30-1 is reflected by the inner circumferential
surface of the reflecting ring 20-1 and the outer circumferential surface of the reflecting ring 202, and the laser light receiving unit has a locus shown in FIG. 6A. Light enters 40-1. The laser
beam output from the laser emitting unit 30-2 is reflected by the inner peripheral surface of the
reflection ring 20-2 and the outer peripheral surface of the reflection ring 20-3, and the laser
light is received at the locus shown in FIG. Light enters part 40-2. The laser beam output from
the laser emitting unit 30-3 is reflected by the inner circumferential surface of the reflection ring
20-3, and enters the laser light receiving unit 40-3 along the locus shown in FIG. 6A.
[0016]
Thus, when the slider position of the changeover switch 12 is set to the position "1", the laser
light is reflected a plurality of times between the inner peripheral surface and the outer
peripheral surface of the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3 on the same plane. Sound waves passing
through the reflection ring 20, the circular area in the reflection ring 20-3, the toroidal area
between the reflection ring 20-3 and the reflection ring 20-2, and the reflection ring 20-2 and
the reflection ring It can be detected in a toroidal region between 20-1 and 20-1. Then, by
comparing the signals output from the audio signal output units 110-1 to 110-3, it becomes
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possible to detect the difference in sound pressure level in the same plane, and for example, a
human emits a speech sound In this case, it becomes possible to detect the distribution of sound
pressure levels of sound waves centered on the mouth.
[0017]
On the other hand, when the slider of the changeover switch 12 is at the position of "2", as
shown in FIG. 3 (b), the support rod 61 pivots and the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3 are arranged
back and forth. The laser beam is output from the laser emitting unit at the angle shown in FIG.
The laser beam output from the laser emitting unit 30-1 is reflected by the inner peripheral
surface of the reflection ring 20-1, and enters the laser light receiving unit 40-1 along the locus
shown in FIG. 6B. The laser beam output from the laser emitting unit 30-2 is reflected by the
inner peripheral surface of the reflection ring 20-2, and enters the laser light receiving unit 40-2
along the locus shown in FIG. 6B. The laser beam output from the laser emitting unit 30-3 is
reflected by the inner peripheral surface of the reflection ring 20-3, and enters the laser light
receiving unit 40-3 along the locus shown in FIG. 6B.
[0018]
Thus, when the slider position of the changeover switch 12 is "2", the sound wave passing
through the reflection ring 20 is divided into a circular area in the reflection ring 20-3 and an
area near the inner peripheral surface of the reflection ring 20-2. It becomes possible to detect in
the field near the inner skin of reflective ring 20-1. And the output direction of a sound wave is
detectable by comparing the signal output from the audio | voice signal output part 110-1-1103, and calculating | requiring the phase difference between each signal. For example, when a
human emits a voice in front of the microphone 1, the sound wave first passes through the
reflecting ring 20-3, then passes through the reflecting ring 20-2, and finally passes through the
reflecting ring 20-1. Therefore, signals representing the same voice are output in the order of the
voice signal output units 110-3, 110-2, 110-1, and the phase of the signal output from the voice
signal output unit 110-3 is compared with other signals. Will go ahead. On the other hand, when
a human emits a voice behind the microphone 1, the sound wave first passes through the
reflection ring 20-1, then passes through the reflection ring 20-2, and finally passes through the
reflection ring 20-3. For this reason, signals representing the same voice are output in the order
of the voice signal output units 110-1, 110-2, 110-3, and the phase of the signal output from the
voice signal output unit 110-1 is compared with other signals. Will go ahead. Therefore, the
signals output from the audio signal output units 110-1 to 110-3 are compared, and if the phase
of the signal output from the audio signal output unit 110-3 is advanced, the sound wave is in
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front of the microphone 1. When the phase of the signal output from the audio signal output unit
110-1 is advanced, it can be detected that the sound wave is output from the back of the
microphone 1.
[0019]
As described above, according to the present embodiment, it is possible to detect sound waves in
a predetermined area and to detect the distribution of sound pressure levels and the output
direction of the sound waves. Further, according to the present embodiment, since the laser light
passes only the closed region in the reflection ring 20, the laser light does not enter the human
eye, and the voice can be detected safely.
[0020]
[Modifications] Although the embodiment of the present invention has been described above, the
present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and can be practiced in
various other forms. For example, the above-described embodiment may be modified as follows
to implement the present invention.
[0021]
In the embodiment described above, the member on which the reflecting surface is formed may
be in a polygonal ring shape instead of a circular shape. The members on which the reflecting
surface is formed may be different in shape from one another, for example, one in a ring shape
and one in a rectangular shape. In addition, the position of the laser light receiving unit 40 is not
limited to the vicinity of the laser emitting unit 30, and may be disposed at an arbitrary position
on the inner circumferential surface of the reflection ring 20. Alternatively, the inner
circumferential surface may be configured of a plurality of mirrors, and the angle of each mirror
may be varied according to the setting of the changeover switch 12 to vary the optical path
length of the laser light. Further, the number of reflection rings is not limited to three as in the
embodiment described above, and may be two or four or more. Further, also in the case where
only the inner side of the reflection rings 20-1 to 20-3 is a mirror surface, and the reflection
rings 20-1 to 20-3 are arranged concentrically, as shown in FIG. The laser light may not be
reflected by the outer peripheral surface of 20.
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[0022]
In the embodiment described above, the support rod 61 and the reflection rings 20-2 and 20-3
are rotated by the motor and the gear device, but they may be rotated manually. In the case of
manual rotation, the inclination of the support rod 61 may be detected, and the emission angle of
the laser light may be changed according to the inclination angle of the support rod 61.
[0023]
A distance sensor using ultrasonic waves may be provided in the housing 10, and the distance
sensor may measure the distance between the user and the microphone 1, and the emission
angle of the laser may be varied according to the measured distance. .
[0024]
In addition, after matching the phases of the signals output from the audio signal output unit
110-1 to the audio signal output unit 110-3, the respective signals are added to increase the
audio level of the audio signal output from the microphone 1 It is also good.
FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a microphone according to this aspect. The delay unit 120-1 delays
the audio signal output from the audio signal output unit 110-3, and the phase of the audio
signal output from the audio signal output unit 110-3 is output from the audio signal output unit
110-1. Delay the audio signal to match the phase of the signal being Also, the delay unit 120-2
delays the audio signal output from the audio signal output unit 110-2, and the phase of the
audio signal output from the audio signal output unit 110-2 is the same as that of the audio
signal output unit 110-1. Delay the audio signal to match the phase of the signal output from The
addition unit 130 adds the audio signal output from the audio signal output unit 110-1, the audio
signal output from the delay unit 120-2, and the audio signal output from the delay unit 120-3,
and adds them. Output the audio signal obtained as a result of According to this aspect, the
sound level of the sound signal generated by the sound wave from the front of the microphone 1
is increased, and the directivity of the microphone 1 is strengthened.
[0025]
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FIG. 1 is an external view of a microphone 1 according to an embodiment of the present
invention. FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing a hardware configuration of a microphone 1; It is a
side view of microphone 1 concerning an embodiment of the present invention. It is an external
view of a laser receiving part. It is a figure which represented the coarse and dense of the sound
wave typically. It is a figure showing the locus of a laser beam. It is a block diagram of
microphone 1 concerning the modification of the present invention.
Explanation of sign
[0026]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Microphone, 10 ... Housing | casing 11, 11 ... Power switch, 12 ...
Change-over switch, 20-1 to 20-3 ... Reflection ring, 30-1 to 30-3 ... Laser emitting part, 31-1 to
31-3 ... emitting port, 40-1 to 40-3 ... laser receiving part, 41-1 to 41-3 ... incident port, 50 ...
stand, 100 ... microcomputer, 110-1 to 110-3 ... audio signal output unit, 120-1, 120-2 ... delay
unit, 130 ... addition unit.
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