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JP2017139716

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This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
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DESCRIPTION JP2017139716
Abstract: To provide a sound collection device capable of collecting a three-dimensional sound in
all directions. A sound collection device (100) comprises a plurality of first microphones (110)
and a plurality of first microphones (110) arranged at a first distance from each other on a first
circumference having a first diameter. And a plurality of second microphones 120 disposed at a
second distance from each other on a second circumference having a second diameter smaller
than the first diameter at a position higher than the first diameter, and The second and third
circumferences are arranged concentrically as viewed from the direction in which the central axis
extends, and the second microphone 120 collects higher-pitched sound than the first microphone
110. [Selected figure] Figure 1
Sound collector
[0001]
The present invention relates to a sound collector.
[0002]
Conventionally, in a sound collection apparatus for collecting and switching the directivity of a
microphone directed to a plurality of sound collection targets located in different environments
according to the environment, as the microphone, a diaphragm vibrated by sound pressure and A
light source for irradiating the diaphragm with a light beam, a photodetector for receiving the
reflected light of the light beam irradiated to the diaphragm, and outputting a signal
corresponding to the vibration of the diaphragm; According to the environment, using an optical
microphone comprising a light source drive circuit driven to supply current and a negative
feedback circuit supplying the signal output from the light detector to the light source drive
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circuit as a negative feedback signal There is a sound collector characterized in that the amount
of negative feedback of the negative feedback circuit is switched (see, for example, Patent
Document 1).
[0003]
Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2001-19785
[0004]
However, in the conventional sound collection device, it is necessary to switch the directivity of
the microphone directed to the sound collection target according to the environment.
[0005]
For this reason, it is not possible to acquire voice other than the direction directed at the time of
sound collection. For example, when editing an audio signal after sound collection, voice in a
direction different from the directivity direction at the time of sound collection is obtained. I
could not.
[0006]
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a sound collection device capable of
collecting a three-dimensional sound in all directions.
[0007]
A sound collection apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention includes a
plurality of first microphones disposed at a first distance from each other on a first
circumference having a first diameter, and the plurality of first microphones. A plurality of
second microphones disposed at a second distance from each other on a second circumference
having a second diameter smaller than the first diameter at a position higher than the
microphones; The first circumference and the second circumference are arranged concentrically
as viewed from the direction in which the central axis extends, and the second microphone
collects a higher frequency range than the first microphone.
[0008]
It is possible to provide a sound collection device capable of collecting a three-dimensional sound
in all directions.
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[0009]
It is a figure showing sound collection device 100 of an embodiment.
It is a figure which shows the frequency band which sound collection parts 112 and 122 collect
sound.
It is a figure which shows the frequency band which sound collection parts 112 and 122 collect
sound.
[0010]
Hereinafter, an embodiment to which the sound collecting apparatus of the present invention is
applied will be described.
[0011]
<Embodiment> FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a sound collecting apparatus 100 according to an
embodiment.
[0012]
The sound collector 100 includes a base 101, a microphone 110, a microphone 120, fixing parts
131 and 132, and a stay 140.
The sound collection device 100 is a sound collection device that collects a three-dimensional
audio signal in all directions.
As an example, the audio signal obtained by the sound collection device 100 can be used for
sound production of 22.2 channels.
[0013]
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Here, the three-dimensional sound signal is not a sound that can be heard from the front to the
viewer like a two-channel sound signal constructing a stereo sound signal, but a threedimensional so as to surround the viewer from front, back, left, right or above. It is an audio
signal representing an audio that can be heard originally.
The 22.2 channel audio signal is an example of a three-dimensional audio signal.
Also, the omnidirectional is not limited to a specific directional direction, but is all directions
including front and rear, left and right, and upper and lower.
[0014]
In the space surrounding the viewer, the 22.2 channel sound source is divided into the viewer's
front (front), side (side) and back (back) in the front-rear direction, and in the upper and lower
directions, the upper layer (top layer) Since the sound is divided into three layers, the middle
layer (middle layer) and the lower layer (bottom layer), audio is provided to the viewer from all
directions to three-dimensional (three-dimensional).
[0015]
Basically, as shown in FIG. 1, the sound collection device 100 is used in a state where the
microphone 110 is positioned on the lower side and the microphone 120 is positioned on the
upper side.
Therefore, the vertical relationship in the posture of the sound collector 100 shown in FIG. 1 will
be described below.
[0016]
The base portion 101 is a member provided to hold the microphones 110 and 120.
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The base portion 101 is a main portion of the skeleton of the sound collection device 100.
Here, as an example, the base 101 is a cylindrical member.
[0017]
Eight microphones 110 are attached radially to the lower side of the base 101, and eight
microphones 120 are attached to the upper end of the base 101 so as to extend upward.
[0018]
There are eight microphones 110, which radially extend from the lower side of the base 101.
Each microphone 110 has a support 111, a sound collector 112, and a cover 113.
The eight microphones 110 all have the same configuration.
[0019]
The support portion 111 is a rod-like member, and extends in the radial direction of the base
portion 101.
The eight support portions 111 are fixed by the fixing portion 131. Since the eight support
portions 111 are arranged at equal intervals, an angle formed by two adjacent support portions
111 is 45 degrees. A sound collecting unit 112 is provided at the tip of the support unit 111.
[0020]
The sound collection unit 112 is a part that collects sound and converts it into an electric signal
(sound data), and is a microphone head. The sound collection unit 112 collects voice and outputs
voice data.
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[0021]
The eight sound collecting portions 112 are arranged at equal intervals on a circumference of
200 mm in diameter, facing the radial direction outer side of the cylindrical base 101. The
central axis of the circumference on which the eight sound collectors 112 are arranged at equal
intervals coincides with the central axis of the cylindrical shape of the base 101.
[0022]
The arrangement of the eight sound collectors 112 is determined such that the microphone 110
can obtain audio data in a frequency band lower than that of the microphone 120. Since the
wavelength is long when the frequency is low, the distance between two adjacent sound
collecting units 112 is wider than the distance between two adjacent sound collecting units 122.
[0023]
When voices generated from the sound source are collected by the eight sound collectors 112,
among the eight sound collectors 112, the sound collector 112 closest to the sound source
collects the voice the fastest, and from the sound source Sounds are collected sequentially
according to the distance. Based on the voice data obtained in this manner, it is possible to
specify the directions in which the sound sources are located with respect to the eight sound
collectors 112. That is, when sound is collected by eight sound collecting units 112, the direction
of the sound source can be specified. This means that the sound collection device 100 has
directivity.
[0024]
The sound collection unit 112 is covered by a cover 113. The cover 113 is provided to prevent
wind noise when the sound collection unit 112 collects sound, and is configured of a porous
member such as a sponge or a raised member.
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[0025]
With such a configuration, the eight microphones 110 are positioned relative to the base 101 so
that the sound collecting parts 112 are positioned concentrically with the cylinder of the base
101 at equal intervals on a circumference of 200 mm in diameter. It is fixed. The diameter of
200 mm is a value close to the distance between human ears.
[0026]
Human beings have been found to be characterized as sensitive to not only the difference in the
magnitude of the sound reaching the ears but also the phase difference depending on the
distance between the ears. Focusing on this point, the sound collection device 100 arranges eight
microphones 110 on a circumference of 200 mm in diameter as close to 18 to 24 cm as the
distance between the ears.
[0027]
The sound collection unit 112 is connected to the cord 112A. The cord 112 </ b> A is extended
toward the stay 140 along the support 111 and the base 101. For this reason, eight audio data
obtained by collecting sound by the eight sound collecting units 112 are taken out by an eight
cord 112A to an external device such as an amplifier to which the sound collecting device 100 is
connected.
[0028]
The eight microphones 120 extend upward from the top surface of the base 101. Each
microphone 120 includes a support 121, a sound collector 122, and a cover 123. The eight
microphones 120 all have the same configuration.
[0029]
The support portion 121 is a rod-like member, and extends upward from the upper surface of the
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base portion 101. The lower part of the eight support parts 121 is fixed by the fixing part 132.
The eight supports 121 are arranged at equal intervals. A sound collecting unit 122 is provided
at the tip (upper end) of the support unit 121. The sound collecting unit 122 is located 150 mm
above the sound collecting unit 112.
[0030]
The sound collection unit 122 is a part that collects sound and converts it into an electric signal
(sound data), and is a microphone head. The sound collection unit 122 collects voice and outputs
voice data.
[0031]
The eight sound collecting portions 122 are all arranged at equal intervals on a 50 mm diameter
circle so as to face upward from the upper surface of the cylindrical base 101. The central axis of
the circumference on which the eight sound collectors 122 are arranged at equal intervals
coincides with the central axis of the cylindrical shape of the base 101.
[0032]
The arrangement of the eight sound collectors 122 is determined so that the microphone 120
can obtain audio data in a frequency band higher than that of the microphone 110. When the
frequency is high, the wavelength is short, so the distance between two adjacent sound collecting
units 122 is smaller than the distance between two adjacent sound collecting units 112. For this
reason, the diameter of the circumference where the eight sound collecting portions 122 are
disposed is smaller than the diameter of the circumference where the eight sound collecting
portions 112 are disposed.
[0033]
The sound collecting unit 122 is covered by a cover 123. The cover 123 is provided to prevent
wind noise when the sound collection unit 122 collects sound, and is formed of a porous member
such as a sponge or a raised member.
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[0034]
With such a configuration, the eight microphones 120 are positioned relative to the base 101
such that the sound collecting portions 122 are positioned concentrically with the cylinder of the
base 101 at equal intervals on a 50 mm diameter circle. It is fixed.
[0035]
Here, eight sound collecting units 122 are positioned 150 mm above sound collecting unit 112
and arranged at equal intervals on a 50 mm diameter circle because the size of a human skull is
referred to is there.
Humans not only collect sound with the tympanic membrane, but also collect sound transmitted
to the skull. The sound collection device 100 places the sound collection unit 122 150 mm above
the sound collection unit 112 focusing on this point. The numerical value of 150 mm is an
example, and for example, it may be about 100 mm to 150 mm.
[0036]
A code 122A is connected to the sound collection unit 122. The cord 122A is extended toward
the stay 140 along the support portion 121 and the base portion 101.
[0037]
The fixing portion 131 is an annular member provided to fix the positions of the eight
microphones 110. The fixing portion 131 is provided with eight holes penetrating in the radial
direction at equal intervals in the circumferential direction, and eight supporting portions 111
are provided so as to penetrate the eight holes, respectively. There is. The fixing portion 131 is
fixed to the outer peripheral surface of the base portion 101. The eight supporting portions 111
are fixed by the fixing portion 131 as described above, and the positions of the eight sound
collecting portions 112 are fixed.
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[0038]
The fixing portion 132 is an annular member provided to fix the positions of the eight
microphones 120. The lower end sides of the eight support portions 121 are fixed to the inner
peripheral surface of the fixing portion 132 by adhesion or the like. The fixing portions 132 are
fixed to the lower ends of the eight support portions 121, whereby the eight support portions
121 are fixed, and the positions of the eight sound collecting portions 122 are fixed.
[0039]
The stay 140 is connected to the lower side of the base 101, and is provided to fix the sound
collection device 100 to a tripod or another device.
[0040]
2 and 3 are diagrams showing frequency bands in which the sound collecting units 112 and 122
collect sound.
[0041]
As shown in FIG. 2, the frequency band collected by the sound collection unit 112 is, for example,
20 Hz to 5 kHz.
Further, the frequency band in which the sound collection unit 122 collects sound is, for
example, 3 kHz to 20 kHz.
The frequency band collected by the sound collection unit 112 and the frequency band collected
by the sound collection unit 122 cross over between 3 kHz and 5 kHz.
[0042]
The frequency band of the audio data collected by the sound collection unit 112 is determined by
the positional relationship of the eight sound collection units 112. When the diameter of the
circumference on which the eight sound collectors 112 are arranged is reduced, the frequency
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band where the sound collectors 112 collect sound shifts to the higher frequency side. FIG. 3
shows a frequency band in which the sound collecting units 112 and 122 collect sound when the
frequency band in which the sound collecting unit 112 collects sound shifts to a higher
frequency side than in FIG. 2. In FIGS. 2 and 3, the frequency bands collected by the sound
collection unit 122 are the same.
[0043]
In FIGS. 2 and 3, the frequency bands collected by the sound collecting unit 122 are the same
because the positional relationship among the eight sound collecting units 122 is the same under
the conditions for obtaining the frequency bands in FIGS. 2 and 3 It is from.
[0044]
As described above, the lower eight microphones 110 acquire low-frequency audio data, and the
upper eight microphones 120 acquire high-frequency audio data. Three-dimensional sound can
be collected.
[0045]
The 22 speakers included in the 22.2 channel are divided into three layers, the upper layer (top
layer), the middle layer (middle layer), and the lower layer (bottom layer) in the vertical direction
in the space surrounding the viewer. .
In addition, the 22 speakers are divided into three positions in the front-rear direction, front,
side, and back in the space surrounding the viewer.
Here, the front is the direction in which the viewer faces, and is the side on which the screen or
display is installed. Also, two subwoofers included in the 22.2 channel are disposed in the lower
layer (bottom layer) in the front left and right.
[0046]
In such a 22.2 channel, the audio signal output from the 22 speakers is an audio signal in which
the level of the low frequency component is lowered as the speaker is installed at the upper side,
and the higher the speaker is located at the front lower side. It has been proved by experimental
results that by lowering the level of the component, it is possible for the viewer to feel intuitively
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incongruent with the sound heard in the natural world.
[0047]
By the way, in order to acquire such an audio | voice signal, implementation is very difficult with
one microphone, and even if it uses several microphones, it is very difficult to determine the
number and arrangement | positioning of a microphone.
[0048]
On the other hand, the sound collection device 100 according to the embodiment acquires voice
data on the low frequency side with the lower eight microphones 110 and acquires voice data on
the high frequency side with the upper eight microphones 120. There is.
[0049]
Also, due to the difference in position in the height direction between the lower eight
microphones 110 and the upper eight microphones 120, audio data acquired by the lower eight
microphones 110 and the upper eight microphones 120 are acquired. This causes a phase
difference with the audio data being
[0050]
Thus, the lower eight microphones 110 acquire low frequency side audio data, the upper eight
microphones 120 acquire high frequency side audio data, and the lower eight microphones 110
Phase difference between the voice data to be acquired and the voice data acquired by the upper
eight microphones 120, 24 pieces of data for 22.2 channels using 16 pieces of voice data
obtained by the sound collection device 100. Audio signals can be easily obtained.
[0051]
The sound collecting apparatus 100 can be easily used for 22.2 channel sound production by the
arrangement of the microphones 110 and 120 as described above, and a natural sound for the
viewer who sees the image of the screen or display in front. You can get a signal.
Thus, the sound collection device 100 enables three-dimensional sound collection in all
directions.
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[0052]
For the above reasons, the sound collection device 100 includes eight microphones 110 and
eight microphones 120 in order to collect three-dimensional sound in all directions.
[0053]
The frequency band in which the sound collection unit 122 located at the upper side collects the
sound is set to a frequency band higher than the frequency band at which the sound collection
unit 112 located in the lower side collects the sound.
[0054]
Furthermore, in order to collect three-dimensional sound, the lower eight microphones 110 can
be arranged by making the positions of the lower eight microphones 110 and the upper eight
microphones 120 different in the height direction. The phase difference is given to the audio
data acquired by the above and the audio data acquired by the upper eight microphones 120.
[0055]
As described above, according to the embodiment, it is possible to provide the sound collection
device 100 capable of collecting a three-dimensional sound in all directions.
[0056]
In addition, when signal processing is performed using audio data obtained using eight sound
collecting units 112 and eight sound collecting units 122, the directivity in the horizontal
direction is extremely narrow, such as 2 degrees, in any direction. Audio signal can be extracted.
[0057]
In the above, the embodiment using eight microphones 110 has been described as an example,
but if the microphones 110 are arranged symmetrically in a plane, audio data in a predetermined
frequency band lower than the microphones 120 can be obtained. For example, it may be less or
more than eight.
Also, the number of microphones 110 may be different from the number of microphones 120.
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[0058]
Further, although the embodiment using eight microphones 120 will be described above, if the
microphones 120 are arranged symmetrically in a plane and voice data of a predetermined
frequency band higher than the microphones 110 can be obtained, 8 will be described. It may be
less or more than one.
Also, the number of microphones 120 may be different from the number of microphones 110.
[0059]
Also, in the above, the embodiment has been described in which the diameter of the
circumference where the eight sound collecting portions 122 are disposed is smaller than the
diameter of the circumference where the eight sound collecting portions 112 are disposed.
However, when the number of sound collecting units 122 is larger and there are N (N is an
integer larger than 8), the diameter of the circumference where the N sound collecting units 122
are arranged is eight sound collecting units 112 May be equal to or greater than the diameter of
the circumference where it is placed.
[0060]
Furthermore, although the above describes the embodiment in which the sound collecting
apparatus 100 includes the cylindrical base 101, if the arrangement of the microphones 110 and
120 as described above can be realized, what kind of configuration and material the base 101
has It may be
[0061]
In the above, although the microphones 110 and 120 have been described as having the rod-like
support parts 111 and 121, the support parts 111 and 121 may be provided if the abovedescribed arrangement of the sound collection parts 112 and 122 can be realized. Any
configuration and material may be used.
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[0062]
Further, in the above, the configuration in which the positions of the eight microphones 110 are
fixed by the fixing unit 131 and the positions of the eight microphones 120 are fixed by the
fixing unit 132 has been described.
However, the configuration of the fixing portions 131 and 132 is not limited to the abovedescribed configuration.
As long as the positions of the eight microphones 110 and the eight microphones 120 can be
fixed, the configuration and the material of the fixing parts 131 and 132 may be any.
In this case, in order to fix the positions of the eight microphones 110 and the eight microphones
120, the fixing parts 131 and 132 may not be used.
[0063]
Furthermore, although the above description has been given of the embodiment in which the
three-dimensional audio signal is an audio signal of 22.2 channels, it may be 5.1 channels, 7.1
channels, or the like.
[0064]
Although the sound collecting apparatus of the exemplary embodiment of the present invention
has been described above, the present invention is not limited to the specifically disclosed
embodiment, and does not deviate from the scope of the claims. Various modifications and
changes are possible.
[0065]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 100 Sound collection apparatus 101 Base 110 Microphone 111
Support part 112 Sound collection part 113 Cover 120 Microphone 121 Support part 122
Sound collection part 123 Cover 131, 132 Fixing part 140 Stay
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