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JPH0923498

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DESCRIPTION JPH0923498
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an
ultrasonic transmitter-receiver used to measure the distance to an object.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art The structure of a conventional ultrasonic transmitter will be
described below. FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a conventional ultrasonic transmitter. In FIG. 7, 70
is a piezoelectric vibrator, 71 is a cone vibrator, 72 is a pin, 73 is a vibrating plate, 74 and 75 are
piezoelectric bodies,
[0003]
[0004] The size and direction of polarization of the piezoelectric body, and 76 are protrusions.
The piezoelectric vibrator 70 is a bimorph vibrator composed of the diaphragm 73 and the
piezoelectric members 74 and 75 having the same magnitude and direction of polarization (1)
sandwiching the diaphragm 73, and the natural frequency of the flexural vibration of the
piezoelectric vibrator. Has a structure in which the frequency is in the ultrasonic range.
Electrodes are formed on all the main surfaces of the piezoelectric members 74 and 75. The cone
vibrator 71 is a hollow conical vibrator produced by pressing a light metal thin plate such as
aluminum, and has a projection 76 at the apex of the conical vibrator. Then, the center of the
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vibration plate 73 is coupled to one end of the pin 72, and the protrusion 76 and one end of the
pin 72 are coupled to mechanically couple the piezoelectric vibrator 70 and the cone vibrator 71.
[0004]
Next, the operation of the ultrasonic transmitter configured as described above will be described.
First, an alternating voltage of the natural frequency of the flexural vibration is applied to the
piezoelectric vibrator 70 to excite the flexural vibration in the piezoelectric vibrator 70. Then, the
cone vibrator 71 receives the external force of the frequency of the bending vibration by the
bending vibration, and the acoustic energy is transmitted from the conical surface of the cone
vibrator 71 to the sound wave propagation medium adjacent to the conical surface by the
vibration. That is, ultrasonic waves are transmitted.
[0005]
The vibration displacement distribution of the ideal cone vibrator 71 for large sound pressure
output of ultrasonic waves is shown in FIG. In FIG. 8, a broken line 80 represents a cross section
of an ideal cone vibrator 71 before exciting the piezoelectric vibrator 70, a solid line 81
represents a cross section of an ideal cone vibrator 71 when exciting the piezoelectric vibrator
70, and an arrow Is the displacement direction of the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric
vibrator 70. In order to realize a large sound pressure output of ultrasonic waves, it is desirable
that the cone vibrator 71 vibrates in a piston shape in the deflection vibration displacement
direction with respect to the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator 70 as shown in FIG.
However, in practice, the cone vibrator 71 may vibrate asymmetrically with respect to the
flexural vibration direction. The cause may be the accuracy of the central symmetry of the cone
vibrator 71 and the piezoelectric vibrator 70, and the accuracy of the central symmetry when the
cone vibrator 71 and the piezoelectric vibrator 70 are coupled. As a result, as shown in FIG. 9,
the conical surface of the cone vibrator is asymmetrically displaced with respect to the flexural
vibration direction of the piezoelectric vibrator, so that the sound pressure output is reduced. In
FIG. 9, the broken line 90 is a cross section of the conical side surface of the conventional cone
vibrator 71 before exciting the piezoelectric vibrator 70, and the solid line 91 is a cross section
of the conical side surface of the cone vibrator 71 when exciting the piezoelectric vibrator 70.
The arrows indicate the deflection vibration displacement direction of the piezoelectric vibrator
70. Further, since the external force is applied to the pin 72 from the direction other than the
flexural vibration due to the asymmetric vibration, the mechanical strength of the pin 72 may be
reduced, and the pin may be broken. On the other hand, when attempting to increase the
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mechanical strength of the pin 72 with respect to the asymmetric vibration by thickening the pin
72, the load with respect to the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator increases, and it is
difficult to increase the sound pressure output.
[0006]
Further, since the ultrasonic wave receiver also has the same structure as the ultrasonic wave
transmitter, the asymmetric vibration of the cone vibrator 71 is the reception output efficiency of
the ultrasonic wave incident on the ultrasonic wave receiver, that is, the reception conversion
efficiency Make Further, FIG. 10 shows the structure of a conventional ultrasonic wave
transmitter in which the piezoelectric vibrator 70 has a drip-proof property. In FIG. 10, 100 is a
support, and 101 is a silicone rubber. The support 100 surrounds the piezoelectric vibrator 70
and is supported by being coupled to the cone vibrator 71 via the conical end of the cone
vibrator 71 and the silicone rubber 101. However, since the above-described supporting method
affects the vibration displacement of the cone vibrator 71, it is not necessarily appropriate to
increase the sound pressure output of the ultrasonic transmitter and the reception conversion
efficiency of the ultrasonic receiver.
[0007]
Further, since the inside of the conical surface of the cone vibrator 71 has a drip-proof property,
a material having water repellency is adhered to the inside of the surface. However, when the
water repellent material is adhered, the weight of the water repellent material is heavy, so that
the vibration displacement of the conical surface of the cone vibrator 71 becomes small, and the
sound pressure output of the ultrasonic transmitter becomes small. In addition, the connection
between the material having water repellency and the cone oscillator by the adhesion is not
sufficient for the vibration of the cone oscillator 71 at the time of large sound pressure output,
and the adhesion may be peeled off. Large output is difficult. Also in the case of an ultrasonic
receiver having the same structure as the ultrasonic transmitter, the adhesion of the waterrepellent material affects the reception conversion efficiency of the ultrasonic receiver.
[0008]
However, in the above-described conventional configuration, the center-symmetry accuracy of
the cone vibrator and the piezoelectric vibrator, and the center-symmetry accuracy at the time of
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coupling of the cone vibrator and the piezoelectric vibrator are the sound pressure of the
ultrasonic transmitter. It has a problem of affecting the output and the reception conversion
efficiency of the ultrasonic receiver. Further, in the structure in which the piezoelectric vibrator
has a drip-proof property, it has a problem that it is not necessarily appropriate for the sound
pressure output of the transmitter and the reception conversion efficiency of the receiver.
[0009]
Furthermore, the water repellent material combined with the conical surface of the cone
transducer has a problem of affecting the sound pressure output of the ultrasonic transmitter
and the reception conversion efficiency of the ultrasonic receiver. The present invention solves
the above-mentioned conventional problems, and does not improve the center-symmetry
accuracy of the cone vibrator and the piezoelectric vibrator, does not improve the centersymmetry accuracy when the cone vibrator and the piezoelectric vibrator are coupled, and the
cone vibrator An object of the present invention is to provide an ultrasonic transmitter having a
large sound pressure output and an ultrasonic receiver having a large reception conversion
efficiency, in which the piezoelectric vibrator has drip-proof properties.
[0010]
Means for Solving the Problems (1) In order to achieve the object, an ultrasonic transmitter
according to the present invention comprises a piezoelectric body, a diaphragm coupled to the
piezoelectric body, and an interior coupled to the diaphragm. A hollow conical vibrator is
provided, and the vibration of the diaphragm causes the conical vibrator to form symmetrical
nodes of vibration about the conical axis on the surface of the conical. Also, the symmetrical
vibration nodes have an annular shape. Furthermore, a symmetrical vibration node is formed in
the vicinity of the apex of the cone or in the vicinity of the conical end of the conical oscillator.
(2) In addition, a piezoelectric body, a diaphragm coupled to the piezoelectric body, a hollow
conical vibrator coupled to the diaphragm, a hollow conical vibrator, and a diaphragm coupled to
the piezoelectric body and the piezoelectric body. A support for supporting the conical end of the
conical vibrator is provided, and the support is configured to apply an external force to the
conical vibrator in the radial direction of the conical bottom surface. (3) Furthermore, a
piezoelectric body, a vibrating plate coupled to the piezoelectric body, and a vibrator having a
hollow conical shape coupled to the vibrating plate are provided, and the conical surface of the
conical vibrator is made water repellant It has the structure which forms into a film the
monomolecular film which it has.
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[0011]
(1) With this configuration, since the conical vibrator has nodes of vibration symmetrical about
the conical axis on the surface of the conical due to the vibration of the diaphragm, in the
direction of the conical axis against the vibration of the vibrating plate Only vibrates, and is less
susceptible to external force from the direction perpendicular to the conical axis, and the
mechanical strength of the coupled portion of the diaphragm and the conical vibrator becomes
stronger. The improvement of the reception conversion efficiency of the sound wave receiver can
be realized. (2) Further, a support body surrounding the piezoelectric body and the diaphragm
coupled to the piezoelectric body and supporting the conical end of the conical vibrator applies
an external force in the radial direction of the conical bottom surface of the conical vibrator
Therefore, the conical vibrator vibrates only in the axial direction of the cone with respect to the
vibration of the diaphragm, and the conical vibrator is hard to receive external force from the
direction perpendicular to the axis of the cone. Since the mechanical strength of the connecting
portion of the diaphragm and the conical vibrator becomes strong, the sound pressure output of
the ultrasonic transmitter while the piezoelectric vibrator and the conical vibrator have dripproof properties And the improvement of the receiving conversion efficiency of an ultrasonic
receiver is realizable. (3) Furthermore, when a monolayer having water repellency is formed on
the conical surface of a conical oscillator, the monolayer is light in weight, and the coupling
strength of the conical oscillator with the conical surface is large. Also, because it has water
repellent properties, it has an impact on the ultrasonic wave transmitter and reception
conversion efficiency that are unlikely to affect large sound pressure output even though the
piezoelectric vibrator and the conical vibrator have drip-proof properties. It is possible to realize
an ultrasonic receiver which is difficult to supply.
[0012]
(First Embodiment) The first embodiment of the present invention will be described with
reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a block diagram and a top view of an ultrasonic wave
transmitter showing a first embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 1, 10 is a piezoelectric
vibrator, 11 is a cone vibrator, 12 is a pin for mechanically coupling the piezoelectric vibrator 10
and the cone vibrator 11, 13 is a vibration plate, 14 and 15 are piezoelectric bodies, and 16 is a
protrusion , 17 is a node of vibration. The piezoelectric vibrator 10 is a bimorph vibrator
composed of a vibrating plate 13 and piezoelectric members 14 and 15 having the same size and
direction of polarization with the vibrating plate 13 interposed therebetween. It has a structure in
which the frequency is a frequency in the ultrasonic region. Further, electrodes are formed on all
the main surfaces of the piezoelectric members 14 and 15. The cone vibrator 11 is a hollow
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conical vibrator made of metal such as aluminum, and has a projection 16 at the apex of the
conical vibrator. Then, one end of the pin 12 is coupled to the center of the diaphragm 13 and
one end of the pin 12 is coupled to the protrusion 16 to mechanically couple the piezoelectric
vibrator 10 and the cone vibrator 11. Furthermore, the cone vibrator 11 has annular vibration
nodes 17, 18 and 19 around the conical axis in the vicinity of the conical apex of the conical
surface at the frequency of the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator.
[0013]
Next, the operation of the ultrasonic transmitter configured as described above will be described.
First, an alternating voltage is applied to the bimorph vibrator to excite the flexural vibration in
the piezoelectric vibrator 10. Then, the cone vibrator 11 coupled to the piezoelectric vibrator
vibrates in the conical axis direction of the cone vibrator at the frequency of the flexural
vibration, but at this time, the annular vibration node 17 is formed on the conical surface. A
cross-sectional view of the vibration displacement distribution of the conical surface of the cone
vibrator 11 in the above case is shown in FIG. In FIG. 2, a broken line 20 shows a cross section of
a conical surface of the cone vibrator 11 before the piezoelectric vibrator 10 is excited for
flexural vibration, and a solid line 21 shows the cone vibrator 11 when the piezoelectric vibrator
10 is excited for flexural vibration. The cross section of the conical surface of the figure, the
arrow is the vibration displacement direction applied to the cone vibrator 11 by the flexural
vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator 10. As shown in FIG. 2, since the vibration nodes 17 are
formed symmetrically with respect to the conical axis, the conical surfaces of the cone vibrator
11 are displaced in opposite phases on the left and right of the vibration nodes 22 and 23, and
The entire vibrator 11 is displaced symmetrically in the conical axis direction. Therefore, the
cone vibrator 11 can vibrate only in the flexural vibration direction with respect to the vibration
in the flexural vibration direction 22 of the piezoelectric vibrator 10, and the sound pressure
output can be increased. Further, since the pin 12 vibrates as a rigid body only in the flexural
vibration direction, it is hard to receive an external force from the direction perpendicular to the
vibration, the mechanical strength of the pin 12 becomes strong, and the pin 12 is not broken by
the vibration.
[0014]
Another example of the shape of the vibration node symmetrical about the conical axis is shown
in FIG. FIG. 3 is a view of the cone vibrator 11 as viewed from above, and broken lines 30, 31, 32,
33 are nodes of vibration. FIG. 3A shows a ring-shaped vibration node, but the vibration node is
formed in the vicinity of the conical end of the conical cone vibrator. (B) and (c) are examples of
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the nodes of the above-mentioned vibration of a shape other than a ring, (b) is a square, (c) is a
node of a regular hexagonal vibration. Furthermore, the nodes of the vibration may have any
shape symmetrical about the conical axis as shown in (d). The node of the vibration is a natural
vibration mode of the cone vibrator 11 determined by the size and shape of the cone vibrator 11.
Therefore, the sound pressure output can be increased by matching the resonant frequency of
the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator 10 with the natural frequency of the cone
vibrator. In addition, the presence of the node of the vibration makes it possible to obtain the
symmetry of the piezoelectric vibrator and the cone vibrator, or the cone vibrator 11 without
increasing the precision of the symmetry of the piezoelectric vibrator 10 and the cone vibrator
11 when coupled. It can oscillate symmetrically in the axial direction of the cone.
[0015]
Also, by having the node position of vibration symmetrical in the direction of the conical axis
closer to the apex of the cone or the conical end of the container as shown in the present
embodiment than the center of the conical surface of the cone transducer The energy transfer
efficiency is improved and the sound pressure output is further increased. Furthermore, the
ultrasonic wave receiver has the same structure as that of the ultrasonic wave transmitter, so that
the cone transducer of the ultrasonic wave receiver is directed in the direction of the conical axis
against the incidence of the ultrasonic wave on the ultrasonic wave receiver. Since it vibrates
symmetrically, the reception output efficiency of the ultrasonic waves, that is, the reception
conversion efficiency is improved.
[0016]
As described above, according to the present embodiment, the cone vibrator is symmetrical in
the direction of the conical axis with respect to the vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator by
having a cone vibrator having nodes of vibration symmetrical about the conical axis. Because of
the vibration, the sound pressure output of the ultrasonic transmitter and the reception
conversion efficiency of the ultrasonic receiver can be increased. Second Embodiment A second
embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 4 is a
block diagram and a top view of an ultrasonic wave transmitter showing a second embodiment of
the present invention. In FIG. 4, 10 is a piezoelectric vibrator, 11 is a cone vibrator, 12 is a pin
for mechanically coupling the piezoelectric vibrator 10 and the cone vibrator 11, 13 is a
diaphragm, 14 and 15 are piezoelectric bodies, and 16 is a protrusion 40 is a support, 41 is a
film, 42 is a soft adhesive, 43 is a conical end of the cone vibrator 11, and 44 is a contact portion
of the support 40 with the film 41. The piezoelectric vibrator 10 is a bimorph vibrator composed
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of a vibrating plate 13 and piezoelectric members 14 and 15 having the same size and direction
of polarization with the vibrating plate 13 interposed therebetween. It has a structure in which
the frequency is a frequency in the ultrasonic region. Further, electrodes are formed on all the
main surfaces of the piezoelectric members 14 and 15. The cone vibrator 11 is a hollow conical
vibrator made of metal such as aluminum, and has a projection 16 at the apex of the conical
vibrator. Then, one end of the pin 12 is coupled to the center of the diaphragm 13 and one end
of the pin 12 is coupled to the protrusion 16 to mechanically couple the piezoelectric vibrator 10
and the cone vibrator 11. Further, the support body 40 is coupled to the conical end of the cone
vibrator 11 through the film 41, surrounds the piezoelectric vibrator 10 and the cone vibrator
11, and further, the piezoelectric vibrator 10 is a node of the flexural vibration of the
piezoelectric vibrator. It has a structure supported by a soft adhesive 42 at the position.
[0017]
Furthermore, the support body 40 applies a symmetrical tension about the conical axis in the
radial direction of the conical bottom with respect to the conical end of the conical vibrator 11 to
support the conical vibrator. The method of applying the above tension utilizes the thermal
expansion property of the film 41 and bonds the contact portion 44 of the film 41 and the film
41 of the support 40 in the adhesion of the film 41 and the cone oscillator 11 and the support
40 This is achieved by applying a temperature higher than the adhesion of the film 41 and the
conical end 43 of the cone vibrator 11 and thermally curing the adhesive. Then, since the film 41
extends radially outward of the conical bottom surface, the conical end 43 of the cone vibrator
11 is in a state where tension is applied in the radial direction of the conical bottom surface.
[0018]
The operation method of the ultrasonic transmitter of the present invention is performed by the
method described in the first embodiment. The vibration displacement of the ultrasonic
transmitter at that time is shown in FIG. Although the cone vibrator 11 vibrates due to the
flexural vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator 10, the cone vibrator vibrates only in the direction
of the conical axis symmetrically because the tension is applied to the conical end 43 of the cone
vibrator 11. It does not vibrate in the direction perpendicular to the conical axis. Therefore, the
sound pressure output can be increased by the contents described in the first embodiment. In
addition, since the piezoelectric vibrator 10 is surrounded by the support 40, the cone vibrator
11 and the film 41, the piezoelectric vibrator 10 has a structure excellent in drip-proof
properties.
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[0019]
Further, the ultrasonic wave receiver also has the same structure as the ultrasonic wave
transmitter, so that the cone vibrator of the ultrasonic wave receiver is directed in the direction
of the conical axis with respect to the incidence of the ultrasonic wave on the ultrasonic wave
receiver. Because it vibrates symmetrically, the reception conversion efficiency of ultrasonic
waves is increased. In addition, it is possible to realize a structure excellent in drip-proof
properties. As described above, according to this embodiment, the support that surrounds the
piezoelectric vibrator and supports the cone vibrator at the conical end of the cone vibrator
applies tension in the radial direction of the conical bottom surface of the cone vibrator. Thus,
the cone vibrator vibrates symmetrically about the cone axis in the conical axis direction with
respect to the vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator, so that the ultrasonic wave transmission can
be performed even though the piezoelectric vibrator has drip-proof properties. The sound
pressure output of the transducer and the receive conversion efficiency of the ultrasound
receiver can be increased.
[0020]
Although the piezoelectric vibrator is supported by using a soft adhesive at the node position of
the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator in the present embodiment, the piezoelectric
vibrator is supported on a soft material such as cotton. It may be a structure in which
Embodiment 3 A third embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to
the drawings. FIG. 6 is a schematic view and a top view of an ultrasonic transmitter showing a
third embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 6, 10 is a piezoelectric vibrator, 11 is a cone
vibrator, 12 is a pin for mechanically coupling the piezoelectric vibrator 10 and the cone vibrator
11, 13 is a diaphragm, 14 and 15 are piezoelectric bodies, and 16 is a protrusion , 60 is a
monomolecular film. The piezoelectric vibrator 10 is a bimorph vibrator composed of the
diaphragm 13 and the piezoelectric members 14 and 15 having the same magnitude and
direction of polarization (the first one) between the diaphragm 13 and the natural frequency of
the flexural vibration of the piezoelectric vibrator. Has a structure in which the frequency is in
the ultrasonic range. Further, electrodes are formed on all the main surfaces of the piezoelectric
members 14 and 15. The cone vibrator 11 is a hollow conical vibrator made of metal such as
aluminum, and has a projection 16 at the apex of the conical vibrator. Then, one end of the pin
12 is coupled to the center of the diaphragm 13 and one end of the pin 12 is coupled to the
protrusion 16 to mechanically couple the piezoelectric vibrator 10 and the cone vibrator 11.
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[0021]
As shown in FIG. 6, the monomolecular film 60 is formed inside the conical surface of the cone
vibrator 11. The preparation of the monomolecular film is performed by the LB method. That is,
a molecule having a hydrophilic group and a hydrophobic group is transferred to the inside of
the conical surface of the cone oscillator 11 subjected to the hydrophilic treatment to form a film.
The hydrophobic group is formed on the surface of the monomolecular film by the above
manufacturing method. Therefore, the cone vibrator 11 has water repellency and can obtain
drip-proof properties. Although it is necessary to increase the vibrational displacement of the
conical surface of the cone vibrator 11 for the large output of the sound pressure of the
ultrasonic wave, the above monomolecular film is thin and light in weight, so that the weight of
the cone vibrator 11 is small. It does not affect the vibration displacement, thus maintaining a
large sound pressure output. Furthermore, by the method of forming a monomolecular film, the
bonding strength with the monomolecular film on the inner side of the conical surface of the
cone oscillator is increased, and the monomolecular film is less likely to be peeled off by the
vibration of the cone oscillator 11 and stable. Sound pressure output can be realized.
[0022]
Further, the ultrasonic wave receiver also has the same structure as the ultrasonic wave
transmitter, so that even if the monomolecular film is formed, the vibration of the cone vibrator
of the ultrasonic wave receiver is not affected. It does not affect the reception conversion
efficiency of ultrasonic waves, and can have drip-proof properties. As described above, according
to the present embodiment, when the monomolecular film is formed inside the conical surface of
the cone oscillator, the monomolecular film is light in weight, and the bonding strength with the
conical surface of the corn oscillator is large, In addition, as it has water repellent properties, it
realizes an ultrasonic wave transmitter that does not affect large sound pressure output and an
ultrasonic wave receiver that does not affect reception conversion efficiency, even though the
cone vibrator has drip-proof properties. can do.
[0023]
(1) As described above, according to the present invention, since the conical vibrator has nodes
of vibration symmetrical about the conical axis on the surface of the conical due to the vibration
of the diaphragm, the conical Increase in sound pressure output of ultrasonic transmitter with a
simple structure that does not increase the centrosymmetric accuracy of the transducer and the
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diaphragm, and does not increase the centrosymmetric accuracy when the conical transducer
and the diaphragm are coupled And the reception conversion efficiency of ultrasonic waves can
be increased. (2) Further, a support body surrounding the piezoelectric body and the diaphragm
coupled to the piezoelectric body and supporting the conical end of the conical vibrator applies
an external force in the radial direction of the conical bottom surface of the conical vibrator
According to the above-described structure, it is possible to realize an ultrasonic transmitter
having a large sound pressure output and an ultrasonic receiver having a large reception
conversion efficiency, while having drip-proof properties of the piezoelectric body and a
diaphragm coupled to the piezoelectric body. (3) Further, by forming a water-repellent
monomolecular film on the conical surface of the conical vibrator, the above-mentioned conical
vibrator has a drop-proof property, which affects the large sound pressure output. It is possible
to realize an ultrasonic transmitter which does not give and an ultrasonic receiver which does not
affect the reception conversion efficiency.
[0024]
Brief description of the drawings
[0025]
1 shows the configuration of the ultrasonic transmitter in the first embodiment of the present
invention
[0026]
Fig. 2 Cross-sectional view of vibration displacement of the same cone vibrator
[0027]
Fig. 3 Diagram of a cone oscillator with concentrically symmetrical nodes of oscillation
[0028]
4 shows the configuration of the ultrasonic transmitter in the second embodiment of the present
invention
[0029]
Fig. 5 Diagram of the same vibration displacement
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[0030]
6 is a diagram showing the configuration of the ultrasonic transmitter in the third embodiment of
the present invention
[0031]
Fig. 7 A block diagram of the conventional ultrasonic transmitter
[0032]
Fig. 8 Cross section of vibration displacement of an ideal cone oscillator
[0033]
Fig. 9 Cross-sectional view of vibration displacement of conventional cone vibrator
[0034]
Fig. 10 Diagram of a conventional ultrasound transmitter with drip-proof properties
[0035]
Explanation of sign
[0036]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Piezoelectric vibrator 11 Cone vibrator 13 Vibrating plate 14
and 15 Piezoelectric body 17 Vibration node 40 Support body 60 Monomolecular film
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