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JPH04170199

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DESCRIPTION JPH04170199
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
speaker for use in, for example, a level detection apparatus for detecting whether or not an object
to be measured such as liquid or particles stored in a tank has reached a predetermined level. .
[Prior Art] For example, a general-purpose small-sized dynamic speaker employed in, for
example, audio equipment etc., is a permanent magnet having a circular deep groove, and is
wound around a cylinder in the groove of the permanent magnet. From a coil which is disposed
reciprocably displacing without coming into contact with it and to which an external signal is
supplied, and which is integrally formed and vibrated with a coiled cylinder of the coil and which
vibrates air. It is configured. And the frequency characteristic of the speaker is made flat by
adjusting the balance of various components of the vibration system such as a coil, cone paper,
etc. as a whole to fulfill the function as one part of the acoustic device. [Problems to be Solved by
the Invention] As described above, the speaker is treated as one component constituting an
acoustic device, and technological development has been made only to upgrade the performance
of the acoustic device. Therefore, the frequency characteristics of recent loudspeakers are
designed to be flattered (in other words, to make the Q value at the resonance point smaller to
make the frequency characteristics flat) and to exhibit excellent performance as an acoustic
component. It became so. Therefore, when trying to use a speaker that is mass-produced and
cost-reduced as described above for an acoustic level switch such as the one currently developed
by Kosei, the Q factor at the resonance point is small and the small power The problem that it
can not drive occurred. In addition, if conventional speakers are produced only for the abovementioned acoustic level switch, the production becomes small and the cost increases, leading to
an increase in the cost of the acoustic level switch itself, and even if it is developed, it is a product
There is a possibility that the problem of not selling can occur. [Means for Solving the Invention]
The present invention was made in view of the above-mentioned points, and therefore comprises
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1
air vibration means and drive means for driving and controlling the air vibration means from an
external circuit. In the speaker, the air vibration means is a speaker provided with a resonance
point generation means. [Operation] According to the configuration of the present invention, a
mass of an adhesive or the like is attached to, for example, cone paper etc. of a generally
commercially available speaker, a resonance point is generated intentionally, and the resonance
point is actively used. Drive the speakers with low power. EXAMPLE First, the configuration of
the speaker (1) of the present invention will be described based on FIG. 1. In FIG. 1, except for
the adhesive (1 d), it is currently marketed. It is the same as the speaker for the purpose.
(1e) is a permanent magnet, (1f) is a support frame member, (1g) is cone paper, (1h) is the same
weight provided at the position vertically or horizontally symmetrical with respect to the center
X of cone paper (1g) A predetermined amount of the adhesive is applied to corn paper (1 g) and
solidified. (11) is a ring-shaped fixing member for adhesively fixing the peripheral portion of the
corn paper (1g) to the peripheral portion of the support frame member (1f). (1j) is a drive coil.
The elements of the secondary vibration system consisting of cone paper (1g) of a commercially
available speaker (1) designed to have flat frequency characteristics by the above configuration,
ie, the mass changes, so the resonance point (resonance frequency) Will occur. Although the
adhesive (1 h) is applied to the cone paper (1 g) in the above embodiment, for example, a
predetermined amount of paint or the like may be applied by spraying or the like around the
center line X. Moreover, it may be a combination of both. Next, an acoustic level switch using the
speaker (1) according to the present invention will be described from the basic principle based
on FIG. 2 to FIG. (1) is the above-mentioned speaker having a resonance point in frequency
characteristics, which is sinusoidally driven by the oscillation circuit (4). The electrical equivalent
circuit of the speaker (1) is generally represented by a series circuit of a capacitor (Ia), a coil (lb),
a resistor (1c) and a variable acoustic impedance (1d) as shown in FIG. However, when the
speaker (1) is driven at the resonant frequency, the combined impedance of the capacitor (la) and
the coil (1b) becomes O (Ω), and as a result, the electrical equivalent circuit of the speaker (1)
Becomes as shown in FIG. (2) is a cylindrical body (cylindrical member) with both ends opened in
the cylindrical shape, the other end opening (A) of the cylindrical body (2) is opened, and the one
end opening is the speaker (1) Is blocked by In addition, the length of the cylinder (2) is set to an
odd multiple of 174 wavelengths of the sine wave drive signal of the speaker (1), and a node is
formed at the other end opening (A) of the cylinder (2) Standing waves are set to occur. With the
above configuration, when the one end opening (A) of the cylindrical body (2) is in the open
state, the sound wave emitted from the speaker (1) is a standing wave (in the cylindrical body (2)
The solid line waveform of FIG. However, as shown in FIG. 4, the other end opening (A) of the
cylinder (2) is an object (? Il! When completely occluded by the fixed object (3), the sound
wave (solid line waveform in FIG. 4) emitted from the speaker (1) hits the object (3) at the node
portion and switches to the antiresonance state ( It is shown by a dotted line waveform 90 ° out
of phase with respect to the solid line waveform of FIG. 4).
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2
That is, the other end opening (A) becomes an antinode to change the variable acoustic
impedance (1 d) of the speaker (1) to a high impedance. In addition, since the speaker (1) is
driven at the same drive frequency as the resonance frequency (the resonance frequency of the
resonance circuit formed by the capacitor (1a) and the coil (1b)) specific to the speaker (1), The
electrical equivalent circuit of 1) is a series circuit of a resistor (IC) and a variable acoustic
impedance (1 d) as shown in FIG. Therefore, the combined impedance (capacitor (la)) when the
other end opening (A) of the cylindrical body (2) is open. It is possible to detect the difference
between the coil (1b), the resistance (1c) and the variable acoustic impedance (1d) and the
composite impedance (the sum of the resistance (1c) and the variable acoustic impedance (1d))
when closed. For example, it can be detected whether the object (3) completely occludes the
other end opening (A). In the above description, the standing wave serving as a node is set at the
other end opening (A), but the standing wave serving as an antinode may be set. In this case, the
other end opening (A) is opened. It is in the anti-resonance state in the presence state, and
switches to the resonance state in the closed state by the object (3). Next, specific examples
based on the principle described in FIGS. 2 to 5 will be described with reference to FIGS. 6 and 7.
FIG. In FIGS. 6 and 7, the same components or equivalents as those in FIGS. 2 to 5 are denoted by
the same reference numerals, and the description thereof will be omitted. That is, (11) is
communicated with the space (2a) of the cylinder (2) via a pipe (12) described later, and covers
the speaker (1) in an airtight state from the rear, (12) A small diameter pipe for providing high
resistance when driving 1), low resistance when not driving, and static pressure in space (2a) and
(lla), (13) in the cover It is a circuit unit arranged in the formed space (lla). Next, each circuit
constituting the circuit unit (13) will be described based on FIG. That is, (5) is the combined
impedance R4 of the resistors R1, R2 and R3 and the speaker (1) (usually in the resonance state,
the resistance (1c) and the variable acoustic impedance (1d) shown in FIG. A bridge circuit to
which a sinusoidal oscillation output is supplied from the oscillation circuit (4), the other end
opening (A) of the cylinder (2) is blocked by the object (3) When not open, the equation R1 · R3 =
R2 · R4 holds, and the voltage value at the connection point between the resistor R1 and the
combined impedance R4 and the voltage value at the connection point between the resistors R2
and R3 become the same. The same voltage is output.
When the other end opening (A) is closed by the object (3), the variable acoustic impedance (] d)
is maximized, and the equation R1-R3 ≠ R2 · R4 is established, and the resistor and the
combined impedance R4 The voltage value at the connection point between the terminals R2 and
R3 is larger than the voltage value at the connection point between the resistors R2 and R3. (6a),
(6b) are first and second half wave rectification circuits, and two voltage values outputted from
the bridge circuit (5) are supplied from the bridge circuit (5), and half wave rectification is
performed on each of them. Output. (7a), (7b) are first and second integrating circuits that
integrate the rectified output supplied from the first and second half wave rectifier circuits (6a)
and (6b) with a predetermined time constant, (8) Is a comparison circuit that compares the
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3
integration outputs supplied from the first and second integration circuits (7a) and (7b) and
outputs a high level signal when the output of the second integration circuit (7b) is large. . The
above is the circuit unit (13), and the output signal from this circuit unit (13) is supplied to the
notification lamp (9) mounted outside the cylinder (2), and the output signal of the comparison
circuit (8) is It is a notification lamp which is turned on when the output becomes high level, and
notifies that the other end opening (A) of the cylinder (2) is blocked by the object (3). With the
configuration as described above and the speaker (1) being driven at the same frequency as the
frequency of its resonance point, the other end opening (A) of the cylinder (2) is opened in the
state shown in FIG. And being in resonance, the bridge circuit (5) is balanced and the first and
second integrating circuits (7a). The integral output from (7b) will be identical. Therefore, the
output of the comparison port M (8) is at a high level, and the notification lamp (9) is in a nonlighting state. Next, when the other end opening (A) of the cylinder (2) in resonance state is
blocked by the object (3), the standing wave is switched to the anti-resonance state (indicated by
dotted line in FIG. 4) The variable acoustic impedance R4 of the speaker (1) is changed to a
larger value by the sine wave shown), and the bridge circuit (5) becomes R1 · R3 ≠ R2 · R4 and
becomes unbalanced. As a result, the integration outputs from the first and second integration
circuits (7a) and (7b) differ in magnitude from each other, and the notification lamp (9) is driven
to light by the high level output signal from the comparison circuit (8) Being informed that they
are closed. Next, the operation of the above configuration will be described based on FIG. In FIG.
8, the cylinder (2) is attached obliquely downward to the tank (15), and it is detected whether or
not the stored item (14) in the tank (15) has reached a predetermined level position. ing.
For example, when the measurement object (14) is positioned below the other end opening (A) of
the cylinder (2) as shown in the figure, the standing wave in the cylinder (2) is in a resonant
state, In the bridge circuit (5), since the same voltage is outputted from both connection points,
the output of the comparison circuit (8) becomes low level and the lamp (9) is in the non-lighting
state. Next, when the level of the measurement object (14) rises and the other end opening (A) of
the cylinder (2) is closed or close to it, the standing wave changes to the antiresonance state, and
the speaker The variable acoustic impedance (ld) of (1) is changed to high resistance. As a result,
the output voltage of the second integration circuit (7b) exceeds the output voltage of the □ i
integration circuit (7a), the output of the comparison circuit (8) becomes high level, and the lamp
(9) lights up. It is As described above, according to the present invention, there is provided a
speaker comprising the air vibration means and the movement means for controlling the air
vibration means from the external circuit and performing an immediate control, wherein the air
vibration means is a resonance point generating means Since the speaker is characterized in that
it is provided with a speaker, it is possible to exhibit a unique effect that a resonance point can be
easily given to a general commercial speaker without making a custom-made product.
[0002]
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4
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional explanatory view of a speaker for detailed explanation of the present
invention, FIG. 2 is a principle explanatory view of a level switch using the speaker shown in FIG.
1, and FIG. 3 is a speaker in FIG. Fig. 4 is an operation explanatory diagram for explaining the
operation of the above principle, Fig. 5 is an electric equivalent circuit of the speaker (1) in a
resonance state, Fig. 6 is Fig. 2 FIG. 7 is an explanatory view showing an example of the principle
explanatory view in FIG. 7, FIG. 7 is an explanatory view of a rapid motion and detection circuit
connected to the speaker (1), and FIG. 8 is a case where the unit shown in FIG. FIG.
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