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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an
artificial measurement system. Wideband, low noise artificial heads with a large dynamic range
are already known (DE 3 146 706). It combines the precise repeatability of the geometric
structure of the head, outer ear and shoulders of the electroacoustic recording system with
special acoustic, electroacoustic and electronic means to achieve optimum high fidelity acoustic
transmission It is. Objectively achieved woody points in a man-made artificial head acoustically
woody geometrical means are simulated by plastic materials through a dimensionally accurate
object Heno) ζ and simulated It is to be reproduced in the outer ear. This corresponds in fact to
the chosen human dimensions for the purpose of the reproducibility of the tested human head
whose simulated head has roughly the average dimensions. [Problems to be Solved by the
Invention] Therefore, although such known artificial heads can transmit auditory phenomena
with high fidelity, there are problems as long as this cysteno can not be completely calibrated.
And this is achieved by simulating the head as accurately as possible. However, this J "stage
must, on the other hand, be updated each time by measuring the transmission function of the
external ear of the respective artificial head, thus affecting the artificial head as a measuring
system. No conclusions can be drawn from the measured signals regarding the nature and
characteristics of the acoustic phenomena. This is very important for acoustic measurement
technology. However, the measurement results must be reproduced [J] as the measurement
system used for the measurement. The object of the present invention is to provide an artificialnod measurement method which allows, for example, the reproducibility of the head, neck,
shoulder and outer ear and which can be calibrated despite the extremely complex whole
structure of the human body. . The present invention achieves this object by the features of claim
1 and exploits the advantages of an artificial head used as a measurement method for acoustic
phenomena. It is completely calibratable over the entire ear range and is reproducible on pure
bodies and partial bodies and artificially at least as far as its acoustic properties (reflection,
diffraction, ear resonance etc.) The head's reproduction of the human] -head microphone signal
with free field equalized headsets without limitation of directional reproduction by being
accurately defined by its simplified external geometric dimensions to the head Enable calibration
Thus, such a fully calibratable human knee-nod measurement scheme can be used with particular
advantage as a useful measurement, control and monitoring device in acoustic measurement
technology, and also as a studio micro-pong for language and music in the broadcast field That is
also true. Completely Calibratable Artificial 7+ ”1.! Three application areas of the 11 system will
be described below. (1) The artificial head measurement method can be used for test persons in
psychoacoustics. What-what, so-called L T l (1, 1 near time 1 nvariant) with transmission
characteristics that are unchanged and demonstrable under all test conditions, different from the
human being being tested who is inserted with Senryi liclophone system) method. (2) The
method of measuring an artificial body according to the present invention can be used as a
measuring microphone in acoustic measurement technology (for example, measurement in
Benodoceno 1- and ear muffs) and noise diagnosis. Conventional measurement schemes used, for
example, microphones with spherical directivity characteristics to determine the weighted sound
level. However, the human external ear has quite different directional characteristics. Such
measurements that do not take into account the directionality characteristics of the human
external ear can not be sulfurized and do not meet the purpose of the measurement process. By
using the artificial heli as the measuring micro-pon according to the invention, it is possible to
accumulate the sound by the recording Unino 1-7, to make a subjective evaluation of the sound
or a noise reduction measurement. The term "representative" referred to here relates to
"specification of receiver-1" configured by "human sense of hearing". Such subjective
measurement processes reach unambiguous determination very quickly. What's wrong is that the
human sense of hearing "estimates many parameters of the acoustic phenomena provided rather
than being assessed by the objective-one measurement technique. So, for example, from practical
experiments, sounds that are heavily weighted fall under the category of problems or less under
certain circumstances. (3) The calibratable artificial henot measurement system of the present
invention can be used as a stannous microphone in the acoustic technology field. Acoustic
phenomena are synthesized as rules of tonal components that originate directly from the location
of the sound source, and temporally delayed reflections arrive from different directions. In the
conventional recording method, only the direct component was recorded in the flower, or the
reflection was not weighted using the orientation equivalent to the external ear.
This problem is definitely solved by the present invention, with the possibility of calibration
being eventually applicable to -C. Investigation and 1j11 l conducted in the artificial hendo
measurement system according to the present invention, as determined by l, the measurement
direction 1 n k LS1 corresponds to one average direction of human beings, without background
noise. The odor C also becomes 1iJ, and the dynamic range responds to the human sense of
hearing the dark value of pain, and L · Hell's degree is unmistakable G. The clapping sound is, for
example, at a distance of 1 m from the ear. Two, the peak of the combined level is in the range of
about 135 dB in a period of about 0, 05 ms. It has not been possible to calculate mathematically
so far by reducing the external dimensions of the artificial heno l / 111 system of the present
invention to acoustically appropriate dimensions according to the partial steps of the essential
part of the present invention Due to the complex external shape formed by the outer ear and
head, the complex internal structure of the outer ear, and factors that preclude accurate
calculations etc.) the transmission function of the outer moon is measured mathematically, ie
recorded beforehand The transmission function of the external moon realized by the human head
measurement method can be determined in a fixed form, and can correspond to a real person to
be tested with the same ((7 or slight change). 11) The technical idea of the present invention can
be regarded as practically the same as the other. , U-Following, the present invention is a scale
(iIJ scientific structure C1 two calibratable according to the ball, ,,,,,,, Ti tis; mouth. This means
that it is not necessary to take the exact integral of rotation normally required to calculate the
transmission function, and yet with every reduction of the stem, the cylinder, the cylinder with
the groove, the cylinder with the groove, the ellipse , Etc., with a calibratable, computable object,
it means that the whole system that can be reproduced can be configured, and some or all of
them can be configured. For further refinements of the invention, embodiments are described in
the subclaims following claim 2 and identified. An embodiment of the present invention is shown
in the drawings and will be detailed in the following description. The basic concept of the present
invention is to replace the externally drawable geometry with auditory-F related geometry as
determined by calculation and measurement by means of a geometric configuration which
determines the directional characteristics of the device. To make an overall artificial head
measurement device which can be calibrated by means of the sensor, and as a result have
predetermined sizes and positions associated with each other, for example a cylinder, an
ellipsoid, a force body or a sphere It is to establish an artificial head measurement device from
individual partial objects that can be obtained from geometrically quasi-linear objects such as,
and thus mathematically calculated four.
Here, it seems that different information is needed. Contrary to the customary practice of the
patent that the data on the law or the data on it is of minor importance to some extent, the data
on such dimensions are within the dispersion limits for which the data are predetermined. In the
case of the artificial head measurement device of the present invention, it is absolutely important
for its realization, if at all. The reason is that the external ear transfer function of the artificial
head, the directional characteristics etc. are not only determined in a decisive manner, but also
the relative positions of individual objects, for example and in particular the nature of the
approximation and the position of the external ear Because it is determined by For this reason,
for example, FIGS. 4 (a), 4 (b) and 5 contain dimensions in the effective millimeter; FIG. 111P1. 2
and 3 contain numbered numbers with asterisks. In this case, the numbers are associated with
specific sizes, dimensions and their data, angles, etc. as shown in the table below. The results of
research conducted on fundamentally complex mathematical representations and terms
(diffraction integrals, etc.) and research conducted on the simplification of these terms conducted
for technically meaningful realization, The auditory geometry of the artificial head measurement
device that can be fully calibrated is: It has been found that the following parameters can be
substituted according to the indications shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. That is, the parameters are first
the upper and shoulders 10 of the body, which substantially determine the directional
characteristics in the central plane, and second, the head 11, whose diffracted and counter waves
are Third, the shape of the outer ear and the position of the outer ear located on the head and the
head, and the selection thereof, the horizontal plane and particularly the central plane b: Z J-; It
consists of something that affects and affects the sensory action of the outer ear. The head 11
does not have a significant effect on the ear transfer function V in the central plane, and it is
substantially limited to the effective 14-2000 Hz frequency range of the shoulder sensation 1-. In
the artificial head measurement device according to the invention, the upper part 10 of the body
has to fulfill the function of a diffractive object and for the necessary electronic components so
that the device can be operated completely independently of the other devices. It also serves as a
container and recording device for convenience. The width and thickness of the upper part of the
body] 0 correspond to the dimensions of the shoulders. As the upper part of the body simulates a
seated examiner, its thickness increases downward to 450 mm, whereby the forehead is offset
from the vertical by an angle of approximately 20 degrees at a height of 450 mm.
For data on dimensions not specifically mentioned in the specification, reference is made to the
following table. In this table, the reference numbers with asterisks relate to the description of the
parameters in particular, the mean value of the relevant criteria, and the variance value. Asterisk
is 44 'j-"9. All the dimensions represented by the numbers like the numbers are determined by
calculating the average value of 7 geometrically measured (male) test Rs. Table (reference plane
BE-center of the ear canal) l-Nook ク ー ヲ lμ gorge-'d 値 子 匍 9 匍-width of shoulder 49.6 2.82
thickness of shoulder 26.9 2 .93 "shoulder slope 23.3 (degrees) 29 (degrees) 41 spacing
reference plane / shoulder section 16.0 1, 15th spacing reference plane / top 15.6 1.162 spacing
reference plane / bottom 10 .5 0.57 “Spacing Reference Plane / Forehead 11.6 0.68” Spacing
Reference Plane / Occipital Head 10.2 0.59 ”Reference Plane Angle 11.9 (Var) 46 (degrees) 109
Head Width 17.7 15111 head height 26.1 1.0122 head thickness 21.7 0.6 L! l, Q-Beth Mauni
extra----] year-end-(view)-313 'i value-1 1 "radius of the 3" head / top four parts 8.6 0.914
"reference plane 1- Spacing center 7.0 1.1151 radius of the head / base of the top 6.6 1.316
"base 4 Spacing center on the surface 2.5 0.71 part 2 radius of the side of the head 11.9 0.718
′ ′ Reference plane center distance interval 4.1 1.32 part 8 neck width +0.4 0.821′1 neck
thickness 11.7 1.022 ′ ′ neck angle 35.9 (degree) 3.1 (Degrees) 23 ′ ′ jaw spacing /
reference surface 9.4 0.5249 outer ear height 7.0 0.6251 outer ear width 3.50 ° 326 "outer ear
inclination 12.4 (degrees) 53 (degrees) center of separation on the 271 reference plane 1.3 0.2
299 nasal cavity height 3.0 0.2 30 nasal cavity width 2.10.11 (Shi = Bepsney 2-,---One thousand
backs)-Dispersion value (! And 318 nasal cavity thickness], 9 1.732 "center of separation on the
0.40 134" radius of head / top of head 71 11 as best shown in Figure 1 The bent front of the
upper part of the body is considered to be the most important part of the latter, which influences
the ear transfer function in the bottom frequency region of the direction responsive spectrum.
However, the dimensions of the upper part of the body do not have to be considered as precisely.
The reason is that this partial object, which represents a pyramid with a geometrical shape
flattened, only affects the ear's transmission characteristics to a large wavelength (0, 251 n to 1.5
m). It is because it exerts. The directional characteristics of the -L part and the shoulder of the
body are substantially determined by the distance between the forehead and the temporal part
(the heel slope and the height of the reference plane from the shoulder. As shown in FIGS. 2 and
3, the simulated head 11 has an oval shape. In order to avoid technical difficulties, the head
corresponds to three parts during manufacture, corresponding to a cylinder cut in the direction
of '4 W 7 J'-) Square +1. -1, a central portion 11b corresponding to an oval disc, and a pair of
upper and lower portions 11c which are provided with quarter spheres on the front and rear
blades and have a semi-circular disc between them. The simulated 11 parts set the height of the
head to an average distance 4 'between the reference plane BE and the shoulder. The complex
shapes of the ears can also be simplified shapes, as shown for example in the fourth, 1, 4 b and 5
H. Its woody part comprises the outer and inner edges of the ear, its diffractive properties
determine the directivity, its cavity substitutes for cavum conchae and improves the S / N ratio of
the microphone Act as a contributing acoustic resonance ij. The simulated ear dimensions were
also determined by taking the mathematical average of the geometric dimensions obtained by the
seven test persons. As mentioned above, the dimensions in mm are shown directly in the
drawings showing the ears. The simulated ear is made of a cylinder of about 70 mm diameter,
and is formed oval in the nasal cavity, for example, a cylinder 21 mm wide, 30 T11 m high and
19 mm deep. The orifice of the ear canal section realized by the recess, simulated, is formed by a
3 mm diameter hole (not shown in the figure) or the ear sections are shown in FIGS. 4a, 4b and 5
As can be simulated by a plurality of contact holes and recesses having the dimensions shown in
the figure. The final simulation of the ears is obtained by offsetting the cylinder longitudinally by
about 10 mm from the center of the cylinder and the cut-off portion of the cylinder is discarded,
as shown in FIG. The simulated ear is inclined at 20 ° and is 90 ° shifted. The simulated ear
shown in FIG. 46 is inclined at 10 °.
The other ear simulation is mirror-symmetrical to the one described above. The reference plane
BE corresponds to the microphone plane. Furthermore, the reference point BP can be set at the
center of the ear canal orifice in the reference plane BI 巳. Furthermore, the woody feature of the
present invention is that there is no hollowing out in all parts of the artificial jaw, which means
that no protrusion is formed in the cavity by enlarging the inside . Furthermore, it is found that
the simulated 1 part 1 regular stone i's positioning is of woody importance for achieving equal
directional characteristics and achieving the transfer function of the outer ear . In other words, in
FIG. 1-symbol 5 ". It means that the distances and dimensions shown in 8 ", 6" and 7 "are
particularly important. Considering that the artificial head measurement scheme was specifically
conceived for use in measurement technology, a microphone is arranged to be coupled to the ear
canal orifice to allow a comprehensive calibration, said microphone being an appropriate method
It is necessary to meet the requirements of the low water sack grantnois, and to have an
acceptable maximum sound pressure response in addition to that. A 172-inch microphone
measurement insert made by Brue 1 and K jaer and provided under the name B -1- K 4166 is
particularly suitable for this application, with a suitable length of the ear canal at a distance of 4
mm. It is calculated to correspond. The position of the microphone plane corresponds to the
reference plane BE measured for the human being tested. FIG. 6 shows the electrical elements
provided for the processing of the recorded sound pressure. The microphone 17 phone signal
passes through the impedance transformer 14 and is supplied to the anti-distortion circuit 1'5. ,
The test sound generator in the circuit 15, the device (tesL tone 8 ener! 1; or 16) means for
switching to 17 and by means of the test sound generator 17 a microphone voltage equivalent to
a sound pressure of 94 dB at a given frequency, for example 240 Hz, is generated, whereby
measurements and The recording device can be calibrated. The distortion-free circuit in the
carpenter's head measurement device according to the present invention has an artificial head in
which the frequency-dependent transmission ratio is linearly proportional to the incidence of
sound from the front in the free field. It can be measured at the output side (so-called free sound
field equivalent). Furthermore, the value of the transfer function of the undistorted Fjl path is
inversely proportional to the transfer function at the free sound field of the artificial heno 1
shown in FIG.
And, in FIG. 7, the curve of the solid line is the geometric structure of the outer surface il> f (for
the person J who simulated f, the one of the heno 1-(there is a dashed line "car shown") IT is
purified The invention relates to a +33 possible human knee-nod measuring device according to
the invention using an average geometrical structure. From the comparison of the transfer
function in the free sound field of the artificial- \ 7] shown in FIG. 7, the refined average
geometrical structure of the artificial head measuring device can be measured by the measuring
device. It is clear that it allows to make it completely calibratable, but on the other hand it
produces only a very small error L7 practically negligible for the purpose of the measurement
technique. Thus, the present invention is the first to be successful in the field of artificial head
technology in a very efficient manner, and its comprehensive calibration capability leads to the
development of a nostem useful for global standardization. In the following, suitable
embodiments are described in order to provide a further understanding of the features of the
present invention. For example, in the field of motor vehicles 1, although noise generated by
passenger cars and perceived by drivers is quite important intermittent, to date, direct
comparison by measurement of Hua-Juan acoustical gel is impossible The The reason is that, as
mentioned earlier, cars with low oldness and hell can be perceived and perceived (subjectively) to
cause much more noise than 11) It is. In addition, direct comparisons between individual vehicle
types are not possible. The reason is different 4 (11 fixed b j '? This is because the artificial head
system is used. Compared to such prior art7, the present invention makes it possible to
demonstrate the noise actually generated by the vehicle via the head bone, which can for
example even in places far away from the vehicle itself Thus, a direct comparison is made.
Furthermore, the influence of the sound and the noise actually generated in connection with the
transfer function of the outer ear with directivity against incidence from the front side, using the
calibratable artificial head according to the invention. Compare the noise recorded at different
locations in different places with other recorded noise or direct measurements, given the
possibility to draw direct conclusions from the signals measured for It is possible. No. 81m1
shows the monotonous transfer function of this calibratable human knee-nod measuring device
according to the present invention as indicated by a solid line for the direction of the stomach
11r constant incident light-as shown by the solid line, the person under test (for comparison) An
average human C) followed by j 1 sure 6 and a similar function for 2 simulated artificial-nodes is
also shown 7, and the dispersiveness is C quite astounding to the auditory measurement results .
Furthermore, as shown in FIG. 9, the so-called auditory region of the artificial head equalized in
the free sound field demonstrates extreme-dispersion compared to the human auditory region.
Finally, the curve shown in FIG. 10 shows a comparison of the directivity for different incident
directions of sound and the directivity when exposed to a diffusive field, curve a being
calibratable according to the invention. The present invention relates to an artificial head
measuring device, and the curve C relates to an artificial head measuring device which accurately
simulates the head and the ear, and the curve C relates to an average human G to be tested. As a
result, the present invention also makes mathematical decisions by evaluating the aurally related
directivity parameters of the subject. 1. The illusion, and also the Maki-γ-like model, for each
simplistic ", for example, for the purpose of the mark / il +, a perfect figure showing an external
geometric structure that is precisely defined and refined. Every time providing a calibratable
artificial head measuring device is riJ function, and this is the directivity of the artificial head's
microphone when it is transmitted through the equalized head bone in the free sound field. It is a
very important factor that allows one to do without any restrictions on reproduction. Such
devices are therefore the best devices that can be used for acoustic measurement techniques
such as measurement, control, and monitoring devices that provide objective measurement
results (compared to 01), and also in the field of broadcasting. Also suitable for use as a single
studio microphone for language and music in
Brief description of the drawings
1 is a side view of an artificial 1jn part measuring apparatus according to the present invention,
FIG. 2 is a top view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 3 is an it plane view of the apparatus
without Ic shown in FIG. a) is imitation!
Figure 1 (b) shows an enlarged view in proportion to the drawing of 1- [1 of one embodiment of
tied evening 1- [1]. Fig. 4 (, 3) f = a cross-sectional view of the simulated external ear without
showing, the overall shape of the individual cavity being shown, the fifth scale 1 being simulated
as shown in Fig. 4 (a) Longitudinal sectional view seen from the V-V line of the outer ear, 6M is a
block diagram (of one path) of the artificial head measuring device, and FIG. 7 is a transmission
of free sound field to the sound coming from-front J In the figure showing the function in the
form of two curves, one is an artificial head measurement device with non-emissive EyI l using a
medium-lined '-1'-uniform geometric structure Correspond to? The other is a person who
accurately simulates an external (human) geometric statement-“A diagram showing a curve
corresponding to the head, FIG. 8 shows a mono for incoming sound in different directions.
Showing curves of various artificial head related transfer functions -ζ, average 'ji (1, j (compared
with' function) of the examiner (114 parts by accurate simulation), Fig. 9 shows the artificial
head 1 .11 A diagram showing the area of the auditory hrI region and nJ 'of the constant device,
which is compared with human auditory 4ijj, pQ, and FIG. Human [Curve on the directional
characteristics of the head measurement device, with accurate simulation of the head and outer
ear], ■ Comparison with the case of the head measurement device and with the average
examiner, It is. 10 upper part of the body (shoulder), 11 head, 11a, 11b, 11c each part of head
11, 12 cotton, 14-impedance transformer which limits simulation of outer ear; 5 distortion
prevention 1F circuit, 1 etc. switching means , 17 test sound generator. Below lf'u'r of the margin
drawing (no change to the contents)] UFig, 2 Fig, 3-10, <0.5 12 kHz 5 + 10 20 Fig, 7 Fig, 9
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