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3. Inventors Name: Samuel, Middleton, POS-(other name) 4, Patent applicant address: New York
City, New York, New York City Park Avenu 270 Name: Union, Carbide Corporation (1st person)
Nidward, Gee, Greer-New leading company Town Building 331 Phone (211) 3651
(representative: Ter [phase] Japan Patent Office Open Patent Gazette ■ JP 50-602., L6 Office
serial number f6 t! Description as the title of the invention
Loudspeaker diaphragm, electro-acoustic device, and method of making a loudspeaker
3 Detailed Description of the Invention The present invention relates to a loudspeaker and, in
particular, a resin-impregnated carbonaceous fiber web 1 having a high specific modulus used in
magnetic or electrostatic loudspeakers Pertains to loudspeaker diaphragms. The loudspeaker is
an integral part of the sound reproduction device. Conventional loudspeakers include both
electrostatic and magnetic loudspeakers. Electrostatic or condenser loudspeakers are basically
large capacitors and generally have a conducting diaphragm placed in a polar field. The sound is
reproduced when an audible signal is induced on the surface of the diaphragm, ie the inner plate
of the capacitor, which changes the polar voltage and fixes the diaphragm (inner plate) outward
according to said signal. Pressed between the two yearly electrodes are pulled. Heretofore,
flexible conductive diaphragms are generally composed of a nonconductive, conductive material,
for example a very thin plastic film with a conductive metal coating, coated with a thin
conductive material with high resistance. A magnetic expander, a voice or excitation coil
loudspeaker comprises a voice coil, a diaphragm and a suspension. An electromagnetic monitor
transfers the audio signal to the diaphragm, which is conically shaped to maximize mechanical
stability. The vibrating surface of the diaphragm compresses air and causes it to perform motion
(sound wave) that each one recognizes as sound. Stiffness and lightness are two contradictory
requirements of conical diaphragm design parameters. A low modulus which optimizes the
diaphragm's ability to act as a piston or act by motion and not split into individual vibrating parts
is desirable to lower the inertia of the diaphragm. Conical diaphragms are composed of various
materials including metal, cellulose paper, plastic, cloth, wood and cancellous polystyrene, and so
on. However, it was clear that already tried materials are not ideal and do not provide a proper
balance between mechanical stability and acoustic performance. EndPage: 2 Cellulose Paper has
long been known as a standard material that balances the quality and economics of moving coil
loudspeakers to maintain a reasonable balance between mechanical stability and acoustic
performance. Even high-grade kraft paper, which has been hardened with a stiffening resin, only
has a maximum sound velocity of only about [email protected] cat / sea. The speed of sound of
paper means the square root of the ratio of the Young's modulus to the density of paper. 0 Speed
of sound helps to analyze the range in which the conical diaphragm looks like an ideal piston-like
motion. Increasing the speed of sound will not only reduce the frictional energy loss that results
in the diaphragm as a result of the out-of-phase vibration condition, but also the corresponding
offsetting effect, but will increase the high frequency response.
Thus, the speed of sound of the diaphragm is a measure of the limit of crispness of the transient
response that the diaphragm can possess and the range of linear frequencies. Metals such as
aluminum have been tried with even other drawbacks, as a higher specific modulus was desired
than with the highest grade resin faded cellulose paper. For example, aluminum has become a
loudspeaker diaphragm with approximately twice the speed of sound that can be obtained using
cellulose paper, but it damps the circumferential vibrations associated with the thinness inherent
in the same diaphragm. Required a reinforced joint. Anodizing the aluminum diaphragm
increased the maximum sound velocity of the diaphragm to about four times the maximum
sound velocity obtainable by cellulose paper. It is an object of the present invention to provide a
loudspeaker diaphragm having a specific elastic modulus and a speed of sound comparable to an
aluminum diaphragm, or composed of a carbon fiber "nib" retracted by a resin. The purpose of
Another object of the present invention is to provide a loudspeaker diaphragm made of a resinbacked carbonaceous fiber web and having a transient response and a wide frequency range,
which is more sensitive than cellulose paper. It is an object of the present invention to provide a
bass loudspeaker diaphragm which is composed of a resin-backed carbonaceous fiber web and is
capable of reproducing a wider frequency range than comparable bass loudspeaker paper
diaphragms. Another object is to provide an electrostatically excited loudspeaker diaphragm
comprised of a conductive carbonaceous fiber web which is retracted by a resin. Briefly, the
present invention relates to a diaphragm made of a carbonaceous fiber web retracted by a resin
and used in an electroacoustic apparatus. 0 The diaphragm of the present invention has high
specific modulus and sound velocity. It is characterized by The term "one specific modulus" as
used throughout the present specification is understood to be equivalent to the basis weight of
the plastic material unless otherwise indicated, ie the modulus (Young's modulus) divided by the
unit area weight. It should. As used throughout the present specification and unless otherwise
indicated, the expression "permeated 1" is the result of a recess and / or surface coating of a
carbonaceous fiber web using a resin It should be understood to mean ◇ that does not
necessarily mean that all or most of the gaps or other vacancies of the carbonaceous fiber web
must be filled or covered with resin. However, it is preferred to have the resin adhere or stick to
most of the fibers of the carbonaceous fiber web. Individual nonfilaments of carbon fibers useful
in forming diaphragm materials approximately 7oo, ooo # / cIIL2 (10,000, 0, 01 0 b / 1 n 2)
colors approximately 7,000,000 # / cyn (100,000, It is known to have an elastic modulus in the
range of 0001 'b / in (m) and a maximum density of about 2 gm / ca3.
The carbonaceous fibrous web of the present invention is formed using these fibers and can be
retracted by a resin. For the diaphragm of the present invention, it is possible to reach about 30%
to about 70% carbon fiber by weight, the remainder being resin. Preferably, a diaphragm having
about 60% to about 70% by volume of a fiber reinforcement of carbon fibers and a residual resin
will be used in the present invention. Furthermore, the carbonaceous fiber webs retracted by the
resin and used as the diaphragm material of the present invention have a maximum density of
about 1.7 gm / ♂ and about 2,100,000 kfi / C1? (, 50 * 000, OO lb / in) (7 :) may have a
maximum elastic modulus. Preferably, the carbonaceous fiber webs retracted by the resin and
useful in the present invention are preferably about 210,0002 / m '(5,000, OOIV in 2) EndPage:
3 to about 2, 100,000 # / (1 m). It should have a modulus that varies up to (500,000 1 b / in),
and a density that varies between about 0.8 gm / α3 and about 1.7 gm / cIL. The diaphragm of
the present invention should have a speed of sound that exceeds the maximum sound velocity of
the high grade resin recessed cellulose sheet diaphragm and is even equal to or even above the
aluminum diaphragm. A loudspeaker diaphragm constituted by a resin-backed carbonaceous
fiber web is approximately 11 x 10 cm approximately 2.5 x 10 5 cIrL / 8 ec based on the
reported available test data and theoretical expectations reported below. It is characterized by
having a sound velocity between / sea Preferably, it is constituted by a resin-backed
carbonaceous fiber web and has a sound velocity of about 2.6 × 10 (greater than y'sec, more
preferably about 4,6 × 10 (greater than x / sec) A diaphragm should be used in connection with
the present invention. More preferably, the diaphragm of the present invention has an acoustic
velocity defined by the equation Sv1 / S2 ≧ 1 when 8 v is the velocity of sound of the diaphragm
of the present invention and sv2 is the velocity of sound of the aluminum diaphragm. Should
have. Furthermore, based on available test data and theoretical expectations, carbonaceous fiber
webs which are resin-backed and useful in the present invention are about 4,4 × 10 ′ ′ dynes
/ square 2 and about 220 × 10 ′ ′ strands / square 2 And preferably have a modulus of
elasticity between about 20 × 10 dyne / cIIL2 and about 220 × 10 dyne / cIL. A further
important property characterizing the diaphragm of the present invention is the specific
In fact, the diaphragm of the invention is preferably defined by the equation 8M1 / 8M2 ≧ 1
where SM, is the specific modulus of the diaphragm of the invention, and 8M2 is the specific
modulus of the aluminum diaphragm. Specific modulus of elasticity. The oscillatory gas of the
present invention also has a higher specific modulus and speed of sound as compared to top
grade cellulose paper. The diaphragm constituted by the resin-backed carbonaceous fiber web
has a higher specific modulus and speed of sound, and as a result has a higher frequency than
the same shape, size and weight of the cellulose paper diaphragm. The specific modulus of
elasticity and the speed of sound of the diaphragm made up of the resin-backed “carbon fiber
web” are preferably comparable or superior to the finest aluminum diaphragms. Furthermore, it
is possible for the transient response of the diaphragm of the present invention to be as sensitive
as possible to comparable cellulose paper diaphragms because the specific modulus of the same
is superior. High modulus, high strength carbon fibers suitable for use in the present invention
are prepared as described in US Patents $ 3,412,062.3.503,708 and 5,529,934 be able to.
Carbon fibers can be employed in the present invention when cut to dimensions suitable for
processing. Carbonized or graphitized pitch fibers can also be employed in the present invention.
A preferred carbonaceous fiber web to be employed in the present invention is prepared by
treating carbon fibers in either a dry or wet manner by placing such fibers in intimate relation to
the fibrous body. Can. A sheet of paper arranged in a relatively uniform orientation of fibers: two
sheets of paper: cbraing and airlaying such as garnelting are suitable for this purpose. Resinbacked carbonaceous fiber webs are preferred fabrics for use in the present invention.
Preferably, a sheet of carbon fibers or paper is used to water short carbon fibers using well
known papermaking methods? It can be built by doing I (waterlaying). The carbonaceous fibrous
web is preferably made by collecting pitch fibers to form a carbonaceous fibrous web. More
preferably, the non-woven carbonaceous fibrous web can be resin recessed and shaped by known
methods and the resin can be cured to form a suitably shaped diaphragm. When making paper
by water sanding of carbon fibers, the fibers are first cut or chopped to a size suitable for
processing, for example, a length of about 6.55 111 (water), of water and starch or a well known
bonding agent Such a sheet is then mixed uniformly with a suitable bonding agent and then
placed on a fine flat mesh screen to hold the fibers and form a sheet from the slurry. It is
processed by conventional papermaking methods to make carbonaceous products.
Converting a carbon fiber slurry to a sheet of carbon fiber paper involves the three major steps
of making a commercial base paper or steps that are different. (1) placing the fibers of the slurry
into a wet sheet, (2) removing some of the free water from the wet sheet by wet pressing (this
step is reflected in the improvement of the physical properties of the paper) ), (3) to remove
excess water gradually by heat. Wet sheets are generally produced by thin suspensions of carbon
fibers being flowed evenly over the moving endless belt of the mesh and passing through the
same mesh to remove excess water, or carbon I through fiber suspension! It is formed either by
advancing the mesh endless belt. In the first case, in the long mesh method, a portion of the
water is drained by its own weight, a portion is absorbed from the sheet by suction and a portion
is removed by pressure, and in the second case an internal screening mesh Below the raw
material level in the rotating cylinder (= vacuum is maintained and the sheet is on the vacuum
filter (approximately the same as that of the Etc. is formed according to the first method. In each
case, the thickness of the sheet is controlled by the speed of progress of the machine, by the
consistency of the suspension (fiber to water ratio), or by the amount of raw material that is
poured into the sweet potato machine ε. The carbon fiber sheet is made as described above and
then physically processed, for example in a predetermined shape (two cuts) to be assembled into
a conical diaphragm. The loudspeaker diaphragm which is typical of the present invention is a
man-made or natural one having a diameter of between about 3/1000 ml and about 15/1000,
preferably between about 4/1000 ms and 8/10 + m. It may be made of paper made of carbon
fiber. Additional nimata, cono iii movement fjn about 2,100,000itg / am2 (jOQQ, OOQlb / in),
preferably 14, QOO, OQOIC 1g / fi (20,000, 0 (] OTo / in), more preferably IL The <can have an
elastic modulus 超 え る over 21,000,000 kg / cut (50,000, OQOlb / in). Furthermore, finely
chopped or sprayed non-woven braided fiber fibers made from spun staple fibers may be used as
a preparation for the loudspeaker diaphragm 6 of the present invention 4 non-woven O nonwoven carbon The quality web may be impregnated with a suitable resin such as epoxy, furan,
phenol, melamine or similar resin 0 then the web will have the diaphragm have (= form a formed
web) A web impregnated with 0 resin which can be physically processed in a conventional
manner to C 2 then cures the resin and a predetermined time to a temperature sufficient to
achieve maximum C 2 stiffness of the diaphragm. It can be heated.
This heat treatment may be combined with the molding process if desired. Alternatively, the
diaphragm, which is typical of the present invention, may be formed by spraying a carbonized
staple fiber onto a pre-formed screen. A bonding agent dissolved in a solvent is preferably added
to the staple fibers during this process, which is made behind the screen to help the vacuum
collect the staple fibers and join them together into a carbonaceous fiber web Ru. Preferably, the
bonding agent used is a resin such as epoxy, furan, phenol, melamine or similar resin dissolved in
a solvent such as acetone, toluene, benzene, methyl ethyl ketone or similar solvent. Those
familiar with the art will readily appreciate that the diaphragm can be formed directly without
the need for further processing in the manner described above, and that the diaphragm has the
form of a pre-formed screen. You will understand. Adding a bonding agent not only bonds the
fibers together but also strengthens the carbonaceous fiber web A bonding agent such as a 0
carbonizable resin can be added during the carbonaceous fiber web manufacturing process or
finished carbon Even if applied as a coating to the quality fiber web, it should be heated to a
temperature sufficient to cure the resin and maximize the stiffness of the web. Carbonizable fiber
webs, which can be stiffened as described above on EndPage: 5, include phenolic, epoxy, 7-lane
and similar resins. In one embodiment, the diaphragm that is typical of the present invention can
be reshaped. For example, it can be conical or conical near the apex of the cone. Furthermore, it
is possible that the diaphragm which is typical of the present invention can be provided with an
annular corrugation or the like by any one of a number of conventional physical methods or
machining methods such as a one-shot molding method. it can. In another embodiment, the
diaphragm, which is typical of the present invention, is of uniform thickness or can be graduated
at one end if desired. For diaphragms used in magnetic loudspeakers, thicknesses between about
0.1271 m (0.0005 in) and about 0.655 m (0.025 in) are employed. In still other embodiments,
the diaphragm described in the present invention can be used in any of a number of commonly
employed magnetic loudspeakers. For example, a magnetic loudspeaker can employ multiple
small conical one diaphragms or conical diaphragms in a sealed enclosure or conical diaphragms
at the end of the tube.
As readily understood by those skilled in the art, various forms, sizes and types of improved
magnetic loudspeakers with excellent sound quality and frequency ranges employ diaphragms
typical of the present invention Can be manufactured. Furthermore, the diaphragm, which is
typical of the present invention, can be used to reproduce the full audible range, ie from about
20 to about 20,000 Hertz (cycles per second), but in some cases it is preferred. Is a combination
of multiple loudspeakers, each reproducing only a limited band within the audio frequency range,
for use in the sound reproduction device. As will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the
art, the diaphragm according to the present invention can be used in a bass loudspeaker that
generally reproduces the bass range of audio frequencies. Furthermore, the electrostatic
loudspeaker diaphragm, which is typical of the present invention, is comprised of a resinous
impregnated carbonaceous fibrous web. The results of the example described below illustrate the
conductivity of the resin-impregnated carbonaceous fibrous web. If conductive, the resinimpregnated carbonaceous fiber web not only fulfills the conductive requirements of the
electrostatic loudspeaker diaphragm, but also makes the electrostatic loudspeaker diaphragm a
modern It also makes the surface coating unnecessary to make it conductive. The material
employed for the electrostatic loudspeaker diaphragm can be formed of a resin recessed fiber
and has a thickness of about 0.127 mm (0.005 in) to about 0.2541 EI (0.01 in). ) In the range of
1. Preferably, an electrostatic loudspeaker diaphragm manufactured in accordance with the
principles described herein which employs a thickness of about 0.1778 sac (0,007 inches) is a
conventional material having comparable structural types and capabilities. Can be compared with
the linearity of the frequency response line of the electrostatic loudspeaker diaphragm.
EXAMPLE Four epoxy resin recession sheets having about 55 rumen fibers and four phenol resin
recession sheets having about 6091 fiber specimens were prepared for testing purposes. Initially,
two pieces of four types of carbon fiber mats were obtained [02 types of mats] [CarbonProduced
Pijo 7 (CarbonPr01uctapivision) of Nounion Carbide Corporation y (UniohCarbide Corporation)
was launched. Commercially available] Sprays of ratings VMOO 32 and VMOO 55 were spun
staple fiber mats. The third is a basically lightly rayon-based carbon system that has been
carbonized and chopped into stesol fiber at 700'0 and made into paper using the fourdrinier
method. One VFB paper, og II 114, was a carbon-fiber mat with 406.4 = (16 in,) stesols made by
melt spinning of pitch and post heat treatment at 1400 ° C.
The resin faded cellulos paper (available from Uttar & Ktorons (ntah 11 sctronias) in Huntington,
India) and available on the market EndPage: 6. A .4 mml (6 in) x 228.6 m5 (9 in) loudspeaker
diaphragm obtained from Uter RO69D. In preparing the epoxy resin retraction sheet, one of each
of the four mats described above was cut into 20 L 2101 (stn) square coupons. These coupons
are then marketed (available commercially from Division of Uniloll n1 royal at Nougatak
Chemical Company, Naugatuc, Connikekat, USA).) Tonox "Hardener sop. p, h, added
[commercially available in the market from the Plastics Division of Union Carbide Corporation,
New York, NY, USA] bakelite epoxy resin ■ LB-4617 dipped The Each of these coupons was
placed on a release layer coated aluminum-nickel foil and aged for 5 to 5 days. Pairs of each
coupon were placed in an aluminum foil in a heat press and heated to 100 ° C. for 2 hours
under light contact pressure. Each of these coupons was compactly compressed to a thickness of
about 0.254 m (0.11 in) and held at 100 DEG C. for an additional 72 hours. The temperature was
raised to 120 ° C. and held there for 2 hours and then raised to 160 ° C. and held at that
temperature for 2 hours. The coupons were cooled under pressure and removed from the press
at 120 ° C. With respect to the phenolic resin retraction sheet, the remainder of the four mats
described above were prepared for the following testing purposes. (Available from the Plastics
Division of Nounion Carbide Corporation, New York City, New York, USA, and available on the
market) BL 13-65667 Aenol resin is 3 p, p, h, dimethyl sulfate catalyst and sufficient to dilute
Mixed with acetone (about 5 parts of acetone per part of resin). This resin was stretched straight
on each mat specimen using a paint brush so as to apply 130 p, b, W resin to 100 p, bow,
longitudinal fiber.
These coupons are allowed to air-dry overnight and then cut into 177.8 m (7-in) square pieces.
These coupons are then used to separate the layers 70 in a steel mold using silicone release
paper. # / CII2 (10001 b / in) (7) Molded for 15 minutes at pressure and temperature of 125 °
C. These coupons were then removed from the press. Epoxy retraction sheet, phenol retraction
sheet and Uter paper were each tested according to the following procedure: 0 width 12.71 EI (/
21 n) and 127 m (5 in) long strips were cut from the coupons. The weight, area and thickness of
the strip were determined to calculate the density of each coupon. The resistivity of each coupon
was determined by passing a current of 1 amp from a constant power supply through 10
scratches of each coupon and measuring the voltage drop using a digital voltmeter. Finally, to
determine tensile strength, elastic modulus, and speed of sound, the specimen is air-operated and
an Instron table model with an Im-grip and a 90 # (2001 b) load cell (IOIL (icell) Test machine
(tech n5tronTablemodelTestmachine). The specimen has a 25.4 and 101.6 m (1 and 4 in) (y)
mark point distance at a crosshead speed of 0.127 van (0,05 in) per minute, and the tensile
strength, modulus of elasticity And the speed of sound were calculated from the crosshead speed
values and chartrates. The results of the above tests are summarized in Table 1 below.
Loudspeaker diaphragm, electro-acoustic device, and method of making a loudspeaker
EndPage: 7 Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the detailed description of the specific
embodiments of the present invention is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention,
as it is intended to be illustrative (two examples only). . Atsushi Asamura 6 persons 68 catalog of
attached documents 0) Request 1 copy (1) 1 letter of proxy anti-common translation 1 each 1
specification (6) priority certificate anti-translation 1 copy. u-3, → Heat 11- '11 ... · · ·' $ 嬰 19 朔
Hμ-two; (3) 居 居 100 Tokyo Metropolitan Otemachi 2-chome 2nd 1 No. Otemachi Building 331
° Telephone (211) 365] (Representative) Name (7204) Ben i Shiba Asamura EndPage: 8
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