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JPS6395800

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DESCRIPTION JPS6395800
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a
method of driving an audio speaker in an audio system. [Prior Art] A general model of the
present audio system 11: Sound, that is, vibration of air that is gas produces a compressional
wave of air, and the compressional wave gives pressure fluctuation to an object, and in the case
of human beings, the eardrum is more than ear. It becomes vibration, it is transmitted to vi and it
feels as a sound. That is, the sound is only a physical phenomenon as it is directly transmitted
from the sound source to the ear, but this is recorded or reproduced, or amplified, for
transmission the sound (defined as the vibration pressure of the air by the sound pressure)
Convert the electro-magnetic energy into sound positive (except for the primitive voice tube,
which now produces sound using electro-magnetic force like speakers, earphones, and
headphones) The vibrational pressure reaches the brain through the ear and is used as sound
information. The conversion from sound (sound pressure) to an electrical signal includes a
microphone, a pressure sensor, etc. in order to receive vibration by sound pressure and output in
the form of voltage or current proportional to vibration energy received as faithfully as possible.
Here, considering the 81 tp-shaped groove structure of a condenser microphone (electret) which
is considered to have relatively good frequency characteristics, it is approximately as shown in
FIG. In the figure, reference numerals 2 and 4 denote myruffy thin films rich in elasticity, and an
electric conductor is deposited to form electrodes. Insulating members 8 and 10 form a gap 6
between the electrodes. R is a very large resistance. As shown in FIG. 3, a voltage (or a current)
proportional to the sound positive is output from the voltage detection unit 12 using the
capacitance existing in the electrode having an area insulated by two sheets of air. Thus, the
voltage change of the detection unit 10 is amplified by the high input amplifier. That is,
mechanical energy was converted to electrical energy. The amplification device for outputting
the electric signal of the microphone to the speaker is performed by an amplifier (linear
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amplifier) that outputs the input signal as accurately as possible, and it is not possible to change
the dimension (dimension) of the input signal. It only amplifies energy (power). Also, even if
modulation conversion accompanying transmission or broadcasting is performed, when
outputting to a speaker, receiver, earphone, etc. that converts electrical energy to mechanical
energy, change the dimension of the input electrical signal as well. The power is output with
linearly amplified power, which is just the increase in scale.
Recording and playing back sound Now, record desk (needle type), magnetic tape, compact desk
(leather optical type), etc. 1 Sound is recorded by various methods, and it returns to electrical
signal again, but in the process In order to correct the distortion that has occurred, signal
processing such as AD conversion to DA conversion etc. is performed with a stylus type record,
magnetic tape, etc. with an equalizer or with a compact disc etc., but all are amplified when
outputting to a sbeka etc. Is jr! It is a linear amplification which showed an example of a human
input signal. The outline of the following audio system is as shown in FIG. The electrical energy
(power) input to the speaker, etc. is, for example, the case of the dynamic type speaker shown in
4U'4. ?? The current flows as a current to the voice coil 16 attached to the l14 anti (cone) 14,
and the voice coil 16 is fixed to the speaker box in which the magnetic field lines are arranged so
as to cross the direction of the current of the surrounding magnetic field The interaction with the
permanent magnet 18 applies a force proportional to the input sound pressure to the diaphragm
to regenerate the liver. Next, we move on to verification of the audio system lh. About
microphones Two-audio systems, especially those related to music, are among the most severe
classes that require the faithful reproduction of the power and spectrum of the sound itself,
especially in the transmission of information by sound. With regard to the performance of the
microphone, among the transducers, the passive role devices seem to be at a credible level
despite the general case that they are relatively easy to convert. About linear amplifiers: For
linear amplifiers, they have the most advantageous characteristics of electronic circuits, have
very accurate amplifiers, and are relatively easy to verify, so they are problematic. About the
speaker: Especially in the case of the speaker (the dynamic type speaker of the preceding
paragraph), except for the case where the sound quality of the sound itself does not matter very
much, such as the handset of the telephone. Demands for sound quality such as frequency
characteristics are severe, and manufacturers may sell the characteristic specifications of the
speaker along with the speaker. As an example, how the frequency characteristics of the
loudspeaker are measured and measured, monitor the output of the loudspeaker under certain
conditions in the anechoic chamber as shown in FIG. The output of the amplifier 20 to be tested
is input to the speaker 22 by changing the standing wave (mono 1--) frequency little by little with
constant amplitude (sine wave of constant effective value regardless of change in frequency). The
output (average of the effective value of the sound pressure) was determined and measured by
the target microphone 24 at a position where it was determined.
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The frequency characteristic of the speaker 22 is verified. The human power (power) and output
(sound pressure) of the speaker 22 are not a problem, except in the special case 51. Generally,
the above-mentioned frequency characteristics, tone burst characteristics, differential
characteristics, etc. are most required. Scold. The conditions are determined as shown in Fig. 6
and input to the speaker, and the output is monitored by the microphone. [The point that the
invention is trying to solve] When considering the ideal speaker when driving the speaker with
voltage and current proportional to the sound pressure, the diaphragm of the speaker is
completely rigid. Zero mass, no repulsive force (damping resistance) due to displacement, anti-H
from the back of the speaker and no baffle and infinite baffle), reflection from the installation
location, etc. It is a possible condition. If these conditions are satisfied, if a force is applied to the
diaphragm with a force proportional to one-person sound pressure, the position of the
diaphragm with respect to air changes, and the same pressure as the sound pressure applied to
the air by the diaphragm Dynamic pressure acts as a repulsive force of the balance. That is, when
all the energy input to the speaker is converted into sound energy, the sound pressure
proportional to the voltage is output from the speaker. In other words, accurate reproduction of
the sound was made. However, in practice, perfect stiffness, mass zero, etc. can not be realized.
The problem is how to reproduce the sound closer to the original 11 nowadays. For example, the
fourth I: I j j dynamic's beaker in lj The diaphragm 14 uses a damping spring 15 to make the
displacement number In response, a repulsive force, ie, a force to approach a center point which
falls when a force is not applied to the diaphragm 14, is generated, and additionally, an original
sound is empirically used utilizing the space on the back of the speaker box 26 and the
diaphragm 14. Efforts have been made to make it as close as possible as shown in Fig.7. 7A and
13 show general frequency characteristics of the speaker, where a straight line A is an average
value of the power input to the speaker, a curve B is a force (proportional to the displacement)
which disturbs the movement of the diaphragm by the damper, a curve C is the force acting on
the vibration of the diaphragm (the input minus the damper force), straight RX @ p is the tfl loss
of sound pressure and the expected displacement speed of the diaphragm without damper,
straight E is the sound pressure In the case of no loss of damper, the expected displacement
speed without damper, curve jliF is the displacement speed of the actual diaphragm with the
repulsive force of the damper and the loss of sound pressure, and the curve G is the square of the
displacement speed of the diaphragm, The graph shown in G, which is proportional to the sound
pressure, roughly shows the tendency of the frequency characteristics of the actual speaker.
As described above, although efforts have been made to approach the original sound empirically,
however, there is no idea of trying to reproduce the sound by changing the driving force of the
speaker according to the mechanical and physical characteristics of the speaker. Starting from a
review of the nature of the sound itself, assuming a diaphragm that generates sound as the
source of sound for the generation of the original sound such as speech, musical instruments,
etc., the dynamic movement state of the diaphragm It is apparent that the relationship between
the sound pressure and the generated sound pressure is a dynamic pressure that is proportional
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to the square of the relative velocity between the air that is the medium of sound and the
diaphragm surface in contact with that when the temperature and pressure of air are constant.
Therefore, if the displacement speed of the surface of the diaphragm of the speaker is not exactly
proportional to the displacement speed of the surface of the diaphragm of the sound source
assumed due to the sound pressure recorded in the microphone, it is of course impossible to
reproduce faithfully to the original sound. is there. The present invention aims to solve the abovementioned problems. [Means for Solving the Problems] In order to achieve the above object,
according to the present invention, in an audio system, sound pressure input to a microphone or
the like is converted into an electrical signal, but a diaphragm is used as a sound source of the
input sound pressure. To determine the displacement velocity of the surface of the sound
source's diaphragm based on the converted electrical signal, and to accurately and accurately
proportionate the displacement velocity of the surface of the speaker's diaphragm. The physical
and mechanical properties of the speaker are measured, and based on them, elements that
disturb the accurate proportional velocity of the speaker's diaphragm in simulations or
equivalent circuits are converted to electromagnetic energy, and the electromagnetic energy is
converted to The surface of the diaphragm of the speaker is output to the speaker by adding
power that can generate the electromagnetic energy that can be canceled, and the displacement
speed of the surface of the diaphragm of the speaker is a table of the diaphragm assumed for the
sound source The displacement speed of the one in which was as accurate as possible
proportional. Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to
the embodiments shown in the attached drawings. Here, there is a heavy diaphragm of the
speaker, and the force applied to the diaphragm is damping and friction. Assuming that there is
no loss due to sound pressure, it is assumed that the power is driven by the voltage Vs, and an
equivalent circuit is set as shown in FIG. In the figure, reference numeral 30 denotes a non-linear
amplifier (non-linear amplifier) which can be flattened to a square of the input voltage Vs, and ks
is a proportional constant which is negative when V s <0 and positive when V s> O. The output
P1 of the amplifier 30 is P1 = ksJv?.... The output P2 of the operational amplifier 32 is the
output of the operational amplifier 34 (VO is an initial value). Shake that was assumed to sound
source here from the formula!
When the displacement speed of 1 lFi, is ?. vs = kov
?ииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии
ииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииииии However, if k6 substitutes proportional constant ? ?5 The
speaker's mass can be compensated by squaring the output of the amplifier and differentiating
and integrating. The equivalent circuit of the actual (real) speaker is shown in FIG. 1 (A). When
the actual speaker is moved by Vp, (a) Repulsion force by the damper supporting the diaphragm
and the yoke coil (b) Converted to loss (b) Ц (splay) UIJ plate rear surface utilized for resonance,
There are various elements that are considered as sealed with the speaker box or that are
considered to be sealed, such as repulsive force accompanying changes in pressure of the air
(including sound pressure), such as the accurate output to the human power of the speaker. If the
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above conditions are roughly replaced with equivalent circuits as an example, it becomes as
shown in FIG. 1 (I3). Here, the approximate equivalent circuit of the block surrounded by a
broken line in FIG. 1 (A) and its ? taste are as follows. The a can be expressed by the capacitor Ci
shown in FIG. 8, and an electric capacitance corresponding to a mass which determines how the
displacement velocity v1 changes with respect to the force (electric power) Vs to which the
weight of the diaphragm is applied. It is. 1) Input vt (phase to displacement speed of diaphragm)!
In the case of vl 0 0 in a squarer (multiplier) that squares 1 or a proportional voltage), kl is
negative, and 1 is positive when vl) 0. The above is shown in FIG. f is the delay line (delay line) of
FIG. 10, DLI, DL2. It is equivalent to a circuit consisting of DL3 and resistors rl, r2 r3, where f is a
force that attempts to disrupt the movement of the diaphragm, such as room reflections,
resonances, air repulsions of the speaker box, etc. 0 is a resistance for causing feedback of a
repulsive force in producing a sound pressure by a reaction when pressure is applied to air by
displacing the diaphragm by li. krv- is a sound (sound pressure) produced by the speaker
diaphragm. d is y1 which indicates the position of the diaphragm displaced at the velocity of Vl.
(I is the reaction force of the diaphragm or the support spring material of the voice coil for
generating a repulsive force proportional to the displacement of the speaker. The displacement E
+ yl is determined to determine the force (force to move the diaphragm). It is an integration
coefficient for integration, and can be represented by the capacitance of the capacitor CI in FIG.
R1 is also a resistor and C1 in combination with the C1 to form an integrating unit ?Wjl.? 632
is an amplifier of gain e1 and the polarity of the output of yl is the same as that of the input Vs. It
constitutes a buffer amplifier for changing. C means the circuit of FIG. DLL, r4 is a repulsive force
associated with relatively low frequency displacement of the speaker box (with a change in
volume of the enclosed space), r5 is a change in the diaphragm (repulsing in proportion to ?) is
there. C3 and r6L1 are repulsive forces due to deformation (deflection) of the diaphragm. As
described above, what is the characteristic of the part enclosed by the broken line? None of the
mechanical and physical properties present in the loudspeaker itself can in fact be removed. As a
countermeasure, of each a, b, d and fl, d should be e except e, (a circuit of Rld and A2 is required
to remove 3 but a broken line around If ay br ft e enclosed by is compensated as shown in FIG. 1
(B), it becomes as shown in FIG. 1 (C), and V is proportional to v 3 and an accurate sound (sound
pressure) can be reproduced. That is, a is compensated by Ai, a '(same circuit but changes
coefficients depending on cases), ksFV; a system of f is b ? f has dimension Vs itself [the same
way as a' , And may be directly input to the amplifier A1 from human power. The repulsive force
of C can be canceled if e is input to the amplifier Ai by the input of the amplifier 32, that is, the
output of y2 in the same manner as e p (same manner as a r). As described above, if k 51 F 1] t a
'Hf' g e 'is added, the displacement velocity v 3 of the diaphragm of the speaker is exactly
proportional to the displacement velocity V of the assumed sound source as shown in FIG. 1 (C) It
can be done. That is, v3 is proportional to V, etc. means that direct input from the linear amplifier
is only the power to generate sound (sound pressure), and the speaker's loss (diaphragm) IIIt
Amount, tumbler reflection etc. c, k s M * a ', Ai, f', e 'are calculated by the equivalent or
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simulation by the constant determined by the result of measuring the characteristics of each
speaker with another circuit. This makes it possible to create a compensation input and to
compensate for the above-mentioned loss by this compensation input, so that accurate
reproduction, in particular transient reproduction, of the sound (rf pressure) input by the
microphone by the speaker is impossible. It is. [Effect] As described above, the present invention
converts an element which disturbs the accurate proportional velocity of the diaphragm of the
speaker into the electromagnetic energy and produces the electromagnetic energy which cancels
the electromagnetic energy. Since the power that can be added is output to the speaker, the
displacement speed of the surface of the speaker diaphragm can be accurately made
proportional to the displacement speed of the surface of the diaphragm assumed for the sound
source, and it is extremely important for the sound source There is an effect that can reproduce
close sound.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
1 is an equivalent circuit diagram of a speaker, FIG. 2 is an equivalent circuit diagram of a
speaker, FIG. 3 is an explanatory diagram of a microphone, FIG. 4 is a sectional view of the
speaker, FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram, and FIG. Explanatory drawing.
FIG. 7 is a characteristic graph of a speaker, FIG. 8 is an explanatory view, FIG. 9 is an
explanatory view, and FIG. 10 is an explanatory view. FIG. 11 is an explanatory view, and FIG. 12
is an explanatory view. 2.4 и и и и и и electrode, a, tO и и и и и и и insulation member. 14 иии Diaphragm,
15 иии Spring, 16 ииии Yoke coil, 20 иии Amp, 22 иии Speaker, 24 иии Microphone. 26 ... speaker box, 30 ...
non-linear amplifier applicant Nakamura Hirodai 1 view (C) a second 8 Figure 3 the Figure 7 (A)
(B) Figure 8 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 110 Procedure manual njl 3 и ? Showa 612 11) 7 Japanese Patent
Application No. 61-241017 2, title of the invention audio speaker driving method 3, relationship
with the case for correction Patent Applicant address Tokyo Metropolitan University [? Ward
Omori Kita 4-] -7-8 Name Hiroshi Nakamura 4, agent address Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Jingumae 6
chome 19 No. 15 Takano 1st Building 9th floor Spontaneous (2) Description (A) On page 17, line
17 "mechanical energy is electrical" corrects as "mechanical energy is electromagnetic". (B)
Correct 6th page 3rd line "Dimetion" as "Dimage 3rd". (C) 7th page 13th line "sound pressure"
corrects to "voltage". (D) It seems to be on page 8 line 4 ". ?????? "I consider it as a thing.
Correct with J. (E) The 9th page, 10th line "frequency characteristics" is corrected as "frequency
characteristics". (F) On page 11, line 14 rFJ corrects to "G". (1-) 11 pages 15th line rGJ and
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correct rFJ. (H) On page 11, line 16 corrects r G J to be rFJ. (Su) 11th page 14th line ?to? is
corrected as ?to?. (F) Correct the word ?phase? on page 13 in line 2 as ?think?. (Le) 13th
page 5th line "degree" corrects as "pass". (?) 20 lines on the 6th line, "correct" and correct r @
lost. (W) Delete page 15 "line integral" on page 13 2. Claims (1) In the audio system, the sound
pressure input to the microphone or the like is converted to an electrical signal, but the
diaphragm is fixed to the sound source of the input sound pressure, and the converted electric
Based on the signal, the displacement velocity of the surface of the sound source diaphragm is
determined, and the physical and mechanical characteristics of each speaker are measured in
order to make the transition velocity of the surface of the speaker diaphragm accurately
proportional to a steady transient. Based on them, elements such as simulation or equivalent
circuit that prevent accurate proportional velocity of the speaker's diaphragm are converted to
electromagnetic energy, and such electromagnetic energy cancels the electromagnetic energy. By
adding power that can be created and outputting it to the speaker, the displacement speed of the
surface of the diaphragm of the speaker can be accurately proportional to the displacement
speed of the surface of the diaphragm assumed for the sound source Audio speaker driving
method being characterized in that the.
(2) In the audio system, the sound pressure input to the microphone or the like is converted to an
electrical signal, but the diaphragm is fixed to the sound source of the input sound pressure, and
the sound source is generated based on the converted electrical signal The physical and
mechanical characteristics of the individual speakers and the location of the speakers in order to
determine the displacement speed of the surface of the diaphragm and to accurately
proportionate the displacement speed of the surface of the speaker diaphragm on a steady and
transient basis. Measure the acoustic effects such as reflection and absorption in the room, and
based on them, convert an element that impedes the accurate proportional velocity of the
speaker's diaphragm with simulation or equivalent circuit etc. into electro-magnetic energy, and
its electro-magnetic energy Rate of displacement on the surface of the speaker's diaphragm is
assumed to be a sound source by outputting power to the speaker by adding electric power that
can generate electro-magnetic energy that cancels out dynamic energy Audio speaker driving
method is characterized in that as exactly as possible in proportion to the displacement speed of
the surface of the diaphragm was. (3) The method of driving an audio speaker according to any
one of (1) and (2), wherein the physical and mechanical characteristics of the speaker are a mass
of a diaphragm of the speaker. (4) Physical and mechanical characteristics of the above speaker.
The method for driving an audio speaker according to any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the
method is the rigidity of the diaphragm of the speaker. (5) The method of driving an audio
speaker according to any one of the above (1) and (2), wherein the physical and mechanical
characteristics of the speaker are the damper force of the diaphragm of the speaker. (6) The
method of driving an audio speaker according to any one of the above (1) and (2), wherein the
physical and mechanical characteristics of the speaker are the degree of resonance of the
diaphragm of the speaker.
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