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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an
electromechanical transformer device, and more particularly to a dual piston transformer 7'-L-re,
in which energy is selectively radiated from opposite ends of a transducer device. As for the
transformer known as The device known as a double piston transducer is an electrical machine
or electroacoustic transducer known from the prior art. In its simplest form, the device consists
of a thin piece of active material in contact with the radiation medium on both sides, which
induces a planar movement therein. For example, a flat disk or ring of piezoelectric ceramic (e.g.
based on lead silcondetanate) which has electrodes on the flat side and is decentralized in a
direction perpendicular to the flat side is such It operates as a vibrator. This type of device
usually makes the output high. It is adapted to operate at a frequency close to the first
longitudinal resonance frequency. In order to obtain a compact, sufficiently low composite
frequency and a well-controlled response, it is usual to apply a mass loading on the two sides of
the active material with a piece of inert material. An example of a prior art mass loaded double
piston transducer is shown in FIG. 1 (a). The plurality of piezoelectric materials are combined to
form a composite piezoelectric stack 2. Each ring is electrically wired in parallel, and when a
voltage is applied between the electrical leads all of the individual rings 1 harmonize and expand
or contract in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the device. At each end of the ceramic
stack, the same head (head) mass element 3 is coupled, each having an outer surface 4 in contact
with the radiation medium 5. A slip-less rod or pre-tensioned I'j bolt 6 and a cooperating l-l-7 are
provided to connect each element and to provide compressive bias stress to the stack 2 of active
elements. It is done. The electrodes arranged between the rings 1 and the insulating washers
arranged at the end of the stack 2 are not shown for the sake of simplicity. The device of FIG. 1
(a) can be used as a mechanical [111'5 sound energy transmitter or receiver, and is generally
operated at a frequency band centered about its primary resonant frequency. It is. In this
frequency band, the two head masses 3 move in the opposite direction to each other, while the
stack 2 of the interactive ? il + expands and contracts in the direction of its axis. As can be
appreciated by those skilled in the art, the performance of the device of FIG. 1 (a) can be
approximated by the similar behavior of the simplified electrical equivalent circuit of FIG. 1 (b>).
In this circuit, the two inductors mh represent two head masses and the compliance of the
ceramic stack is represented by capacitor C. The two inductors meIJ3 and rTIe2 represent the
effective mass components at the two ends of the ceramic stack 2. CO is the electrically clamped
capacitance of the ceramic stack 2 and ?: 1 is the conversion ratio of the electromechanical
transducer which represents the conversion characteristics of the piezoelectric stack 2. The block
Zrad of the branch outside the equivalent circuit represents the equivalent radiation impedance
seen at the radiation plane of the transducer. The equivalent currents u1 and u2 of these
impedances represent the speed of the moving rod of the transformer. Because of the symmetry
of the device of FIG. 1 (a), the energy emitted from the 2 * end is equal. In the equivalent circuit
representation, as apparent from this symmetry / i, equivalent currents u1 and u2 are equal. J3
in the acoustic device, this means that the sound energy-1 =-is emitted equally well in the far
places in both directions along the longitudinal axis of the device. For certain applications this is
right-handed. However, for other applications it is necessary to emit in one of the directions
along the longitudinal axis and to emit little on the other. For these applications [Yu, prior art
double-waisted vertical vibrators are not suitable. For applications requiring unidirectional
radiation, it is also possible to use two separate devices facing a single tIi emitter, each in contact
with the medium 5. One example of such an arrangement is shown in FIG. 2 (a), in which two
identical longitudinal transducers are mounted facing each other from the back. Each of these
devices 19f is generally similar to the radiation of the double ended oscillator, except that there
is no head mass 3 in contact with the radiation medium 5. Instead of the X52 head mass, a
vibratory tillable mass 8 is provided. This pair of electrical equivalent circuit diagrams is shown
in FIG. 2 (b). Instead of one of the two equivalent head mass inductors m t +, the inductance of
the till mass m [is used and the radiation impedance Z rad in series with this equivalent tail
inductance is eliminated. These two transducers in this configuration are driven separately, each
emitting only in one direction along their common m ?. In the equivalent circuit representation,
it can be seen that the equivalent currents u1 and u2 of the radiation impedance are completely
independent. Two transducer configurations are appropriate in situations requiring a single
The disadvantage of this arrangement is that it is larger, heavier, more complex and expensive
than a single device with the same function. The object of the present invention is to provide
unidirectional radiation in one direction along the longitudinal axis of the transducer and mostly
in the opposite direction! ll Do not shoot double bis! Providing a method for electrically driving
the transducer 4 according to an embodiment of the present invention, It is possible to provide a
device which can change the direction in which the radiation takes place from one end to the
other without movement. According to one embodiment of the present invention, it is possible to
change the ratio of the M DI energy of the two directions along the longitudinal axis to the
desired value of (A device can be provided. According to one embodiment of the present
invention, selectively having high signal reception sensitivity for signals from one direction along
its longitudinal axis, and no right or no sensitivity for signals from the opposite direction. A twohand piston receive transducer can be provided. Another object of the present invention is to
exercise 1-Lance Dewry or turn it! It is possible to provide an apparatus capable of changing the
direction of high reception sensitivity from one end to the other without any problem. According
to one embodiment of the present invention, the transformer changes the ratio of the reception
sensitivity in two directions along its longitudinal axis to any desired value by changing the
parameters of the electrical signal from the 1-transducer. According to one embodiment of the
present invention which can provide a control system of user and transducer, it is possible to
provide a relatively compact, light and inexpensive 1-transducer. [Means for Solving the
Problems] In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, the present invention relates to the
sound w! first and second head masses in contact with the first body, first and second active
transducer elements respectively in contact with the first and second head masses, and the first
and second transformer elements. In contact with the user element, vibration is transmitted
between the first and second transducer elements, and vibration due to one of the first and
second head masses is caused by vibration due to the other of the first and second head masses.
The transformer is constructed by providing transmission means for strengthening or weakening.
According to a second invention, a first head mass in contact with an acoustic medium, a first
active transducer element in contact with the first head mass, and a first active transducer
element are provided. And a second head mass in contact with the acoustic medium, a second
active mass contact element contacting with the central mass, and a second head mass abutting
with the second active transducer element and in contact with the acoustic medium. I made up a
The IR objective of the invention The invention aims at placing the special mass at the center of
the piezoelectric stack of a dual piston transducer and electrically driving the two ceramic stacks
thus formed. Or, it is achieved by connecting a receiving circuit. The extra mass separates the
stack into two separate stacks that are not electrically connected to one another. The individual
ceramic rings LL of each stack are connected electrically in parallel as in the prior art devices. By
properly selecting the relative magnitudes and phases of the drive voltage excitations applied to
the two piezoelectric stacks, it is possible to obtain wide sheath surround acoustic performance
characteristics. The present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
The present invention adds selectable mass to the center of the piezoelectric stack in a 2 m
piston transducer element and appropriately drives the two ceramic stacks thus formed, thus
providing selectable unidirectional response. It will be achieved. FIG. 3 (a) shows a two apical
transducer J with a special (specially added) mass 9. The mass 9 is hereafter called the central
mass. The central mass 9 is arranged between the active 1-lancer stack 2 'and 2 DEG and the
head mass 3' and 3 DEG. The stacks 2 'and 2 ░ are compression biased by the stress rods 6' and
6 ░ and nats 7 'and 7 ░. Inside, heart 9 is Fix! ????????????? ????????
????? ? Allow to be transmitted between. The transmitted vibration intensifies or
weakens the vibration on the opposite side, or a combination thereof. The two head masses 3and 3 ░ may be identical to one another, as in the case of the head mass 3 of the prior art
device, and they differ from one another to produce different emission characteristics on the two
sides of the device It may be Similarly, the two active stacks 2 'and 21 may be made of the same
material and may be different in order to change the response of the two directions as required.
The transducer of FIG. 3 (a) may be assembled substantially the same as the prior art transducer
of FIG. 2 (a). The active transducer element 1 may be a tcm electrode formed of a piezoelectric
ceramic material such as lead zirconate titanate, from Vernitron Inc, Bedford, Ohio, USA It is
The head masses 3 'and 3' ░ and the central mass 9 may be tungsten, steel or aluminum. The
stress bar is artificially aged after machining and has an alloy number 172 according to ?STM
B-19f3 with a hardness of 1?4 which has been adapted to scratch Otsk f) Lt (Rockwell) C 59-42 It
may be beryllium copper. Nat's 7 'and 7' ░ may be aluminum or copper, but the faces in contact
with head masses 3 'and 31 should be flat so that nut locking does not occur. The entire
assembly of the transducer can be done using epoxy and then under tension on stress bars 6 'and
6' or by loosely securing at assembly stress bars 6 'and 6'. Adjustment of the compression bias
using the sleeveless rod 6 'and 6 ░ is easy for those skilled in the art. Other features of typical
transducers, such as insulating washers, wiring, electrical contacts, etc., are well known to those
skilled in the art, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3.309.653 assigned to Miller. Is shown. The stress
bars 6 'and 6' solid lines in FIG. 3 (a) indicate that the stress bars 6 and 6 'are fixed to the
respective head masses 3' and 3 'and the central mass 9. . However, it is also possible to connect
the two head masses 3 and 31 through a hole in the central mass 9 using a back stress bar. The
penetration of the central mass 9 by a single rod is shown in broken lines in FIG. 3 (a). A
simplified equivalent circuit representation of the transducer of FIG. 3 (a) is shown in FIG. 3 (b).
This circuit shows two piezoelectric stacks. Each stack is equivalent electric element CO, Ct, C2,
ml, m2. m01. It is represented by the combination of me2 and an electromechanical converter
whose conversion ratio is ?. The equivalent inductor mc in the circuit represents the central
mass 9. As is apparent from the equivalent circuit of FIG. 3 (b), the transducer of FIG. 3 (a) has
two inputs and can be viewed as a linear system having two outputs. If this device is used as a
source transducer, the input parameters are the voltages E1 and El at the electrical connection to
the two ceramic stacks 2 and the output parameters are the speeds U1 and u2 of the two
emitting head masses 3 It is. The electroacoustic transmission matrix for each element is as
Where ul and u2 are the head mass 3 and 3 degrees, respectively, and El and El are the drive
voltages applied to the stacks 2 'and 2 degrees of the ceramic, respectively, and 011-022 as
below Is determined. j? 1 ░ и icl 12 ░-mc 'c 11--(1-? 2-C 2)-(2) HTD 112-1 c' j ? 12 ░ C 2 C
12-? (3) HT 'D j ? 1 ░ C 1 C 21 =-0 , (4) HT'D30m2-C2111'4C'c22 =-(1- [omega] '-cl) (5) HT-D
11 [deg.] IC' where m1'-m1 + mel (6) ) M 2 '-m 2 + mel-(7) m C'-fa C + 2182-= (8) HT-mlo + m 2
░ to vae '... (9) 1 (m 2' +? C ") [) = 1 -? 'cIHT +2 '(ml' + wc ') one ?2C2 old 1 ░ 42-a + c' + ?4
? иии (10) T? is an operation angular frequency is ? = 2?f (f is the operating frequency). The
variables in Equations (1) to (10) are all complex numbers, and have amplitude and phase
information. Such details on the manipulation of complex numbers in matrix format 1 to J3 can
be found in the Eugen Sufdolreich ([ugcnSkudrZVk) published in 1971 by Springer 777-Re
(Springcr-Verlag) in Vienna, Austria and New York, USA The basics of acoustics by J Rounds of
Acoustics) are shown. Given the desired value for the radiation head velocity, equation (1) allows
for the elimination of the two complex stack voltages that give rise to it. Using these equations to
make U2 zero, it can be seen that the drive voltage ratio should be as follows. E2-c21 ?-и и и (11)
If the voltage ratio of E 1 c 22 equation (11), there is a high power 13 cost 04 from the head
mass 3 'and totally emitted from the head mass 3 ░ " There is no Similarly, using the formula
(1), it is derived that the head mass 3 ? has high radiation, and the head mass 3 ? has the
following ratio of applied voltages in order to be radiation-free: .
El -C12 ?-? (12) If the voltage ratio is selected by the equation (1) so that the velocity u2 of the
E2 C11 element head mass 3 ░░ becomes zero, the circuit node of FIG. 3 (b) Nodal point 10 is
maintained at zero equivalent voltage. As a result, the dynamic situation becomes identical to that
shown in FIG. 3 (C). In FIG. 3 (C), the virtual ground point 10 of FIG. 3 (b) is redrawn, which
makes it clear that it has a ground potential. The portion on the right side of the dotted line in
FIG. 3 (C) is the same as one of the equivalent circuits of the conventional transformer in FIG. 2
(b). However, the equivalent tail mass mt in FIG. 2 (b) is replaced with a combination of the
equivalent center mass mc and the ceramic equivalent mass me2. The electrical, mechanical and
acoustic behavior of the right half of FIG. 3 (C) is therefore identical to that of the conventional
element of FIG. As in the case of the prior art devices, significant overhead energy is emitted from
the head mass 3 '. By changing the drive voltage ratio to the value of equation (11) and the value
of equation (12), it is possible to change the radiation direction without disturbing the 1transducer device. In fact, by adjusting the relative drive voltages to the two piezoelectric stacks,
the relative diversion ratio between the left and right directions is maximized on the right side
from the above ratio [formula (11). It is possible to pass any desired condition and to any value
up to the ratio (12>) which maximizes the left side described above. If r = ? (13) is the desired
value of the ratio of the OA velocity of the two head masses, then the ratio of the drive voltage
required to produce this situation is from the equation <1) El c 22 r ?c 21 ? = ? (14) E 2 ?c
12 r + c 11 For a device with reflective symmetry centered on a central mass, the electroacoustic
transmission matrix element has the following relationship: cll = c22c21 = c12 (15) In the case of
unidirectional radiation where ul is zero, equation <14) is reduced to equation (12) with r = Q.
(14) is reduced to equation (11) for unidirectional radiation where (2) approaches zero. If the
emissions from the two heads are equal, then r-1 in equation (14) and thus El = E2. FIG. 4 shows
a typical configuration of the lance driver and drive electronic circuit 1 to right the above
performance. This figure shows the electrical signal generator 11 providing the input of the
This signal is sent via an independent channel of gain or amplitude and phase adjustment unit
12. The adjustment unit 12 adjusts the amplitude and phase of the input signal according to the
desired complex drive voltage E of each channel! ! ! ??? The complex drive voltage is applied
to the power amplifier 13, amplified, and applied to the two stacks of the transducer 14 of FIG. 3
(a). By properly selecting the amplitudes and phases of the two channels, the performance of the
system can be varied widely. FIG. 5 shows an example where a new device is used as a receiver.
The electrical signals generated by the two stacks are buffered and amplified by separate
preamplifiers 19. The output signal of the preamplifier is provided to a separate gain and phase
adjustment unit 12. The influence of the gain J3 and the phase adjustment unit on the signal can
be adjusted manually or automatically, and is adjusted according to equation (1) in order to make
the system have an appropriate directional response. These signals are summed in summing
circuit 20 to provide the final output signal with the desired directional sensitivity. In the above
description, it has been assumed that 1 Herangs Yury device is centered on the central mass 9
and 1st name. If the transducer is symmetrical about a central mass 9, the central mass 9 is at
least as heavy as one 3 'or 3 DEG of the head mass to the right. When the head masses 3 'and 3'
are not balanced, the central mass 9 should have the same quality m as the heaviest of the head
masses 3 'and 3'. Other embodiments of the present invention have higher performance in
certain applications and use somewhat different dimensions and materials for left and right
transducer elements. The effect of such a correction is made clear by substituting the desired
value into the equation (1) represented in FIG. 3 (b). With this type of correction, the rightward
and leftward radiation is optimized at several different operating frequency bands from one
another, extending the total operating band of the transmission system. Prior art electrical stack
lll end method, use of impedance matching layer on the emitting surface, use of resonant head
mass (US Patent Application No. 626.784 (by the inventor, assigned to the same assignee) All
described in 2.) are compatible with the present invention and may be used with the present
invention. Those skilled in the art will recognize that. According to the present invention, it is
possible to provide a transducer which can emit unidirectional radiation in one direction along
the longitudinal axis of the transformer and hardly radiate in the opposite direction. .
Brief description of the drawings
FIG. 1 (a) is a longitudinal sectional view showing a conventional two-stream end vertical
vibrator, FIG. 1 (b) is a view showing an equivalent circuit of the transformer of FIG. 1 (a), FIG. (A)
is a longitudinal cross-sectional view showing the elements and structure of a pair of prior art
vertical transducer transducers capable of emitting independently in two directions along a
common longitudinal axis; Figure 2 (a) shows the equivalent circuit of the transducer, Figure 3 (a)
according to the invention!
~ Longitudinal sectional view showing the elements and configuration of the transducer, Fig. 3 (b)
shows an equivalent circuit of the 1-transducer in Fig. 3 (a>) ░ Fig. 3 (C) is radiation in a single
direction FIG. 3 shows an equivalent circuit of the device of FIG. 3 when driven to perform an
electrical circuit according to the present invention suitable for operating the transducer of the
present invention as a unidirectional transmitter. FIG. 5 shows an electrical circuit suitable for
operating the transducer according to the invention as a unidirectional receiver. DESCRIPTION
OF SYMBOLS 1 иии Transformer element, 2?2 ░░ иииииии Stack, 3 =, 3 ? ? иии Head mass, 4 to 14
? ? иии Outer surface, 5 иии Radiation medium 6 ?, 6 "... stress bar, 7 '. 7 ░ Nat, 9: central mass,
11: electrical signal generator, 12: amplitude and phase adjustment unit, 13: power amplifier, 14:
trans V, 19. -Preamplifier, 20 ... addition circuit. Fig. 1 (, / / 71Le2 7)! e / Fig. 3 (L) ? 3 (/ / 3 Fig.
3 (C
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