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The Effect of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen
ion implantation of AISI 52100 Steel
Cite as: AIP Conference Proceedings 669, 347 (2003); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1593936
Published Online: 08 July 2003
Amir H. Sari, M. Ghoranneviss, M. Mardanian, M. R. Hantehzadeh, and H. Hora
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Friction reduction and zero wear for 52100 bearing steel by high-dose implantation of
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Applied Physics Letters 57, 1622 (1990); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.104067
AIP Conference Proceedings 669, 347 (2003); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1593936
© 2003 American Institute of Physics.
669, 347
The Effect of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen ion implantation
of AISI 52100 Steel
Amir H. Sari1, M. Ghoranneviss1, M.Mardanian1, M.R. Hantehzadeh1, H.Hora2,3
1
Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, I.A.University, Tehran, Iran
2
Faculty of Electr.Engineering, University of Applide Science, Deggendorf,Germany
3
Dept. Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
Abstract. Ion implantation has been used to modify the mechanical properties of a wide range of metals and alloys using
plasma techniques for ion sources and plasma surface treatment [1]. In this study AISI 52100 steel disks, containing 1.5
wt% Cr as the major alloying element, were implanted with nitrogen and carbon dioxide ions at the energy of 90 KeV,
with dose in the range 1 × 1018 to 1 × 1019 N+2 ions cm-2, and 3 × 1018 to 1 × 1019 for co2+ ions cm-2. Ion beam current
densities and sample temperature, during implantation were 3-6 µA/cm2 and 170 C, respectively. Experiments show,
hardness of sample, increases 30-49% using N+2 ions, and 5-17% using co2+ ions. In order to explain the results,
formation of beta-CrN and carbide pahses have been carried out using X-ray diffraction technique.
0
INTRODUCTION
A central goal of physical metallurgy is to improve physical properties through the control of microstructure.
Thermal and/or mechanical treatment can have dramatic effects on mechanical properties; the microstructural
changes induced by these processes are discernible with standard electron and optical microscope techniques [2].
Ion implantation has been used for producing a modification in the structure of the superficial layers of metals by
formation of new crystalline phases, metastable or amorphous, and thus to improve the surface properties; it
increases specially hardness and resistance of fatigue, wear and corrosion. Crystalline materials become stronger
when the dislocations are made more difficult to move and multiply, and in some complex way the implantation
products interact with dislocations. A review is given of the current status of activities as represented by a number
of research groups [2].
EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS AND RESULTS
The steels 100 Cr6 (AISI 52100) with nominal composition (in weight percent (wt %1)) : Cr-1.52;
C-10 ; Mn-0.35 ; Si-0.25 ; Ni , Cu-0.3 min. were used as disks with a diameter of 38 mm and a thickness of
0.5mm. The samples were ultrasonically cleaned in acetone and methanol. Ion implantation was done with the
instrument of Institute of Accelerators Technology (IAEO), using a molecular nitrogen and carbon dioxide ions at
the energy of 90 KeV for each ion species. The implantation of nitrogen was performed at the dose of 1× 1018 and
1× 1019 cm-2 and carbon dioxide ions with dose in the range of 3× 1018 to 1× 1019 cm-2 respectively . The sample
temperature during implantation was 1700 C, and the target chamber pressure 6× 10-6 Torr initially and 2× 10-6 Torr
during implantation, and the sample ion beam current densities was between 3 and 6 µ A/cm2 .
The microhardness measurements shows a strong increasing of hardness from 298 HV (unimplanted steel sample)
for a load of 50 gf to about 450 HV using nitrogen implantation at dose of 3× 1018 cm-2, and also the microhardness
of martensitic 100 Cr 6 (AISI 52100 ) increased upon implantation of nitrogen ions at the dose 1× 1019 cm-2 from
298 HV for a load of l0gf to about 390 HV. The ion implantation of carbon doxide at the dose of 3× 1018 cm-2 is
caused the increasing of microhardness from 298 HV for a load of l0gf to about 350 HV, also we found a weak
CP669, Plasma Physics: 11th International Congress on Plasma Physics: ICPP 2002
edited by I. S. Falconer, R. L. Dewar, and J. Khachan
© 2003 American Institute of Physics 0-7354-0133-0/03/$20.00
347
increasing of microhardness from 298 HV (unimpanted steel) for a load of 25gf to about 305 HV using carbon
dioxide ions at the dose of 1× 1019 cm-2 .
TABLE 1. Results of microhardness measurements performed at AISI 52100 steel
substrates which implanted with Nitrogen and carbon dioxide ions , at the energy of 90
KeV.
Ion
N+2
N+2
Co+2
Co+2
Dose [cm-2]
1× 1018
1× 1019
3× 1018
1× 1019
Microhardness [HV]
450
390
350
305
Relative Microhardness [%]
49.70
31.10
17.15
5.01
A quantitative surface/near - surface analysis technique was performed to establish the compositions and
microstructures of four implanted samples and unimplanted one. Figure1. shows the profile of net intensity versus
angle of 2θ for unimplanted sample. Lattice parameters are a=2.028 0A, b=1.171 0A ( a=2.026 0A , b =1.170 0A as
given by JCPDS card), which implies the presence of pure 57Fe in steel. Table 2. shows the strong lines for a bcc
crystalline structure (Fe phase) which found in the steel .
FIGURE 1. The XRD spectrum of unimplanted AISI 52100 steel .
Figure2, supports the interpretation of the microhardness results in the two implanted sample by nitrogen ions
with high - dose (1× 1018 , 1× 1019 cm-2 ) there are three important peaks which implies the formation of beta-CrN
phase in the AISI 52100 steel . The lattice parameters for implanted steel with dose 1× 1018 cm-2 that determined
from figure2, are: a=2.253 0A, b= 2.0410 A, c=1.6360A (a = 2.212 0A, b = 2.0410A, c = 1.640 0A as given by JCPDS
card). In a similar manner , the lattice parameters for implanted steel with dose of 1× 1019 cm-2 are a = 2.242 0A,
b= 2.051 0A, c = 1.675 0A.
TABLE 2.The XRD analysis of unimplanted and Nitrogen - implanted AISI 52100 steel
(hki)
Relative
intensity
d-spacing
(A0)
(110)
(211)
(200)
(220)
x=100
30
30
12
2.0268
1.1702
1.4332
1.0134
348
Unimplanted
(310)
10
0.9064
(111)
(002)
(112)
(300)
(113)
x
80
21
15
13
2.2120
2.0419
1.6405
1.3829
1.2629
Nitrogen-implanted
In the two implanted samples using carbon dioxide ions at the dose of 3 and 10 × 10 18 cm-2 , formation of carbide
or graphite and also a broad hump in the XRD spectrum which confirm the presence of amorphous carbon was not
detected.
FIGURE 2. The formation of beta-CrN phase in the surface layer using N+2 , at the dose of 1× 1018 cm-2. These results indicate
the increasing of microhardness can be obtained as a consequence of nitrogen and carbon-dioxide ion implantation in AISI
52100 steel, but the nitrogen implantation is not comparable with the carbon dioxide implantation . This conclusion is confirmed
by the lattice parameters for implanted steels.
There are too many papers which have been showed that, surface-controlled mechanical properties can be
significantly modified through ion implantation [3-7]. However , the microstructual modifications that is responsible
for these effects are investigating now, using advance surface microanalysis (e.g.SIMS) including phase
transformation, compound formation and carbide/oxide chemical alternations..
REFERENCES
[1] Sari, A.H., Hantehzadeh, M.R, Ghoranneviss, M., ”The effect of proton bombardment on electrical and optical properties of
GaAs,” in 25th Int. Conf. Plasma and Ionized Gases, Nagoya, Japan, July 2001, paper 17a52.
[2] Herman, H., Nucl . Inst. And Meth , 182/183, 887 –898 (1981).
[3] KUSTAS, F. M.,and MISRA, M.S., WILLIAMSON, D.L., Nucl , Inst , and Meth B, 31, 393-401 (1988).
[4] Singer, I.L., in Ion implantation and Ion Beam processing of Materials, Vol. 27 . eds., North - Holland , New York , (1984).
[5] Kobs, K., and Dimigen, H., Ryssel, H., Kluge, A., Appl. Phys . Lett . 57(16),1622 , (1981).
[6] Dimigin, H., Kobs, K., Levteneckev, R.,.Ryssel, R., and P.Eichingev , Mater Sci . Eng . 69, 181 (1985)
[7] Follstaedt, D.M. , Knapp, J.A., and L.E.P.P. J. Appl. Phys. 66 , 2743 (1989).
349
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