Immediate effects of an acute bout of exercise on working memory tasks in young adultsкод для вставкиСкачать
ABSTRACT THE IM M EDIATE EFFECTS OF AN ACUTE BOUT OF EXERCISE ON W ORKING MEM ORY IN YOUNG ADULTS. By Katherine C. Quintus Chairperson: Geeta Shivde, Ph.D. Research on the effect exercise has on cognitive functions, in particular higher mental processes such as executive function and memory, has yielded inconsistent results. The purpose o f this study was to determine if a short bout o f physical exercise had an immediate effect o f performance on working memory tasks in college undergraduates. Participants (n=55, male = 22, female = 33, mean age = 18.7 years old) were randomly assigned to one o f three exercise groups (baseline, light, and moderate). Individuals in the light and moderate exercise groups performed a 10-min exercise task on a cylco ergom eter (at a target heart rate zone) between pre and post testing, while individuals in the baseline (control) group were given a 10 minute filler task between pre and post testing. W orking memory was assessed using a letter span task developed to measures phonological loop capacity, as well as an Operation Span (OSpan) task focusing on an individual’s ability to briefly store information while completing additional cognitive tasks. Self-report o f perceived arousal, mood state, as well as perceived exertion was also gathered. Results o f this study revealed no significant interaction between exercise level and time o f test on either the OSpan task or the letter span task. However, significant overall main effects o f tim e o f test were found on OSpan total scores and letter span task scores. A significant m ain effect o f levels o f exercise was also found on participant’s perceived arousal scores. Although results o f the study did not show a significant interaction between level o f exercise and time on the change in simple span or Ospan scores from before to after the exercise session, further analysis suggested that exercise might help improve working memory performance. THE IM M EDIATE EFFECTS OF AN ACUTE BOUT OF EXERCISE ON W ORKING M EM ORY TASKS IN YOUNG ADULTS. by KATHERINE C. QUINTUS A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment o f the Requirements for the Degree o f Master o f Arts in Psychology. W est Chester University o f Pennsylvania 2010 ProQ uest Number: 10157086 All rights reserv ed INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this re p ro d u c tio n is d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e quality o f th e c o p y sub m itted. In t h e unlikely e v e n t t h a t t h e a u th o r did n o t s e n d a c o m p l e t e m anuscript a n d t h e r e a r e missing p a g e s , t h e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e re m o v e d , a n o t e will in d ic a te t h e deletion. uest P roQ uest 10157086 Published by P roQ uest LLC (2016). Copyright of t h e Dissertation is held by t h e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p r o te c t e d a g a in s t un auth orized c o p y in g u n d e r Title 17, United States C o d e Microform Edition © P roQ uest LLC. P roQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346 Katherine C. Quintus Approval o f Thesis for Master o f Arts Degree In Psychology COMMITTEE M EMBERS DATE Geeta Shivde, PhD, Chairperson V. Krishna Kumar, PhD !1 3 Thomas Treadwell, EdD i f i/ Janet S. Hickman, EdD Interim Dean, Graduate Studies & Extended Education , -> ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS I would like to thank my thesis advisor Dr. Geeta Shivde for the guidance and support throughout my thesis project. This thesis would not have been possible without your feedback, suggestions and constant encouragement. I would also like to extend my thanks to Dr. V. Krishna Kumar and Dr. Tom Treadwell for serving on my thesis committee and for their input and guidance in the completion o f my thesis. A special thank you to Dr. John Williams in the Kinesiology department for all his input and assistance. Also to the Graduate Assistants in the Exercise Science Lab, thank you for the help you provided in so many ways. M ost importantly, thank you to my family - Mom, Dad, and Nick - for the lifelong motivation, support, and love that has lead me to where I am today. To Michael, your encouragement and continuous positive words have meant more to me throughout this project than you will ever know. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER 1................................................................................................................................ 1 IN TROD UCTIO N........................................................................................................1 CHAPTER II.............................................................................................................................. 15 M ETHOD S....................................................................................................................15 PARTICIPAN TS..........................................................................................................15 M EASURES................................................................................................................. 15 PROCEDURES............................................................................................................. 19 CHAPTER III.............................................................................................................................. 27 RESU LTS....................................................................................................................... 27 CHAPTER IV .............................................................................................................................. 33 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................... 33 REFERENCES...........................................................................................................................39 APPENDIX A: Flyer for Exercise Portion o f Study...........................................................45 APPENDIX B: Flyer for Baseline (Control) Session......................................................... 47 APPENDIX C: Procedure List - Exercise G roups............................................................. 49 APPENDIX D: Procedure List - Baseline G roup...................................................................51 APPENDIX E: Informed Consent..............................................................................................53 APPENDIX F: Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire..................................................55 APPENDIX G: Basic Demographics and Physical Activity Q uestionnaire.......................58 APPENDIX H: B org’s Rate o f Perceived Exertion Scale..................................................... 61 APPENDIX I: Perceived Arousal Scale................................................................................... 63 APPENDIX J: Letter Span Tasks.............................................................................................. 65 APPENDIX K: D isclaim er..........................................................................................................68 LIST OF TABLES Table Table Title____________________________________________ Page 1 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on Perceived Arousal Scores........29 2 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on Letter Span Scores.................... 30 3 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on OSpan Total Scores..................31 4 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on OSpan Absolute Scores........... 32 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Physical exercise is beneficial, not only to the body but also to the mind. Federal governm ent health guidelines have noted the importance of physical exercise for the longevity and for the quality of life (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996). Physical activity level in adults has been shown to positively affect their general mental well being, and reduce anxiety and depression (Dubbert, 2002). Physical exercise is a good way to keep the mind active and functioning more efficiently (Clarkson-Smith & Hartley, 1989). Extensive research shows that physical activity has an effect on an individual’s cognitive functioning. However, the results from this research vary to a great degree, with some finding positive effects, others a negative effect, and still others no significant effects. There are several possible factors that could contribute to the variation in results. The studies differ in the type of physical activity, its duration and intensity, and how it is measured (Arcelin & Brisswalter, 1999). The studies also differ on cognitive functions measured (Tomporowski & Ellis, 1986; Brisswalter, Durand, Delignieres, & Legros, 1995). For example, Tomporowsk, Davis, Lambourne, Gregoski and Tkacz (2008) found physical activity had no influence on children’s switch task performance, but Hillman, Buck, Themanson, Pontifex, and Castelli (2006) found physical activity resulted in an improved reaction time on an interference task. Etnier, Salazar, Landers, Petruzzelo, Han and N ow ell’s (1997) examined 106 different studies in a meta-analysis. The studies included in the meta-analysis used 2 various cognitive tasks, including (but not limited to) reaction time, comprehension tests, the W echsler M emory Scale, the Stroop test and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. Although a variety of cognitive tasks were used, these tasks fell into some core categories: memory, mathematical ability, verbal ability, reasoning, creativity, academic achievement, IQ, reaction time, perception, mental age, motor skills, and dual task paradigms (Etnier et al., 1997). Many studies have used self report questionnaires to assess an individual’s overall physical activity levels as opposed to actually manipulating physical activity as an independent variable. Due to the use of self-report, measurement of physical activity level may be inaccurate. The lapse of time between the physical activity performance and the measure of cognitive function also may have contributed to varying results. Some studies assessed an individual’s performance on a cognitive task during a bout of physical activity, others assessed performance on cognitive task before and after a physical activity session, and some researchers correlated an individual’s overall physical fitness level with an individual’s overall cognitive performance (Coles & Tomprowski, 2008; Field, Diego & Sanders, 2001; Sibley & Beilock, 2007; Yu, Chan, Cheng, Sung, & Hau, 2006; Verrel, Schellenbach, Lovden, Schaefer, & Lindenberger, 2009). Etnier et al. (1997) discovered that environment also had an effect on the results of the studies. Their analysis showed significantly larger effect sizes in studies that involved exercise in classroom or laboratory settings as opposed to a hospital, fitness center, or other settings. 3 Tomporowski and Ellis (1986) summarized results of studies as follows: a positive relationship between exercise and cognitive function, a negative relationship between the two, both a negative and positive relationship, or else no relationship found. Etnier et al.’s (1997) meta-analysis reported an overall effect size of a 0.25 suggesting a small but positive effect of exercise on cognition. Age plays a role on the effects of exercise on cognitive functions. Due to agerelated cognitive disorders such as Alzheim er’s disease and Dementia, much of the research in the area of exercise and cognition has focused on older adults. Research on youth has typically centered on correlations of physical exercise (assessed in physical education classes) and academic achievement (Martin & Chalmers, 2007; Castelli, Hillman, Buck, & Erwin, 2007; Yu et al., 2006). There have been a number of studies looking at the effects of exercise and physical activity level on cognitive functioning among older adults. Colcombe and Kramer (2003) conducted a meta-analysis on studies conducted on adults 55-80 years of age. They looked at the various cognitive tasks used in measuring the effects of exercise on cognitive processes, and focused on the following four: speed of response, visuospatial functions, controlled processing, and executive control. They found that fitness training increased cognitive performance in sedentary adults, regardless of the type of cognitive task employed. The largest benefits from exercise were found in the area of executive control processes. Studies of older adults have focused on the long term effects of physical activity on cognition, as well as prevention of degenerative brain disease, whereas studies on 4 school-age youth have focused on the correlation between physical activity levels and overall academic achievement (Kramer, Hahn, & McAuley, 2000; Martin & Chalmers, 2007; Castelli et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2006). The population chosen for this current study was young adults (18-25), because less is known about the effects of exercise on cognition in this particular population. The following sections give an overview of the effects of exercise on cognition across various age groups. Studies Looking at the Effects o f Exercise on Cognition Correlation o f cognitive function with overall level o f physical activity. ClarksonSmith and Hartley (1989) addressed the relationship between exercise and cognitive ability, in older adults. Their sample consisted of 300 individuals between the ages of 55 and 91. From this sample, they took the most active and the least active individuals and placed them in a high exercise and low exercise groups, respectively. All participants were tested on vocabulary, measures of working memory, and measures of reaction time during the first session. In the second session, participants underwent three written tests of reasoning and two subjective well-being questionnaires. Results showed that the performance in the high exercise group was superior to that of the low exercise group in all areas of cognition: reaction time, working memory, and reasoning ability. W eingarten (1973) also looked at various cognitive functions, and found that exercise and overall fitness level had a positive impact on complex cognitive task performance, whereas no impact on simple cognitive task performance. Effects o f exercise on a simultaneous cognitive task. The dual task paradigm involves a physical or mechanical task that is performed simultaneously with a controlled 5 cognitive task of varying intensity (Brisswalter et al., 1995). It is assumed that when the subject focuses on the primary task, the performance on the secondary task may suffer due to the higher demand of attention required for the primary task. Brisswalter et al. (1995) measured the effect of varying pedal rates matched for aerobic power output on energy expenditure and cognitive performance. Participants underwent a 3-phase experiment over the course of 8 days. Bach of the phases consisted of cyclo ergometer sessions testing physical exertion levels. The first test required complete exertion to the point of exhaustion and V 0 2 was measured. The other 2 tests were partial maximum exertion rides at varying pedal rates, each selected to represent 50% of the power output that was obtained in phase one, V 0 2 max. Pedaling was identical for phases 2 and 3; however in the third phase participants were presented with cognitive tasks prior to the exercise and throughout the pedaling session. Results showed no significant variation of pedal rate when the reaction time task was performed. However, reaction time at rest was significantly shorter than it was in the various stages performed during phase 3. This decrease in performance in the secondary task was attributed to the shift from single reaction time task to the dual pedaling and reaction time tasks (Brisswalter et al., 1995). Brisswalter, Arcelin, Audhfren, and Delignilres (1997) conducted an experiment exam ining the effects physical activity and energy expenditure had on a simple reaction task performed concurrently during exercise. Results were similar to Brisswalter et al. (1995), performance on a simple decisional task suffered while simultaneously being engaged in a physical activity. Research on the dual task paradigm supports the findings 6 of a decrease on the secondary task during dual task performance due to the focus on the primary task. Due to these findings, we chose not to use a simultaneous task design in the current experiment. Immediate Effects o f Physical Activity on Cognitive Functions Reaction Time and Response Accuracy. Reaction time is believed to be an important indicator of the useful reliability of the central nervous system. In other words, faster reaction time on cognitive tasks is regarded as overall indications of an efficient functioning of cognitive abilities measured by those tasks (Bunce & Birdi, 1998; Brisswalter et al., 1997). Bunce and Birdi (1998) looked at age and fitness interactions on reaction time tasks. They exam ined whether aerobic fitness moderates performance on reaction time tasks at different ages and task complexity. The study included subjects between the ages of 22 and 64. Body mass, body fat, lung function, and forced vital capacity were measured to derive a composite fitness measure. Two and four choice reaction time tasks were used to assess reaction time. Finally, a tapping task was used to assess speed of motor functioning. Results showed that more physically fit individuals performed better on the motor and speeded cognitive tasks (Bunce & Birdi, 1998). The number of choices given in a reaction task could affect the performance on the task. In the above study, results showed slower reaction to the 4 choice tasks, which were reported as being much more demanding and difficult then tasks with fewer choices (Bunce & Birdi, 1998). Gutin (1972) proposed that the complexity of the cognitive task would have an effect on the overall results. He further suggested that with reaction time 7 measures, the num ber of choices would be inversely related to the optimal level of exercise-induced arousal (Gutin, 1972). It is believed that a key determinant of cognitive performance is the efficiency of oxygen delivery to the brain. Therefore, some researchers suggest that a free recall memory task may be affected by the competing demands on physiological resources dependent on blood-oxygen level. To further test this idea Bunce, Hays, and Pring (2004) evaluated performance on a free recall task in a group of 56 healthy young adult females, some of whom were smokers. Bunce et al.’s study contrasted performance in individuals who were smokers or non-smokers and engaged in aerobic exercise to smoking and non smoking non-active individuals. Individuals who reported smoking a minimum of 10 cigarettes per day for at least 2 years were included in the study. The exercise groups consisted of individuals who perform aerobic exercise at least 6 hours a week, and have done so for a minimum of 2 years (2004). In Bunce et al.’s study, two word lists consisting of 16 words were used for the free recall condition. The participants had to do as many step ups as possible (onto a 255mm-high box) in a 2 minute time period. The study was completed in two sessions, the first being the baseline for free recall performance and the second session involved the step up test prior to the administration of the free recall task. Bunce et al. (2004) found evidence for their hypothesis that “free recall performance is resource dependent and underpinned by a physiological mechanism involving O 2 transportation” (p. 228). Free recall performance of smokers declined when physical activity was introduced, where as a decline was not found in the group of non-smokers. Overall results from their 8 study found recall performance of both exercise groups to be superior to that of their non exercise counteiparts (Bunce et ah, 2004). Executive Functioning. Executive Functioning can be understood as an individual’s ability to manage or control a collection of basic cognitive and emotional processes. In reviewing the research of the relationship between exercise and executive functioning, Coles and Tomporowski (2008) reported finding mixed results. They looked at studies in which individuals performed executive tasks during exercise and immediately after exercise, and found that in both cases the effects of exercise depended on the type of executive processing tasks. The Stroop interference task is commonly used to measure executive functioning. Stroop (1935) studied interference in serial verbal reactions by developing 2 different experimental materials with differing interference. The first experiment looked at the effect of interfering color stimuli upon reading names of colors serially. The second experiment observed the effect of interfering word stimuli upon naming colors serially. The experiment examined the effects of practice upon interference. Sibley, Etnier, and Le Masurier (2006) examined the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on executive functioning in college age students using the Stroop colorword interference and negative priming tests as measures of executive functioning. The negative priming task used in this study included words printed in the ink color of the color word stimulus on the previous item. Sibley et al. (2006) noted that prior research had shown performance to be slower when this type of negative priming Stroop task was used as compared to the normal color-word interference task. Twenty minutes of self 9 paced exercise on a treadmill at a moderate intensity level was compared to 20 minutes of a sedentary control period when measuring executive functioning. Perceived arousal was also measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist (AD-ACL) immediately following the 20 minute exercise or sedentary period, as well as after the cognitive testing sessions (Sibley et al., 2006). Each of the 79 initial participants in this study were required to engage in an exercise session as well as a sedentary control session held at the same time of day within 1 week of each other. Results showed that exercise “leads to a small but significant improvement in executive functioning related to maintenance of goal-oriented processing” (Sibley et al., 2006, p.296). The negative priming condition was used in this study to separate inhibition from interference. By using the negative priming condition they were able to attribute any improvement in performance on the Stroop interference task to improvement in goal-oriented processing or to inhibition. They found that an acute bout of exercise did not have an impact on cognitive inhibition. There was also no change found in performance on the negative priming task when given after the exercise condition (Sibley et al., 2006). The frontal and prefrontal regions of the brain support executive control processes, and age impacts these regions negatively. However, the rate and intensity of impact varies among individuals. Bugg, DeLosh and Clegg (2006) examined whether physical activity had any influence on physical changes in the brain, building on previous studies that suggested delay in decline of cognitive function in individuals who were physically active. For example, low, moderate, as well as high physical activity levels were found 10 to have a positive effect on cognitive function (Clarkson-Smith & Hartley, 1989). Bugg et al.’s (2006) study focused on effects of exercise and cognitive functioning with the additional factor of time of day. As a result, they found that performance on executive control tasks in was affected by mental fatigue. These results supported their hypothesis that mental fatigue would affect executive control processes, and that less active adults would experience mental fatigue progressively across the day affecting their performance on executive functioning tasks (Bugg et al., 2006). Working M em ory. Another area of interest to researchers has been the effect exercise and physical activity have on working memory. Multiple components make up the working memory system. As outlined by Baddeley (1986), working memory is divided into three components: the visuospatial sketchpad (which holds visual images and spatial relations in mind), the phonological loop (which holds speech-based information in mind), and the central executive (which coordinates activity). Baddeley (1992) refers to working memory as “temporary storage and manipulation of information” occurring in “a temporarily activated portion of long-term memory” (p. 556). W orking memory is considered to be an important aspect of cognitive functioning. Cognitive behaviors ranging from reading comprehension to mathematical problem solving are supported by working memory (Sibley & Beilock, 2007). W orking memory capacity is said to be a large part of an individual’s general intellectual ability (Conway, Kane, Bunting, Hambick, Wilhelm, & Engle, 2005). As stated in Sibley and Beilock (2007), working memory is “the ability to focus attention on a central task and execute its 11 required operations while inhibiting irrelevant information regardless of what the central task is” (p. 786). Bugg et al.’s (2006) study also examined the effect that physical activity level had on the performance of a working memory simple reaction time task with older adults at different times of day. The factor time of day was included in the study because earlier studies showed that older adults performed better in the morning than in the evening on various tests of cognitive functioning. This study also addressed the effect mental fatigue had on executive function. They defined mental fatigue as “the fatigue one might experience after a day filled with prolonged or demanding cognitive activities” (p. 434). Results of Bugg et al.’s study showed a decline in working memory performance from morning to evening for non-active adults. However in active adults, working memory performance was consistent across time of day. It was found that mental fatigue occurs in non-active adults, but not so much in active adults. It was also found that this fatigue has an affect on executive control processes more notably than on other types of cognitive processes. Sibley and Beilock (2007) examined whether (a.) an acute bout of exercise might benefit executive functioning, and (b.) its impact might be a function of levels of working memory. Forty-eight participants underwent two sessions in a lab, a baseline and an exercise session. These two sessions were held I week apart at the same time of day. The first session included two working memory measures and a graded exercise test which measures oxygen capacity. The exercise session included 30 minutes of self-paced 12 exercise on a treadmill (while measuring heart rate), immediately followed by two working memory measures (Sibley & Beilock, 2007). The two working memory measures used in their study were two separate versions of both the Operation Span and Reading Span. The Operation Span required participants to solve a series of arithmetic equations while remembering a list of unrelated words. In the Reading Span measure, participants read a series of sentenceletter strings aloud, noting whether the sentence makes sense and attempting to remember the letters. Following the series of sentence-letter strings, participants were asked to list the letters in sequence. Results showed that only individuals who were lowest in working memory benefited from an acute bout of exercise (Sibley & Beilock, 2007). The results of this study supported Sibley and Beilock’s hypothesis that the impact exercise has on cognitive function varies among individuals. Purpose and Rationale o f Present Study Research has shown that an individual bout of physical exercise has an effect on some types of cognitive functioning including reaction time, executive functioning, and memory. Research on the effects individual bouts of physical activity have on higher mental processes, such as executive function and memory, has yielded results that are less clear (Coles & Tomporowski, 2008). Coles and Tomporowski (2008) determined that results have been inconsistent across research in determining a relationship between acute bouts of exercise and short term memory. The current study examined the immediate effects of moderate exercise on different measures of working memory capacity. The first of the two measures used 13 in the study was a Simple Span task measuring the ability to store information in phonological short term memory. The Operation Span task was used to measure an individual’s ability to store information, and to use executive functioning. Research in the area of exercise and cognition has focused extensively on older adults, as well as school-aged children. M any studies have looked at the long term effects of exercise and physical activity level on cognitive diseases associated with aging such as dementia and other forms of memory loss. Extensive research has also looked at correlations between physical activity level and academic performance in elementary school children. Due to the lack of research on young adults, college undergraduates under the age of 25 were chosen for this study. Sibley and Beilocks’s (2007) study used a similar design as this current study. However, as with Sibley and Beilock’s study the same group of subjects completed both the baseline session and the exercise session. The current experiment was designed to compare individual’s scores both within their groups and across exercise groups. A non exercise control group, not included in Sibley and Beilock’s study, was used in the current experiment to serve as a controlled baseline to compare to two other exercise groups. The researcher designed the experiment to have participants complete their participation in only one session making, it possible to use a large number of participants. The current study also assessed perceived arousal changes before and after exercise as a secondary measure to determine if an individual’s perceived arousal level was influenced by exercise and if it had an affect on cognitive performance. 14 It is hypothesized that exercise will have an immediate effect on an individual’s working memory. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that minimal or no change will be seen on working memory tasks scores after a short bout of light exercise. It is hypothesized that an increase in scores on memory task will result from a moderate bout of exercise. It is hypothesized that there will be minimal to no change in memory tasks scores in the baseline group. 15 CHAPTER II METHOD Participants Fifty-five undergraduate college students participated in partial fulfillment of Introductory Psychology course credit. Students voluntarily signed up for the study on a flyer posted on a bulletin board in the Psychology building (Appendix A and B). After signing up, individuals were contacted via e-mail to assure students did not have any current medical problems, injuries, or were on a medication that may prohibit them from participating in physical activity requirements of the study. Each participant was run individually and each session took approximately 75-90 minutes. M easures Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR -Q ). The PAR-Q was originally developed by the British Columbia Ministry of Health and was revised in 1994 by and Expert Advisory Committee assembled by the Canadian Society for Exercise and Physiology. As shown in Appendix F, the PAR-Q consists of 7 questions that require a yes or no response. The questionnaire is designed to assess an individual’s readiness to participate in physical activity and to screen individuals who may be put at risk by participating in physical activity. The PAR-Q also provides information for the individual about active living, healthy eating, and positive self and body image (Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, Inc., 1994). Basic Demographics and Physical Activity Questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher to obtain basic demographic information (age, gender) about 16 each participant, as well as some additional information essential to the study. The participant was asked to provide information regarding any learning disorder diagnosis due to the nature of the memory tasks in the experiment. The questionnaire (see Appendix G) also gathered information regarding the participant’s sleep schedule as well as physical activity level. Participants were asked to answer 5 questions regarding sleep schedule and previous nights sleep. Participants were then asked to provide ratings based on a 5-point scale for 3 questions regarding physical activity and perceived physical activity level. Finally, the participant was asked to identify hours spent on various physical activities over the last week, and approximate amount of days in a typical month spent on various activities listed. Borg Ratings o f Perceived Exertion (RPE). One of the most well known of perceived exertion scales, Borg’s RPE (Appendix H) is a 15 point scale ranging from 620 (Borg & Kaijser, 2006). The scale was designed, and used in this experiment, to give linear data to heart rate readings (Borg, 1998). Individuals using Borg’s RPE provide the examiner with a number that they feel best describes their perceived exertion. The participant is shown the scale which has the list of numbers, and descriptions are given in word form at every other number increment (i.e. 7 - very, very light, 19 - very, very hard). A percentage of effort is also associated with each number, which can be seen in Appendix H (Borg, 1998). 17 Perceived Arousal Scale (PAS). The perceived arousal scale was developed by Anderson, Deuser, and DeNeve (1995) in a study examining the effects of hot tem perature on perceived arousal. In this study they compared physiological measures of blood pressure and heart rate with participant’s self report perceived arousal scores. Their original scale consisted of 16 adjectives rated on 7 point scales. Of these 16 adjectives, half reflected high arousal, and half were adjectives reflecting low arousal. Higher scores reflected greater level of perceived arousal (Anderson et al., 1995). Anderson et al. (1995) carried out an additional study to check on the validity of their perceived arousal scale. As a result, they developed two additional questionnaires. The first questionnaire was used to determine an individual’s familiarity with given adjectives. The other questionnaire required individuals to rate the way they feel on a 5 point scale for 76 feeling and emotion adjectives - 31 intended to measure perceived arousal. From this, they developed the current version of the PAS (Appendix I) which contains 24 items to be rated on a 5 point scale. Of these 24 items, 10 are positive arousal items and the other 14 are negative arousal items. Scores for the PAS range from 24, reflecting the lowest perceived arousal score, to 120, which would reflect the highest level of perceived arousal (Anderson et al., 1995). Letter Span Task. The letter span task was specifically developed to measure the capacity of the phonological loop component or working memory. There were two forms developed for the experiment, one used for pre testing and a different set used for post testing. These forms were identified as Set A (Appendix J) and Set B. Each set consisted of 9 sets of letter trials, each group contained 3 trials of letters. The first set of 3 trials 18 consisted of 2 letters and the letter size increased by 1 for each set with the final set consisting of 10 letters in each trial. Operation Span Task. The operation span (OSpan) task focuses on an individual’s ability to briefly store information while completing additional cognitive tasks (Conway et al., 2005). This task requires the use of both storage and executive functions of working memory. The task used in this experiment required participant’s to remember letters that were shown on a computer screen, while simultaneously determining whether or not math problems displayed on the screen were generating correct answers. The OSpan task used in this experiment was developed by Unsworth, Heitz, Schrock and Engle (2005) and is automated and entirely mouse driven. Due to the length of time required to administer an OSpan task as well as the risk of error and inconsistencies from experimenter doing the administration, Unsworth et al. developed this automated version to increase validity and reliability and allow for easier administration to a larger group of subjects (2005). Participants were given written directions on the computer screen that were read aloud by the researcher prior to the beginning of the task. Participants were given practice problems to fam iliarize them with the task before the scoring began. The practice set was broken up into three sections: the first section asked participants to remember letters as they were flashed on the screen and recall the letters in the correct order; the second section required participants to compute basic math problems mentally, and then respond true or false to a given solution for the equation; the third section 19 com bined the letter recall and the math equations to reflect the task the participants would be required to do during the scored portion. During the math section, the program timed the participant’s computation time and response time to the equations. During the scored task, if the individual took more than their average time, the program automatically switched to the true/false screen requiring an answer (Unsworth et al., 2005). The scored portion of the task incorporated the math problems with the letter recall as was demonstrated in the third section of the practice portion. Participants were required to recall letters in the correct positions for varying set sizes, with math equations administered between each letter. The set sizes ranged from 3-7, with 3 sets of each set size. The complete scored trialed consisted of a total of 75 letters as well as 75 math equations (Unsworth et al., 2005). Procedure Exercise groups. Upon arrival, participants completed an informed consent form, approved by the university Institutional Review Board, making participants aware of the general logistics of the study and possible risks/benefits. The informed consent form notified the participants that their participation was voluntary and they can withdraw from the study at any time. Following the informed consent, participants completed a physical activity readiness questionnaire to assure that they were fit to perform the required physical activity. Through this questionnaire, the participant confirmed that they did not have any known issues that would put them at risk and restrict them from physical activity. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to one of two exercise groups, light exercise or moderate exercise. Each group included 19 participants. 20 The light exercise group included 13 females and 6 males, and the moderate exercise group included 4 females and 15 males. The participants were not made aware of their group until they were required to perform the physical activity. After assignment to their exercise group, the participant’s heart rate was obtained using a Polar E600 heart rate monitor. Participants were asked to place the heart rate monitor on their chest right below their breast bone. Participants were asked if they felt comfortable to place the monitor directly on their skin to get more accurate readings. All participants required to use the heart rate monitor agreed to place the heart rate monitor directly on their skin. Baseline heart rate was then recorded. If heart rate was unsteady, participants were asked to sit still for several minutes before continuing with the study in order to obtain a more accurate baseline heart rate. A participant who rode a bicycle to the study was asked to relax for approximately 15 minutes after completing forms before resting heart rate was obtained. After obtaining resting heart rate, participants were given a Perceived Arousal scale. Directions for the scale were read to the participants, and they were given the opportunity to ask any clarifying questions. Directions for the letter span task were read aloud to the participants, and they were given the opportunity to ask questions to clarify the nature of the task. The letter span task, used as a measure of phonological loop capacity, consisted of 9 groups of 3 trials of letters. The number of letters in each trial increased after each group. The researcher read each series of letters slowly and allowed time for the participant to repeat back the letters to the best of their ability. The researcher recorded any errors made by 21 the participant. W hen the participant was unable to correctly recall two series in any particular group, the memory task was stopped. After completion of the letter span memory task, the participant was then asked to sit in front of a laptop computer to complete the Operation Span (OSpan) task. An external wireless mouse and a mouse pad were provided. Participants were given the opportunity to adjust the placement of the computer and the mouse to their comfort level. The researcher sat to the left of the participant for the instructional and practice part of the task. Instructions for the task were given on the screen. The researcher read aloud the instructions and allowed for questions only when prompted by the instructions on the screen. After each set of instructions, sample problems were given on the screen to familiarize the participant with the task they would soon be completing. Upon completion of the practice problems, the participants were given one more opportunity to ask questions about the task. The researcher then left the room, allowing the participant to complete the OSpan task on their own. As the participant completed the OSpan task, the researcher calculated the participant’s target heart rate for the upcoming exercise task. Target heart rate for each participant in the exercise group was calculated using the Karvonen M ethod (McArdle, Katch, & Katch, 1996). The method involves calculating an individual’s maximum heart rate by subtracting the individual’s age from 220. Each individual’s previously determined resting heart rate is then subtracted from the maximum heart rate. The target heart rate zone for the moderate exercise group was pre-determined to be between 50% 22 and 70% of the individual’s heart rate reserve. The lower limit of the target heart zone was calculated by multiplying the heart rate reserve by .50 and then adding on their resting heart rate. The upper limit was determined by multiplying the heart rate reserve by .70 and then adding to that their resting heart rate. Target heart rate was not calculated for individuals in the light exercise group. However heart rate was monitored throughout the exercise task to ensure it stayed close to resting heart rate. After completion of the OSpan task, the heart rate limits for participants in the moderate exercise group were entered into the heart rate monitoring device. By entering the limits into this device, the participant would be notified by a consistent beeping anytime the heart rate deviated from their designated limits. This also helped assure the researcher that the participant was within the limits calculated to assure a moderate level of activity. Participants in the moderate activity level group were required to stay within their heart rate limits for 10-minutes. The cycle ergometer seat height was adjusted to comfortably fit each participant. Participants were also able to adjust the resistance of the pedals if needed. Participants were asked to pedal at a slow pace until they felt comfortable with the cycle ergometer. Individuals in the moderate activity level group then began to steadily increase their pedal rate until target heart rate zone was reached. Once they entered the targeted zone, the researcher began timing the task. Participants in the light physical activity group were asked to take 2 minutes to find a light comfortable pace so as to exert minimal effort. After they assumed a comfortable pace, the researcher began the timer and they were asked to maintain this pace throughout the duration of the task. 23 Self-report perceived exertion was measured throughout the task using Borg’s 15point perceived exertion scale (Borg, 1998). At 2-minute increments, the researcher asked the participant to rate their perceived exertion on the given scale, which ranged from 6 (lightest) to 20 (hardest). The scale was held up by the researcher in front of them as they perform ed the physical activity task. This was done for both the light and moderate activity groups. Participants in the light activity group were asked to keep their exertion level between 7 and 9 on the scale. Participants in the moderate level group were asked to keep their perceived exertion between 10 and 13 on the scale. If participants felt they were above or below the given level, they were asked to adjust accordingly. Borg’s perceived exertion scale was used in addition to the heart rate m onitor to determine the amount of exertion throughout the task, and to ensure that participants were exerting a level of energy comparable to what was being asked of them. Once the 10 minute time period elapsed, participants were asked to decrease their pedal speed and perform a cool down on the cycle ergometer to allow any rise in heart rate to slowly decrease. Participants were told to perform their cool down until they felt ready to stop. After their cool down, participants returned to a stationary position at the table in the same room and were given 3 minutes to relax. Participants were then asked to fill out a basic demographics and physical activities questionnaire. The heart rate of individuals in the moderate activity group was continuously observed to ensure heart rate was dropping back to resting levels. Immediately after completion of the demographic and physical activity questionnaire, individuals in the light activity group were asked to complete the 24 Perceived Arousal Scale a second time. Individuals in the moderate activity group were asked to sit a stationary position until heart rate returned to baseline. Subsequently, they were asked to complete the perceived exertion and the mood scale once again. Upon completion of the PAS, participants were reminded of the directions for the letter span memory task and were given the opportunity to ask questions. The letter span memory task was then administered, and then the participants were asked to seat themselves in front of a computer. The OSpan task was then administered. Participants were required to complete the practice items again, but were given permission by the researcher to skip through the instruction screens if they wished. The researcher left the room for the duration of the practice portion and the complex memory task. After the participant finished the OSpan task the second time, they were then asked to remove the hear rate monitor. Each participant was given a debriefing (Appendix K) explaining the nature of the study and providing contact information for the researcher as well as researcher’s supervisor if needed. The debriefing form also noted that participant’s could request a copy of study results once available. Baseline (Control) group. Participants in the control group task met the researcher in a room in the Psychology Department building, similar in size to the exercise lab used. Upon arrival, individuals were asked to read over and sign an informed consent form, and then completed the Perceived Arousal Scale. Participants were given an opportunity to ask questions after the directions were read. After completion of the PAS, participants were seated on the side of a large desk with the researcher at a 90° angle. Directions for the short term memory task were read 25 aloud. Following the directions being read, participants were asked if they were clear of the directions and were given the opportunity to ask any questions. The task was then administered, with the researcher reading each letter in each series slowly, and the participant repeating back to the researcher what they recalled. Following the letter span memory task, the participant was asked to switch seats with the researcher and placed in front of a laptop. The same laptop was used for all participants across groups. The researcher sat next to the participant and the read the directions for the OSpan task that were displayed on the screen. The participant completed the practice problems and was allowed to ask questions throughout the instructions and practice period. After completion of the practice tasks, the researcher allowed for any final questions and then left the room to allow the participant to complete the task without distractions. Participants were asked to open the door to the examination room upon completion so the researcher was aware that the task was completed. Participants were given as much time as needed to complete the OSpan memory task. After the task was completed, the researcher returned to the room and the participant was asked to remain in front of the computer. The participant was then asked to watch a 10-minute video clip on the computer screen. A video clip about Ireland was chosen that was not cognitively taxing but something the participant needed to pay attention to. The video clip was used as a filler task equivalent in time to the exercise task performed in the exercise groups. Following the video clip, participants were asked to complete the basics demographics and physical activity questionnaire. Next the participants completed the Perceived Arousal Scale a second time. The letter span memory task was then administered, with the researcher again explaining the directions and allowing for questions. The session was concluded with the participant completing the OSpan task second time, including completion of the practice problems prior to the task itself. Participants were given a debriefing form at the conclusion of the session stating the purpose of the research and with contacting information if needed. 27 CHAPTER III RESULTS The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance with pretest scores as covariate to test if baseline, light, and moderate groups differed on the posttest scores. An alpha level of .05 was used for evaluating significance. Fifty-five subjects completed the experiment; however data for 4 participants were dropped due to their inattentiveness to the tasks leaving 17 participants in each group. Analysis of covariance showed a significant differences among the 3 exercise groups on perceived arousal scores (F [2, 47] = 5.96, p = .005, i f = .202). Adjusted mean posttest scores and standard deviation are reported in Table 1. The adjusted means analysis showed the only non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals were between baseline and moderate exercise groups (see table 1). The letter span task was scored based on W echsler’s (1997) scoring procedure of the letter span task in the WAIS - III. W hen the participant responded incorrectly on 2 trials within a particular set, the task was discontinued, however all previous correct trials were used to compute participant’s overall letter span score (Wechsler, 1997). An analysis of covariate revealed no differences among the 3 exercise groups on the letter span task (F [2, 47] = 1.65, p = .204, i f = .065). Adjusted mean post test scores and standard deviation are reported in Table 2. The Operation Span (OSpan) task was scored in two ways. The OSpan total score was calculated by the total number of letters recalled correctly, in their correct positions, across all trials. The OSpan absolute score was calculated by summing all perfectly 28 recalled sets. In other words, the individual was only given credit for correct answers in a letter set if all answers in that set were recalled correctly, in their correct positions (Unsworth et al., 2005). Analysis of covariate revealed no significant interaction differences among the exercise groups on OSpan total scores (F [2, 47] = 1.63, p = .207, r|2 = .065). Adjusted mean posttest scores and standard deviation are reported in Table 3. Analysis of covariance also revealed no significant differences among exercise groups on OSpan absolute scores (F [2, 47] = .64, p =.531, p2 = .027). Adjusted mean post test scores and standard deviation are reported in Table 4. 29 Table 1 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on Perceived Arousal Scores Exercise Group Baseline Adjusted M 84.363 SD 13.811 n 17 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 86.151 80.575 Light 90.160 15.850 17 86.461 93.858 Moderate 93.654 11.884 17 89.871 97.436 Total 89.392 15.537 51 87.257 91.528 30 Table 2 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on Letter Span Scores across Groups Exercise Group Baseline Adjusted M 12.976 SD 3.138 n 17 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 14.016 11.937 Light 13.258 3.258 17 12.216 14.301 Moderate 14.236 2.736 17 13.199 15.273 Total 13.490 3.049 51 12.892 14.089 31 Table 3 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on OSpan Total Scores across Groups Exercise Group Baseline Adjusted M 59.955 SD 8.477 n 17 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 56.402 63.508 Light 64.470 8.743 17 60.926 68.013 Moderate 62.164 8.825 17 58.627 65.700 Total 62.196 8.854 51 60.155 64.237 32 Table 4 Results o f Analysis o f Covariance on OSpan Absolute Scores across Groups Exercise Group Baseline Adjusted M 45.420 SD 12.612 n 17 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 39.309 51.531 Light 50.276 14.382 17 44.238 56.314 Moderate 47.481 15.973 17 41.460 53.502 Total 47.725 14.564 51 44.261 51.190 33 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to examine if a short bout of physical exercise had an immediate effect of perform ance on working memory tasks. The results showed no differences among the 3 exercise groups on either the Letter Span task or the Operation Span task. An analysis of covariance was used in analyzing the data to increase the power to detect an effect of the independent variable. In ANCOVA, using the covariate of pre testing scores can assist in reduction of any unexplained variability. Although no significant differences were found when looking at the immediate effects of exercise on working memory, there was a significant difference found in perceived arousal. In both light and moderate groups, an increase in arousal was seen from prior to the exercise task to after completion of the exercise task. Participants in the baseline group overall reported minimal change in perceived arousal from first report to second report. Adjusted means analysis found the only significant difference in perceived arousal among exercise groups was between baseline and moderate exercise groups. This is an important manipulation check that exercise was really effective in altering participant’s physiological state. Limitations o f Study The researcher exam ined 55 subjects in the study. Four subjects were observed by the researcher to be inattentive to the tasks at hand and exerting minimal effort to complete task to the best of their ability. All participants of the study were undergraduate students in need of fulfilling a required research credit for an Introduction to Psychology 34 class. The researcher notes that some limitations may have been present in the study due to participant’s need to fulfill credit and a lack of interest in the content of the study. There were several limitations found while conducting this study which may have decreased the overall power of the experiment. Some of the limitations were associated with availability of time and resources. The exercise lab used in this study for the cycle ergom eter task had limited hours available for use. Therefore, the researcher could conduct this study with the exercise groups only when space was available. The most significant limitation to this study was the subject pool as well as the lack of random assignment to the baseline group. Due to limited availability of the exercise lab used in the light and moderate exercise groups, research for the baseline group was conducted in a different area and was therefore advertised differently. Since the advertisement to sign up sheet for the study for the baseline group did not mention any required physical activity (as the other groups did), there is a possibility of a self selection bias. Individuals already more physically fit may have been the individuals volunteering to participate in the sessions of the study that took place in the exercise lab and mentioned the involvement of physical activity. W hile observing participants, the researcher also noticed other possible limitations. One possible limitation was the implementing of strategies for the post test portion of the session. It appears the participants used different strategies at post testing then at pre testing. In the letter span task, two different sets of letters were used to elim inate practice effects; however some participants still picked up on strategies to remember the letters. Several participants mentioned to the researcher ways they had 35 strategize, in particular in the letter span task, to better remember the letters that were presented to them orally. Since the letters were read aloud by the examiner for each client, the auditory presentation may have affected each participant’s outcome. As Baddeley notes that even a brief pause could benefit the individual recalling the letters, allowing the grouping effect to be produced. In auditory presentation, individual’s can detect a rhythmic aspect of speech which could aid in their recall (Baddeley, 1997). If this rhythmic aspect of speech differed across participants, some participant’s may have been at an advantage in recalling the letters. Another possible limitation noticed by the researcher was that of test fatigue. Due to the length of the tasks, in particular the Operation Span task, participants tended to appear less motivated to exert effort when they were asked to complete the OSpan task a second time. The researcher observed a number of participants sigh as they were given the directions to complete the OSpan task a second time. Many appeared motivated to do well on the OSpan task during the pre testing phase, however since the same task was administered a second time motivation was appeared to decrease for a number of participants. In an effort to eliminate observer bias, the researcher left the room during the scored portion of the OSpan task. However, the researcher had concerns whether some participants completed task to the best of their ability. Observation during the instruction and practice portion of the task frequently displayed individuals that were motivated and determined to perform well. Only few participants demonstrated confusion with the material presented in the task, majority of participants performed well on the practice 36 portion. However, some individuals that were observed performing well in the practice portion produced results that suggested otherwise. Suggestions fo r Further Research One suggestion is to expand the pool of participants to gather participants with a desire to perform their best in completing of the study. If possible, using participants that volunteer, or participants in which the potential of completion for personal gain is eliminated. Using individuals with interest in the content of the study, possibly individuals in the Health Sciences department, may also be beneficial. Another suggestion is the addition of a participant group using individuals that participate in a collegiate sport. By adding athletes as a separate group, the effect of fatigue could be measured. Individuals who participate in physical activity at a more constant and higher level would experience muscle fatigue at a later point than individuals who are less active (Tomporowski & Ellis, 1986; W eingarten, 1973). Additional data from this group could provide support for the idea that individuals who are more physically fit show greater improved performance immediately after physical activity. Another area for research is the development of a longitudinal study of the long term effects exercise has on cognitive functions. As opposed to a correlational self-report study on how exercise has an effect on cognitive functions across the lifespan, the studying an individual’s exercise habits as well as cognitive performance across a period of time may provide interesting information into this area of research. 37 In particular, better understanding of the physiological effects exercise has on the cognitive systems in the brain could be beneficial. As mentioned in the review of literature, physical exercise is found to have a positive effect on the brain and aid in preventing deterioration of parts of the brain due to aging. Amyloid beta (Ap), a peptide largely responsible for the development of amyloid plaques which are integral in the pathogenesis of A lzheim er’s Disease (AD), has been shown to be related to body fat and exercise in younger adults. Body Mass Index and body fat are found to have an association with higher serum levels of Ap. Diet, appetite, and voluntary exercise, on the other hand, are believed to have an inverse relationship with Ap (Leahey, Myers, Gunstad, Glickman, Spitznagel, Alexander, & Heltzel, 2007). Leahey et al. (2007) examined the relationship between Ap levels, and body composition and fitness in older adults. Thirty-five participants were used in this study which consisted of blood tests as well as cognitive testing, and body composition and physical fitness assessments. Results from the study found that Ap levels are related to measures of body composition and physical fitness in healthy older adults. Findings from the study suggest that exercise may aid in the reducing the risk of A lzheim er’s disease related pathology by limiting serum Ap levels. Maintaining an active lifestyle is believed to help decrease one’s risk of developing Alzheim er’s disease related pathology. Another important factor in the brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is also believed to be affected by exercise. BDNF plays an important role in many different functions of the brain, including the learning process, memory and locomotion, among others (Radak, Kumagai, Taylor, Naito, & Goto 2007). Exercise is found to have 38 a positive effect on the expression and protein content of BDNF (Mattson, Maudsley, & Martin, 2004). A meta-analysis by Etnier, Nowell, Landers and Sibley (2006) discussed other physiological ways in which physical exercise has a positive effect on cognition. Cardiovascular fitness is believed to be associated with changes in several physiological mechanisms that have shown to associate with cognitive performance. Such mechanisms as cerebral structure, cerebral blood flow and BDNF are all affected by physical activity and in turn lead to changes in cognitive functioning (Vaynman, Ying, & Gomez-Pinilla, 2004). Cerebral oxygen supply is also believed to be a major component of cognitive functioning (Bunce & Birdi, 1998). Neurotransmitters in the brain are also believed to be influenced by exercise. Increases in norepinephrine, serotonin and endorphins have all been found to be a result of an acute bout of exercise (Etnier et al., 1997). Although results of research vary on how exercise affects different aspects of cognitive functioning, the physiological aspect of the body explains the benefits exercise does have on the functioning of the brain. In this study, there was not a significant relationship found between exercise and improvement in memory tasks. As research in the area continues to grow, the physiological findings mentioned above may lead to more research in the idea that more consistent physical activity in an individual’s lifetime can lead to overall improvement in cognitive functioning. 39 REFERENCES Anderson, C.A., Deuser, W.E., & DeNeve, K.M. (1995). 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San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. W eingarten, G. (1973). Mental performance during physical exertion: The benefit of being physically fit. International Journal o f Sports Psychology, 4, 16-26. Yerkes, R.M., & Dodson, J.D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit formation. Journal o f Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482. 44 Yu, C.C.W., Chan, S., Cheng, F., Sung, R.Y.T. & Hau, K.T. (2006). Are physical activity and academic performance compatible? Academic achievement, conduct, physical activity and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children, Educational Studies, 32, 331-341. 45 Appendix A Flyer for Exercise Portion of Study 46 Research Participants Needed Undergraduate students are needed to participate in a research study that involves light to moderate physical activity and memory tasks. Study will take place in the Exercise Lab in the Health Sciences building on South Campus and takes approximately 1.5 hours. **T h is will fulfill required research credit for Intro to Psychology Classes** If interested - please sign name and e-mail address for a time slot below - and e-mail [email protected] if you have any questions. -If you are interested and none of the tim e slots work for you, please email me and I'll try to work something out. Due to required physical activity participation in this study, I need to be sure that each participant is medically able to partake in the study. Participation is not confirmed until contacted! Please check e-mail!! 47 Appendix B Flyer for Baseline (Control) Session 48 Research Participants Needed Undergraduate students are needed to participate in a research study that involves completing several different memory tasks. Study will take place in People’s Building and should take approximately 1 hour to complete. If interested, please sign name and e-mail address in a time slot below. E-mail KQ662570 @wcupa.edu if you have any questions. -If interested and none of the time slots work, please e-mail and we will try to work something out. MORE TIMES WILL BE POSTED IN THE UPCOMING WEEKS! Participants will be e-mailed to confirm participation please check e-mail and PLEASE e-mail [email protected] if you signed up and will not be able to make it for any reason! **THIS WILL FULFILL REQUIRED RESEARCH CREDIT FOR INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY CLASSES** 49 Appendix C Procedure List - Exercise Groups 50 Procedure: Exercise Groups 1. Obtain resting heart rate - 2 minutes 2. Sign informed consent - 3 minutes 3. Complete Physical readiness questionnaire - 5 minutes 4. Complete perceived arousal questionnaire - 5 minutes 5. Administer simple span task - 10 minutes 6. Administer executive functioning task on computer - 20 minutes 7. Introduce to cyclogometer - 2 minutes 8. Adjust seat on cycogometer - 2 minutes 9. Warm up to get use to machine - 1-2 minutes 10. Exercise set - 12-14 minutes (depending on when target HR is reached). 11. Cool down - 2 minutes 12. Relax - 3 minutes 13. Demographics questionnaire - 5 minutes 14. When resting heart rate is obtained - Perceived arousal questionnaire - 5 minutes 15. Simple span task - 10 minutes 16. Executive functioning task - 12 minutes. 51 Appendix D Procedure List - Baseline Group 52 Procedure: Baseline Group 1. Sign informed consent - 3 minutes 2. Complete perceived arousal questionnaire - 5 minutes 3. Administer simple span task - 10 minutes 4. Administer executive functioning task on computer - 20 minutes 5. Video clip - 10-12 minutes 6. Demographics questionnaire - 5 minutes 7. Perceived arousal questionnaire - 5 minutes 8. Simple span task - 10 minutes 9. Executive functioning task - 12-15 minutes. 53 Appendix E Informed Consent 54 Consent Form for Research Participation G eeta Shivde, Ph.D. Department o f P sych ology W est Chester U niversity T his project has been review ed and approved by the W est Chester Institutional Research R eview C om m ittee’s Hum an Subjects Subcom m ittee (H SS). The HSS b elieves that the research procedures adequately safeguard the subject's privacy, w elfare, civil liberties, and rights. The H SS Chairperson may be reached through the D irector o f Sponsored Research, W est Chester U niversity, W est Chester, PA 19380 or, by telephone, (6 1 0 )4 3 6 -3 3 1 0 . PRO JECT TITLE: The effect of m oderate aerobic physical activity on m em ory PU R PO SE : This research project has been designed to answer questions about how m oderate aerobic activity m ight affect perform ance on m em ory tasks in young, healthy adults. PR O C ED U R E S: Y ou w ill be asked to do several kinds o f m em ory tasks before and after physical activity using an ex ercise b icy cle. RISKS: T his study w ill require you to en gage in light to moderate physical activity using a stationary bicy cle, and there is a sm all risk o f physical injury from incorrect use o f the equipm ent. Y ou may also experience temporary breathlessness and/or fatigue. Y ou w ill be m onitored c lo sely throughout the session to prevent any injury. B EN E FIT S: W e hope that you w ill learn more about the relationship betw een physical activity and co g n itiv e perform ance. T his inform ation m ay be used to help design health and w elln ess programs for the general public. C O M P E N SA T IO N : A s com pensation for your participation, you w ill receive credit towards your P sy ch o lo g y course or will be paid $ 1 0 per hour. C O N F ID E N T IA L IT Y : Your participation in this research study is confidential, and any data gathered w ill be anonym ous. W IT H D R A W A L : Y our participation is com pletely voluntary. Y ou may withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any tim e without penalty or loss o f benefits. C O N T A C T IN FO R M A TIO N : If you w ould like more information about this study, a summary o f the results or if y ou incur any physical injury during your participation, please contact: G eeta Shivde, Ph.D ., P eoples 38, 6 1 0 -3 4 6 -3 2 0 7 . ** ** ** ** ** I confirm that my participation is entirely voluntary. N o coercion o f any kind has been used to obtain my cooperation. I understand that I may withdraw my consent and terminate my participation at any time during the project. I have been inform ed o f the procedures that w ill be used in the project and understand what w ill be required o f me as a subject. I understand that all o f m y responses, written/oral/task, w ill remain com p letely anonym ous. I understand that a sum m ary o f the results o f the project w ill be made available to me at the com p letion o f the study if I so request. I w ish to g iv e my voluntary cooperation as a participant. Subject Signature Date W itness Date 55 Appendix F Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire 56 P hysical A ctivity R e ad in e ss Q u e stio n n a ire - P AR -Q PAR - Q & YOU (A Q u e s tio n n a ire fo r P e o p le A g e d 15 to 6 9 ) R egu lar physical a ctivity is fun and healthy, and in cre asing ly m ore pe ople a re starting to becom e m ore active eve ry day. B eing more active is very safe fo r m ost people. H ow ever, som e people should che ck w ith th e ir d o cto r be fore the y sta rt be com ing m uch m ore p h ysica lly active. If you are plan ning to be com e m uch m ore ph ysica lly active tha n you are now, start by an sw e ring the seven qu e stio n s in the box below . If you are be tw een the ag es of 15 and 69, th e P A R -Q will tell you if you should ch e ck w ith you r d o cto r before you start. If you are o ve r 69 years of age, and you are no t used to being v e ry active, che ck w ith yo u r doctor. C om m on sen se is y o u r be st gu id e w hen you an sw e r th e se questions. P lease read the qu estions ca re fu lly and a n sw e r each one honestly: che ck Y E S or NO. YES NO □ □ 1. Has y o u r do cto r eve r said tha t you have a heart condition and tha t you sho uld only do physical activity re com m ended by a doctor? □ □ 2, Do you feel pain in y o u r che st w hen you do physical activity? □ a 3. In the past month, have you had che st pain w hen you w ere not doing ph ysica l activity? □ □ 4. Do you lose your ba la nce because of dizzine ss o r do you ever lose con scio usne ss? □ □ 5. Do you have a bone o r joint problem that could be m ade w orse by a cha nge in you r ph ysica l activity? □ □ 6. Is y o u r d o c to r c urrently prescribing drugs (for exam ple, w a te r pills) for yo u r blood pressure o r heart con dition? □ □ 7. Do vou know of anv o th e r reason w hv vou should no t do physical activitv? Y E S to one or m ore qu estio ns if Talk with your doctor by phone or in person BEFORE you start becoming much more physically active or BEFORE you have a fitness appraisal. Tell your doctor about the PAR-Q and which questions you answered YES. you • You maybe able to do any activity you want — as long as you start slowly and build up gradually. Or, you may need to restrict your activities to those which are safe for you. Talk with your doctor about the kinds of activities you wish to participate in answered and follow his/her advice. • Find out which community programs are safe and helpful for you. N O to all qu estio ns DELAY BECOMING MUCH MORE ACTIVE: :> • if you are not feeling well because of a temporary illness such as a cold or a fever — wait until you feel better; or If you answered NO honestly to aJi PAR-Q questions, you can be reasonably • if you are or may be pregnant — talk to your doctor before you sure that you can: start becoming more active. * start becoming much more physically active — begin slowly and build up gradually. This is the safest and easiest way to go. * take part in a fitness appraisal — this is an excellent way to determine Please note: If your health changes so that you then answer YES to your basic fitness so that you can plan the best way for you to live any of the above questions, tell your fitness or health professional. actively. Ask whether you should change your physical activity plan. Inform ed U se of the P A R -Q : The C a na d ia n S ociety fo r E xercise P hysiolo g y. H ealth C anada, a nd the ir a g e nts a ssum e no liability fo r p erson s w h o u nd ertake physica l activity, and if in d o u b t a fte r c o m p le tin g th is q u e stio n n a ire , co nsu lt y o u r d o cto r p rio r to p hysical activity. You are encouraged to copy the PAR-Q but only if you use the entire form N O T E : I f the P A R -Q is b e in g g iven to a p e rso n b e fo re he o r she p a rtic ip a te s in a p h y s ic a l a ctivity p ro gra m o r a fitn e ss app ra isa l, this s e ctio n m a y be u sed fo r le g a l o r a d m in istra tive p urpo ses. I have read, understood and c o m pleted this qu estionn aire . A ny questions I had w ere a n sw e red to m y full satisfaction. N A M E _______________________________________________________________________________________ S IG N A T U R E ______________________________________________________________________________________ D A T E _______________________________________ ________________ S IG N A T U R E O F P A R E N T _________________________________________________________________________ W IT N E S S __________ _________________________________________ o r G U A R D IA N (for p a rticipa n ts u nd er the age of m ajo rity) © Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Socidte canadienne de physiologie de I'exercice c o n t in u e d o n o t h e r s id e S u p p o rte d b y : H ealth C a na d a S ant£ C a na d a 57 Physical Activity H e a d in e s s ...continued from other side P A R " Q St Y O U ^ ^ T re^ sed ^ S ? W e know that being ph ysica lly active provides benefits fo r all of us. N ot being ph ysica lly active is recognized by the H eart and S troke Foundation of C ana da as one o f the fo u r m odifiable prim ary risk factors fo r coronary heart disea se (along w ith high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and sm oking). P eople are ph ysica lly active fo r m any reasons — play, w ork, com petition, health, creativity, enjoying the outdoors, being w ith friends. T here are also as m any w ays of being active as there are reasons. W h a t w e cho ose to do depend s on our ow n ab ilitie s and desires. No m a tter w hat the reason o r type of activity, physical activity can im prove ou r w ell-b eing and qu ality of life. W ell-be ing can also be en hance d by integrating physical activity with en jo yable healthy eating and positive self and body im age. Together, all th re e equal V ITA LIT Y . So take a fresh approach to living. C heck ou t the V ITA LIT Y tips below! A c tiv e Living: H ealth y E ating: P ositive S e lf a n d B o d y Im age: • accu m ulate 30 m inutes o r m ore of • follow C anada's Food G uide to H ealthy Eating • acce pt who you are and how you m o dera te ph ysica l a ctivity m ost • enjoy a varie ty of foods days o f the w eek • em phasize cereals, breads, oth er grain products, • take the stairs instead of an elevator • get o ff the bus ea rly and w alk hom e • jo in frie nds in a spo rt activity look • re m e m b e r, a h e a lth y w e ig h t veg etab le s an d fruit range is one th a t is realistic for • ch o o s e lo w e r-fa t da iry p ro d u cts, le a n e r m e a ts and foo ds prepared w ith little or no fat you r ow n body m ake-up (body fa t levels should neither be too • take the dog fo r a w a lk w ith the fam ily • a c h ie v e a n d m a in ta in a h e a lth y b o d y w e ig h t by • fo llo w a fitness program • lim it salt, alcohol and caffeine • com plim en t you rself • d o n ’t give up foods you enjoy — aim for m oderation ■ reflect positively on y o u r abilities enjoying regular physical activity and healthy eating and variety high nor too low ) • try a new challenge • laugh a lot Enjoy eating well, being active and feeling good about yourself That ys VITAL1T* F IT N E SS AND H E A L T H PROFESSION ALS M A Y BE IN TERE STE D IN THE IN FO RM ATIO N BELOW. The follow ing com panion forms are available for doctors' use by contacting the Canadian Society for Exercise P h ysiology (address below): T he P h y sica l A ctiv ity R eadiness M ed ica l E xa m in a tion (P A R m ed -X ) - to be used by doctors with people w ho answer YES to one or more questions on the PAR-Q. T he P h y sical A ctivity R ea d in ess M ed ical E xa m in a tion for P regnancy (P A R m ed -X for P R E G N A N C Y ) - to be used by doctors with pregnant patients w ho wish to becom e more active. R eferences: Arraix, G .A ., W igle, D .T., M ao, Y. (1992). Risk A ssessm en t o f Physical A ctivity and Physical Fitness in the Canada Health Survey Follow -U p Study. J. C lin . E p id em io l. 45:4 4 1 9 -4 28. M ottola, M ., W olfe, L.A. (1994). A ctive Living and Pregnancy, In: A. Quinney, L. Gauvin, T. W all (eds.). T o w a rd A ctive L iving: P ro ceed in g s o f th e In te r n a tio n a l C o n fe r e n c e on P h y sica l A c tiv ity , F itn ess an d H ealth . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. PA R -Q Validation Report, British C olum bia M inistry o f Health, 1978. Thom as, S., R eading, J., Shephard, R.J. (1 9 92). R evision o f the Physical A ctivity R eadiness Q uestionnaire (PA R -Q ). C an. J. S p t. S ci. 17:4 3 3 8 -3 4 5 . To order multiple printed copies o f the PAR-Q, please contact the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology 185 Somerset St. West, Suite 202 Ottawa, Ontario CANADA K2P 0J2 Tel. (613) 234-3755 FAX: (613) 234-3565 The o rig in a l P AR -Q w as d e ve lo p e d by the B ritis h C o lum bia Ministry of Health. It has been revised by an Expert Advisory Committee assembled by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and Fitness Canada (1994). D ispon ible en frangais sous le titre «Q uestionnaire sur I'aptitude a I'activite physique - Q -A A P (revise 1994)». ' Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Societe canadienne de physiologie de Texercice Supported by: | A | l " | Health Canada Sante Canada 58 Appendix G Basic Demographics and Physical Activity Questionnaire 59 Subject # _____ Basic Demographics and Physical Activity Questionnaire A g e :____________________ G ender:____ Have you been diagnosed with any type of Learning D isorder?_______________ If so, please explain:____________________ What time do you normally fall asleep? ______ What time (approximately) did you fall asleep last n igh t?__________ What time do you normally wake u p ? _____________ What time (approximately) did you wake up this m orning?_________ On an average night - approximately how many hours of sleep do you g e t? _________ Physical Activity Level 1-Not active 2-Minimally active 3-Equally active and inactive 4 - Somewhat active 5-Very active Using the above scale: Rate how you perceive your personal activity level.______ Rate what you think others would perceive your activity level to b e . _____ Rate how you think your activity level compares to that of your peers.______ 60 Physical Activity During the last week, how many hours have you spent on each of the following activities: (Please check only one box). Less than 1 hour 1-3 hours 3-6 hours More than 6 hours Physical exercise - such as swimming, jogging/running, gym workout. Cycling - for both exercise and transportation purposes. Doing housework. Participating in an organized or recreational sporting activity. Watching television and/or playing video games. Walking - for transportation purpose only. In a typical m onth, approximately how many days a week do you do the following: Not at all Work out at a gym. Participate in an organized or recreational sporting activity. Exercise outdoors such as running, biking, jogging, power walking, rollerskating. Do housework Walk or bike for transportation. Take a nap during the day. 1-2 days 2-4 days 5 days 6-7 days 61 Appendix H Borg’s Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale 62 TheBorgRPEScale 6 - 20 % - no exertion at all 7 - 30 % - extremely light 8-40% 9-50% - very light 10-55% 1 1 -6 0 % -light 12-65% 13-70% - somewhat hard 14-75% 15-80% - hard (heavy) 16-85% 17 - 90 % - very hard 18-95% 19 - 100% - extremely hard 20 - maximum exertion 63 Appendix I Perceived Arousal Scale 64 Perceived Arousal Scale Different people react very differently to the same situations. Indicate to what extent you feel this way right now, that is, at the present moment. Use the following 5-point rating scale. Write the number corresponding to your rating on the blank line next to each word. 1 very slightly or not at all active drowsv exhausted livelv sleepv vigorous 2 a little 3 moderately alert dull fatigued powerful slow weak 4 quite a bit aroused energetic forceful quiet sluggish wearv 5 extremely depressed excited inactive sharp tired worn-out 65 Appendix J Letter Span Tasks - Set A and Set B 66 10 18 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 67 1 s K 2 p N 3 T H 4 J Q T 5 K F L 6 N H S 7 8 9 F H K Q P S J T L R 10 Y N Q K H 11 J R F T S 12 R L Y T P 13 N T S L R Y 14 15 J Q K P H F H J F N Y K 16 17 K Q R F S Y L N L J Y S K F 18 J N K Q F T L 19 S P Y J T F N 20 21 F T R N Y Q S Y R H Q K T s 22 H Y F Q L K R 23 Q S L J P Y F 24 R Y Q N T F K 25 F S Y T H L N J R P 26 L K P S T J Y Q R F 27 P J N R F K Y Q H S 28 29 30 S T P H J Y N F K L Q P S H T N J F Y K Y F N H P R Q S L J Y N 68 Appendix K Debriefing 69 Research has shown physical activity to have a positive affect on cognitive abilities. The current study is being carried out to determine if physical activity has an immediate effect on simple and/or complex cognitive tasks. It is hypothesized that an improvement in cognitive ability will be seen following a short, moderate physical exercise session. If you are interested in the final results of this study, please contact me at [email protected] This study is being completed for graduate thesis research requirement and is under the supervision of Dr. Geeta Shivde. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns please feel free to contact me, or my supervisor, Dr. Shivde ([email protected]). Thank you again for your participation.