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An investigation of contemporary advertising illustration for newspaper and magazine

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A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Department of Fine Arts
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Raster of Arts
Geraldine Mae Nodars
June 1941
\' ■ b
”f“ “ '
UMI Number: EP57857
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T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f h^z.. F a c u l t y C o m m it te e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been
presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on
G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f the r e q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
D ate.. ...
F aculty Com m ittee
THE PROBLEM AND ORGANI Z A T I O N ...................
The problem
Statement of the p r o b l e m ...................
Importance of the
s t u d y ...................
material ................
Organization of the
Review of the literature
ANALYSIS OF A D V E R T I S I N G .......................
History of advertising .......................
Advertising’s place in selling ...............
Definition of advertising
a d v e r t i s i n g ............
Consumer r e s e a r c h .........................
Product analysis ............................
Market analysis
Media a n a l y s i s ..............................
Construction of the a d v e r t i s e m e n t ........
Scope and aims of
Methods employed by
History of advertising illustration
Function and aims of advertising illustration.
Factors affecting advertising illustration . .
C o n s u m e r ....................................
. . . . . . . .
i i i
M a r k e t ......................................
Psychological factors
M e d i a ......................................
The a r t i s t ..................................
NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE M E D I A ...................
Newspaper m e d i u m ..............................
As a m e d i u m - ................................
Reproduction processes
Art in n e w s p a p e r ............................
Color advertising in newspapers
Magazine m e d i u m ..............................
As a m e d i u m ................................
Art in m a g a z i n e s ............................
Color advertising in m a g a z i n e s .............
Scientific discoveries .......................
. . .
Economic contributions .......................
I n d u s t r i a l .....................................103
Standards of l i v i n g .......................... 105
Cultural contributions .......................
Democratic a r t ................................ 106
Use of fine a r t s .............................. 110
Educational interests
Laudable living habitsand ideals
........ ......................... 115
Basic Appeals Their Attention Value
Attention Value of Four ColorAdvertisements
Attention Value of Illustration Subjects. . . .
Mechanics of I l l u s t r a t i o n ................
Newspaper C i r c u l a t i o n s ....................
Techniques and Reproduction Techniques .........
Commercial art can be compared in one respect to an
art of a past age, Medieval art.
serve a utilitarian need.
the church.
Both are propaganda and
Medieval art was propaganda for
Commercial art is propaganda for industry.
controversies have arisen over the standards of the function­
al art as compared to those of the autonomous expression.
However, the mere fact that the art serves a "functional”
use is not necessarily disparaging to such art.
There have
been other periods in which the art served a utilitarian
purpose and still maintained the standard of fine aesthetic
Such an art can be found in many of the commer­
cial works of today’s finest artists.
Commercial art de­
serves society’s attention and evaluation for the economic
and cultural contributions rendered by this present-day art
Statement of the problem.
It was the purpose of this
study to analyze the principles and practices of contemporary
American advertising illustration in order to arrive at some
conclusions as to its economic and cultural contributions
to society.
Importance of the problem.
The importation of ab­
stract individualistic art made the American people aware
of the need for a democratic art.
Any art activity which
approximates the satisfaction of this need is deserving of
attention and study.
It is obvious that the grasping of any dependent
activity necessitates, first of all, an understanding of
the fundamentals of the larger activity upon which it is
As advertising illustration is a dependent art,
its relation to the tremendous field of advertising must be
understood before an analysis of the art can be made.
ever, an analysis of the advertising field today including
the materials and methods used by the advertising agency
and the reproduction processes used by newspaper and maga­
zine would in itself renuire a very intensive study.
fore, only those phases of advertising which have a direct
influence upon and relation to advertising illustration were
No attempt was made to evaluate this art form
A few deductions were drawn, however, which
seem to indicate that constant raising of the aesthetic
standards of advertising art are taking place.
An analysis of advertising in three main divisions
was made in Chapter Two.
A brief history of advertising was
first presented.
Advertising’s place in selling was next
discussed by defining advertising, its purpose, and scope.
The methods employed by advertising; consumer analysis,
product analysis, market analysis, media analysis, and con­
struction of the advertisement were next studied.
Chapter Three constitutes the main study in its analy­
sis of advertising illustration.
A brief history of adver­
tising illustration was first presented.
The function and
aims of advertising illustration were next discussed.
lowing this, the factors affecting advertising illustration
were analyzed.
In Chapter Four a discussion of the two advertising
media important to this thesis, newspaper and magazine, were
analyzed as to the possibilities they offer the advertising
artist and his work.
was discussed.
The art as it is found in each medium
Recent scientific discoveries bearing upon
advertising were examined.
Chapter Five is concerned with the conclusions of
this study, the economic and cultural contributions of ad­
vertising illustration to society.
Chapter Six contains the summary.
Little has been written on advertising illustration
from the standpoint of the artist.
A few books have been
written on the techniques used by the artists and how these
techniques are reproduced on the printed page.
these discussions little is written of the factors w h i c h
influence the a r t i s t ’s decisions in his designing.
The History and Development of Advertising by Frank
Presbrey was the principal source for the historical survey
of advertising as presented in this thesis.
neither this source nor any other investigated material gave
an adequate picture of the history and development of adver­
tising illustration.
Sources of particular value in analyzing advertising
as an industry were What About Advertising? by Kenneth M.
Goode and Harford Powei, Jr.; Practical Advertising by
Herbert Henry King; Advertising Theory and Practise by C. H.
Sandage; and the many articles which appeared in Printerys
Ink and other industrial periodicals.
Advertising layout and typography were studied from
the various sources:
(1) Eugene de Lopatecki in Advertis­
ing Layout and Typography discusses in great detail the
mechanics of layout, the elements involved, and their re­
lation to the finished advertisement;
(2) In Layout Tech­
nique in Advertising, Richard Surrey studies the various
parts of an advertisement as to their functions, suitable
presentation, and ultimate effect on the reader;
(3) Laur­
ence Siegfried in Typographic Design in Advertising presents
trends in modern typography as does (4) T. B. Stanley in
A Manual of Advertising Typography.
The artist’s techniques and the way in which they
are reproduced are presented in lames Gardner’s Drawing For
Advertising and The Technique and Fractise of Advertising
Art by Robert Hymers and Leonard Sharpe.
Both were used in
this study.
As commercial art is a contemporary activity, much
of the material was found in periodicals and reports.
particular value were the various issues of the Annual of
Advertising A r t ; the quarterly advertising art periodical,
Printing A r t ; and the Annual Advertising and Publishing
Production Yearbook.
The major source of literature for this problem was
found in surveys, interviews, speeches, and reports from
the Research Department of Lord & Thomas Advertising Agency
in Los Angeles, California.
Grateful acknowledgment to
Ford Sibley and the Research Department of Lord & Thomas
must be made.
Both contributed valuable information and
material impossible to obtain in published form.
An understanding of advertising illustration can be
gained in part by a study of the principles and practices
of advertising itself.
This chapter presents an analysis
of advertising in three major divisions:
(1) the history of
(2) advertising’s place in selling,
(3) the
methods employed by advertising,
The form of today’s advertising is new.
The ideas
and objectives behind advertising, however, are as old as
the human race.
When the first man came into contact with
his competitor and found it necessary to do some persuasive
selling, advertising was born.
The first written adver­
tisement was in Babylonia thousands of years before Christ
in the form of an inscription carrying the name of the
temple and King who had built it.-*-
The King who set forth
such an announcement was actually advertising himself to
those subjects who were able to read.
thing to sell--himself and his dynasty.
The King had some­
As long as there
^ Frank Presbrey, The History and Development of
Advertising (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1929),
p. 2.
have been buying and selling, there has been advertising.
The nature of advertising has always depended upon the
available media for carrying the message of the seller to
the prospective buyer.
Before the days of the newspapers
and magazines, sign boards and town criers were the only
media available.
These early signs were used, principally,
to mark the merchant’s place of business.
They were suc­
cessful advertising agents in that they obtained a great
deal of attention from the citizens of the town who used
the signs as landmarks.2
Signs have continued to be a pow­
erful advertising medium.
The first means of supplementing the sign came with
the town criers, organized in a sort of union.
They adver­
tised those places of business which had a charter from the
The invention of the printing press and the revival
of learning made newspapers, books, and handbills possible.
These media provided business with the opportunity of send­
ing messages to potential buyers.
The early period in American advertising found patent
medicines, cosmetics, and beverages the products most promi­
nently advertised.
The selling of medicines this way
2 House numbers were unknown at this time.
3 C. H. Bandage, Advertising The"
(Chicago: Business Publishers, Inc., 19
attracted the quack.^
Reputable dealers did not at first
use advertising except to make announcements of their place
of business or of the receipt of new goods.
lasted only a short while.
However, this
Advertising grewr in general
proportion to the population, learning, and the number of
periodicals and newspapers.
At this time public education
was being furthered by political, social, and religious
news and opinions appearing in magazines and journals.
selling voice of business found a growing audience in these
periodicals, and the publishers found that better journals
could be had by the revenues from advertising.
By 1840, railroads in the United States had broaden­
ed markets and encouraged advertising in those magazines
which served larger territories.^
The business of adver­
tising developed in separate professions during this period.
Individuals set themselves up as specialists in the sale of
advertising space and took the name of general advertising
By 1900, all the areas of the United States had been
As there was no longer a geographical frontier,
4 H. J. Kenner, The Fight For Truth in Advertising
(New York: Round Table Press, Inc., 1936), p. 10.
Sandage, o p . cit. , p. 9.
6 Ibid., p. 11.
the job of the business man was to cultivate the terri­
tories which already existed.
Competition between agents
and clients in existing markets caused an extension in ser­
vice offered by these advertising agents.
These agents
began writing copy, selecting media, and analyzing markets.
In 1911 the crusade for truth in advertising helped both
the publisher and the consumer.
Since then, scientific
development in advertising--market research, consumer
analysis, the testing of results--has further contributed
to advertising’s efficiency.
Newspaper advertising.
America’s first newspaper
advertisement was in the Boston News-Letter May 1, 1904.®
In 1728 America’s great .journalist, Benjamin Franklin,
became the publisher of the Saturday Evening Post.
1760 he had inspired the department stores to advertise.
In Taylor and Cox’s store advertisements in 1760
only the articles of clothing were presented; no prices
were given.
They came later with Rowland H. Macy of New
York and other contemporary merchants.
There was no con­
ceivable commodity not advertised b y the end of the
eighteenth century in newspapers, handbills, and the
windows of stores.
7 ”The Case for Advertising,” Nation’s Business,
28:53, July, 1940.
8 Loc. cit.
Newspapers of the eighteenth century which catered
to community interests were chiefly responsible for early
newspaper advertising.
During the first half of the nine­
teenth century general newspapers insisted upon restricting
It was not until the New York Journal of
Commerce gave advertising the freedom it needed that prog­
ress in methods and returns began to evolve.^
Magazine advertising.
The first magazine advertise­
ment of importance dates from around 1890.
The first
hundred years of magazine publication in the United States
were years of many attempts and many failures.
Of the
sixty magazines which appeared before 1800 only a halfdozen had some merit.
Fewr magazines of the eighteenth cen­
tury lived beyond a few issues because publishers had dif­
ficulty in obtaining reader support and paper stock.
Benjamin Franklin and John Uebbe of Philadelphia made a
beginning each with a magazine issued in January, 1741.
V/ebbe called his The American Magazine; Franklin named his
The General Magazine.
lin’s, six.
V/ebbe’s lasted three months; Frank­
There were various magazines throughout the
period, but none were successful.
These magazines did not
9 lfria«
Frank Presbrey, The History and Development of
Advertising (New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co., Inc.,
1 9 2 9 ) , p. 446.
have advertising to help pay the expenses of paper and
In fact, these early magazines did not welcome
any advertising.11
Harper*s , established in 1S50, openly
repudiated advertising.
It refused $18,000 a year offered
by the Howe dewing Machine Company for its fourth cover.12
The scarcity of wood engravers delayed the develop­
ment of published pictures.
The first engravings were used
in the Massachusetts Magazine published in Boston from 1789
to 1796 by Isaiah 'Thomas.
The following year the New York
Magazine and Literary Repository issued Godey*s Lady* s
Book with engravings in color illustrating the latest fash­
Through the colored plates and literary content,
Godey*s became a success.
Fifteen years after Godey*s Lady1s Book began to
show the attraction of pictures, the illustrated news week­
ly arrived.
Gleason*s Drawing Room Companion made its
debut in Boston.
Harper* s Weekly and Leslie *s Meekly in
1860 received the class of advertising which later went
into standard monthlies like the Century.
This had an im­
portant influence upon the building up of national adver­
The religious revival in the early nineteenth century
11 Ibid., pp. 446-63.
12 E. E. Calkins, "Magazine Into Marketplace,"
Scribner* s t 101:108-17, January, 1937.
contributed the religious periodical which accepted adver­
llany advertisers were given their first experience
in national work.
Some advertising agencies devoted them­
selves mainly to these lists.
The result was a specialisa­
tion in the general magazines.
Advertising in the religiou
periodical of 1840 to 18Q0 was the forerunner of national
. .
magazine advertising.
Llanufacturers began to use larger space when they
discovered advertising to be profitable.
They began to in­
form the trade by means of illustrations, details of items
in their catalogues.
In the 6 0 1s and 9 0 fs the more serious
form of advertising reached a level which encouraged an in­
crease in the number of publications, entrance of greater
capital, and more specialized talent.
Thus the business
periodical became the creator of the advertiser--a role
which the community newspaper also played.
The arrival of inexpensive photo-engraving processes
enabled a profusion of good illustrations which increased
the circulation and the advertising.
A trick of running
humorous pictures among advertisements to lure the reader
to the back of the book was
jt was the ancestor of
IS p resbrey, loc. cit., pp. 446-63.
14 hoc. cit.
15 Calkins, loc. cit.
today's comic strips and in the device used by publications
that "jump” their stories and articles for the same utili­
tarian purpose to the back of the magazines.
Magazine publication began to develop advertising in
a serious way with the advent of a pioneer advertising
agent, J. Walter Thompson.
Purchasing space in nearly all
magazines for a lump sum, he sold it to advertisers and
brother agents.
The publications,
soon aware of his pros­
perity, recaptured the space as the contracts expired in
order to sell it themselves.
a necessity.
This made advertising managers
Rowland Mix of Scribner1s , James Rogers of
Harper* s , and George Hazen of Century were the three musket­
eers of magazine advertising.16
There were two marked changes which influenced adver­
(1) growing acceptance of responsibility by publish­
ers to their readers for the character of advertisements,
(2) improvement in physical appearance of advertisements as
advertising agents eagerly explored all the possibilities
of graphic art.
The first elevated the reliability of ad­
vertising as a whole.
Furthermore, under the stress of con17
petition, advertising became more and more efficient.
Definition of advertising.
Calkins, loc. cit.
Loc. cit.
According to Webster,
advertising is the method used to call public attention to
an idea or object, emphasizing the desirable Qualities of
the idea or object for the purjjose of arousing a desire for
acceptance or purchase.
John E. Kennedy defined advertis­
ing as "salesmanship in print."1®
It has also been stated
that salesmanship and advertising are devices by which those
engaged in producing each kind of commodity, or service,
seek to inform and stimulate their fellow men to buy what
n O
they have to offer.-L*?
Gilbert T. Hodges, Member, Executive
Board of the New York Sun says, "Advertising is the printed,
written, spoken, or pictured representation of an institu­
tion, person, product, service, or movement openly sponsored
by the advertiser and at his expense for the purpose of in­
fluencing sales, use, votes, action or endorsement.
has also been said that the advertising message is the con­
necting link between the producer with want-satisfying
goods and the consumer with needs and desires to be satisfied.
Richard Compton, President of Compton Advertising,
Inc., says, "Advertising is an economical substitute for a
Albert D. Lasker, Salesmanship In Print
Hamilton Institute, N e w York^ 1 9 3 0 ) , P« 7.
19 Don Francisco, "Advertising--An Essential Ingre­
dient of Democracy," (an address before Boston Conference
on Distribution, October 3, 1939)
Mark O'Dea, "Advertising as a Career," (unpublished
Vocational Guide, May, 1939), no. 1.
Bandage, o p . cit. , p. 267.
personal sales talk to a consumer.”22
Selling products or services reruires two distinct
(1) advertising, and (2) merchandising.""
vertising instils a desire or stimulates a latent desire
for a product or service.
It brings the market to the pro­
Merchandising includes all the steps leading up to
the immediate sale, bringing the product to the market.
the beginning advertising was merely a supplement to other
forms of selling, but today it is a major form of selling
that not only supports other forms but is sometimes the
only selling tool to move merchandise.""
Scope and aims of advertising.
Advertising today is
a tremendous field which includes all the details of adver­
tising construction such as copy, layout, art, engraving,
and typography, the selection and use of the media employed
to carry the advertising message, and the foundation work
which consists of consumer, market, and product research.
Its scope is evidenced by the visible and invisible expendi­
tures of money in advertising.
The visible money is that
paid to various media which carry advertising.
A number of
advertising agencies present figures which represent the
22 Hark 0 TDea, loc. cit.
23 Interview^ Ford Sibley of Lord & Thomas, November,
24 Sandage,
cit. , p. 1.
advertising income of different media.
From these and other
sources a basis for estimating the total annual expenditures
for media, space, and time is worked out.
However, there is
no absolute measure of the total amount spent.
Printer* s
I n k , March 1, 1940 stated that §1,600,000,000 had been spent
on advertising in 1939.
This included newspaper, radio,
magazine, outdoor, car card, farm journal, and direct mail.
The invisible expenditures are those that include the cost
of labor and materials used in the development and promotion
of the complete campaign.
The labor costs include the wages
and salaries paid the workers in advertising agencies, the
advertising departments of business concerns, the research
organizations uncovering data to be used in developing ad­
vertising programs, and all or part of the salaries of
executives where time is spent in checking advertising
On a basis of visible expenditures alone, adver­
tising ranks as one of the largest industries of the nation.
It is one of the three greatest American industries and employs many thousands of persons.^0
This vast field is interested in turning out a suc­
cessful advertisement that will sell the product or service
and at the same time contain no element which creates a
backlash from the public, in which no promises or influences
cit. , p. 117.
P. I. Lemos, f,Is Advertising Art Important?
School A r t s , M35:387, March, 1936.
beyond the boundaries of fact are put forth, no points to
irritate the trade.
The field wishes the advertisement to
have a fundamental idea so subtle that competition will be
slow to recognize and copy it or so closely identified with
the company, product, personality, or policy that plagia­
rism is impossible.2*'7
Effective advertising is based on research.
modern advertiser forms his advertisement after he has ana­
lyzed the consumer, the market, and the product.
Consumer research.
As modern advertising is closely
associated with the development of mass selling, it is nec­
essary for the advertiser to understand the characteristics,
mental and emotional, of the human being.
It is here that
the research man in the modern advertising agency begins
his work, research into consumer habits.
He knows, along
with the psychologists, that human behavior originates in
the desire or need for things.
He knows that when these
needs or desires are found, the proper stimulus on the part
of the advertiser will produce the desired response, buying
the advertised product.
Therefore, the research man con-
Charles Younggreen, MHhat is Good Advertising?"
The Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, Section B, March-April,
siders these questions: lust what are the human desires and
What methods can successfully be employed to appeal
to these desires and needs?
Dr. George Gallup of Northwestern University made a
survey of reader interest in advertisements.
many facts interesting to the advertiser.
He discovered
Ke discovered
the basic appeals represented in advertising and how they
were responded to by the reader.
Emulation, or "doing it
because someone else is doing it" was found to be a power­
ful force motivating
m a n k i n d .
listed other basic
Ambition, or the urge to get ahead in the world, finan­
cially or socially.
Fear, or the unhappiness resulting from non-purchase.
This group includes the negative expression of all ap­
peals .
Health, or the lure of physical well-being, longer life.
Vanity, or being more beautiful; being in a situation
conducive of admiration.
Sex, or a situation involving the reciprocated or unre­
ciprocated regard of a woman for a man, or vice versa.
Novelty, or the appeal of the new, the unusual, be­
cause it is new or unusual.
Quality, or the appeal of the good solely because it is
good. This includes discussion of materials, workman­
ship, or both.
28 George Gallup, "Factors of Reader Interest in 261
Advertisements," Supplement to Survey of Reader Interest in
Saturday Evening P ost, Liberty, Collier*s , and Literary
Digest. 1932.
Efficiencyt or details of the functioning of the pro­
duct or service.
Economy, or the appeal of price.29
It was found that although one out of every three or
four persons notes the advertising page, less than one out
of twenty five or thirty actually reads it.
So the adver­
tiser can not be content merely with the knowledge of what
the basic desires are.
He must do further research to
discover how he can appeal to these basic desires.
Dr. Gallup carried on investigations to discover
which of the basic appeals had the greatest at ten t ion
v r Ina
for men, which had the greatest attention value for women,
and which were used by advertising men most frequently.
See Table I.
Economy ranked first among creators of adver­
Women, however, give advertisements featuring
economy 38 per cent less attention than the average for all
Hen give 13 per cent less than average.
Although price ranks first in the minds of advertising men,
it ties for last place in catching the eyes of women and
ranks third from the end in attracting the notice of men.
On the other end of the scale is sex.
The direct appeal to
sex is used by only 3 per cent of the advertisers using
black and white page space.
However, the advertisements
with sex appeal get 142 per cent more attention from women
29 Gallup, loc. cit.
Rank by
number of
Rank by
number of
men noting
Rank by
number of
women noting
Tied for 9th
Tied for 9th
Tied for 4th
Tied for 4th
7 th
6 th
Tied for 9th
Tied for 9th
Tied for 4th
Tied for 4th
* This material was taken from George Gallup’s survey of
Reader Interest in 261 Advertisements,
Copyrighted 1932
by Liberty Publishing Corp.
than the general average.
Men and women do not rank alike
in attention value, although there is more correlation be­
tween the attention ratings of women and men than between
their ratings as compared to actual advertisements.
rank health last and quality first.
Sex and vanity are
top ratings with w*omen; economy and efficiency are last.
Quality has a high ranking with men as well as women.
rate it 42 per cent above the general average for all adver­
tisements and 127 per cent above economy.*^
These discoveries are included in only one phase of
the work carried on by the research man.
He knows that the
bulk of advertising is to be directed toward the common
people who form 95 per cent of the advertising public.31
He must know everything about this advertising public.
must know, first of all, the intelligence level of these
A recent census of education revealed that only
2,380,000 adults out of 82,000,000 have college educations,
while 49,590,000 have grammar school educations or less.
Those having high school educations numbered 15,130,000.^'
Therefore, the basic education for seventy-five people out
6f eighty-two is high school or less.
Gallup, o£. cit. , p. 5.
Claude Hopkins, My Life In Advertising (New York:
Harper & Bros., 1927), p. 6.
22 O ’Dea, 0£. cit. , p. 8.
He must also know what this average American prefers
in music, colors, perfumes, et cetera.
The importance of
the work done by this research man is apparent when the
fact becomes known that most failures in advertising are
due to poor judgments of human nature, failure to recognize
the wants, prejudices, and idiosyncrasies of the group to
which the advertising is direct e d . ^
All of these habits
and tendencies have a terrific influence upon advertising,
upon the product itself, and what is more important to this
study, upon the presentation of the idea or product in the
adverti sement.
The consumer1s mind is studied and analyzed so that
the advertiser will better understand the mental states
through which the customer1s mind passes in the act of pur­
In Commercial Art Practise the authors set forth
these mental states:
(1) interest aroused,
(2) knowledge
about the product added to by the advertisement,
(3) the
advertisement shows product adjusted to the consumer’s
(4) appreciation of the suitability of the product
within the consumer’s mind,
(5) desire to possess,
(6) con-
sideration of cost, and (7) the final decision to buy.
r7' 4
cit. , p. 4.
Charles Knights and Prank Norman, Commercial Art
Practise (London: Crosby Lockwood & Son, 1930) , p"i IT
Every stage in the mental process of the customer has a
direct bearing upon the advertisement.
Every single mental
state must be handled in such a way that the prospect’s re­
sistance to buy will be broken down.
Another important discovery revealed that four out
of every five purchases are made by women."
directly or indirectly women are responsible for much of
the vogue of the automobile and many other products.
Burt states that youth and femininity are the axes about
^ A
which 80 per cent of the nation’s activity revolves."'
motion pictures are planned to appeal to and reflect the
viewpoint of Miss America.
Most popular magazines, with a
few exceptions, are edited for her standard.
The fact that
her beauty and bodily welfare occupy so much of her atten­
tion has increased the amount of advertising.
The adver­
tisers consider that many purchases of even masculine articles are made or controlled by women.
Dr. Daniel Starch in readership studies to determine
the extent to which advertisements in leading magazines are
35 Goode,
cit., p. 114.
36 Struthers Burt, ’’Miss America Splits Her Person­
ality,” Scribners’ Magazine, 96:363-66, December, 1934.
37 w m ustration Plays Down Product,” Printer’s Art
Monthly, (January, 1940), p. 15.
read,^8 discovered other information about the woman reader.
Of 347 food advertisements in the five leading women’s maga­
zines, 135 contained recipes.
Two hundred twelve did not.
There was little difference in their attention value, but
the recipe advertisements averaged 40 per cent better on
thorough readership per dollar spent.^
The recent tendency
in advertising, therefore, has been to consider the woman
as a market in herself.
Dr. Starch also investigated the problem of effec­
tiveness of the continuity or "strip* style of advertise­
He wished to discover if this type of advertisement
got better reading than the conventional advertisement
which consisted of illustration, headline, and solid text.
He studied a number of issues of Saturday Evening Post,
■Soman1s Home Companion, and True Story.
He discovered that
the continuity was three times more effective in getting
reading than the conventional style.^0
The continuity
style makes the advertisement more personal, more specific,
and brings the narrative rather than the essay method of
38 The method used in his study to obtain the informa­
tion was arranged personal interviews with a cross section
of the population.
3S Yvilliam J. Pringle, "Some Fundamentals of Adver­
tising Copy," Address before Advertising Club, Los Angeles,
February 28, 1939.
L o c . cit.
telling a story into play.
The most interesting form of
statement to most people is a story, evidenced by the fact
that 70 per cent of all adults read the com i c s . ^
Dr. Starch also investigated the appeal of cartoons.
One hundred and seventy five advertisements^ using cartoons,
were compared with an equal number of similar advertise­
ments in which cartoons did not appear.
These advertise­
ments appeared over a two year period in the Saturday
Evening Post and Collier *s .
The advertisements presenting
cartoons averaged 35 per cent better on observation, 40
per cent better on partial reading, but about the same on
thorough reading.^2
Local items and those which have a human interest
angle were also discovered to be among the ones most widely
The customary way in which a person reads is also of
The fact that from childhood people are taught
to start at the upper left-hand corner of the page and work
to the right, straight across each line, dropping easily
and regularly down to the lower right-hand corner is very
important to the advertiser.
Any device which falls in
Wilford Newman, "Color Comic Advertising in
Newspaper," Vol. 68, no. 4, 1940.
Pringle, loc. cit.
with this incurable habit has increased the probability
that the whole advertisement will be read and understood.
Advertisers have found that lines generally should begin and end uniformly; any changes in length make for strain
and discomfort.43
There are other things about the consumer which ad­
vertisers have learned to consider when planning a campaign.
They know that today the civilized world is science-minded.
The consumer sees on every hand and uses almost every minute
something which is better made because of science.
He ac­
cepts these things as necessary and finds it interesting to
read about them in scientific journals or newspapers.
is not surprising, then, that the consumer has become con­
cerned with the technical excellence of a product.44
The events and trends of the time which form the
cultural interests of the consumer are also important.
example, at the present time the Defense Program and the
Draft are discussed on every street corner.
have taken advantage of this to use the patriotism theme in
their advertisements.
The draft for defense is giving the
advertiser opportunities for new copy "angles."
retailers in newspapers assure installment buyers that the
cit. , p. 232.
44 "Science in Advertising," Scientific American,
155:65, August, 1936.
balance due on their accounts will be cancelled if they are
Other consumer advertisements are given the de­
fense approach merely to attract attention.
Business papers
and industrial publications have a special reason for the
patriotic angle as their factories are producing equipment
that form the basis for preparation for defense.4^
Even seasonal sports and amusements of interest to
the consumer are used for advertising ideas.
If the racing
season is in full swing, advertisers of clothing are quick
to advise the consumer as to -what he should wear to the
During the opera season, jewelers and cigarette
manufacturers present their goods in advertisements endorsed
by opera singers.
All the basic needs, desires, characteristics, and
tendencies of the consumer are analyzed by the advertiser
before he forms his message.
Product analysis.
A complete analysis of the product
must be made to determine its merits and limitations.
advertiser must know whether the product is an expensive
one such as the automobile or whether it is a small item
such as a bottle of perfume.
He must know whether the pro­
duct will be in general use or limited use,--a cooking
utensil or a doctor*s instrument.
He must know if the
45 Printer *s I n k , November, 1940, p. 1.
product is a new one or a well-known one.
He of course
must know the physical features of the product, if it can
be packaged or if it has some outstanding feature that might
be the central theme of the advertising campaign.
He must
know if it is seasonal or if it requires any specific cli­
matic or geographical conditions.
All of these character­
istics determine in what form the advertising campaign will
be the most productive.46
All of these characteristics of
the product also indicate the logical market for the pro­
Ilarket Analysis.
As the ultimate object of most ad­
vertising is the building of a basic market or the increas­
ing of a market already at hand, analyses of the various
buying groups must be made.
This work determines which
group would form the most logical market for the product to
be advertised.
It is well understood by the research man
that America is not a mass market of 130,000,000 people but
is a mass of markets totaling 130,000,000 people.
The advertising that concentrates upon or aims di­
rectly at a certain group gets a greater sales return than
the scattershot method of market approach.
The sales
46 kord Sibley, Lord & Thomas, Interview, December,
Frederick Dickenson, "The Newspaper as an Adver­
tising iledium," The Printing Art, 68: no. 4, Section C,
march, April, 1940.
message is directed to real prospective customers rather
than to people in general.
Therefore, the research man
must make an analysis of the location and purchasing power
of the prospective customers.
lie must find out everything
about this market,--the buying tendencies, the trade pecu­
liarities, even the competitive tactics used by producers
of similar products.^®
The analysis of the market is con­
sidered in at least seven different ways:
(3) income,
(4) geographical,
competitive, and (7) age.49
(1) size,
(5) psychological,
After the group under considera­
tion has been analyzed in these seven categories, the adver­
tiser knows if his product will sell to the group and the
type of approach to make to this group.
There are several methods used in making such analy­
Business Week made an American consumer market analy­
sis from 1919 to 1930 which measured the characteristics
and quantity of consumer purchases.
and service divisions were used.
Twelve major commodity
The results showed how
the consumer divided his dollar among the twelve commodi­
ties and provided information concerning the total purchases
of the American consumer.
It indicated both his willingness
Owen Richards, THeet the Folks at Home and Make the
Sale,” The Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, C-2, March, April,
Sibley, loc. cit.
and his ability to pay.
There are other studies and surveys made to help the
advertiser in making his business more scientific.
data measures the extent of commodity sales and gives a de­
tailed territorial classification of sales.
indexes measure the sales possibilities by territories and
inventories of consumer purchases.
The census of distribu­
tion shows the per cent of territories' sales as compared
to other states and the total sales of goods.
The correla­
tion index is concerned with individual products.
measures sales fertility of districts for consumption of
goods in general.5^-
The qualities of product and market
suitable for the product determine the media to be used in
carrying the message.
This term, plural of medium, refers to the
means of contact between the advertiser and the prospect.
Media include almanacs, booklets, car-cards, direct ma il,
envelope stuffers, hand-bills, lantern slides, magazines,
newspapers, posters, radio, skywriting, store displays,
theatre programs, windows, out-door, and others. ^ In 1939
50 Sandage,
cit. , p. £03.
Ibid. , pp. £05-19.
52 0'Dea, loc. cit.
there were 1,065 national advertisers in newspapers, maga­
zines, farm journals, and chain radio who spent $25,000 or
more in at least one of these media.
Their aggregate ex­
penditure for the year in all four media was $245,628,598.
It was divided as follows: newspapers, 5131,768,171; maga­
zines, 5121,526,350; farm journals, $10,574,100; chain
radio, $81,759,977.
These figures represented the ex­
penditures of national advertisers.
In the newspaper figure,
only those cities of 10,000 population or over supporting
one or more newspapers were considered.
In the case of maga­
zines the figures represent 112 leading weekly, semi-monthly
and monthly magazines of national circulation.
figures are restricted in certain ways also.
The other
In all cases
figures represent only the expenditures for space or time
in the media.
The advertiser finds analyses of media essential.
This factor of the whole advertising problem will be depend­
ent upon his analyses of the product and market for that
He knows that he must choose the medium which will
be the most efficient means of reaching the market for his
He weighs carefully the various merits and limita­
tions of each medium.
Expenditures of National Advertisers, Figures com­
piled by Media Records, Inc., Bureau of Advertising, Ameri­
can Newspaper Publishers Association., 1939, p. 3.
Outdoor advertising using billboards generally have
short messages as the speeding motorist would have little
opportunity to read a long message.
This kind of advertise
ment must be easy to read for the same reason.
Because of
these two requirements, outdoor advertising can do little
but serve as a reminder of the product to the public.
Magazines are able to present a long message.
way in which the public reads magazines assures this.
magazine is a highly selective medium as it obtains its
readers on a basis of consumer groups having particular
Magazine selectivity depends upon the editorial
aims and circulation methods of the publishers.
There are
many classes of magazines; the markets possible to reach
through this medium cover a wide range.
The magazine is
not selective territorially as the newspaper is, however.
The mechanical characteristics also present advantages to
the advertiser.
A good quality of paper which allows for
successful reproduction of art work is used.
In the higher
class magazines the advertiser finds an opportunity for
"prestige" advertising.
Newspapers have a more complete coverage than any
other advertising medium outside of radio.
The readership
of a newspaper includes all types of people and therefore
is not as highly selective as the magazine.
Newspapers are
valuable to the local advertiser as they are timely and
Advertisements placed in newspapers can be
created and changed on short notice to allow advertisers
to take advantage of events and changing conditions.
ever, newspapers are printed on a poor grade of paper which
consequently places great limitations upon the art work.
The message of the advertiser must be suite short in this
After analyses of consumer, product, market, and
media; the advertiser considers the construction of the
advertisement itself.
Construction of the advertisement.
A great deal of
effort is being expended in the advertising field to find
scientifically a set of rules by wdiich. great advertising
can be produced.
Advertising evaluation charts have been
devised to rate the effectiveness of advertisements in ad­
These analyses are made by breaking down successful
advertisements into their component parts for evaluation.
Although advertising has gained much through such scienti­
fic approaches, it can not depend entirely upon such plans
as none of the logical approaches can give a rule for the
power and virility of the central theme.
However, many
scientific discoveries have been made which a re undoubtedly
Artist’s Counsellors, V/here and How to Sell Your
Drawings. (New York: Artists’ Counsellors Publishers, 1957),
p . 14.
useful to the advertiser.
It has been discovered that the maximum time which
any object can hold strict observance is not more than ten
The human eye can comprehend only five elements
at one glance, whether it is five words, five dots, or
five patterns.
Six objects recuire two looks, and eleven
objects require three.
The advertiser has also learned
that without motion of the eyes at the normal reading dis­
tance the mind can not attend to any object that will not
fit into a space one inch square or less.
minimum area is one-half inch square.
The average
Advertisers have
set the ideal at three-fourths inches.55
The eye can not
sweep the whole advertisement in one look but skips from
the top to the bottom in a series of hops.
The natural
focus, the arrested point of attention on the part of the
observer, is usually the point where the eye first glances.
It is the optical center of the space.
The layout man, by
arranging the units, can change this optical center by
using strong contrast, brilliant color, or other devices
placed in a different spot.
The wider area of less attrac­
tion surrounding this focus is called the ”field.Tt
rest of the page is termed the "fringe."56
Goode, o£. cit., p. 227.
56 Surrey, c>£. cit., p. 35.
However, even with the aid of such facts, the con­
structor of the advertisement can find no rule-of-thumb
formula for the great advertisement as long as advertising
requires creative imagination.^7
The first step in the construction of the advertise­
ment is finding the central theme.
The advertiser must
talk to the reader from his, the readerfs, point of view.
He must start from the consumer’s most fundamental emotions
and desires and search the product to find the strongest
appeal to stimulate these emotions.
The message must de­
velop subjective rather than objective concern, foster an
interest in the product rather than in the advertisement.
There must be stimulus to excite the reader’s interest and
emphasis, the promise of benefit to the reader.
means is usually the most successful means of presenting
It must have an intimate quality, the picturing in
realistic terms the enjoyment of promised benefits.
central theme of the advertisement can take several forms,
rational reasoning or explaining why the product is good.
It may be selling the product in terms of its effect on the
Many other ideas have been used successfully.
57 Pringle, loc. c i t .
Bertram Brooker, ”3ix Primary Ingredients in
Layout," Printer’s Ink, March, 1940, p. 14.
The next consideration in constructing the adver­
tisement is how to present the central theme; how to say
This is the problem of energizing the central theme
giving it the drama, humor, or lyrical Quality which the
theme may require.
This part of the job is the trapping
of attention through logical, ad-architecture.
In this
study the units such as the headings, illustration, copy,
trade name, trade mark, slogan, et cetera, are arranged
in a layout in relation to the object of the campaign.
order to organize these units in a logical layout, the lay­
out man must know:
How big the advertisement is to be;
What medium is to be used;
i/hat kind of people will see it,--men or women or both;
How much money is available for the product;
If the advertisement is intended for the right-hand or
left-hand page;
If the trade mark, slogan, logotype are to be included;
V/hat kind of paper it is to be printed on;
How many illustrations are needed to tell the complete
How much of the copy is to be set in type;
V/hat the mood of the advertisement is to be— gay,
scientific, dramatic, etc.*-"^
These various points illustrate again the importance
of research to the construction of the advertisement so it
wrill have unity and impact to influence the memory and lead
to a sale.
The three principal units of an advertisement are
59 '♦Their own Fault,* Art Digest, 14:22, September,
the text, the illustration, and the trade name.
Many hold
the headline to be the most important single part of the
a d v e r t i s e m e n t
its importance is enhanced because of its
position and function which is to stop the prospect and
lead him into the copy.
The copy is important in that it
is the explanation, the part that cinches the sale or argu­
The caption which is part of the text usually sug­
gests the equality of the appeal.
The identific- s."bion ms rk is the trade mark or trade
name whose purpose is to build up an association in the
mind of the reader between the advertisement with its sell­
ing arguments and the product when seen in other settings.
The purpose of the trademark is to influence memory, not to
arrest attention unless it is used as the illustration.
Sometimes the illustration and the trade name are the same
when a simplified advertisement is the object.
Some of the
important requisites for a trademark are that they be easi­
ly pronounced, easily remembered, and not easily confused
with other trade names.
They should be adaptable to any
medium, unenclosed by a border, simple, and have character.
Once they have been established, it is valuable that they
appear in every advertisement of the product.
of well-known trademarks are the Victrola Dog, the Gold
Dust Tv/ins.
60 Sandage,
cit. t p. 328.
61 Surrey, on. cit., p. 102.
Illustration plays many roles in advertising to help
create a mental picture which the advertiser wishes created.
They can show more forcefully than words how the product
will satisfy the consumer’s needs.
They must be understand­
able and recall desirable associations to the reader besides
adding conviction and belief which are necessary before the
prospect will buy the product.
Advertisers learned along
with educators of the d a y that most people are eye-minded.
It has been said that pictures are six times as easy to
recognize as words.62
Belief is usually a matter of feel­
ing and emotion rather than of reason because the average
person believes what he wishes to believe.63
And illustra­
tions, because of their idealized form and color, appeal to
the emotions.
Illustrations also have the function occasionally of
explaining or describing the use of the product.
of this are seen in illustrations which show a person actu­
ally using, the product.
In a scientific advertisement, one
in which the technical qualities of the product are being
pointed out, the illustration shows the technical equipment
of the product in a descriptive way.
The layout man and the advertising artist employ the
same principles as did the great masters of art.
62 Goode, o£. cit. , p. £23.
63 Sandage,
o jd
cit. t p. 321.
balance mass against mass, dark against light, tone against
They also take liberties with shapes and rhythmic
lines to unite them into a pleasing harmony.
They have
found that it is important to eliminate useless detail,
that simplicity of expression results in a more successful
The careful proportion and subtle placing
require a keen sense of the principles of design.
In a
discussion of the field of advertising illustration it is
not necessary to go into the many technical details involved
in advertising layout.
After the layout man has made his decisions and com­
pleted his plans, the advertisement is then created from
this blue-print.
The artist is called upon to create the
Even after the advertisement is completed and before
the public, the advertiser is not finished with it.
then must test the effectiveness of it in numerous ways.
The relative effectiveness of appeals can be ascertained by
keyed-coupon offers in low cost publications.
However, this
method often does not determine the final sales result.
best test of any advertisement, of course, is the actual
sales test.
It is also the most difficult to determine as
the effect of advertising must be isolated from all other
factors influencing sales.
This chapter was concerned with three major dis­
(1) brief history of advertising illustration,
(2) the function and aims of advertising illustration, and
(2) the factors affecting advertising illustration.
third division includes the influential factors: consumer,
product, market, media, psychological, and the artist.
Advertising illustration has had an amazing devel­
Twenty years ago there were only a few men who
were capable of doing the work required for advertising and
the work of even these men in the beginning was stilted and
The group of advertising artists was small as no
artist of any pretension would condescend to work for trade
at that time.
The early efforts were a hodgepodge of ad­
vertising pictures.
The confusion of techniques pointed to
the fact that the artists were more concerned with the man­
ner than with the subject.^
After 1929 a new attitude toward advertising pic­
tures took place.
A new generation of commercial artists
^ George Gallup,
Advertisements," 1932.
"Factors of Reader Interest in 261
was born when it was realized that effective illustration
was a valuable advertising tool.
At this time the appeal
of the news photograph was discovered.
duction was learned.
Rotogravure repro­
The candid camera also made its en­
trance at this time to create a naturalism in pictures.
■■/ays were learned in which to appeal to the public so that
advertising illustration could be measured in terms of pub­
lic reactions.
Artists became reporters; readers responded
to the pictorial realism, photographic truthfulness, senti­
ment, drama, and humor.
Readers were quizzed, reactions
tabulated, analysis made, and deductions drawn.~
As advertising reached a national scope, advertisers
were able to spend more for illustration.
This naturally
attracted more and more competent artists until today the
advertiser employs the pick of the artists of the world.0
of ideas.
Selling is dependent upon a communication
The earliest attempts to communicate an idea to
someone not immediately present was in the form of picture
writing such as the Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese written
^ Gallup, loc. cit.
^ "Art for Advertising/1 Art Digest, 14:10, September,
The advertiser today knows that in selling, a
picture can often tell a. story far more efficiently than
hundreds of words of written matter.
Veil written and dis­
played copy can achieve many things, hut pictures often de­
liver a more effective and immediate message than could he
achieved hy pages of copy.
The function of advertising illustration is to aid
advertising in attracting attention, arousing interest,
creating a desire, and securing action.
The advertising
illustration must stress the message in every line so that
the finished advertisement attracts the reader’s eye, direct
it swiftly and smoothly through the design, produces a de­
sire to huy and leaves an orderly pleasant impression.
Primarily, the object of the sincere adver­
tising artist in service of commerce is to sell the product,
to please the appreciative eye, and convince critical in­
telligence all at the same time.
Every commercial sketch
is appraised from three viewpoints; from that of the client
who looks for expression and interpretation of sound sell­
ing facts, from that of the man in the street who is impress
ed hy selling fact when the picture is interesting in itself
and from that of the artist whose sketch must satisfy his
^ Frank Preshrey, The History and Development of
Advertising (New York: Douhleday, Doran & Co., Inc.,
1929), p. 4.
own standards.
The work of an advertising illustrator com­
bines the attributes of sound selling with a touch of per­
sonal talent.
There are many factors in advertising
which influence the work of the advertising artist.
It is
the advertiser’s responsibility to keep up with consumer
demands, even anticipate them if possible so that the ad­
vertisements may be keyed accordingly.
There is a loss in
consumer sales when there is failure to make the goods
satisfjr the consumer demand or when there is failure to ad­
vertise them intelligently.
The successful advertiser
deals in statistics and cold facts.
To understand adver­
tising, he must understand selling.
To sell successfully
he must understand people as the effectiveness of an adver­
tising campaign depends upon mass reactions.
The advertis­
er must know all about the consumer’s reactions and habits.
The advertising artist .must strive for the subject, tone,
and tempo that will be accepted by the readers of the
Naturally a commercial sketch is of no im­
portance unless it takes its place in the scheme of the
This viewpoint influences the techniques as
well as the composition.
If the composition is intended
for the man in the street, it must not be too advanced for
ills appreciation.
It must leave him with a clear impres­
sion of the product and its advantages.
The successful
advertisement must show a primary interest in the reader’s
problem rather than a selfish interest on the part of the
The desires or needs of the consumer that can be ap­
pealed to most successfully exert a great influence upon
the illustration.
For example, the appeals to sex receive
142 per cent more attention from women than the other types
of appeal.®
The artist, with this in mind, idealizes the
figure he is illustrating to convince the woman reader that
the product will improve her appearance and charm.
tisers of cosmetics, fashions, drugs, and many other like
products employ the idealized illustration to sell the idea
of beauty.
The illustration of the lovely lady surrounded
by attentive gentlemen are examples of this type of appeal
and salesmanship.
To appeal to men, however, the illustra-
tor generally emphasizes ouality.
As men and women do not rank alike in attentive
value in advertising, the illustrator must study the needs
and desires of each consumer group.
He must be particularly
5 Hark O ’Dea, "Advertising as a Career,” Hay, 1939.
6 George Gallup,
? L o c . cit.
o d
cit. , p. 5.
familiar with the woman audience.
Even in regard to m e n ’s
clothing, manufacturers have estimated that 60 per cent of
all m e n ’s suits are sold with a woman present.8
Dr. Gallup
found that women’s attention varies while men’s attention
seems consistent, that women are either not interested at
all or very much interested.
If the headline and illustra­
tion catch their eyes, they make a lasting impression.
addition of color brings women’s attention up to m e n ’s.
Color increases men attention 54 per cent over black and
white average for men.
cent for women.^
It increases the attention 79 per
See Table II.
As most advertising is aimed at women, most adver­
tising portray women.
The successful illustration among
other things suggests to the woman reader the type she
wishes to be.
The scene is usually a familiar domestic or
social occasion associated with the product.
The artist
makes it not only attractive but convincing.
This requires
a measure of idealization.
Life in advertisements moves in
a world of imagination rather like the idealized world of
the cinema so real and attractive to the same mind.-*-^
8 ’’Illustration Plays Down Product,” Printer’s Art
Llonthly, p. 1 5 , January, 1 9 4 0 .
9 Gallup, loc. cit.
-1"0 Robert P. Hymers and Leonard Sharpe, The Technique
and Practise of Advertising A r t . (New York: Pitman Publish­
ing Co., 1 9 4 0 T T p- 1 5 3 .
Four color
Per cent noting four
color advertisements
Per cent above black
and white average
Per cent four color cost
is above black and white
* This material was taken from George Gallup’s survey of
Reader Interest in 261 Advertisements.
Copyrighted 1932
by Liberty Publishing Corp.
disposition of the reader to see herself as the central
person in the figure has led the artist to idealize in his
His business is to represent things not as they are
but as they ought to be.
The advertisements which attract
and interest the public are not those which reflect the
hard realities of workaday existence.
However, if the home
is that of the working class, there is never a suggestion
of poverty or sordidness.
Every detail in the room is
possible but tastefully arranged and chosen.
The character
of the woman is suggested by the details of dress and hair
To do this the artist observes habits and practices
— his faculty for apt characterization.
Advertising illustration is an impressionistic
effort, and every character in painting should be recog­
nized at a glance.
The different types are usually recog­
nized at a glance by the kind of dress and the way it is
Even the way a cigarette is held may indicate a type.
The illustration of children must be planned extremely well
as the advertisement will be directed to women who may be
uncritical of the quality of the drawing but quick to notice
an error in the portrayal of the child character.
In recent
years artists have had heavy competition from photography
because the vivid realism was appealing to the public.
result was that a new: type of drawn figure illustration
evolved, the strip illustration in which an episode was
presented in a series of paintings.
It was a clever adapta­
tion of the old funny paper technique.
The value of the
technique has decreased from over-use.-*--*Today the consumer is generally science-minded, par­
ticularly with regard to products.
The advertising illus­
tration of a technical product very often strives to make
that the selling point.
For example, a Goodyear Rubber
advertisement used an illustration of a war tank and caption
reading, "How research is shortening one of Americafs de­
fense lines by 10,000 miles."
The copy goes on to tell
about the scientists who have been working on the problem
of synthetic rubber.
Such decisions in illustration are
based upon analyses of consumer traits.
The characteristics of the product also in­
fluence the artist in his choice of presentation.
The art­
ist analyzes the product in the various ways discussed in
Chapter II, Part III.
To advertise the product successfully, the product
must measure up to advertising claims.
Almost every pro­
duct on the market has a history of research upon which the
finest kind of selling message can be formed; a message
c i t ., p. 156.
l^1 Lif e , iviarch 10, 1941, p. 16.
that is irrefutable.
If the campaign is going to make the product or
package major in importance, the whole advertisement is
built around it.
This usually requires a still-life illus­
Echlitz beer advertisements today are examples of
this type of illustration.
A still-life arrangement includ­
ing the bottle of beer, an old hand-painted, aristocratic
plate standing on edge back of the bottle, and velvet dra­
peries as a background form a colorful page.
reads, "Did you know this about beer?".
The message
The copy follow­
ing gains the interest of the reader by giving information
of a "newsy" quality, the paragraphs being broken by small
colored illustrations to supplement the facts.
The com­
mercial artist places the emphasis where the advertiser
wants it and yet keeps the total effect harmonious.
If the
product being advertised is not attractive, it is up to the
artist to illustrate the user or benefits of the product or
place the emphasis on the headline by curiosity or interest.
If there is no educational character in the campaign; the
product, package, or trade name will be the unit of emphasis
with a balance of the secondary parts.13
13 "Science in Advertising," Scientific American,
155:65, August, 1936.
14 Collier's, I,larch 29, 1941, p. 44.
13 Richard Surrey, Layout Technique in Advertising
(New York: AcGraw-IIill 3ook Co., Inc., 1929*7 P- 29.
Some products by their nature are unable to use
human appeal.
In such cases the advertisement usually has
something more vital than simple information about the
Food pictures call to the palate and appetite.
For such subjects the artist often uses an impressionistic
or atmospheric technique.
He does not bother about fidelity
to hard facts but strives, instead, to suggest the quality
and character of the goods.
If the elusive atmosphere is reouired, the artist
catches it by a subtle technique and freedom.
It re­
quires experimentation with lighting effects and treatment
of textures and unusual compositions.
Dry brush and conte-
crayon and aerograph offer fresh forms of expression . ^
The Hockanum Woolens Company uses this atmospheric technique
in advertising.
One advertisement-*-7 presented a "greige
coat of Hockanum Woolens" in a water color painting of an
aristocratic-looking woman seated against a background
formed by a rich detailed interior.
The technique used was
that of the typical oil painting so that an atmospheric,
impressionistic effect vas gained.
Clothing goods require a different type of illustra­
More than most other commodities, clothing sales
1 F)
Hymers, oo. cit., p. 166.
HarperTs Bazaar t February, 1941, p. 25.
depend on style and fashion changes and reouire a special­
ized method of advertising.
The illustration recuires an
artist with specialized knowledge of clothes and style.
The advertising may be for periodicals which sell patterns
or ideas, or it may be for department stores or shops which
actually sell the goods.
Some of the better class periodi­
cals such as Vogue and Harperfs Bazaar use drawings that
set the standard for flair, chic, and prestige and require
first class fashion artists.
The second class periodicals
appeal to the middle class consumer group and present the
goods in a straight forward manner with a view to its
ultimate sale of not one but hundreds. °
Some products are of a nature that a technical pre­
sentation of them is necessary.
The advertiser of such
products appeals to a specialist with little regard for
any group outside that for which it is intended.
The func­
tion of the illustration is primarily to illustrate and not
to attract or cajole as in the case of most of the adver­
tising to the general public.
The scope and way in which
the advertisements are presented range from small line
pictures of a screw; to atmospheric announcements of famous
engineering firms.
The fact that the reader is not consid­
ered as a member of the public but as an expert in his own
Hymers, o£. cit. , p. 191.
field exerts an influence upon the illustration.
The de­
tails of the picture are accurate and executed so as to im­
press the mind with knowledge of the subject.
However, the
artist often uses exaggerated perspective or distorted
dimensions to enhance the appearance of the product.
This is important in automobile illustrations which must be
technically accurate with a well-chosen setting.
advertisement, on the fourth cover of Vogue,^
this point.
A De Soto
Technically the illustration was correct in
that the right number of chromium bars across the front
were displayed.
Yet the illustrator craftily reproportion­
ed the automobile in its relation to figures standing by.
An ideal background of a smart home gave the impression
that "smart* people buy De Soto automobiles.
The technical product usually recuires a still-life
representation conveying information about the product.
recuires accuracy and craftsmanship rather than originality
and flair.
The bulk of work used for mail order and gen­
eral store catalogues such as household utility articles
and clothing articles that can not be shown in wear are
illustrated in this way.
The object is to show' the hard
facts of the subject in as an attractive way as possible.
Vogue, December 15, 1940.
o jd
cit. , p. 168.
Line and. wash is the usual treatment.
Sometimes line only
is used for the cheaply produced catalogues.
Usually dark
tones are needed at the bottom of the page to convey the
right impression of balance. PI
Dr, Gallup, in his study of attention values of
advertisements, has made product one of the factors of the
He considers it to be one of the basic elements
affecting the attention value of the advertisement.
divided the illustration subject into five general types;
picture of product, product in use, result of use, specific
user’s experience, and apparently irrelevant.
The study
showed that men seem to care little what the illustration
They prefer the "result of use” illustration
and rate the '’product in use” low.
Women, on the other
hand, place "result of use” high and '’picture of product”
See Tables III and IV.
This study made a further
The advertisements were grouped by the articles
The men seemed more interested in radios,
clocks, watches, m e n ’s toilet goods, passenger cars, soft
drinks, gas and oil, and automotive equipment.
seemed to show more interest in women’s toilet goods, proprietaries, and foods.
21 Hymers,
p p
cit. , p. 160.
22 George Gallup, ojo. cit. , p. 6.
Picture of product
Product in use
Result of use
Specific user’s
Rank by
of ads
Rank by
per cent
of men
Rank by
per cent
of women
Rank by
of ads
Rank by
per cent
Rank by
per cent
Photographs of
Drawings of
Photographs of
Drawings of
No illustration
* This material was taken from George Gallup1s survey
of Reader Interest in 261 advertisements.
1932 by Liberty Publishing Corp.
The increased attention value of color has been dis­
It amounted to a 24 per cent increase for the men
readers and a 79 per cent increase for the women readers.
In some cases it has been possible to compare the increased
attention given by color to the advertising of certain pro­
ducts with the increased cost of four color over black and
See Table II page 46.
The per cent increase in
attention value by using color is greater than the per cent
increase in cost for foods and for passenger cars, so far
as men were concerned, and for foods, passenger cars, and
gas and oil, with women.
Therefore, when the illustration is to sell the pro­
duct, and is not used merely for prestige, the art should
tie to the product.
A graphic portrayal of the product in
use is very often successful.
When picturing the product
at work, it is usually at work solving the problem of the
particular readers addressed.PA
A great modern tendency in advertising products is
to use one idea as symbolic of the product.
An example of
this type of advertising is seen in the penguin represent­
ing Ilbol cigarettes.
cit. t p. 6.
j. h . LlcCraw, dr., "Advertising Art and the News­
paper," Seventeenth Annual of Advertising A r t .
The qualities of the product obviously de­
cide what the market will be.
The market is then analyzed
in six different ways:
(1) size,
(6) occupation.
(5) age,
(2) sex,
(3) income,
The size of the market exerts a great influence upon
the illustration.
If the product is such that the market
will be small, the illustration must be created to appeal
to the particular group for which it is intended.
market may be groups whose interests are specialized and
The market based on income division will also influ­
ence the illustration.
This market concerned with the large-
income group will necessarily be small.
Much of the adver­
tising appealing to this group will not have to make price,
emulation, general usefulness of the product the central
theme of the campaign as very often the advertiser will
merely want to use the advertisement as a reminder or an
element of prestige.
The De Beers Diamond syndicate, client
of N. V.'. Ayers and Son, has just such an advertising cam­
To appeal to the higher-income group, they had first
of all to counteract all other diamond dealer*s competition.
With diamonds being sold on an installment plan, their
former luxury value has almost disappeared.
De Beers have
fine diamonds to sell, ones that are of high value.
therefore, had to restore the idea that good diamonds were
a luxury which they did very effectively by employing top
ranking contemporary artists.
Lately they have earned a
further distinction by beginning a campaign with a one-week
exhibit at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York.of a series
of paintings by Picasso, Dufy, Derain, Laurencin, Matisse,
Lamotte, Dali, and others which appeared in their advertise­
These advertisements appeared m color.
The advertisements of Columbia masterwork records
also show the influence of appealing to a large—m e o m e
The artist, Carl Erickson, paints colored portraits
of opera singers like Lotte Lehman."p 6
Age of the group making up the market plays a great
part in the decisions of the advertising artist.
The adver­
tisement intended for an older group will usually be conser­
vative, stress quality, durability, or prestige of the pro­
The advertisement for the young group will often em­
phasize appearance, suitability and the artist will probably
use all the dash he can summon to gain a smart modern effect.
This age factor will not only influence the subject matter
but also the artist’s technioue in presenting it.
If he is
illustrating a new convertible coupe, it is doubtful that
he would show/ the prosperous business man with iron grey
^ "Art for Advertising," Art Digest, 14:10, Septem­
ber, 1940.
Time, march £4, 1941, p. 56.
hair driving it.
Instead he might have several gay young
people who look as though they are just starting off for a
game of tennis.
The occupations of the market group is also an in­
fluential factor.
This division connects up closely with
the income division and the size division of the market.
If the product advertised is to appeal to a certain occupa­
tional group, the methods used b" the artist will in most
cases be technical.
Psychological factors.
Changes in attitudes,
fashions, and thinking trends of the public influence the
For example, because a large segment of buy­
ers is "science-minded’* today, the illustrator finds adver­
tisements with serious-faced scientists at work in their
laboratories appealing to his audience.'"
Political and social events also appear in advertise­
As the war and defense measures are of great public
concern at this moment, advertising illustrators have picked
up patriotic "angles’* and war-time scenes and motifs.
Jacques kolf and Company in advertising their chemicals and
dyes picture two tubes of dye as soldiers.
reads, ’i.e’re in the Army now."
The caption
The point is that army
' Paul Parker, "The Iconography of Advertising Art,"
Harpers, 177:80-4, June, 1S3Q.
uniforms have to take it in all kinds of weather, and there98
fore the dyes have to be good..'"
The current illustrator
for Pall Hall cigarette advertisements also presents mili99
tary scenes.
One advertisement'"" shows two army officers
comparing the longer Pall Mall cigarettes to another brand
of cigarette.
The caption reads, "streamlined smoking!--
a basic new design, Colonel!"
Advertisers have considered the effect of the war
and the present chaotic state of world affairs and taken ad­
vantage of this.
For example, the All-Year Club of Southern
California uses an attractive picture of two people surfing
on one of California’s beautiful beaches.
"The past is gone, the future uncertain.
The copy reads,
That leaves the
The advertisement goes on to convince the
reader there is only one way to enjoy the present.
way, of course, is to spend a vacation in Southern Califor­
This advertisement is using a psychological situation
to gain reader attention.
Media also exert great influence upon the
The market determines the most effective
medium for the advertising of the product.
After the medium
^ Printer’s Ink, November, 1940, p. 1.
Time, March 24, 1941, p. 32.
30 Collier’s , March 29, 1941, p. S3.
has been chosen, the artist chooses the type of illustra­
tion suitable for the medium.
There are elements within
the media which are both advantageous and disadvantageous
to art.
These elements vary with the medium.
A discussion
of these elements will be found in Chapter IV where the two
media important to this study, newspapers and magazines,
are analyzed.
The artist.
The artist’s temperament, aims, modes
of thought, and resulting techniques influence the illus­
Advertising artists often are specialists in art.
However, they too are searching for truths and beauty of
all art.
The lonely dreamer with his attic and gaunt
face is a fading picture of the artist.
A man of action
with bright studio, efficient tools, and great responsibili­
ties has taken his place to fashion trade and make commerce.
He is not poor and patronized but a revered and necessary
He has an understanding of life and business
and can be regarded as a skilled craftsman as well as a
rz p
creative worker0
because working for reproduction processes
requires a high standard of manual skill with tools and
^ H. G. Smythe, "An Art Peculiar to Itself," The
Printing A r t , Vol. 68, no. 1, April SO, 1939.
32 VY. Gaunt and F. A. I'ercer, editors, "Press Adver­
tisements," Ilodern Publicity, (Hew York: Studio Publishing
Inc., 1939-40), p . 34.
Every artist who is worthy of the name injects a
personal ruality into his expression. . His technique may be
as distinctive as his handwriting; his tools, methods, and
materials introducing a variety of effects.
The variations
and possibilities of art techniques and reproductions are
The advertising artist has as many influences play­
ing upon him as his audience and as the fine artist so that
tendencies found in the fine arts can be discovered in com­
mercial art.
The development of modern art has had a pro­
found influence upon the graphic art.
It was good for the
study of practical application of tensions, thrusts, and
counter thrusts, color planes and textures.
The work of
the advertising artist shows the result of study of space
and space-volume of modern architecture.
The development
of photography has also influenced the commercial artist.
From these two dimensional realistic reproductions the art­
ist has taken a cue or two.
Because the public is inter­
ested in life as they know it, in human situations, in
things as they see them, the advertising artist has made
. .
realism an important current m advertising art.
^ Clarence Hornung, "Art Techniques and Treatments,"
Production Yearbook, 1940., p. 32.
Lester Beall, "Graphic Art of Our Time," Production
Yearbook, 1940, p. 20.
The currents and trends sweeping the fine arts creep
into advertising art.
Surrealism has been used to sell
goods to certain customers.
Because the moneyed class adopt­
ed surrealism painting when it was first introduced, the
advertiser aimed at this group with illustrations in adver­
tisements patterned after leading surrealistic paintings.
The Abbot Laboratories used designs which gave the impres­
sionistic idea of the horrors of disease.
A facade was
treated like the arcades in Chirico's paintings; hands were
repeated like symbols in the canvases of Dali.
The Gunther fur advertisement also reflected the ex­
aggerated lines of Chirico.
The same swiftly receding ar­
cade seen in his "The Departure of the Poet" was used.
influence even extended to advertisements selling soaps,
furniture, wine, perfume, shoes, theatre seats.
In one issue of Harper1s Bazaar, Casssndre painted
an unsupported black glove, caught in a moment of picking
up lilies of the valley.
In Fortune, he represented the
flowers-by-telegram thought by suspending a bouquet from
wires that sailed into the distance and converged on a heart
suspended in the sky.
"Apparitions" by John Iliro representing an eye was
^ B. £. Calkins, "Magazine into Marketplace,"
Scribners* Magazine, 101:108-17, January, 1937.
taken up by the Ford advertisers a few years ago with their
"Hatch the Fords go b y ’’ ads that had a huge eye with a V-3
in the pupil. ^'D
The individual commercial artists that have become
well-known for their work all present diversity of points
of view of techniques, media, and even advertising ideas be­
hind illustration.
Charles Egri believes that drawing made for adver­
tising or publicity should be regarded by the artist who is
to create it of as great importance aesthetically as work
destined for museums or private collections.
Every art
piece should possess a full measure of aesthetic interest
in addition to other qualities demanded by the buyer.
believes there should be an ever-continuing search for new
approaches to the problems and new definitions of form.
is searching for new patterns of form, new arrangements of
color and line by studying the problem and seeking out the
most characteristic, self-revealing aspect.
He transfers
it into an effective design which embodies his idea of the
36 Frank Caspers, ’’Surrealism in Overalls,” Scribner’s
11104:17-21, August, 1938.
Frederick Dickenson, ’’The newspaper as an Advertis­
ing liediuni,” The Printing Art, 68: no.4, Section C, March,
April, 1940.
Paul Rand has his own conception of commercial work.
His work is a practise of architecture rather than of the
old masters— a clear manner, founded on technical considera­
To him, as to most of the commercial artists, the
idea is of prime importance in the advertisement.
He be­
lieves that style must be part of the idea and not a decora­
tive addition, that technique must submit to the idea.
formalized design is basically simple with an interesting
use of new shapes and techniques.
In each new task, he
evolves a style uniquely applicable to the particular problem.38
Bobri was the first to employ lead pencil technique
for extensive use in modern newspaper advertising.
He goes
about his designing in a systematic way with steps in a
logical sequence from beginning to end.
He first makes
numerous roughs supplemented at times by three dimensional
These are projected with strict regard for the
client, producer, ‘
-and customer.
He often spends a great
deal of time in research for an appropriate design.
He not
only selects all of his own materials, but also the suitability of type for the scheme.
Alvin F. Harlow, ’’The Career of an Artist,”
American Mercury, 4:305-13, March, 1925.
39 Dent Has singer, ’’The Continuing Study of Newspaper
Reading,” The Printing Art, vol. 68, no. 4, C-3, March,
Other artists, too numerous to discuss at length,
also have their merits and individual manners.
The late
Gilbert Holliday was an illustrator of military subjects.
He had a free, loose style which helped to give the dashing
atmosphere required by his subject.
liatania presents a realistic accuracy for his
studied historical scenes.
er of children.
Lilian Hocknell is a fine paint­
Seabright paints cheerful, homely situa-
All of the influences, psychological, social, and
economic, play upon the artist as a member of society to
aid him in presenting in his art the tempo of his time and
40 H. H. Kraus,
29:51, July, 1940.
"Paul Rand," Art and Industry,
This chapter is divided into three main parts (1)
newspaper as an advertising medium,
advertising medium,
(2) magazine as an
(3) recent scientific findings of aid
to advertising,
As a medium.
Although the newspaper is conducted
for profit, it has only one product that sells at a profit.
That is space.
Its two products are newspapers to readers
and space to advertisers.
Originally, the real profit came
from the readers, with advertising as the by-product.
vertising increased in volume as the newspaper found it im­
possible to support itself by subscriptions alone.
newspaper today costs more to produce than the sum paid for
it by the readers.
The profits are made from the advertis­
ing it presents.^
The amount of money spent for newspaper space is not
definitely known.
Estimates have ranged from $600,000,000
to $850,000,000 annually.
More money is spent for newspaper
1 E. E. Calkins, "Gnats and Camels," The Atlantic
Monthly, 139:14, January, 1927.
advertising than any other.""
National advertisers use newspaper more than any
other single medium, 43 to 48 per cent of the national ad­
vertiser’s expenditure from his total appropriations going
into this medium.
But national advertising is only 30 to
35 per cent of the total advertising income of newspapers.
Newspapers charge higher rates for national advertising and
varying rates Ibr different types of local and national advertismg.
The aggregate circulation of all-day dailies, all
evening papers, all morning papers, all Sunday papers, and
all daily newsparjers is 113,796,549.
These figures repre­
sent the aggregate net paid circulations of English language
daily and Sunday newspapers in the United States.4
population of the United States,
(Continenta.1) , according
to the United States Census of 1940 was 131,669,275.5
points out the large percentage of people contacted by news­
paper advertising.
It is impossible to estimate the exact
number of people contacted as one newspaper often serves
2 C. H. Bandage, Advertising Theory and Practise
(Chicago: Business Publishers, Inc., 1936), p. 367.
3 I M d . , p . 369 .
4 N. 7v. Ayer A Sons, Directory of Newspapers & Peri­
odicals t (Printed by N. V/. Ayer & Son Inc., Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, 1940), p. 11.
^ Ibid., p . 15.
more than one person.
The newspapers on file in public
libraries serve many people.
When these contacts are multi­
plied and added up over the span of one year, it becomes
immediately apparent that advertising in newspapers has a
tremendous audience.
See Table V.
The newspaper is a primary advertising medium be­
cause it reaches practically all persons who can be reached
by advertising at non-premium cost per head.
It serves a local market and a highly concentrated
It requires a high degree of centrality and active
trade in the area supporting it as papers can exist only
where there are good prospects for the advertiser.
Newspapers serve both local and national advertising.
As the local advertisers can not use the magazine medium,
they find newspaper is the only means of printed publicity
distributed in the mass.
The newspaper is general in character as it reaches
heterogeneous groups.
For example, a newspaper reader in
Chicago must select from five papers which means that the
subscribers to any particular newspaper wall be a hetero­
geneous group.
Therefore, attempts are made to produce a
paper to meet the varied interests of the readers.
To in­
crease the circulation the paper is divided into sections
^ Sandage,
cit., p. 368.
»iS P i C P E R
Aggregate circulation Of all-day dailies
8 9 9 , 2 6 2
Aggregate circulation Of evening papers
2 4 , 5 0 5 , 5 5 1
Aggregate circulation Of morning papers
1 5 , 5 6 8 , 1 2 4
Aggregate circulation of Sunday papers
3 2 , 2 5 0 , 6 7 5
Aggregate circulation of all dailies
4 0 , 7 7 2 , 9 3 7
This material was taken from the N. W. Ayer 8c Son,
Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals, printed by
N. W. Ayer & Son, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., p. 11.
of news, sports, home making, comic, et cetera.
Newspapers offer great flexibility in territorial
distribution of advertising.
They offer a medium for those
advertisers who believe in concentrating their efforts on
better markets.
They also enable the advertiser to change
his efforts to other territories on short notices when the
markets turn bad over night due to some local condition.
Yvhen he wants to introduce a new idea or product on a small
scale, he often uses this medium because it places the ex­
penses of experimentation at a minimum.
The flexibility
of the newspaper gives the advertiser an opportunity to tie
in his advertisement with national or local news of the
moment as advertisements for a newspaper need be presented
for publication only a few' hours before press time.
It can
be almost as fresh as the nev/s printed in the same paper.
Yvhen Lindbergh completed his flight, producers of gas and
oil informed the public of it the very next day.
call this quality of their medium, "newsvertising."
allows the advertiser to capitalize on current events.
Newspapers also present an opportunity for national
advertisers to insert the names of local dealers.
helps the dealers as well as the national advertiser.
Bandage, loc. cit.
® Loc. cit.
flexibility allows the advertiser to adapt his message
quickly to changing conditions or make use of timely appeals
to individual markets with telegraphic speed.
It also gives
the advertiser freedom in shaping and timing his messages
to meet market differences,
shopping habits, community cus-
toms, climatic differences, pay day, and the like.
Newspapers can squeeze the most sales of goods out
of many markets.
Where the potential possibilities are
greatest, the advertising message is shaped to accelerate
The newspaper is known as the clock or time medium,
noted for its stimulation of cuick buying action and prompt
sales response.
It is the medium used by department stores
whose business depends upon quick turn-over and immediate
buying a c t i o n . ^
The life of the newspaper is very short as it is
often read immediately and then discarded.
The newspaper
advertisement, therefore, is not exposed to the reader any
great length of time.
Newspaper publishers claim this
quality is valuable in that it offers daily opportunities
to reach the entire reading public.
A fresh message is
planned for each day rather than one for a week or a month.
However, most national advertisers do not use the newspaper
^ Owen Richards, "Meet the Folks at Home and Make the
Sale," The Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, C-2, March, April,
10 Loc. cit.
every day so that the old advertisement does not last until
the new one appears."^
The reading habits of the newspaper reader are a dis­
advantage to the advertiser.
The newspaper is read hastily,
the average length of time spent about twenty minutes.
morning paper is gone over more hurriedly than the evening
Sunday papers receive the most attention.-^
paper copy is prepared to conform to these hasty habits
with a minimum of copy for the amount of space.
Newspaper advertisements are printed on a poor grade
of paper so that fine art work will not reproduce effective­
Color is used in some newspaper advertisements, but it
does not compare with the nuality of color in magazines.
The speed at which the presses are run makes accurate color
reproduction difficult.
Newspapers give the advertiser
little opportunity for selectivity.
They are read hastily
and are not kept.
Reproduction processes.
The reproduction processes
of the newspaper exert a great influence on the advertising
The gravure or "intaglio" printing process
is sometimes used by newspapers.
In this process the ink
is transferred to the paper by means of depressed surfaces.
Sandage, op. cit., p. 371.
12 Ibid., p. 373.
The impression does not come from the top of the plate but
rather from the minute recesses or rtwellsr* in the plate
which holds the ink and transfers it to the paper.
the earliest form of etching.
It was
The steel and copper plate
engravings are a form of intaglio as are various other types
of gravure: hand-gravure (photogravure), and sheet-fed and
cylinder or rotary gravure (rotogravure).
A pictorial
effect can be produced in newspapers by this method economi­
cally in long runs only.
The sheet-fed gravure process was
designed for commercial purposes to fulfill the demand for
short-runs, re-runs, and economic storage of plates.
sheet-copper plates used for this can be kept for additional
Short runs are made economically on sheet-fed because
the paper is ready cut to job sizes while in the roll fed
the paper is obtainable only in large quantities.
is good for photographic reproduction.
All dots in the
metal are the same size; the depths of the dots vary to
give tones.
Rotary and rotogravure processes also produce
satisfactory color advertisements on nev/sprint and rotogravure papers.
This gravure process does not print di­
rectly from type but prints photographically so that the
work is not as sharp and clear as the processes used by
13 fipfte Three Basic Printing Processes,” Chicago
.Aivertising and Printing P a r t , p. 55.
Another process is sometimes used by newspapers.
is called Lithography or "Planographic* printing.
is transferred by means of flat surfaces.
The ink
Modern offset
lithography uses metal plates and rubber blankets.
forms of planographic printing: stone lithography, photo­
lithography, and offset are based on the principle that
grease and water repel each other.
The image is placed on
the printing surface in a greasy substance which attracts
the grease and repels the water.
The surface first comes
into contact with water which adheres only to the non-print­
ing area then with the greasy ink which adheres only to the
area to be printed.
Like gravure, offset prints photograph­
ically and is therefore less sharp and distinct than the
magazine productions.*^
It is used in printing maps, labels,
et cetera, where flat colors and simple tones are used.
The Letterpress or "relief" process is the printing
process .most often used by newspapers.
This form of print­
ing was the earliest and is still the most widely used of
all printing processes.
directly from type.
It is the only process which prints
The chief difference between gravure
and letteriDress is that although both may be on a photo­
engraved plate, the metal is etched away between the dots
14 f*!pxie Three Basic Printing Processes," loc. cit.
Hymers, o£. cit. , p. 263.
in the letterpress and the dots etched into the netal, it­
self, in the gravure process.
The dots in the letterpress
can be etched larger or smaller whereas the dots in gravure
are all the same size.
In printing from the type or photo­
engraved half-tone or zinc plates, the dots or projected
parts of the surface make the printed impression.
is the reverse.
Letterpress reproduces: type; photo-engrav­
ing (line etchings and half-tones in copper and zinc); wood­
cuts; electrotypes and stereotypes (photo-engraving and
wood-cuts made from type); and composition plates (rubber,
linoleum, plastics). °
Color process work is reproduced by all three basic
processes: photo-engraving and letterpress, offset litho­
graph, sheet-fed gravure, and rotogravure.
To reproduce
color subjects, letterpress uses four separate color im­
pressions; gravure uses only three; and offset, five.
finest letterpress and offset are reproduced on multi-color
There are several other processes which give four
color effects without four color process plates.
The color-
graph process uses single half-tone or line cut and prints
as many colors as desired.-'-*'7
In the decade just passed, the greatest advances in
"The Three Basic Printing Processes/*
p . 55.
Ibid . , p . 56 .
modern technological achievements in graphic arts history
have taken place.
The specialized skill plus the inventive
genius have produced machine methods and reproduction tech­
However, all the latest discoveries to aid a
faithful reproduction of the artist's efforts are too ex­
pensive or unsuitable for newsprint.
Newspaper color work
thus far has consisted of straight line plates.
half-tones will not reproduce effectively on the quality
of paper used.
In selecting a printer, the advertiser usually
chooses one who has specialized in advertising, one who is
familiar with sales and methods as well as with printing.
Advertising typographers grew out of the need of advertis­
ing agencies to secure quicker typesetting service than the
general printer can give.
They were too uncertain of the
quality of layout and typography to be had from the printers
left to their own devices.
There are specialized printers
even among the special advertising printers who know sales
problems and have a well-rounded organization to serve in
all phases of planning and production.
modern and sharp.
Their tools are
They have and replace every three years
all types for modern advertising.
Sandage, _ojd. cit . , p. 371.
Art in printing is
dependent upon craftsmanship in the composing r o o n . ^
Art in newspaper.
The art for newspaper obviously
must conform to certain restrictions.
In view of the nature
of the newspaper medium, the advertiser makes certain re­
quirements of the art for this medium.
First of all, he
wants speed, a quick grasp of essentials.
The newspaper is
a speed medium, living only a few hours after it has been
Advertisements must do a job cuickly and thorough­
ly as some advertisers demand immediate sales from their
newspaper advertisements.
A great deal of the responsi­
bility falls upon the artist.
Secondly, the advertiser wants simplicity in the art
work as detail is lost in reproduction and the complicated
drawing requires too much of the reader.
The advertiser reouires that the art attract atten­
It is the quality that sets the advertisement apart
from the competitor’s.
Competition is keener in newspaper
than any other medium because of all the other elements in
the newspaper such as news, stories, sports, by-lines.
of the other advertisements are also competing for atten­
The art and layout should jump the advertisement out
19 »**pen Tests for Selecting a Printer,” Chicago
Advertising and Printing M a r t , n. d., p. 51.
20 Stuart Peabody, "Advertising Art and Newspaper,”
Seventeenth Annual of Advertising A r t , p. 96, 1938.
of the whole page.
How this is to be accomplished ivS up to
the artist.
Then, the advertiser wants the art to be suitable
for reproduction.
As nev/stock will not take a fine screen,
close work is unsuitable.
The artist should know if the
newspaper will accept solid blacks because many of the news91
papers will not."
Commercial art technique, particularly for newspaper
must suit the needs of reproduction.
See Table VI.
the artist, the limitation comes in the absence of tone in
The line block prints in lines and masses,
suggests different tones by relative thicknesses of lines.
For the papers of poor quality, the cross-hatching must be
kept open to avoid clogging.
Scraperboard work is effective
for newspaper reproducing as the lines are actually drawn
white on black.
This technique keeps the lines open so that
they do not fill with ink.^s
..ash drawings and others which have definite tones
can be reproduced by the half-tone process.
The blockmaker
first photographs the sketch on a sensitised plate.
For a
half-tone, light is passed through a fine mesh screen which
breaks up the subject into minute dots.
These dots vary in
Peabody, loc. cit.
. .
James Gardner, Drawing For Advertising (London:
Adam & Charles Black Publishers, 1940), p. 8.
pencil, char­
coal, pastel,
chalk, litho
pencil when
used on stock
with fine
highlight or regular
finescreen copper
half-tone for coated
or good super stock
(coarse screen for
newsprint, a small
loss of detail)
line engrav­
ing can not
be used for
fine closely
spaced grains
pen and ink, woodcut style, scratchboard, reverse
drawing, crayon on
pebbled board, proof
from coarse screen
line engraving on
copper for fine work,
in zinc where work is
extremely fine in
"breaks-up ”
solid black
lines and areas
and screens
dry brush, air
brush, wash
drawing, continued
tone medium
highlight or regular
fine-screen copper
half-tone if used on
smooth paper, coarse
screen half-tone if
on newsprint
line engrav­
ing will not
tone values
water color or
oil painting to
reproduce in
black and white
highlight or regular
fine-screen copper
half-tone if on
smooth paper, coarse
screen half-tone if
on newsprint
line engrav­
ing will not
tone values
line and
flat tones
line engraving with
half-tone screen tint
negative Ben Day or
other shading medium
for flat toned areas
overall would
screen line
print from dry-point
or acid bitten
where lines and tone
effects are fine,
use fine-screen
copper half-tone
line engrav­
TABL e VI (continued)
colored drawings,
water color and
oil, crayon or
pastel in color
two, three, four,
five, et cetera,
color process de­
pending on nature
of copy and fineness
of work
drawings using
solid color areas
or shadings done
with lines or dots
line engraving for
each printing color
produces great variety
of tones either solid
or shaded to different
* Sixth Production Yearbook, p. 54,
line engrav­
size according to the depth of tone so that the subject is
rendered as a stipple.
Half-tone screens are numbered ac­
cording to the size of dots they produce.
Coarser screens
are used for cheaper unpolished papers and finer screens
are used for papers which will take minute dots.
tion by this method puts a film of grey over the white areas
in half-tones, and the blacks lose some of their intensity.
Fine lines lose much of their crispness.
Photogravure is the half-tone process adapted for
cheap mass reproduction.
It is produced speedily by trans­
forming an ink impression to a rubber roller.
This is the
rotary offset printing which reproduces tone values from
white through greys to black.
Artists working for this
reproduction allow for a tendency of the dark tones to be­
come black and lighter tones blurred.
Patching or altering
in this method is difficult as the margins and white areas
must be very clean.
Brush drawing offers the advantage of speed and is
ideal for newspaper reproduction as most newspaper work is
carried out against time.
Facility in brush drawing helps
the artist to get effects swiftly yet leaves no trace of
hasty working.
o rz
Brush work with its bold effects and strong,
Gardner, loc. cit.
Hymers, o p . cit. , p. 236.
clean-edged line shows up well in reproduction.
Lamp black
is used for this as ordinary Indian ink rots the brush.20
Pen drawing is the technique of the specialist.
is like handwriting, showing the individual character of
the artist *s work.
The variations in the technique are the
variations in the personal outlooks of the artists.
ever, the artist has to remember that this technique in re­
producing has a few difficulties.
The line block tends to
thicken the lines and fill up the white spaces between the
As the drawing is larger than the reproduced size,
the line shading must be kept clean and open.
line work near the cross hatching is possible, but isolated
thin lines which pick up too much ink are unduly emphasized.
Fine line drawings bite well if drawn on a "not" surface
board; but when a modern, sophisticated effect is required,
a loose, flowing line on a smooth board is sometimes used.
Dry brush work is another technique by which the
tone quality can be suggested in line reproduction.
quires a good quality board of coarse grain.
It re­
Tiny crannies
in the surface remain as v/hite dots after the brush stroke
and give a texture similar to that of a lithographic stone.
The technique is often suitable for breezy dashing subjects.
Dry brush effects are also useful for reproduction on
25 Gardner, loc. cit.
polished paper and in simple lithographic color work.
Many artists use the white on black technioue which
appears as drawings in reverse.
They were introduced to
give richness and variety among grey type masses of press
They are drawn by the artist in black ink on
white board in the usual manner.
The blockmaker secures
the reversed effect by making plates in the negative so
that the block prints black with a white line.
exercise caution in Using dense black areas in this work
as many newspapers will not accept illustrations that may
show through on the other side of the page.2^
Scraperboard is a special board finished with a
thick coating of polished chalk.
The black masses are
drawn on this surface with India ink.
When the ink is dry,
it is scratched off with a scraper leaving a white line.
Sketches made by this means are reproduced by the line pro­
cess and give good results when reduction to a small size
is necessary.
Very fine lines and cross hatching are re­
produced in this treatment.
It has a fine flowing line
equality and is often used to get imitation woodcut effects.
Its novel effect is valuable in advertising.
Jlmbossed scraperboard technique uses scraperboards
with surface texture to get half-tone effects with line
Ibid., p . 13.
In some ways the method is better than half-tone
as it gives an added advantage of clean whites and solid
When the sketch is greatly reduced, the half-tone
effects are reproduced.
For ordinary newspaper work the
drawings are made one and a half times as large as the
actual reproduction.
Wash drawings are like photographs reproduced by
half-tone process.
The photographs often look grey in re­
By creating a strong composition of solid
masses of black and a few definite tones of grey and get­
ting the blockmaker to deep-etch the whites, the artist can
overcome this half-tone greyness.
White fashion board is
used for this with lamp black and process white.
often pen work is used with the wash drawing.
If the essen­
tials are drawn in with fine pen line before v/ashing, they
can not be lost in reproduction.
If the emphasis is to be
on the product or something else, it can be drawn in with
wash and the background m
p 7
Although it is rather
expensive, this combination is the one often used in fashion
wor,k .28
Often used is the line and tint process in which the
blockmakers tint pieces of half-tone pattern.
Gardner, op. cit. , p. 17.
£8 Iiymers, op. cit. , p. 242.
It is invalu-
able to the advertiser as it is immediately noticed in a
news print*
The open dots are designed primarily for use on
The tint is used mostly as a tone area in the
background and sometimes introduced as an extra color in
the illustration itself.
In fashion illustration and simi­
lar work, tints are often applied to give an impression of
cloth texture.
The techniques used in newspaper often are dry brush
for snappy effects in conjunction with heavy lettering or
fine open line where illustrations are dainty in character
or intended to be recessive for balance in layout.
cross-hatch technique is used for realism in line.
wash drawing is for realistic wrork when the photograph
illustration is impractical.
When the illustration is close
to that of a competitor, it is important that it be bold and
The figures are not posed merely for the decorative
effect but dramatize the message or emphasize some selling
The attention of the reader is influenced by the
action of the figures and the direction of their eyes.
line reproduction is required for architectural drawings
or settings.
These are usually brush drawings.
Industrial subjects for trade journals and other
poor quality paper need the main element in the design in
solid black and white so that if the details are lost in
reproduction, the general effect will be preserved.
subjects are given pictorial interest by a choice of lively
technique that aims at pattern and rich textures.
brush is popular for these.
An advertising artist is often given the layout m a n fs
rough sketch or visual to guide him in subject, composition,
and general atmosphere.
structions verbally.
Other times he is given his in­
He must know the process to be used
in reproducing his drawing.
Often he makes the rough the
actual size of the reproduction with correct drawing and
proportion so that the client can judge the effect.
rough is usually on flimsy paper and mounted on paper or
cards with a margin for the client’s comments.
The artist
does not often depart from the scheme of the rough if it is
It is returned with the finished drawing to the
Color advertising in newspapers.
A color advertise­
ment usually has a white space around it because without
it, the colors are greyed by the dominating black.
is used sparingly as too much of it repels the eye and de­
tracts from the main point of interest.
Black accents are
used either adjacent to or on colors to give contrast and
focus attention on the most important selling point in the
Gardner, ojd. cit., p. 34.
Half-tones in color lighter than medium
value grey are seldom used.
Few lines of copy in red or
red-orange are used as this color is tiresome for the eyes.
The register is also considered as the artist must allow a
sufficient overlap of the darker color.
A heavy outline
or shading around the color area to a depth of one-sixteenth
to one-eighth inch gives the pressman a leeway in making the
Delicate tints do not require lt.*^-1-
The advertiser usually deals only with those engrav­
ers who know how to make plates or mats for newspaper work.
Plates or mats are supplied for each color in the adver­
For a full-page reproduction, a plate is used.
The wise advertiser orders "deep-etched” pirates for news­
paper work to be sure of clear lines.
Magazine as a_ medium.
The layman may consider the
magazine as the all-important advertising medium because of
its color and art work.
in terms of the money
spent for space; magazines are third, surpassed by news­
papers and direct mail.
Annually advertisers spend from
Printer*s Ink monthly, Llarch 1, 1940, p. 69.
-Printer*s Ink, November, 1940, p. 69.
§150,000,000 to §250,000,000 for magazine s p a c e . ^
those advertisers on a regional or national scale can use
the medium effectively and economically.
Magazines are not as highly selective of territorial
markets as are newspapers.
Few serve small areas or are
distributed within state boundaries and restricted regions.
Magazines select their audience on a basis of consumer
groups having particular interests more or less regardless
of where they live.
The Standard Rate & Data Service divide
magazines into four classes: general, agricultural, business,
and religious.
These are divided into even more detailed
This shows magazines to be highly selective.
Magazine circulation selectivity depends upon- the editorial
aims and circulation methods of the publishers.
The selec­
tivity of a magazine is important to the advertiser be­
cause of the wide variations in spending among families as
consumers of products.
These familiesf varied interests
also are of importance m
the selectivity elements.
The magazine provides an editorial service for the
reader and acts as an advertising media for the manufactur­
er of products and services.
More than any other media it
realizes the importance of the selectivity factor.
It is
Sandage, a£. cit.. p. 373.
^ V/illiam B. Carr, "Magazine Advertising/1 The
Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, Section D, March, April, 1940.
impossible to segregate people into classes of purchasing
power through any media other than direct mail and personal
The nearest approach to it is through magazines,
magazines approach this problem through levels of intelli­
gence and purchasing power because of the seeming relation
between the t w o .
Seventy per cent of magazine circulations
in this country are distributed among the upper half of the
purchasing power of the land.
Host of the better magazine
circulations are concentrated among the upper three-eighths
of the income families who earn from ;1,750 a year up.
From, this it can be seen that magazines do not broadcast to
the gamut of the American population but assure the adver­
tiser an audience who can afford to buy his product.
The selectivity factor is further analyzed by the
terms, "mass” and "class.”
These terms are used to describe
certain periodicals as to size of circulation, price per
copy, and cuality of paper.
Those periodicals printed on
good paper, sold at a high price, and whose circulation is
not forced are considered as "class” magazines.
It is as­
sumed that the higher priced magazine generally reaches a
family of higher income.
magazines provide a cross-section
of a certain type of market.
Through them the advertiser
is able to locate the person most able to buy his product
34 Carr, loc. cit.
in each and every community#
accumulation of markets.
National circulation is an
magazine advertising is not tied up with current
event success as is the newspaper.
It is occasionally
tried, hut the news element is stale by the time it reaches
the reader and serves merely as a testimonial.
The nature
of magazine publication is such that an early appearance of
an advertisement after it has been submitted for printing
is almost impossible.
It takes a great deal of time to run
off great nuantities of magazines, prepare the forms, and
use color.36
The widespread distribution of magazines requires
time to get them from the publishers to distant points.
Often the publication is to appear on newsstands simultane­
ously all over the country.
Those magazines distributed near
the publisher*s must be held until the distant areas are sup­
This means that the advertisement must be in the
hands of the publisher weeks before it makes its way to the
The Saturday Evening Post requires that all copy,
plates, et cetera, for two color or four color advertise­
ments be in its hands eight vteeks before the publication
The advertisement m
the magazines therefore can
35 Carr, loc. cit.
36 Sandage,
3^ Loc. cit.
cit. , p. 375.
not be changed once it has gone to press,
/mother disad­
vantage to the advertiser is that the price quotation can
not be given if there happens to be a change.
The wide
distribution of the magazine makes it impossible to fit the
to various territorial conditions.
magazines are usually printed on good paper that al­
lows an excellent reproduction of art and color work.^®
Half-tones are used effectively for either black and white
or color.
Some magazines are able to print advertisements
in metallic ink in different colors.
A recent development
is the "bleeding” page which has no white border.
A black
or colored background extends to the edge or bleeds off
the page.
Besides the attention value it offers, it pre­
sents a more attractive appearance and gives the artist
more opportunities.
The magazine is long-lived, old issues of ten being
kept for some time after the new issue is received.
gives the advertisement a greater opportunity for being
seen and read.
Coupon returns from magazines have lasted
as long as four and five years.
Many magazines passed on
to other people gain supplementary circulation.
The read­
ing habits of the magazine subscriber are favorable to
They are usually not read at one sitting but
Carr, loc. cit.
are picked up and read at various intervals.
The reader is
usually not in a hurry and consequently takes time to read
the advertisements.
He can dwell on advertising he sees
and contemplate the things he needs and will buy at a future
Longer copy can therefore be
u s e d .
The magazine advertisement carries prestige as it is
regarded as authoritative by both dealers and consumers.
Its national coverage is even, effective, and able to reach
desirable prospects.
The graphic presentation of the ad­
vertising in magazines is limited only by the skill of the
printer and engraver.
Nowhere in advertising are illustra­
tions better presented than in magazines.
The life of the
magazine is a distinct advantage to the advertiser.
magazine’s readers are more homogeneous than those of any
other media except direct mail. 40
The magazine medium is inelastic, however.
The same
message is presented to every one regardless of climatic
conditions, local preferences, or prejedices.
No reference
to the seasons or weathers for timeliness can be made.
closing dates ere often so far away that the conditions
have changed by the time the advertisement appears.
zines are so numerous that it takes a fortune to carry an
39 Sand age,
o jd
cit. , p. 372.
40 Ibid., p. 373.
effective campaign in them.
The minimum expenditure for a
year’s campaign in a national periodical is $50,000.^
art v/ork and engravings cost so much for magazine advertise­
ments that they often become a burden.
I.'echanical standards
are so high that unless the advertiser employs high grade
mechanical presentation, the illustration will be unattrac­
tive and ineffective.
The art in magazines.
portant factor in common.
Advertising media have an im­
They all, with the exception of
radio, appeal to the emotions and the pocketbook through
the eye.
As people basically believe most of what they see
and read, the printed advertisement appeals to the emotion
through the illustration and appeals to the reason through
logical copy.
been seen.
This combination is convincing because it has
Fine definition of form are possible because of
the modern magazine’s excellent printing methods and fine
paper stock.
Fine color printing is found in the better
magazines.4 p
During the last few years the world’s leading artists
have taken part in the production of class magazine adver­
They have brought advertising nearer the fine-art
level without degrading their own talents.
«> P • 380.
Carr, loo. cit.
As advertising
space has grown more and more expensive, the advertiser has
grown more and more critical of the art in his advertising.
Art is almost invariably associated with the most success43
ful publicity campaigns. °
Various advertising illustration techniques have
evolved under the influence of reproduction processes.
art is designed to overcome essential limitations and ex­
ploit possible opportunities of individual effects.
techniques are applied to the specified purposes.
ing to the subject and market the artist chooses his tools,
materials, and methods.4:4
Pen, dry brush, wash, and scraperboard techniques
are also used in magazine illustrations but are of a finer
execution generally than in newspapers.
See Figure 1.
Offset lithograph and photo-lithograph are in great demand
today as they allow a thinner film of ink to be used.
presents an opportunity for fine, accurate work.
artist may use loose brush line and wash technicue to give
elegance to m e n ’s fashion illustration.
He may use scraper­
board technique to stress texture and rich contrasts in
still life.
He may use a thin flexible pen line for the
43 "press Advertising," Art and Industry, 29:98,
p. 98, September, 1940.
Gardner, op. cit. . p. 22.
Kymers, op. cit., p. 267.
(Reproduced from Chicago Advertising and Printing Mart , p. 110)
Pcnol drawing(highlighthalftone,*anipn>ce>N)
Wash drawing (highlighthalftone)
1. Pen-and-inkdrawing (lineetching)
4. Dry bru'-hdrawing (lineetching
with Ben Day)
Combination inkand
crayon drawing (line
delicacy required in portraying hosiery, perfume, and simi­
lar goods with luxurious feminine appeal.
A large proportion of advertising illustration is
still-life for which the artist has developed a variety of
In commercial still-life a faithful likeness
of the subject is not enough; the artist must give an im­
pression of the ideal.
If the sketch is reproduced by a
line process, it is difficult to build up an idealized at­
mosphere, particularly in foods.
to make them appetizing.
They usually need color
Much can be done with the rich
tone suggestion of the scraperboard.^
Color in magazine.
For color work in magazines, the
advertising artist chooses fresh colors, gaiety of atmos­
phere, sparkle of high-lights, and choice of interesting
Color is reproduced by half-tone process, by litho­
graph, or by line blocks.
sometimes water colors.
Diluted poster colors are used,
Any color coxiibination can be re­
produced by half-tone process with a fair degree of accuracy
if there are not too large areas of brilliant color.
process is the one used for illustration work in magazines
or booklets.
Three half-tone blocks are printed one over
another in yellow, red, and b l u e . ^
46 Gardner, o£. cit., p. 24.
47 I M A - » P- 20 •
In short-runs of advertising (500-5,000) hand color­
ing is sometimes used to meet special requirements.
key plate is printed usually in black either by letterpress
or offset.
The other colors, aniline dyes and water-colors,
are applied by hand through masks to make the finished
illustration actually appear hand-colored.48
Hand creations,
oils, pastels, and others are usually reproduced "direct"
(screen negatives are made on color sensitive plates).
Brush marks, grains of rough paper and textures can be held
by proper lighting or other means.4^
The magazine is an indigenous advertising medium,
into which is poured the largest part of advertising appro­
priations .50
Not long ago the art director had only a personal
taste and intuition to guide him in selecting the kind of
illustration which should appear in the advertisement; but
within the past few years, a new guiding force has appeared
Ivlany methods of forecasting the effectiveness
48 Reba Martin, "Hand Coloring," Sixth Annual Adver­
tising and Publishing Yearbook, 1.940, p. 32a.
4^ Cordon Aymar, "Selecting the Artist," Sixth Annual
Advertising and Publishing Production Yearbook, 1S40, p. 10.
50 "press Advertising," Art and Industry, 23:72,
March, 1940.
of advertisements before they appear in publications have
been perfected.
There are a number of innovations in color reproduc­
tion processes which are of inestimable value to the artist.
The "spectroprocess" is a patented process of printing many
colors in one run with individual colors created by a single
impression without an overprinting.
Two or more colors may
be overprinted to increase the range of possible color comDinations.
Another method, the colorgraph process, gives fourcolor effects without using four-color process plates.
uses single half-tones or line cuts and prints as many
colors as desired.
The "meinograph" process produces what
is known as ’’mecni-color.'1
It is a new process for produc­
ing color engravings from color drawings or direct from the
Four different photographic prints are made, one
for each color to produce a straight half-tone negative.
Cellulose half-tones are made by a screen carried on a
sensitized cellulose base rather than on copper or zinc.
MunsellTs system of color has been of great help to
advertisers and artists.
It is a three dimensional system
of color according to hue, value, and chroma.
It is a
"The Three Basic Printing Processes," oj3. cit.,
p. 80.
5S Ibid., p. 109.
language of color that can he used through writing or tele­
phoning from city to city for a color without seeing i t . ^
One of the latest experiments whose results will aid
advertising is Look*s Brandt Eye camera.
Its purpose is to
pre-test the reader reaction to editorial pages by photo­
graphing the movements of the reader’s eyes.
It is hoped
that certain tabulations will be made possible such as an
analysis of the primary areas of attention on magazine pages
with a record of the areas first seen.
It is also hoped
that a comparison of attention and interest in two identical
layouts when color is added to only one will be made possi­
This will be closely related to another analysis, a
study of the effect of mass on the attraction and interest
value of various areas.
The anticipated result of such
study is compiled data on the pulling power of specific
editorial and advertising appeals.
Ilore evidence concern­
ing headline placement is another study.
The Look camera is a specially designed 35 mm. movie
camera which directs beams of light against the cornea of
the subject’s eyes.
The reflection of these beams and
their variance as the eyes move in reading the printed ma­
terial under test is photographed.
Such a test applied to
Gaunt and E. A. fiercer, editors, I.Iodern Pub­
licity, (New York: Studio Publishing Inc., 1939-40), p. 29.
a number of subjects furnishes an index to the relative
interest in the various ideas and elements on the page.
suggests the possibility of using a number of such tests as
a guide to laying out somewhat mechanically editorial and
advertising pages.
Another research study is carried on by the Clark
--^ --------■■■■■■■■■■»■■!■■■ I
In the marked conies
magazines called ’'percentage copies” a tabulation of the
number of readers of each advertisement is shown.
They in­
dicate women readers separately from men readers to show
the percentage of readers who have seen the advertisement.
From the total percentage of those ’who observed the adver­
tisement, they compute the percentage of those who are able
to identify the advertisement and tell what product was
They also compute the percentages of those who
saw the advertisement but misidentified it.
The reading
percentages record the percentages who read different parts
of the text.
A relative dollar cost index which provides
a means of comparing advertisements of different sizes and
of varying costs by reduction to a common denominator is
made possible.
This whole report is obtained by interview­
ing readers so there is obviously a certain amount of
54 Lord & Thomas Advertising Agency, Research Files.
55 L o c . cit.
These experiments are only two of the valuable ones
being conducted today.
Their contributions to the field of
advertising are even now becoming apparent.
has passed the stage of exploitation and the period of
quick and easy profits.
It now sells more by its intrinsic
value than by dramatic appeal.
It is being measured with
keener regard for results in sales and less in vanity and
The advertising success shall in the future be
based upon sound analysis and careful study rather than up­
on a startling new i d e a . ^
Herbert Henry King, Practical Advertising (New
York: D. Appleton and Co., 1933), Chapter XX.
In this chapter two main conclusions were reached:
(1) Advertising contributes economically by (a) promoting
industrial growth, and (b) raising the standard of living.
(2) Advertising contributes culturally by (a) sponsoring
a democratic art,
(b) financing circulation of fine arts,
(c) promoting educational interests, and (d) promoting
laudable living habits and ideals.
Industrial growth.
The processes of economics are
dependent upon human behavior.
Individuals managing fac­
tories and farms are actuated by personal motives and must
respond to
the wishes of the millions who spend the nationT
Because of this personal element which dominates
everything, advertising is important in business and econom
ic development.
It stimulates consumer buying, the main­
spring of industry.
It is obvious that the volume of pro­
duction is
governed by the volume of buying and that when
increases, more wealth is created.
As the
1,Alfred T. Falk, tfShort Talks on Advertising,"
Bureau of Research and Education, p. 6, 1936.
gifts of nature cannot be enlarged, the only way in which
national wealth can be increased is through an increase in
The works of man can be increased only through
greater industrial activity.
This takes action.
tising and selling are prime movers in the distribution
They connect operations of production plants and
the consumer who buys on a purely personal basis but whose
buying affects the whole system, eventually contributing to
the growth of national wealth.
As advertising influences
the consumers to buy and influences one industry to buy
from another, it speeds up transactions.
This causes pur­
chasing power to circulate more freely and rapidly than
would be possible without the healthful stimulation of ad­
The increased rate of activity builds up all
parts of the economic system through greater production and
The net result is a larger national income.
There is great economic advantage in having goods
made and sold in large volume.
It means lower prices and
better x^roducts as the big companies are able to carry on
scientific research.
Advertising, fundamental in building
large businesses, has made mass production joossible by in­
creasing sales volume.
Advertising is a medium through
2 Falk, loc. cit.
° Loc. cit.
which many great companies were enabled to build themselves
In the past forty years advertising has been responsi­
ble for the success of many national favorites such as Ford,
General Motors, Coca-Cola, Budweiser, and Ivory Soap.
Advertising contributes economically as a business
in itself.
The aggregate expenditure of 1,065 national
advertisers alone in 1939 in the four extensive media was
This does not include any of the expense
which went into the production of the advertising.
expenditure was the amount spent for space only.
Standards of living.
Both directly and indirectly
advertising helps to raise living standards.
It does this
by providing the manufacturer with the opportunity for sell­
ing on a national or international basis.
market for articles of mass production.
This affords a
Hass production
means more things for more people; thus the standards of
living are raised.
It educates the public in efficient buying and in­
forms them of the cheapest and best markets.
It is
4 Falk, ojp. cit. , no. 2.
,rThe Case for Advertising," Nation’s Business,
28:33, July, 1940.
Expenditures of National Advertisers in 1939,
Bureau of Advertising, 1939.
Bandage, ojd. cit. , p. 1.
responsible for the entire welfare movement, making people
dress better, eat better, and even sleep better.
It has
raised the standard of living by being responsible for the
rapid development of many improvements in the art of living.
It promotes the kind, of competition that makes progress in
the constant striving of individuals in all classes to live
Another important reason for our rapid progress in
living standards is the enthusiasm with which each industry
presents new products to the public.
Every new invention
is announced far and wride and the manufacturer tells the
public how it will make life more pleasant.®
Through the
medium of advertising, industry is able to display its
numerous articles of comfort and culture.
Advertising is a constructive influence in awakening
and keeping alive desires for social progress and cultivat­
ing natural ambitions for better ways of living.'*'®
Democratic art.
Newspapers alone reach an aggregate
® Goode, o£. cit. p. 29.
® Falk, or), cit. t no. 8.
Ibid . , no . 10 .
population of 113,669,27s.11
ble number of people.
magazines reach, an inestima­
Life magazine alone has a weekly
circulation of three million copies whose readers reach the
. .
number of an estimated twenty million. ^
Collier's has a
circulation of 14,750,000 and Liberty a circulation of
As the population of the United States is
131,669,275,14 it is obvious that only a small per cent of
that number are not contacted often by some form of adver­
tising .
Dr. Gallup discovered that advertisements which have
no illustrations get 44 per cent less interest from men and
83 per cent less attention from women than those which have
illustrations. °
Therefore, most advertisements contain
art work of some kind.
It can be assumed that the majority
of people in America are contacted continuously by adver­
tising art.
Advertising art might be called the democratic
art of today as it contacts and is understood by the majori­
ty of people.
Because the advertiser, psychologist, and
scientist, have given so much time to the research of the
11 See Table V, p. 70.
western Advertising, march 1, 1941, p. 4.
13 Ibid., p. 5.
K. vv. Ayer & bon,
Directory of newspapers and
periodicals t 1940, p. 15.
-*-^ George Gallup,
cit. , p. 6 .
habits, tastes, and characteristics of the consumer, the
art used for advertising can successfully reflect the lives
and thinking of the American people today.
Commercial artists have learned that art and utility
are not incompatible.
They know that art can be a/oven into
the everyday lives of the people, that it can help raise
the aesthetic standards of myriads of people that it con­
tacts. I*7
Peyton Boswell in defense of commercial art said
that the crime in art exists when the artist produces an
inferior piece of work to meet the demands of the market.
He continued by saying that the fine artist is often just
as guilty of this as the commercial artist for whereas the
latter caters to advertising, the fine artist often caters
to a specific museum, school of thought, or critic.
artist in commercial art must always think about his audi­
ence which is the advertising audience.
He therefore works
under limitations of form or treatment as severe as those
under which the great writers and musicians have created.
Often the subject matter is predetermined for him.
Paul Parker, "The Iconography of Advertising Art,"
HarperTs , 177:80-4, June, 1938.
^ Seventeenth Annual of Advertising Art (New York:
Published by Art Director1s Club*^ 1938)’, p. 68.
Peyton Boswell, "mammon and the Iluses," Art Digest,
13:3, December 1, 1938.
such limitations need not prevent the artist from applying
to his work all the qualities of vitality, craftsmanship,
and good judgment which are essential to the production of
any work of art.
With the improvement in methods of re­
production the only detriment of art in industry is being
rapidly extinguished.
With the entrance of fine art artists
into industry, the aesthetic standing of advertising illusPO
tration is reaching new heights.'"
Because of the imported abstract art movements of the
last decade, fine arts have had a hard time entering into
and becoming a part of the life of the masses.
Even though
these same movements found their way into advertising illus­
tration, they were made to conform to an understandable
The painting and sculpture which fill the galleries
are not the art forms which reach the general public.
vertising art does reach the general public.
Its full
social significance is difficult to see as it is so new
and close to the modern age.
Much of it has been rightly
condemned for blatant insincerity and cheap sensationalism.
19 VW G-aunt and F. A. Mercer, editors, Modern Pub­
licity, (New York: Studio Publishing Inc., 1939-40), p. 34.
T,Their Own Fault,” Art Digest, 14:22, September,
However, there is much to he said in defense of it.2^
advertising artist sets out, in response to commercial in­
ducements to add visual and emotional appeal to any article,
any service which the patron washes sold.
The fact that he
is bringing line, color, and design to many people who
would have little contact with them otherwise is justifica­
tion of the art in itself.
Advertising art is a democratic art in that it is a
reflection of life today and that it is understood by the
It is expressive of modern life.
Just as Gothic
Cathedrals, miniatures, and altarpieces reflect the Medieval
mind, so advertising art reflects the materialistic phase
of the modern American m i l i e u . " ^
Advertising illustration
is a vital current art form that provides the popular art
galleries viewed from the printed page.2^
Use of fine arts. Advertising art by supporting news­
paper and magazines indirectly finances the circulation of
fine arts.
But even more directly, it circulates the fine
arts as advertising itself.
The De Beers advertising cam­
paign used a series of paintings by top ranking contemporary
2^ Thomas ilunroe, "Art and Y/orld Citizenship,” Maga­
zine of Art, October, 1938.
22 Paul Parker, loc. cit.
23 s. Yalkert, "Bobri,” Art and Industry, 28:104-9,
April, 1940.
The campaign started with a one-week exhibit at
the Y/aldorf-Astoria hotel in Hew York.^4
The Columbia
masterwork record advertisements present fine portraits in
color reproduction of outstanding opera s i n g e r s . T h e
Dole Pineapple interests, client of N. W. Ayer & Son, also
got top French and American artists to paint and draw for
their advertising campaigns.
Educational interests.
In numerous ways, advertising
is an agent for the dissemination of culture to the great
mass of American population.
It finances the three greatest
educational media of America; newspapers, magazines, and
Advertising educates the public in efficient buy­
ing and good markets.
It increases the knowledge by DrO90
noting sales of books."
It keeps the public informed as to
the latest styles, newest inventions, discoveries, and imP9
provements .^
24 "Art for Advertising," Art Digest, 14:10, Septem­
ber, 1940.
Time, March 24, 1941, p. 56.
"Art for Advertising," loc. cit♦
Falk, o£. cit., no. 15.
G-oode, o£. cit. , p. 29.
Frank H. Young, Advertising .Layout (New York:
Covici Friede, Publishers,1928), p .~21.
Laudable living habits and ideals.
By education,
advertising stimulates desires for better living conditions.
It holds up incentives that kindle ambition for success in
It has helped to raise the standards of public
health by its educational influence on personal hygiene and
sanitation in the home.
It instructs in the selection and
preparation of foods and other health matters. ^
Today, the average American standard of living allows
for much leisure time.
Advertising is an important force
for education in the use of leisure time, teaching people
that leisure is an indispensable part of life and holding
up incentives for attaining it.
Advertising suggests in­
numerable ways of finding enjoyment by picturing sports,
amusements, books, travel, and other pleasures.
ties for recreation and self-improvement are presented for
a variety of tastes and i n c omes.^
Advertising spreads news, speeds up production and
It is a part of today’s way of life— expert de­
signing, machine production, highly organized distribution,
and intensive selling and buying.32
cit., no. 15.
Ibid., n o . 13.
32 "The Case for Advertising," Nation’s Business,
28:33, duly, 1940.
In analyzing the principles and practices of adver­
tising, it was found that advertising, as an industry em­
ploying many thousands of persons and involving millions
of dollars, is a valuable economic factor in the world
As an adjunct to selling, it has increased the
material wealth of the nation and promoted industrial
By informing the consumer of facts concerning pro­
ducts and services, advertising has sold products and ser­
vices .which have materially raised the standards of living.
Advertising illustration, as a part of advertising, has
made these contributions to society.
Because of the intensive research and analysis made
by advertising of consumer, products, markets, and media
facts, advertising and advertising illustration are a fair­
ly accurate reflection of the lives and thinking of the
American people today as a whole and in selective groups.
Because the successful advertising illustration does reflect
the thinking of the times, and because it contacts and is
understood by the vast numbers of the Nationrs populace,
advertising illustration can be considered an important
democratic art form.
No attempt has been made to evaluate
the aesthetic standing of this art.
The most that can be
said in this regard is that the field of advertising is
attracting recognized fine artists.
With the almost-daily scientific discoveries in m a ­
terials and reproduction methods, the advertising artist is
able to constantly raise the standards of his work.
advertisers have become "art-conscious" to the extent that
they support the editorial distribution of fine arts.
Advertising illustration is an educational factor in
today’s social system, informing the public of historical
and current events, of inventions and discoveries.
art by entering the lives of the American people, aiding
the growth of a greater economic system, and raising cultu­
ral standards has become an essential and desirable force
in the social system of today.
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