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jlW IN VEbT‘X GrATX ON OF COiFfLAP GiLURY ADVERTISING ILLUSTRATION I’OR NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Fine Arts University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Raster of Arts hy 'i Geraldine Mae Nodars June 1941 : \' ■ b ”f“ “ ' A-fr UMI Number: EP57857 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. UMI Dissertation Publishing UMI EP57857 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346 ub ji txb T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by r,.--..■ ■ , f* /A?"/ u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f h^z.. F a c u l t y C o m m it te e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r e q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f Deafi Secretary D ate.. ... JulJUiikl F aculty Com m ittee Chairman. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE THE PROBLEM AND ORGANI Z A T I O N ................... The problem ................................ 1 Statement of the p r o b l e m ................... 1 Importance of the s t u d y ................... 2 material ................ 2 Organization of the Review of the literature II. ................... 3 ANALYSIS OF A D V E R T I S I N G ....................... 6 History of advertising ....................... 6 Advertising’s place in selling ............... 13 Definition of advertising ................. 13 a d v e r t i s i n g ............ 15 advertising ............ 17 Consumer r e s e a r c h ......................... 17 Product analysis ............................ 27 Market analysis ............................ 28 Media a n a l y s i s .............................. 30 Construction of the a d v e r t i s e m e n t ........ 33 ANALYSIS OF ADVERTISING I L L U S T R A T I O N .......... 40 Scope and aims of Methods employed by III. 1 History of advertising illustration ........ 40 Function and aims of advertising illustration. 41 Factors affecting advertising illustration . . 43 C o n s u m e r .................................... 43 Product 48 ................... . . . . . . . . i i i CHAPTER IV. PAGE M a r k e t ...................................... 57 Psychological factors 59 .................... M e d i a ...................................... 60 The a r t i s t .................................. 61 NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE M E D I A ................... 67 Newspaper m e d i u m .............................. 67 As a m e d i u m - ................................ 67 Reproduction processes .................... 73 Art in n e w s p a p e r ............................ 78 Color advertising in newspapers ........... 87 Magazine m e d i u m .............................. 88 As a m e d i u m ................................ 88 Art in m a g a z i n e s ............................ 94 Color advertising in m a g a z i n e s ............. 97 Scientific discoveries ....................... V. CONTRIBUTIONS OF ADVERTISING ILLUSTRATION . . . Economic contributions ....................... 98 103 103 I n d u s t r i a l .....................................103 Standards of l i v i n g .......................... 105 Cultural contributions ....................... 106 Democratic a r t ................................ 106 Use of fine a r t s .............................. 110 Educational interests .................... Laudable living habitsand ideals .......... Ill 112 iv CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE . .............. 113 ........ ......................... 115 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II. III. PAG-E Basic Appeals Their Attention Value .......... Attention Value of Four ColorAdvertisements . 20 . Attention Value of Illustration Subjects. . . . 54 IV. Mechanics of I l l u s t r a t i o n ................ 55 V. Newspaper C i r c u l a t i o n s .................... 70 VI. 46 Techniques and Reproduction Techniques ......... 80 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AHD ORGANIZATION Commercial art can be compared in one respect to an art of a past age, Medieval art. serve a utilitarian need. the church. Both are propaganda and Medieval art was propaganda for Commercial art is propaganda for industry. Many controversies have arisen over the standards of the function al art as compared to those of the autonomous expression. However, the mere fact that the art serves a "functional” use is not necessarily disparaging to such art. There have been other periods in which the art served a utilitarian purpose and still maintained the standard of fine aesthetic expression. Such an art can be found in many of the commer cial works of today’s finest artists. Commercial art de serves society’s attention and evaluation for the economic and cultural contributions rendered by this present-day art form. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the principles and practices of contemporary American advertising illustration in order to arrive at some conclusions as to its economic and cultural contributions to society. Importance of the problem. The importation of ab stract individualistic art made the American people aware of the need for a democratic art. Any art activity which approximates the satisfaction of this need is deserving of attention and study. It is obvious that the grasping of any dependent activity necessitates, first of all, an understanding of the fundamentals of the larger activity upon which it is dependent. As advertising illustration is a dependent art, its relation to the tremendous field of advertising must be understood before an analysis of the art can be made. How ever, an analysis of the advertising field today including the materials and methods used by the advertising agency and the reproduction processes used by newspaper and maga zine would in itself renuire a very intensive study. There fore, only those phases of advertising which have a direct influence upon and relation to advertising illustration were discussed. No attempt was made to evaluate this art form aesthetically. A few deductions were drawn, however, which seem to indicate that constant raising of the aesthetic standards of advertising art are taking place. ORGANIZATION OF TEE MATERIAL An analysis of advertising in three main divisions was made in Chapter Two. A brief history of advertising was 3 first presented. Advertising’s place in selling was next discussed by defining advertising, its purpose, and scope. The methods employed by advertising; consumer analysis, product analysis, market analysis, media analysis, and con struction of the advertisement were next studied. Chapter Three constitutes the main study in its analy sis of advertising illustration. A brief history of adver tising illustration was first presented. The function and aims of advertising illustration were next discussed. Fol lowing this, the factors affecting advertising illustration were analyzed. In Chapter Four a discussion of the two advertising media important to this thesis, newspaper and magazine, were analyzed as to the possibilities they offer the advertising artist and his work. was discussed. The art as it is found in each medium Recent scientific discoveries bearing upon advertising were examined. Chapter Five is concerned with the conclusions of this study, the economic and cultural contributions of ad vertising illustration to society. Chapter Six contains the summary. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Little has been written on advertising illustration from the standpoint of the artist. A few books have been written on the techniques used by the artists and how these techniques are reproduced on the printed page. However, in these discussions little is written of the factors w h i c h influence the a r t i s t ’s decisions in his designing. The History and Development of Advertising by Frank Presbrey was the principal source for the historical survey of advertising as presented in this thesis. However, neither this source nor any other investigated material gave an adequate picture of the history and development of adver tising illustration. Sources of particular value in analyzing advertising as an industry were What About Advertising? by Kenneth M. Goode and Harford Powei, Jr.; Practical Advertising by Herbert Henry King; Advertising Theory and Practise by C. H. Sandage; and the many articles which appeared in Printerys Ink and other industrial periodicals. Advertising layout and typography were studied from the various sources: (1) Eugene de Lopatecki in Advertis ing Layout and Typography discusses in great detail the mechanics of layout, the elements involved, and their re lation to the finished advertisement; (2) In Layout Tech nique in Advertising, Richard Surrey studies the various parts of an advertisement as to their functions, suitable presentation, and ultimate effect on the reader; (3) Laur ence Siegfried in Typographic Design in Advertising presents 5 trends in modern typography as does (4) T. B. Stanley in A Manual of Advertising Typography. The artist’s techniques and the way in which they are reproduced are presented in lames Gardner’s Drawing For Advertising and The Technique and Fractise of Advertising Art by Robert Hymers and Leonard Sharpe. Both were used in this study. As commercial art is a contemporary activity, much of the material was found in periodicals and reports. Of particular value were the various issues of the Annual of Advertising A r t ; the quarterly advertising art periodical, Printing A r t ; and the Annual Advertising and Publishing Production Yearbook. The major source of literature for this problem was found in surveys, interviews, speeches, and reports from the Research Department of Lord & Thomas Advertising Agency in Los Angeles, California. Grateful acknowledgment to Ford Sibley and the Research Department of Lord & Thomas must be made. Both contributed valuable information and material impossible to obtain in published form. CHAPTER II ANALYSIS OF ADVERTISING An understanding of advertising illustration can be gained in part by a study of the principles and practices of advertising itself. This chapter presents an analysis of advertising in three major divisions: advertising, (1) the history of (2) advertising’s place in selling, (3) the methods employed by advertising, HISTORY OF ADVERTISING The form of today’s advertising is new. The ideas and objectives behind advertising, however, are as old as the human race. When the first man came into contact with his competitor and found it necessary to do some persuasive selling, advertising was born. The first written adver tisement was in Babylonia thousands of years before Christ in the form of an inscription carrying the name of the temple and King who had built it.-*- The King who set forth such an announcement was actually advertising himself to those subjects who were able to read. thing to sell--himself and his dynasty. The King had some As long as there ^ Frank Presbrey, The History and Development of Advertising (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1929), p. 2. 7 have been buying and selling, there has been advertising. The nature of advertising has always depended upon the available media for carrying the message of the seller to the prospective buyer. Before the days of the newspapers and magazines, sign boards and town criers were the only media available. These early signs were used, principally, to mark the merchant’s place of business. They were suc cessful advertising agents in that they obtained a great deal of attention from the citizens of the town who used the signs as landmarks.2 Signs have continued to be a pow erful advertising medium. The first means of supplementing the sign came with the town criers, organized in a sort of union. They adver tised those places of business which had a charter from the government.3 The invention of the printing press and the revival of learning made newspapers, books, and handbills possible. These media provided business with the opportunity of send ing messages to potential buyers. The early period in American advertising found patent medicines, cosmetics, and beverages the products most promi nently advertised. The selling of medicines this way 2 House numbers were unknown at this time. 3 C. H. Bandage, Advertising The" (Chicago: Business Publishers, Inc., 19 Practise 3. 8 attracted the quack.^ Reputable dealers did not at first use advertising except to make announcements of their place of business or of the receipt of new goods. lasted only a short while. However, this Advertising grewr in general proportion to the population, learning, and the number of periodicals and newspapers. At this time public education was being furthered by political, social, and religious news and opinions appearing in magazines and journals. The selling voice of business found a growing audience in these periodicals, and the publishers found that better journals could be had by the revenues from advertising. By 1840, railroads in the United States had broaden ed markets and encouraged advertising in those magazines which served larger territories.^ The business of adver tising developed in separate professions during this period. Individuals set themselves up as specialists in the sale of advertising space and took the name of general advertising agents.® By 1900, all the areas of the United States had been tapped. As there was no longer a geographical frontier, 4 H. J. Kenner, The Fight For Truth in Advertising (New York: Round Table Press, Inc., 1936), p. 10. e; Sandage, o p . cit. , p. 9. 6 Ibid., p. 11. 9 the job of the business man was to cultivate the terri tories which already existed. Competition between agents and clients in existing markets caused an extension in ser vice offered by these advertising agents. These agents began writing copy, selecting media, and analyzing markets. In 1911 the crusade for truth in advertising helped both 7 the publisher and the consumer. Since then, scientific development in advertising--market research, consumer analysis, the testing of results--has further contributed to advertising’s efficiency. Newspaper advertising. America’s first newspaper advertisement was in the Boston News-Letter May 1, 1904.® In 1728 America’s great .journalist, Benjamin Franklin, became the publisher of the Saturday Evening Post. By 1760 he had inspired the department stores to advertise. In Taylor and Cox’s store advertisements in 1760 only the articles of clothing were presented; no prices were given. They came later with Rowland H. Macy of New York and other contemporary merchants. There was no con ceivable commodity not advertised b y the end of the eighteenth century in newspapers, handbills, and the windows of stores. 7 ”The Case for Advertising,” Nation’s Business, 28:53, July, 1940. 8 Loc. cit. 10 Newspapers of the eighteenth century which catered to community interests were chiefly responsible for early newspaper advertising. During the first half of the nine teenth century general newspapers insisted upon restricting advertising. It was not until the New York Journal of Commerce gave advertising the freedom it needed that prog ress in methods and returns began to evolve.^ Magazine advertising. The first magazine advertise ment of importance dates from around 1890. The first hundred years of magazine publication in the United States were years of many attempts and many failures. Of the sixty magazines which appeared before 1800 only a halfdozen had some merit. Fewr magazines of the eighteenth cen tury lived beyond a few issues because publishers had dif ficulty in obtaining reader support and paper stock. Benjamin Franklin and John Uebbe of Philadelphia made a beginning each with a magazine issued in January, 1741. V/ebbe called his The American Magazine; Franklin named his The General Magazine. lin’s, six. V/ebbe’s lasted three months; Frank There were various magazines throughout the period, but none were successful. These magazines did not 9 lfria« ^ Frank Presbrey, The History and Development of Advertising (New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co., Inc., 1 9 2 9 ) , p. 446. 11 have advertising to help pay the expenses of paper and printing. In fact, these early magazines did not welcome any advertising.11 Harper*s , established in 1S50, openly repudiated advertising. It refused $18,000 a year offered by the Howe dewing Machine Company for its fourth cover.12 The scarcity of wood engravers delayed the develop ment of published pictures. The first engravings were used in the Massachusetts Magazine published in Boston from 1789 to 1796 by Isaiah 'Thomas. The following year the New York Magazine and Literary Repository issued Godey*s Lady* s Book with engravings in color illustrating the latest fash ions. Through the colored plates and literary content, Godey*s became a success. Fifteen years after Godey*s Lady1s Book began to show the attraction of pictures, the illustrated news week ly arrived. Gleason*s Drawing Room Companion made its debut in Boston. Harper* s Weekly and Leslie *s Meekly in 1860 received the class of advertising which later went into standard monthlies like the Century. This had an im portant influence upon the building up of national adver tising. The religious revival in the early nineteenth century 11 Ibid., pp. 446-63. 12 E. E. Calkins, "Magazine Into Marketplace," Scribner* s t 101:108-17, January, 1937. contributed the religious periodical which accepted adver tising. llany advertisers were given their first experience in national work. Some advertising agencies devoted them selves mainly to these lists. The result was a specialisa tion in the general magazines. Advertising in the religiou periodical of 1840 to 18Q0 was the forerunner of national . . 1^ magazine advertising. Llanufacturers began to use larger space when they discovered advertising to be profitable. They began to in form the trade by means of illustrations, details of items in their catalogues. In the 6 0 1s and 9 0 fs the more serious form of advertising reached a level which encouraged an in crease in the number of publications, entrance of greater capital, and more specialized talent. Thus the business periodical became the creator of the advertiser--a role which the community newspaper also played. 14 The arrival of inexpensive photo-engraving processes enabled a profusion of good illustrations which increased the circulation and the advertising. A trick of running humorous pictures among advertisements to lure the reader to the back of the book was u s e d . jt was the ancestor of IS p resbrey, loc. cit., pp. 446-63. 14 hoc. cit. 15 Calkins, loc. cit. 13 today's comic strips and in the device used by publications that "jump” their stories and articles for the same utili tarian purpose to the back of the magazines. Magazine publication began to develop advertising in a serious way with the advent of a pioneer advertising agent, J. Walter Thompson. Purchasing space in nearly all magazines for a lump sum, he sold it to advertisers and brother agents. The publications, soon aware of his pros perity, recaptured the space as the contracts expired in order to sell it themselves. a necessity. This made advertising managers Rowland Mix of Scribner1s , James Rogers of Harper* s , and George Hazen of Century were the three musket eers of magazine advertising.16 There were two marked changes which influenced adver tising: (1) growing acceptance of responsibility by publish ers to their readers for the character of advertisements, (2) improvement in physical appearance of advertisements as advertising agents eagerly explored all the possibilities of graphic art. The first elevated the reliability of ad vertising as a whole. Furthermore, under the stress of con17 petition, advertising became more and more efficient. ADVERTISING'S PLACE IN SELLING Definition of advertising. Calkins, loc. cit. Loc. cit. According to Webster, 14 advertising is the method used to call public attention to an idea or object, emphasizing the desirable Qualities of the idea or object for the purjjose of arousing a desire for acceptance or purchase. John E. Kennedy defined advertis ing as "salesmanship in print."1® It has also been stated that salesmanship and advertising are devices by which those engaged in producing each kind of commodity, or service, seek to inform and stimulate their fellow men to buy what n O they have to offer.-L*? Gilbert T. Hodges, Member, Executive Board of the New York Sun says, "Advertising is the printed, written, spoken, or pictured representation of an institu tion, person, product, service, or movement openly sponsored by the advertiser and at his expense for the purpose of in fluencing sales, use, votes, action or endorsement. It has also been said that the advertising message is the con necting link between the producer with want-satisfying goods and the consumer with needs and desires to be satisfied. °1 . Richard Compton, President of Compton Advertising, Inc., says, "Advertising is an economical substitute for a Albert D. Lasker, Salesmanship In Print Hamilton Institute, N e w York^ 1 9 3 0 ) , P« 7. (Alexander 19 Don Francisco, "Advertising--An Essential Ingre dient of Democracy," (an address before Boston Conference on Distribution, October 3, 1939) Mark O'Dea, "Advertising as a Career," (unpublished Vocational Guide, May, 1939), no. 1. Bandage, o p . cit. , p. 267. 15 personal sales talk to a consumer.”22 Selling products or services reruires two distinct processes: (1) advertising, and (2) merchandising."" Ad vertising instils a desire or stimulates a latent desire for a product or service. duct. It brings the market to the pro Merchandising includes all the steps leading up to the immediate sale, bringing the product to the market. In the beginning advertising was merely a supplement to other forms of selling, but today it is a major form of selling that not only supports other forms but is sometimes the OA only selling tool to move merchandise."" Scope and aims of advertising. Advertising today is a tremendous field which includes all the details of adver tising construction such as copy, layout, art, engraving, and typography, the selection and use of the media employed to carry the advertising message, and the foundation work which consists of consumer, market, and product research. Its scope is evidenced by the visible and invisible expendi tures of money in advertising. The visible money is that paid to various media which carry advertising. A number of advertising agencies present figures which represent the 22 Hark 0 TDea, loc. cit. 23 Interview^ Ford Sibley of Lord & Thomas, November, 1940. 24 Sandage, ojd. cit. , p. 1. advertising income of different media. From these and other sources a basis for estimating the total annual expenditures for media, space, and time is worked out. However, there is no absolute measure of the total amount spent. Printer* s I n k , March 1, 1940 stated that §1,600,000,000 had been spent on advertising in 1939. This included newspaper, radio, magazine, outdoor, car card, farm journal, and direct mail. The invisible expenditures are those that include the cost of labor and materials used in the development and promotion of the complete campaign. The labor costs include the wages and salaries paid the workers in advertising agencies, the advertising departments of business concerns, the research organizations uncovering data to be used in developing ad vertising programs, and all or part of the salaries of executives where time is spent in checking advertising activity. On a basis of visible expenditures alone, adver tising ranks as one of the largest industries of the nation. It is one of the three greatest American industries and employs many thousands of persons.^0 This vast field is interested in turning out a suc cessful advertisement that will sell the product or service and at the same time contain no element which creates a backlash from the public, in which no promises or influences OK _ bandage, ojd . cit. , p. 117. P. I. Lemos, f,Is Advertising Art Important? School A r t s , M35:387, March, 1936. 17 beyond the boundaries of fact are put forth, no points to irritate the trade. The field wishes the advertisement to have a fundamental idea so subtle that competition will be slow to recognize and copy it or so closely identified with the company, product, personality, or policy that plagia rism is impossible.2*'7 METHODS EMPLOYED BY ADVERTISING Effective advertising is based on research. The modern advertiser forms his advertisement after he has ana lyzed the consumer, the market, and the product. Consumer research. As modern advertising is closely associated with the development of mass selling, it is nec essary for the advertiser to understand the characteristics, mental and emotional, of the human being. It is here that the research man in the modern advertising agency begins his work, research into consumer habits. He knows, along with the psychologists, that human behavior originates in the desire or need for things. He knows that when these needs or desires are found, the proper stimulus on the part of the advertiser will produce the desired response, buying the advertised product. Therefore, the research man con- Charles Younggreen, MHhat is Good Advertising?" The Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, Section B, March-April, 1940. 18 siders these questions: lust what are the human desires and needs? What methods can successfully be employed to appeal to these desires and needs? Dr. George Gallup of Northwestern University made a survey of reader interest in advertisements. many facts interesting to the advertiser. He discovered Ke discovered the basic appeals represented in advertising and how they were responded to by the reader. Emulation, or "doing it because someone else is doing it" was found to be a power ful force motivating m a n k i n d . 28 pre listed other basic appeals. Ambition, or the urge to get ahead in the world, finan cially or socially. Fear, or the unhappiness resulting from non-purchase. This group includes the negative expression of all ap peals . Health, or the lure of physical well-being, longer life. Vanity, or being more beautiful; being in a situation conducive of admiration. Sex, or a situation involving the reciprocated or unre ciprocated regard of a woman for a man, or vice versa. Novelty, or the appeal of the new, the unusual, be cause it is new or unusual. Quality, or the appeal of the good solely because it is good. This includes discussion of materials, workman ship, or both. 28 George Gallup, "Factors of Reader Interest in 261 Advertisements," Supplement to Survey of Reader Interest in Saturday Evening P ost, Liberty, Collier*s , and Literary Digest. 1932. 19 Efficiencyt or details of the functioning of the pro duct or service. Economy, or the appeal of price.29 It was found that although one out of every three or four persons notes the advertising page, less than one out of twenty five or thirty actually reads it. So the adver tiser can not be content merely with the knowledge of what the basic desires are. He must do further research to discover how he can appeal to these basic desires. Dr. Gallup carried on investigations to discover which of the basic appeals had the greatest at ten t ion v r Ina for men, which had the greatest attention value for women, and which were used by advertising men most frequently. See Table I. tising. Economy ranked first among creators of adver Women, however, give advertisements featuring economy 38 per cent less attention than the average for all advertisements. Hen give 13 per cent less than average. Although price ranks first in the minds of advertising men, it ties for last place in catching the eyes of women and ranks third from the end in attracting the notice of men. On the other end of the scale is sex. The direct appeal to sex is used by only 3 per cent of the advertisers using black and white page space. However, the advertisements with sex appeal get 142 per cent more attention from women 29 Gallup, loc. cit. 20 TABLE I BASIC APPEALS THEIR ATTENTION VALUE* Appeals Economy Efficiency Emulation Novelty Quality Fear Health Ambition Sex Vanity Rank by number of advertisements Rank by number of men noting Rank by number of women noting 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Tied for 9th Tied for 9th 8th 9th Tied for 4th Tied for 4th 1st 3rd 10th 7 th 2nd 6 th Tied for 9th Tied for 9th Tied for 4th 8th 3rd 6th Tied for 4th 7th 1st 2nd * This material was taken from George Gallup’s survey of Reader Interest in 261 Advertisements, Copyrighted 1932 by Liberty Publishing Corp. 21 than the general average. Men and women do not rank alike in attention value, although there is more correlation be tween the attention ratings of women and men than between their ratings as compared to actual advertisements. rank health last and quality first. Men Sex and vanity are top ratings with w*omen; economy and efficiency are last. Quality has a high ranking with men as well as women. Women rate it 42 per cent above the general average for all adver tisements and 127 per cent above economy.*^ These discoveries are included in only one phase of the work carried on by the research man. He knows that the bulk of advertising is to be directed toward the common people who form 95 per cent of the advertising public.31 He must know everything about this advertising public. He must know, first of all, the intelligence level of these people. A recent census of education revealed that only 2,380,000 adults out of 82,000,000 have college educations, while 49,590,000 have grammar school educations or less. rzp Those having high school educations numbered 15,130,000.^' Therefore, the basic education for seventy-five people out 6f eighty-two is high school or less. 30 Gallup, o£. cit. , p. 5. 31 Claude Hopkins, My Life In Advertising (New York: Harper & Bros., 1927), p. 6. 22 O ’Dea, 0£. cit. , p. 8. 22 He must also know what this average American prefers in music, colors, perfumes, et cetera. The importance of the work done by this research man is apparent when the fact becomes known that most failures in advertising are due to poor judgments of human nature, failure to recognize the wants, prejudices, and idiosyncrasies of the group to which the advertising is direct e d . ^ All of these habits and tendencies have a terrific influence upon advertising, upon the product itself, and what is more important to this study, upon the presentation of the idea or product in the adverti sement. The consumer1s mind is studied and analyzed so that the advertiser will better understand the mental states through which the customer1s mind passes in the act of pur chasing. In Commercial Art Practise the authors set forth these mental states: (1) interest aroused, (2) knowledge about the product added to by the advertisement, (3) the advertisement shows product adjusted to the consumer’s need, (4) appreciation of the suitability of the product within the consumer’s mind, (5) desire to possess, (6) con- sideration of cost, and (7) the final decision to buy. Hopkins, ojd . r7' 4 cit. , p. 4. Charles Knights and Prank Norman, Commercial Art Practise (London: Crosby Lockwood & Son, 1930) , p"i IT 25 Every stage in the mental process of the customer has a direct bearing upon the advertisement. Every single mental state must be handled in such a way that the prospect’s re sistance to buy will be broken down. Another important discovery revealed that four out of every five purchases are made by women." Therefore, directly or indirectly women are responsible for much of the vogue of the automobile and many other products. Mr. Burt states that youth and femininity are the axes about ^ A which 80 per cent of the nation’s activity revolves."' The motion pictures are planned to appeal to and reflect the viewpoint of Miss America. Most popular magazines, with a few exceptions, are edited for her standard. The fact that her beauty and bodily welfare occupy so much of her atten tion has increased the amount of advertising. The adver tisers consider that many purchases of even masculine articles are made or controlled by women. 37 Dr. Daniel Starch in readership studies to determine the extent to which advertisements in leading magazines are 35 Goode, 0£. cit., p. 114. 36 Struthers Burt, ’’Miss America Splits Her Person ality,” Scribners’ Magazine, 96:363-66, December, 1934. 37 w m ustration Plays Down Product,” Printer’s Art Monthly, (January, 1940), p. 15. 24 read,^8 discovered other information about the woman reader. Of 347 food advertisements in the five leading women’s maga zines, 135 contained recipes. Two hundred twelve did not. There was little difference in their attention value, but the recipe advertisements averaged 40 per cent better on thorough readership per dollar spent.^ The recent tendency in advertising, therefore, has been to consider the woman as a market in herself. Dr. Starch also investigated the problem of effec tiveness of the continuity or "strip* style of advertise ment. He wished to discover if this type of advertisement got better reading than the conventional advertisement which consisted of illustration, headline, and solid text. He studied a number of issues of Saturday Evening Post, ■Soman1s Home Companion, and True Story. He discovered that the continuity was three times more effective in getting reading than the conventional style.^0 The continuity style makes the advertisement more personal, more specific, and brings the narrative rather than the essay method of 38 The method used in his study to obtain the informa tion was arranged personal interviews with a cross section of the population. 3S Yvilliam J. Pringle, "Some Fundamentals of Adver tising Copy," Address before Advertising Club, Los Angeles, February 28, 1939. ^ L o c . cit. 25 telling a story into play. The most interesting form of statement to most people is a story, evidenced by the fact that 70 per cent of all adults read the com i c s . ^ Dr. Starch also investigated the appeal of cartoons. One hundred and seventy five advertisements^ using cartoons, were compared with an equal number of similar advertise ments in which cartoons did not appear. These advertise ments appeared over a two year period in the Saturday Evening Post and Collier *s . The advertisements presenting cartoons averaged 35 per cent better on observation, 40 per cent better on partial reading, but about the same on thorough reading.^2 Local items and those which have a human interest angle were also discovered to be among the ones most widely read. The customary way in which a person reads is also of importance. The fact that from childhood people are taught to start at the upper left-hand corner of the page and work to the right, straight across each line, dropping easily and regularly down to the lower right-hand corner is very important to the advertiser. Any device which falls in ^ Wilford Newman, "Color Comic Advertising in Newspaper," Vol. 68, no. 4, 1940. Ap Pringle, loc. cit. 26 with this incurable habit has increased the probability that the whole advertisement will be read and understood. Advertisers have found that lines generally should begin and end uniformly; any changes in length make for strain and discomfort.43 There are other things about the consumer which ad vertisers have learned to consider when planning a campaign. They know that today the civilized world is science-minded. The consumer sees on every hand and uses almost every minute something which is better made because of science. He ac cepts these things as necessary and finds it interesting to read about them in scientific journals or newspapers. It is not surprising, then, that the consumer has become con cerned with the technical excellence of a product.44 The events and trends of the time which form the cultural interests of the consumer are also important. For example, at the present time the Defense Program and the Draft are discussed on every street corner. Advertisers have taken advantage of this to use the patriotism theme in their advertisements. The draft for defense is giving the advertiser opportunities for new copy "angles." Certain retailers in newspapers assure installment buyers that the 43 Goode, otd . cit. , p. 232. 44 "Science in Advertising," Scientific American, 155:65, August, 1936. 27 balance due on their accounts will be cancelled if they are called. Other consumer advertisements are given the de fense approach merely to attract attention. Business papers and industrial publications have a special reason for the patriotic angle as their factories are producing equipment that form the basis for preparation for defense.4^ Even seasonal sports and amusements of interest to the consumer are used for advertising ideas. If the racing season is in full swing, advertisers of clothing are quick to advise the consumer as to -what he should wear to the track. During the opera season, jewelers and cigarette manufacturers present their goods in advertisements endorsed by opera singers. All the basic needs, desires, characteristics, and tendencies of the consumer are analyzed by the advertiser before he forms his message. Product analysis. A complete analysis of the product must be made to determine its merits and limitations. The advertiser must know whether the product is an expensive one such as the automobile or whether it is a small item such as a bottle of perfume. He must know whether the pro duct will be in general use or limited use,--a cooking utensil or a doctor*s instrument. He must know if the 45 Printer *s I n k , November, 1940, p. 1. product is a new one or a well-known one. He of course must know the physical features of the product, if it can be packaged or if it has some outstanding feature that might be the central theme of the advertising campaign. He must know if it is seasonal or if it requires any specific cli matic or geographical conditions. All of these character istics determine in what form the advertising campaign will be the most productive.46 All of these characteristics of the product also indicate the logical market for the pro duct. Ilarket Analysis. As the ultimate object of most ad vertising is the building of a basic market or the increas ing of a market already at hand, analyses of the various buying groups must be made. This work determines which group would form the most logical market for the product to be advertised. It is well understood by the research man that America is not a mass market of 130,000,000 people but is a mass of markets totaling 130,000,000 people. 47 The advertising that concentrates upon or aims di rectly at a certain group gets a greater sales return than the scattershot method of market approach. The sales 46 kord Sibley, Lord & Thomas, Interview, December, 1940. 47 Frederick Dickenson, "The Newspaper as an Adver tising iledium," The Printing Art, 68: no. 4, Section C, march, April, 1940. 29 message is directed to real prospective customers rather than to people in general. Therefore, the research man must make an analysis of the location and purchasing power of the prospective customers. lie must find out everything about this market,--the buying tendencies, the trade pecu liarities, even the competitive tactics used by producers of similar products.^® The analysis of the market is con sidered in at least seven different ways: sex, (3) income, (4) geographical, competitive, and (7) age.49 (1) size, (2) (5) psychological, (6) After the group under considera tion has been analyzed in these seven categories, the adver tiser knows if his product will sell to the group and the type of approach to make to this group. There are several methods used in making such analy ses. Business Week made an American consumer market analy sis from 1919 to 1930 which measured the characteristics and quantity of consumer purchases. and service divisions were used. Twelve major commodity The results showed how the consumer divided his dollar among the twelve commodi ties and provided information concerning the total purchases of the American consumer. It indicated both his willingness Owen Richards, THeet the Folks at Home and Make the Sale,” The Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, C-2, March, April, 1940. ^ Sibley, loc. cit. 50 and his ability to pay. 50 There are other studies and surveys made to help the advertiser in making his business more scientific. Census data measures the extent of commodity sales and gives a de tailed territorial classification of sales. Mathematical indexes measure the sales possibilities by territories and inventories of consumer purchases. The census of distribu tion shows the per cent of territories' sales as compared to other states and the total sales of goods. The correla tion index is concerned with individual products. It measures sales fertility of districts for consumption of goods in general.5^- The qualities of product and market suitable for the product determine the media to be used in carrying the message. Media. This term, plural of medium, refers to the means of contact between the advertiser and the prospect. Media include almanacs, booklets, car-cards, direct ma il, envelope stuffers, hand-bills, lantern slides, magazines, newspapers, posters, radio, skywriting, store displays, 5? theatre programs, windows, out-door, and others. ^ In 1939 50 Sandage, ojd . cit. , p. £03. Ibid. , pp. £05-19. 52 0'Dea, loc. cit. 31 there were 1,065 national advertisers in newspapers, maga zines, farm journals, and chain radio who spent $25,000 or more in at least one of these media. Their aggregate ex penditure for the year in all four media was $245,628,598. It was divided as follows: newspapers, 5131,768,171; maga zines, 5121,526,350; farm journals, $10,574,100; chain radio, $81,759,977. 53 These figures represented the ex penditures of national advertisers. In the newspaper figure, only those cities of 10,000 population or over supporting one or more newspapers were considered. In the case of maga zines the figures represent 112 leading weekly, semi-monthly and monthly magazines of national circulation. figures are restricted in certain ways also. The other In all cases figures represent only the expenditures for space or time in the media. The advertiser finds analyses of media essential. This factor of the whole advertising problem will be depend ent upon his analyses of the product and market for that product. He knows that he must choose the medium which will be the most efficient means of reaching the market for his product. He weighs carefully the various merits and limita tions of each medium. Expenditures of National Advertisers, Figures com piled by Media Records, Inc., Bureau of Advertising, Ameri can Newspaper Publishers Association., 1939, p. 3. 32 Outdoor advertising using billboards generally have short messages as the speeding motorist would have little opportunity to read a long message. This kind of advertise ment must be easy to read for the same reason. Because of these two requirements, outdoor advertising can do little but serve as a reminder of the product to the public. Magazines are able to present a long message. The way in which the public reads magazines assures this. The magazine is a highly selective medium as it obtains its readers on a basis of consumer groups having particular interests. Magazine selectivity depends upon the editorial aims and circulation methods of the publishers. There are many classes of magazines; the markets possible to reach through this medium cover a wide range. The magazine is not selective territorially as the newspaper is, however. The mechanical characteristics also present advantages to the advertiser. A good quality of paper which allows for successful reproduction of art work is used. In the higher class magazines the advertiser finds an opportunity for "prestige" advertising. Newspapers have a more complete coverage than any other advertising medium outside of radio. The readership of a newspaper includes all types of people and therefore is not as highly selective as the magazine. Newspapers are valuable to the local advertiser as they are timely and flexible. Advertisements placed in newspapers can be created and changed on short notice to allow advertisers to take advantage of events and changing conditions. How ever, newspapers are printed on a poor grade of paper which consequently places great limitations upon the art work. The message of the advertiser must be suite short in this medium. After analyses of consumer, product, market, and media; the advertiser considers the construction of the advertisement itself. Construction of the advertisement. A great deal of effort is being expended in the advertising field to find scientifically a set of rules by wdiich. great advertising can be produced. Advertising evaluation charts have been devised to rate the effectiveness of advertisements in ad vance. These analyses are made by breaking down successful advertisements into their component parts for evaluation. Although advertising has gained much through such scienti fic approaches, it can not depend entirely upon such plans as none of the logical approaches can give a rule for the power and virility of the central theme. 54 However, many scientific discoveries have been made which a re undoubtedly 54 Artist’s Counsellors, V/here and How to Sell Your Drawings. (New York: Artists’ Counsellors Publishers, 1957), p . 14. useful to the advertiser. It has been discovered that the maximum time which any object can hold strict observance is not more than ten seconds. The human eye can comprehend only five elements at one glance, whether it is five words, five dots, or five patterns. Six objects recuire two looks, and eleven objects require three. The advertiser has also learned that without motion of the eyes at the normal reading dis tance the mind can not attend to any object that will not fit into a space one inch square or less. minimum area is one-half inch square. The average Advertisers have set the ideal at three-fourths inches.55 The eye can not sweep the whole advertisement in one look but skips from the top to the bottom in a series of hops. The natural focus, the arrested point of attention on the part of the observer, is usually the point where the eye first glances. It is the optical center of the space. The layout man, by arranging the units, can change this optical center by using strong contrast, brilliant color, or other devices placed in a different spot. The wider area of less attrac tion surrounding this focus is called the ”field.Tt rest of the page is termed the "fringe."56 ^ Goode, o£. cit., p. 227. 56 Surrey, c>£. cit., p. 35. The 35 However, even with the aid of such facts, the con structor of the advertisement can find no rule-of-thumb formula for the great advertisement as long as advertising requires creative imagination.^7 The first step in the construction of the advertise ment is finding the central theme. The advertiser must talk to the reader from his, the readerfs, point of view. He must start from the consumer’s most fundamental emotions and desires and search the product to find the strongest appeal to stimulate these emotions. The message must de velop subjective rather than objective concern, foster an interest in the product rather than in the advertisement. There must be stimulus to excite the reader’s interest and emphasis, the promise of benefit to the reader. Pictorial means is usually the most successful means of presenting it. It must have an intimate quality, the picturing in realistic terms the enjoyment of promised benefits. The central theme of the advertisement can take several forms, rational reasoning or explaining why the product is good. It may be selling the product in terms of its effect on the consumer. Many other ideas have been used successfully. 57 Pringle, loc. c i t . R« Bertram Brooker, ”3ix Primary Ingredients in Layout," Printer’s Ink, March, 1940, p. 14. 5© 36 The next consideration in constructing the adver tisement is how to present the central theme; how to say it. This is the problem of energizing the central theme giving it the drama, humor, or lyrical Quality which the theme may require. This part of the job is the trapping of attention through logical, ad-architecture. In this study the units such as the headings, illustration, copy, trade name, trade mark, slogan, et cetera, are arranged in a layout in relation to the object of the campaign. In order to organize these units in a logical layout, the lay out man must know: How big the advertisement is to be; What medium is to be used; i/hat kind of people will see it,--men or women or both; How much money is available for the product; If the advertisement is intended for the right-hand or left-hand page; If the trade mark, slogan, logotype are to be included; V/hat kind of paper it is to be printed on; How many illustrations are needed to tell the complete story; How much of the copy is to be set in type; V/hat the mood of the advertisement is to be— gay, scientific, dramatic, etc.*-"^ These various points illustrate again the importance of research to the construction of the advertisement so it wrill have unity and impact to influence the memory and lead to a sale. The three principal units of an advertisement are 59 '♦Their own Fault,* Art Digest, 14:22, September, 1940. 37 the text, the illustration, and the trade name. Many hold the headline to be the most important single part of the a d v e r t i s e m e n t .60 its importance is enhanced because of its position and function which is to stop the prospect and lead him into the copy. The copy is important in that it is the explanation, the part that cinches the sale or argu ment. The caption which is part of the text usually sug gests the equality of the appeal. The identific- s."bion ms rk is the trade mark or trade name whose purpose is to build up an association in the mind of the reader between the advertisement with its sell ing arguments and the product when seen in other settings. The purpose of the trademark is to influence memory, not to arrest attention unless it is used as the illustration. Sometimes the illustration and the trade name are the same when a simplified advertisement is the object. Some of the important requisites for a trademark are that they be easi ly pronounced, easily remembered, and not easily confused with other trade names. They should be adaptable to any medium, unenclosed by a border, simple, and have character. Once they have been established, it is valuable that they appear in every advertisement of the product. “1 Examples of well-known trademarks are the Victrola Dog, the Gold Dust Tv/ins. 60 Sandage, 0£. cit. t p. 328. 61 Surrey, on. cit., p. 102. 38 Illustration plays many roles in advertising to help create a mental picture which the advertiser wishes created. They can show more forcefully than words how the product will satisfy the consumer’s needs. They must be understand able and recall desirable associations to the reader besides adding conviction and belief which are necessary before the prospect will buy the product. Advertisers learned along with educators of the d a y that most people are eye-minded. It has been said that pictures are six times as easy to recognize as words.62 Belief is usually a matter of feel ing and emotion rather than of reason because the average person believes what he wishes to believe.63 And illustra tions, because of their idealized form and color, appeal to the emotions. Illustrations also have the function occasionally of explaining or describing the use of the product. Examples of this are seen in illustrations which show a person actu ally using, the product. In a scientific advertisement, one in which the technical qualities of the product are being pointed out, the illustration shows the technical equipment of the product in a descriptive way. The layout man and the advertising artist employ the same principles as did the great masters of art. 62 Goode, o£. cit. , p. £23. 63 Sandage, o jd . cit. t p. 321. They 39 balance mass against mass, dark against light, tone against tone. They also take liberties with shapes and rhythmic lines to unite them into a pleasing harmony. They have found that it is important to eliminate useless detail, that simplicity of expression results in a more successful advertisement. The careful proportion and subtle placing require a keen sense of the principles of design. In a discussion of the field of advertising illustration it is not necessary to go into the many technical details involved in advertising layout. After the layout man has made his decisions and com pleted his plans, the advertisement is then created from this blue-print. The artist is called upon to create the illustration. Even after the advertisement is completed and before the public, the advertiser is not finished with it. He then must test the effectiveness of it in numerous ways. The relative effectiveness of appeals can be ascertained by keyed-coupon offers in low cost publications. However, this method often does not determine the final sales result. The best test of any advertisement, of course, is the actual sales test. It is also the most difficult to determine as the effect of advertising must be isolated from all other factors influencing sales. CHAPTICR I I I ANALYSIS OF ADVERT IS IK G ILLUSTRATION This chapter was concerned with three major dis cussions: (1) brief history of advertising illustration, (2) the function and aims of advertising illustration, and (2) the factors affecting advertising illustration. The third division includes the influential factors: consumer, product, market, media, psychological, and the artist. HISTORY OF ADVERTISING ILLUSTRATION Advertising illustration has had an amazing devel opment. Twenty years ago there were only a few men who were capable of doing the work required for advertising and the work of even these men in the beginning was stilted and stylized. The group of advertising artists was small as no artist of any pretension would condescend to work for trade at that time. The early efforts were a hodgepodge of ad vertising pictures. The confusion of techniques pointed to the fact that the artists were more concerned with the man ner than with the subject.^ After 1929 a new attitude toward advertising pic tures took place. A new generation of commercial artists ^ George Gallup, Advertisements," 1932. "Factors of Reader Interest in 261 41 was born when it was realized that effective illustration was a valuable advertising tool. At this time the appeal of the news photograph was discovered. duction was learned. Rotogravure repro The candid camera also made its en trance at this time to create a naturalism in pictures. ■■/ays were learned in which to appeal to the public so that advertising illustration could be measured in terms of pub lic reactions. Artists became reporters; readers responded to the pictorial realism, photographic truthfulness, senti ment, drama, and humor. Readers were quizzed, reactions p tabulated, analysis made, and deductions drawn.~ As advertising reached a national scope, advertisers were able to spend more for illustration. This naturally attracted more and more competent artists until today the advertiser employs the pick of the artists of the world.0 FUNCTION AND AIMS OF ADVERTISING ILLUSTRATION Function. of ideas. Selling is dependent upon a communication The earliest attempts to communicate an idea to someone not immediately present was in the form of picture writing such as the Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese written ^ Gallup, loc. cit. ^ "Art for Advertising/1 Art Digest, 14:10, September, 1940. characters."* The advertiser today knows that in selling, a picture can often tell a. story far more efficiently than hundreds of words of written matter. Veil written and dis played copy can achieve many things, hut pictures often de liver a more effective and immediate message than could he achieved hy pages of copy. The function of advertising illustration is to aid advertising in attracting attention, arousing interest, creating a desire, and securing action. The advertising illustration must stress the message in every line so that the finished advertisement attracts the reader’s eye, direct it swiftly and smoothly through the design, produces a de sire to huy and leaves an orderly pleasant impression. Aims. Primarily, the object of the sincere adver tising artist in service of commerce is to sell the product, to please the appreciative eye, and convince critical in telligence all at the same time. Every commercial sketch is appraised from three viewpoints; from that of the client who looks for expression and interpretation of sound sell ing facts, from that of the man in the street who is impress ed hy selling fact when the picture is interesting in itself and from that of the artist whose sketch must satisfy his ^ Frank Preshrey, The History and Development of Advertising (New York: Douhleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1929), p. 4. 43 own standards. The work of an advertising illustrator com bines the attributes of sound selling with a touch of per sonal talent. FACTORb AFFECTING- ADVERTISING ILLUSTRATION Consumer. There are many factors in advertising which influence the work of the advertising artist. It is the advertiser’s responsibility to keep up with consumer demands, even anticipate them if possible so that the ad vertisements may be keyed accordingly. There is a loss in consumer sales when there is failure to make the goods satisfjr the consumer demand or when there is failure to ad vertise them intelligently. The successful advertiser deals in statistics and cold facts. To understand adver tising, he must understand selling. To sell successfully he must understand people as the effectiveness of an adver tising campaign depends upon mass reactions. The advertis er must know all about the consumer’s reactions and habits. The advertising artist .must strive for the subject, tone, and tempo that will be accepted by the readers of the advertisement. Naturally a commercial sketch is of no im portance unless it takes its place in the scheme of the advertisement. This viewpoint influences the techniques as well as the composition. If the composition is intended for the man in the street, it must not be too advanced for 44 ills appreciation. It must leave him with a clear impres sion of the product and its advantages. The successful advertisement must show a primary interest in the reader’s problem rather than a selfish interest on the part of the advertiser.^ The desires or needs of the consumer that can be ap pealed to most successfully exert a great influence upon the illustration. For example, the appeals to sex receive 142 per cent more attention from women than the other types of appeal.® The artist, with this in mind, idealizes the figure he is illustrating to convince the woman reader that the product will improve her appearance and charm. Adver tisers of cosmetics, fashions, drugs, and many other like products employ the idealized illustration to sell the idea of beauty. The illustration of the lovely lady surrounded by attentive gentlemen are examples of this type of appeal and salesmanship. To appeal to men, however, the illustra- tor generally emphasizes ouality. 7 As men and women do not rank alike in attentive value in advertising, the illustrator must study the needs and desires of each consumer group. He must be particularly 5 Hark O ’Dea, "Advertising as a Career,” Hay, 1939. 6 George Gallup, ? L o c . cit. o d . cit. , p. 5. 45 familiar with the woman audience. Even in regard to m e n ’s clothing, manufacturers have estimated that 60 per cent of all m e n ’s suits are sold with a woman present.8 Dr. Gallup found that women’s attention varies while men’s attention seems consistent, that women are either not interested at all or very much interested. If the headline and illustra tion catch their eyes, they make a lasting impression. The addition of color brings women’s attention up to m e n ’s. Color increases men attention 54 per cent over black and white average for men. cent for women.^ It increases the attention 79 per See Table II. As most advertising is aimed at women, most adver tising portray women. The successful illustration among other things suggests to the woman reader the type she wishes to be. The scene is usually a familiar domestic or social occasion associated with the product. The artist makes it not only attractive but convincing. This requires a measure of idealization. Life in advertisements moves in a world of imagination rather like the idealized world of the cinema so real and attractive to the same mind.-*-^ The 8 ’’Illustration Plays Down Product,” Printer’s Art Llonthly, p. 1 5 , January, 1 9 4 0 . 9 Gallup, loc. cit. -1"0 Robert P. Hymers and Leonard Sharpe, The Technique and Practise of Advertising A r t . (New York: Pitman Publish ing Co., 1 9 4 0 T T p- 1 5 3 . 46 TABLE II FOUR COLOR ADVERTICEMENTS* Four color advertisements Men Women Per cent noting four color advertisements 43 43 Per cent above black and white average 34 79 Per cent four color cost is above black and white 52 52 * This material was taken from George Gallup’s survey of Reader Interest in 261 Advertisements. Copyrighted 1932 by Liberty Publishing Corp. 47 disposition of the reader to see herself as the central person in the figure has led the artist to idealize in his work. His business is to represent things not as they are but as they ought to be. The advertisements which attract and interest the public are not those which reflect the hard realities of workaday existence. However, if the home is that of the working class, there is never a suggestion of poverty or sordidness. Every detail in the room is possible but tastefully arranged and chosen. The character of the woman is suggested by the details of dress and hair style. To do this the artist observes habits and practices — his faculty for apt characterization. Advertising illustration is an impressionistic effort, and every character in painting should be recog nized at a glance. The different types are usually recog nized at a glance by the kind of dress and the way it is worn. Even the way a cigarette is held may indicate a type. The illustration of children must be planned extremely well as the advertisement will be directed to women who may be uncritical of the quality of the drawing but quick to notice an error in the portrayal of the child character. In recent years artists have had heavy competition from photography because the vivid realism was appealing to the public. result was that a new: type of drawn figure illustration evolved, the strip illustration in which an episode was The 43 presented in a series of paintings. It was a clever adapta tion of the old funny paper technique. The value of the technique has decreased from over-use.-*--*Today the consumer is generally science-minded, par ticularly with regard to products. The advertising illus tration of a technical product very often strives to make that the selling point. For example, a Goodyear Rubber advertisement used an illustration of a war tank and caption reading, "How research is shortening one of Americafs de fense lines by 10,000 miles." The copy goes on to tell about the scientists who have been working on the problem 1p of synthetic rubber. Such decisions in illustration are based upon analyses of consumer traits. Product. The characteristics of the product also in fluence the artist in his choice of presentation. The art ist analyzes the product in the various ways discussed in Chapter II, Part III. To advertise the product successfully, the product must measure up to advertising claims. Almost every pro duct on the market has a history of research upon which the finest kind of selling message can be formed; a message H Hymers, 0£. c i t ., p. 156. l^1 Lif e , iviarch 10, 1941, p. 16. 49 that is irrefutable. 1^ If the campaign is going to make the product or package major in importance, the whole advertisement is built around it. tration. This usually requires a still-life illus Echlitz beer advertisements today are examples of this type of illustration. A still-life arrangement includ ing the bottle of beer, an old hand-painted, aristocratic plate standing on edge back of the bottle, and velvet dra peries as a background form a colorful page. reads, "Did you know this about beer?". 14 The message The copy follow ing gains the interest of the reader by giving information of a "newsy" quality, the paragraphs being broken by small colored illustrations to supplement the facts. The com mercial artist places the emphasis where the advertiser wants it and yet keeps the total effect harmonious. If the product being advertised is not attractive, it is up to the artist to illustrate the user or benefits of the product or place the emphasis on the headline by curiosity or interest. If there is no educational character in the campaign; the product, package, or trade name will be the unit of emphasis with a balance of the secondary parts.13 13 "Science in Advertising," Scientific American, 155:65, August, 1936. 14 Collier's, I,larch 29, 1941, p. 44. 13 Richard Surrey, Layout Technique in Advertising (New York: AcGraw-IIill 3ook Co., Inc., 1929*7 P- 29. 50 Some products by their nature are unable to use human appeal. In such cases the advertisement usually has something more vital than simple information about the still-life. Food pictures call to the palate and appetite. For such subjects the artist often uses an impressionistic or atmospheric technique. He does not bother about fidelity to hard facts but strives, instead, to suggest the quality and character of the goods. If the elusive atmosphere is reouired, the artist often catches it by a subtle technique and freedom. It re quires experimentation with lighting effects and treatment of textures and unusual compositions. Dry brush and conte- crayon and aerograph offer fresh forms of expression . ^ The Hockanum Woolens Company uses this atmospheric technique in advertising. One advertisement-*-7 presented a "greige coat of Hockanum Woolens" in a water color painting of an aristocratic-looking woman seated against a background formed by a rich detailed interior. The technique used was that of the typical oil painting so that an atmospheric, impressionistic effect vas gained. Clothing goods require a different type of illustra tion. More than most other commodities, clothing sales 1 F) ^ Hymers, oo. cit., p. 166. HarperTs Bazaar t February, 1941, p. 25. 51 depend on style and fashion changes and reouire a special ized method of advertising. The illustration recuires an artist with specialized knowledge of clothes and style. The advertising may be for periodicals which sell patterns or ideas, or it may be for department stores or shops which actually sell the goods. Some of the better class periodi cals such as Vogue and Harperfs Bazaar use drawings that set the standard for flair, chic, and prestige and require first class fashion artists. The second class periodicals appeal to the middle class consumer group and present the goods in a straight forward manner with a view to its 1o ultimate sale of not one but hundreds. ° Some products are of a nature that a technical pre sentation of them is necessary. The advertiser of such products appeals to a specialist with little regard for any group outside that for which it is intended. The func tion of the illustration is primarily to illustrate and not to attract or cajole as in the case of most of the adver tising to the general public. The scope and way in which the advertisements are presented range from small line pictures of a screw; to atmospheric announcements of famous engineering firms. The fact that the reader is not consid ered as a member of the public but as an expert in his own Hymers, o£. cit. , p. 191. 52 field exerts an influence upon the illustration. The de tails of the picture are accurate and executed so as to im press the mind with knowledge of the subject. However, the artist often uses exaggerated perspective or distorted dimensions to enhance the appearance of the product. This is important in automobile illustrations which must be technically accurate with a well-chosen setting. advertisement, on the fourth cover of Vogue,^ this point. A De Soto illustrated Technically the illustration was correct in that the right number of chromium bars across the front were displayed. Yet the illustrator craftily reproportion ed the automobile in its relation to figures standing by. An ideal background of a smart home gave the impression that "smart* people buy De Soto automobiles. The technical product usually recuires a still-life representation conveying information about the product. It recuires accuracy and craftsmanship rather than originality and flair. The bulk of work used for mail order and gen eral store catalogues such as household utility articles and clothing articles that can not be shown in wear are illustrated in this way. The object is to show' the hard facts of the subject in as an attractive way as possible. ^ Hymers, ^ Vogue, December 15, 1940. o jd . cit. , p. 168. 53 Line and. wash is the usual treatment. Sometimes line only is used for the cheaply produced catalogues. Usually dark tones are needed at the bottom of the page to convey the right impression of balance. PI Dr, Gallup, in his study of attention values of advertisements, has made product one of the factors of the study. He considers it to be one of the basic elements affecting the attention value of the advertisement. He divided the illustration subject into five general types; picture of product, product in use, result of use, specific user’s experience, and apparently irrelevant. The study showed that men seem to care little what the illustration illustrates. They prefer the "result of use” illustration and rate the '’product in use” low. Women, on the other hand, place "result of use” high and '’picture of product” low. See Tables III and IV. analysis. advertised. This study made a further The advertisements were grouped by the articles The men seemed more interested in radios, clocks, watches, m e n ’s toilet goods, passenger cars, soft drinks, gas and oil, and automotive equipment. Women seemed to show more interest in women’s toilet goods, proprietaries, and foods. 21 Hymers, ojd . p p cit. , p. 160. 22 George Gallup, ojo. cit. , p. 6. 54 TABLE III ILLUSTRATION SUBJECTS Subject Picture of product Product in use Result of use Specific user’s experience Apparently irrelevant Rank by number of ads Rank by per cent of men noting Rank by per cent of women noting 2nd 1st 5th 2nd 5th 1st 5th 4th 1st 3rd 4th 2nd 3rd 2nd 3rd 55 TABLE IV LIECKANICS OF ILLUSTRATION* llechanics Rank by number of ads Rank by per cent men Rank by per cent women Photographs of people 1st 3rd 1st Drawings of people 4th 4th 2nd Photographs of product End 2nd 3rd Drawings of product 5th 1st 4th No illustration 3rd 5th 5th * This material was taken from George Gallup1s survey of Reader Interest in 261 advertisements. Copyrighted 1932 by Liberty Publishing Corp. 56 The increased attention value of color has been dis cussed, It amounted to a 24 per cent increase for the men readers and a 79 per cent increase for the women readers. In some cases it has been possible to compare the increased attention given by color to the advertising of certain pro ducts with the increased cost of four color over black and white. See Table II page 46. The per cent increase in attention value by using color is greater than the per cent increase in cost for foods and for passenger cars, so far as men were concerned, and for foods, passenger cars, and gas and oil, with women. 9g Therefore, when the illustration is to sell the pro duct, and is not used merely for prestige, the art should tie to the product. A graphic portrayal of the product in use is very often successful. When picturing the product at work, it is usually at work solving the problem of the particular readers addressed.PA A great modern tendency in advertising products is to use one idea as symbolic of the product. An example of this type of advertising is seen in the penguin represent ing Ilbol cigarettes. 9g Gallup, 0£. cit. t p. 6. j. h . LlcCraw, dr., "Advertising Art and the News paper," Seventeenth Annual of Advertising A r t . 57 Market. The qualities of the product obviously de cide what the market will be. The market is then analyzed in six different ways: (1) size, geographical, (6) occupation. (5) age, (2) sex, (3) income, (4) The size of the market exerts a great influence upon the illustration. If the product is such that the market will be small, the illustration must be created to appeal to the particular group for which it is intended. The market may be groups whose interests are specialized and technical. The market based on income division will also influ ence the illustration. This market concerned with the large- income group will necessarily be small. Much of the adver tising appealing to this group will not have to make price, emulation, general usefulness of the product the central theme of the campaign as very often the advertiser will merely want to use the advertisement as a reminder or an element of prestige. The De Beers Diamond syndicate, client of N. V.'. Ayers and Son, has just such an advertising cam paign. To appeal to the higher-income group, they had first of all to counteract all other diamond dealer*s competition. With diamonds being sold on an installment plan, their former luxury value has almost disappeared. De Beers have fine diamonds to sell, ones that are of high value. They, therefore, had to restore the idea that good diamonds were 58 a luxury which they did very effectively by employing top ranking contemporary artists. Lately they have earned a further distinction by beginning a campaign with a one-week exhibit at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York.of a series of paintings by Picasso, Dufy, Derain, Laurencin, Matisse, Lamotte, Dali, and others which appeared in their advertise rs ments.~ These advertisements appeared m color. The advertisements of Columbia masterwork records also show the influence of appealing to a large—m e o m e market. The artist, Carl Erickson, paints colored portraits of opera singers like Lotte Lehman."p 6 Age of the group making up the market plays a great part in the decisions of the advertising artist. The adver tisement intended for an older group will usually be conser vative, stress quality, durability, or prestige of the pro duct. The advertisement for the young group will often em phasize appearance, suitability and the artist will probably use all the dash he can summon to gain a smart modern effect. This age factor will not only influence the subject matter but also the artist’s technioue in presenting it. If he is illustrating a new convertible coupe, it is doubtful that he would show/ the prosperous business man with iron grey ^ "Art for Advertising," Art Digest, 14:10, Septem ber, 1940. £6 Time, march £4, 1941, p. 56. 59 hair driving it. Instead he might have several gay young people who look as though they are just starting off for a game of tennis. The occupations of the market group is also an in fluential factor. This division connects up closely with the income division and the size division of the market. If the product advertised is to appeal to a certain occupa tional group, the methods used b" the artist will in most cases be technical. Psychological factors. Changes in attitudes, fashions, and thinking trends of the public influence the illustrator. For example, because a large segment of buy ers is "science-minded’* today, the illustrator finds adver tisements with serious-faced scientists at work in their o7 laboratories appealing to his audience.'" Political and social events also appear in advertise ments. As the war and defense measures are of great public concern at this moment, advertising illustrators have picked up patriotic "angles’* and war-time scenes and motifs. The Jacques kolf and Company in advertising their chemicals and dyes picture two tubes of dye as soldiers. reads, ’i.e’re in the Army now." The caption The point is that army on ' Paul Parker, "The Iconography of Advertising Art," Harpers, 177:80-4, June, 1S3Q. 60 uniforms have to take it in all kinds of weather, and there98 fore the dyes have to be good..'" The current illustrator for Pall Hall cigarette advertisements also presents mili99 tary scenes. One advertisement'"" shows two army officers comparing the longer Pall Mall cigarettes to another brand of cigarette. The caption reads, "streamlined smoking!-- a basic new design, Colonel!" Advertisers have considered the effect of the war and the present chaotic state of world affairs and taken ad vantage of this. For example, the All-Year Club of Southern California uses an attractive picture of two people surfing on one of California’s beautiful beaches. "The past is gone, the future uncertain. present." The copy reads, That leaves the The advertisement goes on to convince the reader there is only one way to enjoy the present. That way, of course, is to spend a vacation in Southern Califor nia. This advertisement is using a psychological situation to gain reader attention. Media. illustration. Media also exert great influence upon the The market determines the most effective medium for the advertising of the product. After the medium 9Q ^ Printer’s Ink, November, 1940, p. 1. Time, March 24, 1941, p. 32. 30 Collier’s , March 29, 1941, p. S3. 61 has been chosen, the artist chooses the type of illustra tion suitable for the medium. There are elements within the media which are both advantageous and disadvantageous to art. These elements vary with the medium. A discussion of these elements will be found in Chapter IV where the two media important to this study, newspapers and magazines, are analyzed. The artist. The artist’s temperament, aims, modes of thought, and resulting techniques influence the illus tration. Advertising artists often are specialists in art. However, they too are searching for truths and beauty of all art. 31 The lonely dreamer with his attic and gaunt face is a fading picture of the artist. A man of action with bright studio, efficient tools, and great responsibili ties has taken his place to fashion trade and make commerce. He is not poor and patronized but a revered and necessary colleague. He has an understanding of life and business and can be regarded as a skilled craftsman as well as a rz p creative worker0 because working for reproduction processes requires a high standard of manual skill with tools and ^ H. G. Smythe, "An Art Peculiar to Itself," The Printing A r t , Vol. 68, no. 1, April SO, 1939. 32 VY. Gaunt and F. A. I'ercer, editors, "Press Adver tisements," Ilodern Publicity, (Hew York: Studio Publishing Inc., 1939-40), p . 34. 62 materials. Every artist who is worthy of the name injects a personal ruality into his expression. . His technique may be as distinctive as his handwriting; his tools, methods, and materials introducing a variety of effects. The variations and possibilities of art techniques and reproductions are infinite. The advertising artist has as many influences play ing upon him as his audience and as the fine artist so that tendencies found in the fine arts can be discovered in com mercial art. The development of modern art has had a pro found influence upon the graphic art. It was good for the study of practical application of tensions, thrusts, and counter thrusts, color planes and textures. The work of the advertising artist shows the result of study of space and space-volume of modern architecture. The development of photography has also influenced the commercial artist. From these two dimensional realistic reproductions the art ist has taken a cue or two. Because the public is inter ested in life as they know it, in human situations, in things as they see them, the advertising artist has made . . 34 realism an important current m advertising art. ^ Clarence Hornung, "Art Techniques and Treatments," Production Yearbook, 1940., p. 32. Lester Beall, "Graphic Art of Our Time," Production Yearbook, 1940, p. 20. 63 The currents and trends sweeping the fine arts creep into advertising art. Surrealism has been used to sell goods to certain customers. Because the moneyed class adopt ed surrealism painting when it was first introduced, the advertiser aimed at this group with illustrations in adver tisements patterned after leading surrealistic paintings. The Abbot Laboratories used designs which gave the impres sionistic idea of the horrors of disease. A facade was treated like the arcades in Chirico's paintings; hands were repeated like symbols in the canvases of Dali. The Gunther fur advertisement also reflected the ex aggerated lines of Chirico. The same swiftly receding ar cade seen in his "The Departure of the Poet" was used. His influence even extended to advertisements selling soaps, furniture, wine, perfume, shoes, theatre seats. In one issue of Harper1s Bazaar, Casssndre painted an unsupported black glove, caught in a moment of picking up lilies of the valley. In Fortune, he represented the flowers-by-telegram thought by suspending a bouquet from wires that sailed into the distance and converged on a heart suspended in the sky. "Apparitions" by John Iliro representing an eye was ^ B. £. Calkins, "Magazine into Marketplace," Scribners* Magazine, 101:108-17, January, 1937. 64 taken up by the Ford advertisers a few years ago with their "Hatch the Fords go b y ’’ ads that had a huge eye with a V-3 in the pupil. ^'D The individual commercial artists that have become well-known for their work all present diversity of points of view of techniques, media, and even advertising ideas be hind illustration. Charles Egri believes that drawing made for adver tising or publicity should be regarded by the artist who is to create it of as great importance aesthetically as work destined for museums or private collections. Every art piece should possess a full measure of aesthetic interest in addition to other qualities demanded by the buyer. He believes there should be an ever-continuing search for new approaches to the problems and new definitions of form. He is searching for new patterns of form, new arrangements of color and line by studying the problem and seeking out the most characteristic, self-revealing aspect. He transfers it into an effective design which embodies his idea of the subject. 36 Frank Caspers, ’’Surrealism in Overalls,” Scribner’s 11104:17-21, August, 1938. 37 Frederick Dickenson, ’’The newspaper as an Advertis ing liediuni,” The Printing Art, 68: no.4, Section C, March, April, 1940. 65 Paul Rand has his own conception of commercial work. His work is a practise of architecture rather than of the old masters— a clear manner, founded on technical considera tions. To him, as to most of the commercial artists, the idea is of prime importance in the advertisement. He be lieves that style must be part of the idea and not a decora tive addition, that technique must submit to the idea. His formalized design is basically simple with an interesting use of new shapes and techniques. In each new task, he evolves a style uniquely applicable to the particular problem.38 Bobri was the first to employ lead pencil technique for extensive use in modern newspaper advertising. He goes about his designing in a systematic way with steps in a logical sequence from beginning to end. He first makes numerous roughs supplemented at times by three dimensional models. These are projected with strict regard for the client, producer, ‘ -and customer. He often spends a great deal of time in research for an appropriate design. He not only selects all of his own materials, but also the suitability of type for the scheme. ~ Alvin F. Harlow, ’’The Career of an Artist,” American Mercury, 4:305-13, March, 1925. 39 Dent Has singer, ’’The Continuing Study of Newspaper Reading,” The Printing Art, vol. 68, no. 4, C-3, March, April,^1940. Other artists, too numerous to discuss at length, also have their merits and individual manners. The late Gilbert Holliday was an illustrator of military subjects. He had a free, loose style which helped to give the dashing atmosphere required by his subject. liatania presents a realistic accuracy for his studied historical scenes. er of children. Lilian Hocknell is a fine paint Seabright paints cheerful, homely situa- .. 40 tions. All of the influences, psychological, social, and economic, play upon the artist as a member of society to aid him in presenting in his art the tempo of his time and civilization., 40 H. H. Kraus, 29:51, July, 1940. "Paul Rand," Art and Industry, CHAPTER IV NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE MEDIA This chapter is divided into three main parts (1) newspaper as an advertising medium, advertising medium, (2) magazine as an (3) recent scientific findings of aid to advertising, NEWSPAPER MEDIUM As a medium. Although the newspaper is conducted for profit, it has only one product that sells at a profit. That is space. Its two products are newspapers to readers and space to advertisers. Originally, the real profit came from the readers, with advertising as the by-product. Ad vertising increased in volume as the newspaper found it im possible to support itself by subscriptions alone. The newspaper today costs more to produce than the sum paid for it by the readers. The profits are made from the advertis ing it presents.^ The amount of money spent for newspaper space is not definitely known. Estimates have ranged from $600,000,000 to $850,000,000 annually. More money is spent for newspaper 1 E. E. Calkins, "Gnats and Camels," The Atlantic Monthly, 139:14, January, 1927. 68 advertising than any other."" National advertisers use newspaper more than any other single medium, 43 to 48 per cent of the national ad vertiser’s expenditure from his total appropriations going into this medium. But national advertising is only 30 to 35 per cent of the total advertising income of newspapers. Newspapers charge higher rates for national advertising and varying rates Ibr different types of local and national advertismg. The aggregate circulation of all-day dailies, all evening papers, all morning papers, all Sunday papers, and all daily newsparjers is 113,796,549. These figures repre sent the aggregate net paid circulations of English language daily and Sunday newspapers in the United States.4 population of the United States, The (Continenta.1) , according to the United States Census of 1940 was 131,669,275.5 This points out the large percentage of people contacted by news paper advertising. It is impossible to estimate the exact number of people contacted as one newspaper often serves 2 C. H. Bandage, Advertising Theory and Practise (Chicago: Business Publishers, Inc., 1936), p. 367. 3 I M d . , p . 369 . 4 N. 7v. Ayer A Sons, Directory of Newspapers & Peri odicals t (Printed by N. V/. Ayer & Son Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1940), p. 11. ^ Ibid., p . 15. 69 more than one person. The newspapers on file in public libraries serve many people. When these contacts are multi plied and added up over the span of one year, it becomes immediately apparent that advertising in newspapers has a tremendous audience. See Table V. The newspaper is a primary advertising medium be cause it reaches practically all persons who can be reached by advertising at non-premium cost per head. It serves a local market and a highly concentrated one. It requires a high degree of centrality and active trade in the area supporting it as papers can exist only where there are good prospects for the advertiser. Newspapers serve both local and national advertising. As the local advertisers can not use the magazine medium, they find newspaper is the only means of printed publicity distributed in the mass. ft The newspaper is general in character as it reaches heterogeneous groups. For example, a newspaper reader in Chicago must select from five papers which means that the subscribers to any particular newspaper wall be a hetero geneous group. Therefore, attempts are made to produce a paper to meet the varied interests of the readers. To in crease the circulation the paper is divided into sections ^ Sandage, od. cit., p. 368. 70 TABLE N E »iS P i C P E R V C I R C U L A T I O N Aggregate circulation Of all-day dailies 8 9 9 , 2 6 2 Aggregate circulation Of evening papers 2 4 , 5 0 5 , 5 5 1 Aggregate circulation Of morning papers 1 5 , 5 6 8 , 1 2 4 Aggregate circulation of Sunday papers 3 2 , 2 5 0 , 6 7 5 Aggregate circulation of all dailies 4 0 , 7 7 2 , 9 3 7 This material was taken from the N. W. Ayer 8c Son, Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals, printed by N. W. Ayer & Son, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., p. 11. 71 of news, sports, home making, comic, et cetera. 7 Newspapers offer great flexibility in territorial distribution of advertising. They offer a medium for those advertisers who believe in concentrating their efforts on better markets. They also enable the advertiser to change his efforts to other territories on short notices when the markets turn bad over night due to some local condition. Yvhen he wants to introduce a new idea or product on a small scale, he often uses this medium because it places the ex penses of experimentation at a minimum. The flexibility of the newspaper gives the advertiser an opportunity to tie in his advertisement with national or local news of the moment as advertisements for a newspaper need be presented for publication only a few' hours before press time. It can be almost as fresh as the nev/s printed in the same paper. Yvhen Lindbergh completed his flight, producers of gas and oil informed the public of it the very next day. Newspapers O call this quality of their medium, "newsvertising." It allows the advertiser to capitalize on current events. Newspapers also present an opportunity for national advertisers to insert the names of local dealers. This helps the dealers as well as the national advertiser. 7 Bandage, loc. cit. ® Loc. cit. This 72 flexibility allows the advertiser to adapt his message quickly to changing conditions or make use of timely appeals to individual markets with telegraphic speed. It also gives the advertiser freedom in shaping and timing his messages to meet market differences, shopping habits, community cus- toms, climatic differences, pay day, and the like. 9 Newspapers can squeeze the most sales of goods out of many markets. Where the potential possibilities are greatest, the advertising message is shaped to accelerate sales. The newspaper is known as the clock or time medium, noted for its stimulation of cuick buying action and prompt sales response. It is the medium used by department stores whose business depends upon quick turn-over and immediate buying a c t i o n . ^ The life of the newspaper is very short as it is often read immediately and then discarded. The newspaper advertisement, therefore, is not exposed to the reader any great length of time. Newspaper publishers claim this quality is valuable in that it offers daily opportunities to reach the entire reading public. A fresh message is planned for each day rather than one for a week or a month. However, most national advertisers do not use the newspaper ^ Owen Richards, "Meet the Folks at Home and Make the Sale," The Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, C-2, March, April, 1940. 10 Loc. cit. 73 every day so that the old advertisement does not last until the new one appears."^ The reading habits of the newspaper reader are a dis advantage to the advertiser. The newspaper is read hastily, the average length of time spent about twenty minutes. The morning paper is gone over more hurriedly than the evening paper. Sunday papers receive the most attention.-^ News paper copy is prepared to conform to these hasty habits with a minimum of copy for the amount of space. Newspaper advertisements are printed on a poor grade of paper so that fine art work will not reproduce effective ly. Color is used in some newspaper advertisements, but it does not compare with the nuality of color in magazines. The speed at which the presses are run makes accurate color reproduction difficult. Newspapers give the advertiser little opportunity for selectivity. They are read hastily and are not kept. Reproduction processes. The reproduction processes of the newspaper exert a great influence on the advertising illustrations. The gravure or "intaglio" printing process is sometimes used by newspapers. In this process the ink is transferred to the paper by means of depressed surfaces. Sandage, op. cit., p. 371. 12 Ibid., p. 373. 74 The impression does not come from the top of the plate but rather from the minute recesses or rtwellsr* in the plate which holds the ink and transfers it to the paper. the earliest form of etching. It was The steel and copper plate engravings are a form of intaglio as are various other types of gravure: hand-gravure (photogravure), and sheet-fed and cylinder or rotary gravure (rotogravure). A pictorial effect can be produced in newspapers by this method economi cally in long runs only. The sheet-fed gravure process was designed for commercial purposes to fulfill the demand for short-runs, re-runs, and economic storage of plates. The sheet-copper plates used for this can be kept for additional runs. Short runs are made economically on sheet-fed because the paper is ready cut to job sizes while in the roll fed the paper is obtainable only in large quantities. is good for photographic reproduction. Gravure All dots in the metal are the same size; the depths of the dots vary to give tones. Rotary and rotogravure processes also produce satisfactory color advertisements on nev/sprint and rotogravure papers. 1^ This gravure process does not print di rectly from type but prints photographically so that the work is not as sharp and clear as the processes used by magazines. 13 fipfte Three Basic Printing Processes,” Chicago .Aivertising and Printing P a r t , p. 55. 75 Another process is sometimes used by newspapers. is called Lithography or "Planographic* printing. is transferred by means of flat surfaces. It The ink Modern offset lithography uses metal plates and rubber blankets. All forms of planographic printing: stone lithography, photo lithography, and offset are based on the principle that grease and water repel each other. The image is placed on the printing surface in a greasy substance which attracts the grease and repels the water. The surface first comes into contact with water which adheres only to the non-print ing area then with the greasy ink which adheres only to the area to be printed. Like gravure, offset prints photograph ically and is therefore less sharp and distinct than the magazine productions.*^ It is used in printing maps, labels, et cetera, where flat colors and simple tones are used. 15 The Letterpress or "relief" process is the printing process .most often used by newspapers. This form of print ing was the earliest and is still the most widely used of all printing processes. directly from type. It is the only process which prints The chief difference between gravure and letteriDress is that although both may be on a photo engraved plate, the metal is etched away between the dots 14 f*!pxie Three Basic Printing Processes," loc. cit. Hymers, o£. cit. , p. 263. 76 in the letterpress and the dots etched into the netal, it self, in the gravure process. The dots in the letterpress can be etched larger or smaller whereas the dots in gravure are all the same size. In printing from the type or photo engraved half-tone or zinc plates, the dots or projected parts of the surface make the printed impression. is the reverse. G-ravure Letterpress reproduces: type; photo-engrav ing (line etchings and half-tones in copper and zinc); wood cuts; electrotypes and stereotypes (photo-engraving and wood-cuts made from type); and composition plates (rubber, linoleum, plastics). ° Color process work is reproduced by all three basic processes: photo-engraving and letterpress, offset litho graph, sheet-fed gravure, and rotogravure. To reproduce color subjects, letterpress uses four separate color im pressions; gravure uses only three; and offset, five. The finest letterpress and offset are reproduced on multi-color presses. There are several other processes which give four color effects without four color process plates. The color- graph process uses single half-tone or line cut and prints as many colors as desired.-'-*'7 In the decade just passed, the greatest advances in "The Three Basic Printing Processes/* p . 55. Ibid . , p . 56 . ojd . cit. 77 modern technological achievements in graphic arts history have taken place. The specialized skill plus the inventive genius have produced machine methods and reproduction tech niques. However, all the latest discoveries to aid a faithful reproduction of the artist's efforts are too ex pensive or unsuitable for newsprint. Newspaper color work thus far has consisted of straight line plates. Color half-tones will not reproduce effectively on the quality "to of paper used. In selecting a printer, the advertiser usually chooses one who has specialized in advertising, one who is familiar with sales and methods as well as with printing. Advertising typographers grew out of the need of advertis ing agencies to secure quicker typesetting service than the general printer can give. They were too uncertain of the quality of layout and typography to be had from the printers left to their own devices. There are specialized printers even among the special advertising printers who know sales problems and have a well-rounded organization to serve in all phases of planning and production. modern and sharp. Their tools are They have and replace every three years all types for modern advertising. Sandage, _ojd. cit . , p. 371. Art in printing is 78 dependent upon craftsmanship in the composing r o o n . ^ Art in newspaper. The art for newspaper obviously must conform to certain restrictions. In view of the nature of the newspaper medium, the advertiser makes certain re quirements of the art for this medium. First of all, he wants speed, a quick grasp of essentials. The newspaper is a speed medium, living only a few hours after it has been created. Advertisements must do a job cuickly and thorough ly as some advertisers demand immediate sales from their ?0 newspaper advertisements. A great deal of the responsi bility falls upon the artist. Secondly, the advertiser wants simplicity in the art work as detail is lost in reproduction and the complicated drawing requires too much of the reader. The advertiser reouires that the art attract atten tion. It is the quality that sets the advertisement apart from the competitor’s. Competition is keener in newspaper than any other medium because of all the other elements in the newspaper such as news, stories, sports, by-lines. All of the other advertisements are also competing for atten tion. The art and layout should jump the advertisement out 19 »**pen Tests for Selecting a Printer,” Chicago Advertising and Printing M a r t , n. d., p. 51. 20 Stuart Peabody, "Advertising Art and Newspaper,” Seventeenth Annual of Advertising A r t , p. 96, 1938. 79 of the whole page. How this is to be accomplished ivS up to the artist. Then, the advertiser wants the art to be suitable for reproduction. As nev/stock will not take a fine screen, close work is unsuitable. The artist should know if the newspaper will accept solid blacks because many of the news91 papers will not." Commercial art technique, particularly for newspaper must suit the needs of reproduction. See Table VI. For the artist, the limitation comes in the absence of tone in reproduction. The line block prints in lines and masses, suggests different tones by relative thicknesses of lines. For the papers of poor quality, the cross-hatching must be kept open to avoid clogging. Scraperboard work is effective for newspaper reproducing as the lines are actually drawn white on black. This technique keeps the lines open so that they do not fill with ink.^s ..ash drawings and others which have definite tones can be reproduced by the half-tone process. The blockmaker first photographs the sketch on a sensitised plate. For a half-tone, light is passed through a fine mesh screen which breaks up the subject into minute dots. 21 pp These dots vary in Peabody, loc. cit. . . . James Gardner, Drawing For Advertising (London: Adam & Charles Black Publishers, 1940), p. 8. 80 TABLE VI TECHNIQUES ArlD AEPR0DUCTIGU3* Techniques Reproduction methods Unsuitable reproduction methods pencil, char coal, pastel, chalk, litho pencil when used on stock with fine ?*tooth highlight or regular finescreen copper half-tone for coated or good super stock (coarse screen for newsprint, a small loss of detail) line engrav ing can not be used for fine closely spaced grains pen and ink, woodcut style, scratchboard, reverse drawing, crayon on pebbled board, proof from coarse screen half-tone line engraving on copper for fine work, in zinc where work is extremely fine in shading half-tone "breaks-up ” solid black lines and areas and screens them dry brush, air brush, wash drawing, continued tone medium highlight or regular fine-screen copper half-tone if used on smooth paper, coarse screen half-tone if on newsprint line engrav ing will not reproduce tone values water color or oil painting to reproduce in black and white highlight or regular fine-screen copper half-tone if on smooth paper, coarse screen half-tone if on newsprint line engrav ing will not reproduce tone values combination line and flat tones line engraving with half-tone screen tint negative Ben Day or other shading medium for flat toned areas half-tone overall would screen line work print from dry-point or acid bitten etchings where lines and tone effects are fine, use fine-screen copper half-tone line engrav ing 81 TABL e VI (continued) TECHNIQUES AND REPRODUCTIONS Techniques Reproduction methods Unsuitable reproduction methods colored drawings, water color and oil, crayon or pastel in color two, three, four, five, et cetera, color process de pending on nature of copy and fineness of work drawings using solid color areas or shadings done with lines or dots line engraving for half-tones each printing color produces great variety of tones either solid or shaded to different degrees * Sixth Production Yearbook, p. 54, line engrav ing 82 size according to the depth of tone so that the subject is rendered as a stipple. Half-tone screens are numbered ac cording to the size of dots they produce. Coarser screens are used for cheaper unpolished papers and finer screens are used for papers which will take minute dots. Reproduc tion by this method puts a film of grey over the white areas in half-tones, and the blacks lose some of their intensity. Fine lines lose much of their crispness. 23 Photogravure is the half-tone process adapted for cheap mass reproduction. It is produced speedily by trans forming an ink impression to a rubber roller. This is the rotary offset printing which reproduces tone values from white through greys to black. 24 Artists working for this reproduction allow for a tendency of the dark tones to be come black and lighter tones blurred. Patching or altering in this method is difficult as the margins and white areas must be very clean. Brush drawing offers the advantage of speed and is ideal for newspaper reproduction as most newspaper work is carried out against time. Facility in brush drawing helps the artist to get effects swiftly yet leaves no trace of hasty working. o rz 24 - Brush work with its bold effects and strong, Gardner, loc. cit. * Hymers, o p . cit. , p. 236. 83 clean-edged line shows up well in reproduction. Lamp black is used for this as ordinary Indian ink rots the brush.20 Pen drawing is the technique of the specialist. It is like handwriting, showing the individual character of the artist *s work. The variations in the technique are the variations in the personal outlooks of the artists. How ever, the artist has to remember that this technique in re producing has a few difficulties. The line block tends to thicken the lines and fill up the white spaces between the lines. As the drawing is larger than the reproduced size, the line shading must be kept clean and open. Delicate line work near the cross hatching is possible, but isolated thin lines which pick up too much ink are unduly emphasized. Fine line drawings bite well if drawn on a "not" surface board; but when a modern, sophisticated effect is required, a loose, flowing line on a smooth board is sometimes used. Dry brush work is another technique by which the tone quality can be suggested in line reproduction. quires a good quality board of coarse grain. It re Tiny crannies in the surface remain as v/hite dots after the brush stroke and give a texture similar to that of a lithographic stone. The technique is often suitable for breezy dashing subjects. Dry brush effects are also useful for reproduction on 25 Gardner, loc. cit. 84 polished paper and in simple lithographic color work. Many artists use the white on black technioue which appears as drawings in reverse. They were introduced to give richness and variety among grey type masses of press advertising. They are drawn by the artist in black ink on white board in the usual manner. The blockmaker secures the reversed effect by making plates in the negative so that the block prints black with a white line. Artists exercise caution in Using dense black areas in this work as many newspapers will not accept illustrations that may show through on the other side of the page.2^ Scraperboard is a special board finished with a thick coating of polished chalk. The black masses are drawn on this surface with India ink. When the ink is dry, it is scratched off with a scraper leaving a white line. Sketches made by this means are reproduced by the line pro cess and give good results when reduction to a small size is necessary. Very fine lines and cross hatching are re produced in this treatment. It has a fine flowing line equality and is often used to get imitation woodcut effects. Its novel effect is valuable in advertising. Jlmbossed scraperboard technique uses scraperboards with surface texture to get half-tone effects with line Ibid., p . 13. 85 blocks. In some ways the method is better than half-tone as it gives an added advantage of clean whites and solid blacks. When the sketch is greatly reduced, the half-tone effects are reproduced. For ordinary newspaper work the drawings are made one and a half times as large as the actual reproduction. Wash drawings are like photographs reproduced by half-tone process. production. The photographs often look grey in re By creating a strong composition of solid masses of black and a few definite tones of grey and get ting the blockmaker to deep-etch the whites, the artist can overcome this half-tone greyness. White fashion board is used for this with lamp black and process white. often pen work is used with the wash drawing. Very If the essen tials are drawn in with fine pen line before v/ashing, they can not be lost in reproduction. If the emphasis is to be on the product or something else, it can be drawn in with wash and the background m line. p 7 Although it is rather expensive, this combination is the one often used in fashion wor,k .28 Often used is the line and tint process in which the blockmakers tint pieces of half-tone pattern. Gardner, op. cit. , p. 17. £8 Iiymers, op. cit. , p. 242. It is invalu- 86 able to the advertiser as it is immediately noticed in a newspaper. news print* The open dots are designed primarily for use on The tint is used mostly as a tone area in the background and sometimes introduced as an extra color in the illustration itself. In fashion illustration and simi lar work, tints are often applied to give an impression of cloth texture. The techniques used in newspaper often are dry brush for snappy effects in conjunction with heavy lettering or fine open line where illustrations are dainty in character or intended to be recessive for balance in layout. The cross-hatch technique is used for realism in line. The wash drawing is for realistic wrork when the photograph illustration is impractical. When the illustration is close to that of a competitor, it is important that it be bold and simple. The figures are not posed merely for the decorative effect but dramatize the message or emphasize some selling point. The attention of the reader is influenced by the action of the figures and the direction of their eyes. A line reproduction is required for architectural drawings or settings. These are usually brush drawings. Industrial subjects for trade journals and other poor quality paper need the main element in the design in solid black and white so that if the details are lost in reproduction, the general effect will be preserved. Dull 87 subjects are given pictorial interest by a choice of lively technique that aims at pattern and rich textures. Dry brush is popular for these. An advertising artist is often given the layout m a n fs rough sketch or visual to guide him in subject, composition, and general atmosphere. structions verbally. Other times he is given his in He must know the process to be used in reproducing his drawing. Often he makes the rough the actual size of the reproduction with correct drawing and proportion so that the client can judge the effect. The rough is usually on flimsy paper and mounted on paper or cards with a margin for the client’s comments. The artist does not often depart from the scheme of the rough if it is approved. It is returned with the finished drawing to the client.^ Color advertising in newspapers. A color advertise ment usually has a white space around it because without it, the colors are greyed by the dominating black. Color is used sparingly as too much of it repels the eye and de tracts from the main point of interest. Black accents are used either adjacent to or on colors to give contrast and focus attention on the most important selling point in the p q Gardner, ojd. cit., p. 34. 88 advertisement. Half-tones in color lighter than medium value grey are seldom used. Few lines of copy in red or red-orange are used as this color is tiresome for the eyes. The register is also considered as the artist must allow a sufficient overlap of the darker color. A heavy outline or shading around the color area to a depth of one-sixteenth to one-eighth inch gives the pressman a leeway in making the register. Delicate tints do not require lt.*^-1- The advertiser usually deals only with those engrav ers who know how to make plates or mats for newspaper work. Plates or mats are supplied for each color in the adver tisement. For a full-page reproduction, a plate is used. The wise advertiser orders "deep-etched” pirates for news paper work to be sure of clear lines. ADYHRTISINO ART IN i'AOASINE Magazine as a_ medium. The layman may consider the magazine as the all-important advertising medium because of its color and art work. Actually, in terms of the money spent for space; magazines are third, surpassed by news papers and direct mail. Annually advertisers spend from ^ Printer*s Ink monthly, Llarch 1, 1940, p. 69. ^ -Printer*s Ink, November, 1940, p. 69. 89 §150,000,000 to §250,000,000 for magazine s p a c e . ^ Only those advertisers on a regional or national scale can use the medium effectively and economically. Magazines are not as highly selective of territorial markets as are newspapers. Few serve small areas or are distributed within state boundaries and restricted regions. Magazines select their audience on a basis of consumer groups having particular interests more or less regardless of where they live. The Standard Rate & Data Service divide magazines into four classes: general, agricultural, business, and religious. groupings. These are divided into even more detailed This shows magazines to be highly selective. Magazine circulation selectivity depends upon- the editorial aims and circulation methods of the publishers. The selec tivity of a magazine is important to the advertiser be cause of the wide variations in spending among families as consumers of products. These familiesf varied interests also are of importance m the selectivity elements. The magazine provides an editorial service for the reader and acts as an advertising media for the manufactur er of products and services. More than any other media it realizes the importance of the selectivity factor. It is Sandage, a£. cit.. p. 373. ^ V/illiam B. Carr, "Magazine Advertising/1 The Printing Art, Vol. 68, no. 4, Section D, March, April, 1940. 90 impossible to segregate people into classes of purchasing power through any media other than direct mail and personal selling. The nearest approach to it is through magazines, magazines approach this problem through levels of intelli gence and purchasing power because of the seeming relation between the t w o . Seventy per cent of magazine circulations in this country are distributed among the upper half of the purchasing power of the land. Host of the better magazine circulations are concentrated among the upper three-eighths of the income families who earn from ;1,750 a year up. "54 From, this it can be seen that magazines do not broadcast to the gamut of the American population but assure the adver tiser an audience who can afford to buy his product. The selectivity factor is further analyzed by the terms, "mass” and "class.” These terms are used to describe certain periodicals as to size of circulation, price per copy, and cuality of paper. Those periodicals printed on good paper, sold at a high price, and whose circulation is not forced are considered as "class” magazines. It is as sumed that the higher priced magazine generally reaches a family of higher income. magazines provide a cross-section of a certain type of market. Through them the advertiser is able to locate the person most able to buy his product 34 Carr, loc. cit. 91 in each and every community# accumulation of markets. National circulation is an 35 magazine advertising is not tied up with current event success as is the newspaper. It is occasionally tried, hut the news element is stale by the time it reaches the reader and serves merely as a testimonial. The nature of magazine publication is such that an early appearance of an advertisement after it has been submitted for printing is almost impossible. It takes a great deal of time to run off great nuantities of magazines, prepare the forms, and use color.36 The widespread distribution of magazines requires time to get them from the publishers to distant points. Often the publication is to appear on newsstands simultane ously all over the country. Those magazines distributed near the publisher*s must be held until the distant areas are sup plied. This means that the advertisement must be in the hands of the publisher weeks before it makes its way to the reader. The Saturday Evening Post requires that all copy, plates, et cetera, for two color or four color advertise ments be in its hands eight vteeks before the publication date. 37 The advertisement m the magazines therefore can 35 Carr, loc. cit. 36 Sandage, 3^ Loc. cit. _o jd . cit. , p. 375. 92 not be changed once it has gone to press, /mother disad vantage to the advertiser is that the price quotation can not be given if there happens to be a change. The wide distribution of the magazine makes it impossible to fit the copy to various territorial conditions. magazines are usually printed on good paper that al lows an excellent reproduction of art and color work.^® Half-tones are used effectively for either black and white or color. Some magazines are able to print advertisements in metallic ink in different colors. A recent development is the "bleeding” page which has no white border. A black or colored background extends to the edge or bleeds off the page. Besides the attention value it offers, it pre sents a more attractive appearance and gives the artist more opportunities. The magazine is long-lived, old issues of ten being kept for some time after the new issue is received. This gives the advertisement a greater opportunity for being seen and read. Coupon returns from magazines have lasted as long as four and five years. Many magazines passed on to other people gain supplementary circulation. The read ing habits of the magazine subscriber are favorable to advertising. They are usually not read at one sitting but Carr, loc. cit. are picked up and read at various intervals. The reader is usually not in a hurry and consequently takes time to read the advertisements. He can dwell on advertising he sees and contemplate the things he needs and will buy at a future time. Longer copy can therefore be u s e d . 39 The magazine advertisement carries prestige as it is regarded as authoritative by both dealers and consumers. Its national coverage is even, effective, and able to reach desirable prospects. The graphic presentation of the ad vertising in magazines is limited only by the skill of the printer and engraver. Nowhere in advertising are illustra tions better presented than in magazines. The life of the magazine is a distinct advantage to the advertiser. The magazine’s readers are more homogeneous than those of any other media except direct mail. 40 The magazine medium is inelastic, however. The same message is presented to every one regardless of climatic conditions, local preferences, or prejedices. No reference to the seasons or weathers for timeliness can be made. The closing dates ere often so far away that the conditions have changed by the time the advertisement appears. Maga zines are so numerous that it takes a fortune to carry an 39 Sand age, o jd . cit. , p. 372. 40 Ibid., p. 373. 94 effective campaign in them. The minimum expenditure for a year’s campaign in a national periodical is $50,000.^ The art v/ork and engravings cost so much for magazine advertise ments that they often become a burden. I.'echanical standards are so high that unless the advertiser employs high grade mechanical presentation, the illustration will be unattrac tive and ineffective. The art in magazines. portant factor in common. Advertising media have an im They all, with the exception of radio, appeal to the emotions and the pocketbook through the eye. As people basically believe most of what they see and read, the printed advertisement appeals to the emotion through the illustration and appeals to the reason through logical copy. been seen. This combination is convincing because it has Fine definition of form are possible because of the modern magazine’s excellent printing methods and fine paper stock. Fine color printing is found in the better magazines.4 p During the last few years the world’s leading artists have taken part in the production of class magazine adver tising. They have brought advertising nearer the fine-art level without degrading their own talents. ^ 42 «> P • 380. Carr, loo. cit. As advertising 95 space has grown more and more expensive, the advertiser has grown more and more critical of the art in his advertising. Art is almost invariably associated with the most success43 ful publicity campaigns. ° Various advertising illustration techniques have evolved under the influence of reproduction processes. The art is designed to overcome essential limitations and ex ploit possible opportunities of individual effects. techniques are applied to the specified purposes. The Accord ing to the subject and market the artist chooses his tools, materials, and methods.4:4 Pen, dry brush, wash, and scraperboard techniques are also used in magazine illustrations but are of a finer execution generally than in newspapers. See Figure 1. Offset lithograph and photo-lithograph are in great demand today as they allow a thinner film of ink to be used. presents an opportunity for fine, accurate work. 45 This The artist may use loose brush line and wash technicue to give elegance to m e n ’s fashion illustration. He may use scraper board technique to stress texture and rich contrasts in still life. He may use a thin flexible pen line for the 43 "press Advertising," Art and Industry, 29:98, p. 98, September, 1940. ^ 45 Gardner, op. cit. . p. 22. Kymers, op. cit., p. 267. 96 FIGURE 1 (Reproduced from Chicago Advertising and Printing Mart , p. 110) EIHIHQUES M ID HOUI TO REPRODUCE THEID Pcnol drawing(highlighthalftone,B.is*anipn>ce>N) Wash drawing (highlighthalftone) 1. Pen-and-inkdrawing (lineetching) 4. Dry bru'-hdrawing (lineetching with Ben Day) Combination inkand crayon drawing (line etching) 97 delicacy required in portraying hosiery, perfume, and simi lar goods with luxurious feminine appeal. A large proportion of advertising illustration is still-life for which the artist has developed a variety of techniques. In commercial still-life a faithful likeness of the subject is not enough; the artist must give an im pression of the ideal. If the sketch is reproduced by a line process, it is difficult to build up an idealized at mosphere, particularly in foods. to make them appetizing. They usually need color Much can be done with the rich tone suggestion of the scraperboard.^ Color in magazine. For color work in magazines, the advertising artist chooses fresh colors, gaiety of atmos phere, sparkle of high-lights, and choice of interesting angles. Color is reproduced by half-tone process, by litho graph, or by line blocks. sometimes water colors. Diluted poster colors are used, Any color coxiibination can be re produced by half-tone process with a fair degree of accuracy if there are not too large areas of brilliant color. This process is the one used for illustration work in magazines or booklets. Three half-tone blocks are printed one over another in yellow, red, and b l u e . ^ 46 Gardner, o£. cit., p. 24. 47 I M A - » P- 20 • 98 In short-runs of advertising (500-5,000) hand color ing is sometimes used to meet special requirements. The key plate is printed usually in black either by letterpress or offset. The other colors, aniline dyes and water-colors, are applied by hand through masks to make the finished illustration actually appear hand-colored.48 Hand creations, oils, pastels, and others are usually reproduced "direct" (screen negatives are made on color sensitive plates). Brush marks, grains of rough paper and textures can be held by proper lighting or other means.4^ The magazine is an indigenous advertising medium, into which is poured the largest part of advertising appro priations .50 SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES Not long ago the art director had only a personal taste and intuition to guide him in selecting the kind of illustration which should appear in the advertisement; but within the past few years, a new guiding force has appeared --research. Ivlany methods of forecasting the effectiveness 48 Reba Martin, "Hand Coloring," Sixth Annual Adver tising and Publishing Yearbook, 1.940, p. 32a. 4^ Cordon Aymar, "Selecting the Artist," Sixth Annual Advertising and Publishing Production Yearbook, 1S40, p. 10. 50 "press Advertising," Art and Industry, 23:72, March, 1940. 99 of advertisements before they appear in publications have been perfected. There are a number of innovations in color reproduc tion processes which are of inestimable value to the artist. The "spectroprocess" is a patented process of printing many colors in one run with individual colors created by a single impression without an overprinting. Two or more colors may be overprinted to increase the range of possible color comDinations. Another method, the colorgraph process, gives fourcolor effects without using four-color process plates. It uses single half-tones or line cuts and prints as many colors as desired. The "meinograph" process produces what is known as ’’mecni-color.'1 It is a new process for produc ing color engravings from color drawings or direct from the object. Four different photographic prints are made, one for each color to produce a straight half-tone negative. Cellulose half-tones are made by a screen carried on a sensitized cellulose base rather than on copper or zinc. 5P " MunsellTs system of color has been of great help to advertisers and artists. It is a three dimensional system of color according to hue, value, and chroma. ^ It is a "The Three Basic Printing Processes," oj3. cit., p. 80. 5S Ibid., p. 109. 100 language of color that can he used through writing or tele phoning from city to city for a color without seeing i t . ^ One of the latest experiments whose results will aid advertising is Look*s Brandt Eye camera. Its purpose is to pre-test the reader reaction to editorial pages by photo graphing the movements of the reader’s eyes. It is hoped that certain tabulations will be made possible such as an analysis of the primary areas of attention on magazine pages with a record of the areas first seen. It is also hoped that a comparison of attention and interest in two identical layouts when color is added to only one will be made possi ble. This will be closely related to another analysis, a study of the effect of mass on the attraction and interest value of various areas. The anticipated result of such study is compiled data on the pulling power of specific editorial and advertising appeals. Ilore evidence concern ing headline placement is another study. The Look camera is a specially designed 35 mm. movie camera which directs beams of light against the cornea of the subject’s eyes. The reflection of these beams and their variance as the eyes move in reading the printed ma terial under test is photographed. Such a test applied to Gaunt and E. A. fiercer, editors, I.Iodern Pub licity, (New York: Studio Publishing Inc., 1939-40), p. 29. 101 a number of subjects furnishes an index to the relative interest in the various ideas and elements on the page. It suggests the possibility of using a number of such tests as a guide to laying out somewhat mechanically editorial and advertising pages. Another research study is carried on by the Clark liagazine Advertisement Renorts. --^ --------■■■■■■■■■■»■■!■■■ I ■■ In the marked conies of -•» magazines called ’'percentage copies” a tabulation of the number of readers of each advertisement is shown. They in dicate women readers separately from men readers to show the percentage of readers who have seen the advertisement. From the total percentage of those ’who observed the adver tisement, they compute the percentage of those who are able to identify the advertisement and tell what product was advertised. They also compute the percentages of those who saw the advertisement but misidentified it. The reading percentages record the percentages who read different parts of the text. A relative dollar cost index which provides a means of comparing advertisements of different sizes and of varying costs by reduction to a common denominator is made possible. This whole report is obtained by interview ing readers so there is obviously a certain amount of error. 54 Lord & Thomas Advertising Agency, Research Files. 55 L o c . cit. 102 These experiments are only two of the valuable ones being conducted today. Their contributions to the field of advertising are even now becoming apparent. Advertising has passed the stage of exploitation and the period of quick and easy profits. It now sells more by its intrinsic value than by dramatic appeal. It is being measured with keener regard for results in sales and less in vanity and applause. The advertising success shall in the future be based upon sound analysis and careful study rather than up on a startling new i d e a . ^ 56 Herbert Henry King, Practical Advertising (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1933), Chapter XX. CHAPTER V THE COETRIBUTION8 OF ADVERTISING ILLUSTRATION In this chapter two main conclusions were reached: (1) Advertising contributes economically by (a) promoting industrial growth, and (b) raising the standard of living. (2) Advertising contributes culturally by (a) sponsoring a democratic art, (b) financing circulation of fine arts, (c) promoting educational interests, and (d) promoting laudable living habits and ideals. ECONOHIC CONTRIBUTIONS Industrial growth. The processes of economics are dependent upon human behavior. Individuals managing fac tories and farms are actuated by personal motives and must respond to income. the wishes of the millions who spend the nationT Because of this personal element which dominates everything, advertising is important in business and econom ic development. It stimulates consumer buying, the main spring of industry. It is obvious that the volume of pro duction is governed by the volume of buying and that when production increases, more wealth is created. As the 1,Alfred T. Falk, tfShort Talks on Advertising," Bureau of Research and Education, p. 6, 1936. 104 gifts of nature cannot be enlarged, the only way in which national wealth can be increased is through an increase in production. The works of man can be increased only through greater industrial activity. This takes action. irAdver tising and selling are prime movers in the distribution system.’* They connect operations of production plants and the consumer who buys on a purely personal basis but whose buying affects the whole system, eventually contributing to the growth of national wealth. As advertising influences the consumers to buy and influences one industry to buy from another, it speeds up transactions. This causes pur chasing power to circulate more freely and rapidly than would be possible without the healthful stimulation of ad vertising. The increased rate of activity builds up all parts of the economic system through greater production and rz employment. The net result is a larger national income. There is great economic advantage in having goods made and sold in large volume. It means lower prices and better x^roducts as the big companies are able to carry on scientific research. Advertising, fundamental in building large businesses, has made mass production joossible by in creasing sales volume. Advertising is a medium through 2 Falk, loc. cit. rz ° Loc. cit. 105 which many great companies were enabled to build themselves up.^ In the past forty years advertising has been responsi ble for the success of many national favorites such as Ford, General Motors, Coca-Cola, Budweiser, and Ivory Soap. 5 Advertising contributes economically as a business in itself. The aggregate expenditure of 1,065 national advertisers alone in 1939 in the four extensive media was $345,628,598.® This does not include any of the expense which went into the production of the advertising. This expenditure was the amount spent for space only. Standards of living. Both directly and indirectly advertising helps to raise living standards. It does this by providing the manufacturer with the opportunity for sell ing on a national or international basis. market for articles of mass production. This affords a Hass production means more things for more people; thus the standards of living are raised. 7 It educates the public in efficient buying and in forms them of the cheapest and best markets. It is 4 Falk, ojp. cit. , no. 2. ,rThe Case for Advertising," Nation’s Business, 28:33, July, 1940. p? Expenditures of National Advertisers in 1939, Bureau of Advertising, 1939. 7 Bandage, ojd. cit. , p. 1. 106 responsible for the entire welfare movement, making people dress better, eat better, and even sleep better. It has raised the standard of living by being responsible for the rapid development of many improvements in the art of living. It promotes the kind, of competition that makes progress in the constant striving of individuals in all classes to live better.® Another important reason for our rapid progress in living standards is the enthusiasm with which each industry presents new products to the public. Every new invention is announced far and wride and the manufacturer tells the public how it will make life more pleasant.® Through the medium of advertising, industry is able to display its numerous articles of comfort and culture. Advertising is a constructive influence in awakening and keeping alive desires for social progress and cultivat ing natural ambitions for better ways of living.'*'® CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS Democratic art. Newspapers alone reach an aggregate ® Goode, o£. cit. p. 29. ® Falk, or), cit. t no. 8. Ibid . , no . 10 . 107 population of 113,669,27s.11 ble number of people. magazines reach, an inestima Life magazine alone has a weekly circulation of three million copies whose readers reach the . . IP number of an estimated twenty million. ^ Collier's has a circulation of 14,750,000 and Liberty a circulation of 12,900,000.-*-^ As the population of the United States is 131,669,275,14 it is obvious that only a small per cent of that number are not contacted often by some form of adver tising . Dr. Gallup discovered that advertisements which have no illustrations get 44 per cent less interest from men and 83 per cent less attention from women than those which have ia illustrations. ° Therefore, most advertisements contain art work of some kind. It can be assumed that the majority of people in America are contacted continuously by adver tising art. Advertising art might be called the democratic art of today as it contacts and is understood by the majori ty of people. Because the advertiser, psychologist, and scientist, have given so much time to the research of the 11 See Table V, p. 70. western Advertising, march 1, 1941, p. 4. 13 Ibid., p. 5. 14 K. vv. Ayer & bon, Directory of newspapers and periodicals t 1940, p. 15. -*-^ George Gallup, ojd . cit. , p. 6 . 108 habits, tastes, and characteristics of the consumer, the art used for advertising can successfully reflect the lives and thinking of the American people today. 16 Commercial artists have learned that art and utility are not incompatible. They know that art can be a/oven into the everyday lives of the people, that it can help raise the aesthetic standards of myriads of people that it con tacts. I*7 Peyton Boswell in defense of commercial art said that the crime in art exists when the artist produces an inferior piece of work to meet the demands of the market. He continued by saying that the fine artist is often just as guilty of this as the commercial artist for whereas the latter caters to advertising, the fine artist often caters 18 to a specific museum, school of thought, or critic. The artist in commercial art must always think about his audi ence which is the advertising audience. He therefore works under limitations of form or treatment as severe as those under which the great writers and musicians have created. Often the subject matter is predetermined for him. But 1a Paul Parker, "The Iconography of Advertising Art," HarperTs , 177:80-4, June, 1938. ^ Seventeenth Annual of Advertising Art (New York: Published by Art Director1s Club*^ 1938)’, p. 68. Peyton Boswell, "mammon and the Iluses," Art Digest, 13:3, December 1, 1938. 109 such limitations need not prevent the artist from applying to his work all the qualities of vitality, craftsmanship, and good judgment which are essential to the production of any work of art. 19 With the improvement in methods of re production the only detriment of art in industry is being rapidly extinguished. With the entrance of fine art artists into industry, the aesthetic standing of advertising illusPO tration is reaching new heights.'" Because of the imported abstract art movements of the last decade, fine arts have had a hard time entering into and becoming a part of the life of the masses. Even though these same movements found their way into advertising illus tration, they were made to conform to an understandable form. The painting and sculpture which fill the galleries are not the art forms which reach the general public. vertising art does reach the general public. Ad Its full social significance is difficult to see as it is so new and close to the modern age. Much of it has been rightly condemned for blatant insincerity and cheap sensationalism. 19 VW G-aunt and F. A. Mercer, editors, Modern Pub licity, (New York: Studio Publishing Inc., 1939-40), p. 34. ^ 1940. T,Their Own Fault,” Art Digest, 14:22, September, 110 However, there is much to he said in defense of it.2^ The advertising artist sets out, in response to commercial in ducements to add visual and emotional appeal to any article, any service which the patron washes sold. The fact that he is bringing line, color, and design to many people who would have little contact with them otherwise is justifica tion of the art in itself. Advertising art is a democratic art in that it is a reflection of life today and that it is understood by the masses. It is expressive of modern life. Just as Gothic Cathedrals, miniatures, and altarpieces reflect the Medieval mind, so advertising art reflects the materialistic phase of the modern American m i l i e u . " ^ Advertising illustration is a vital current art form that provides the popular art galleries viewed from the printed page.2^ Use of fine arts. Advertising art by supporting news paper and magazines indirectly finances the circulation of fine arts. But even more directly, it circulates the fine arts as advertising itself. The De Beers advertising cam paign used a series of paintings by top ranking contemporary 2^ Thomas ilunroe, "Art and Y/orld Citizenship,” Maga zine of Art, October, 1938. 22 Paul Parker, loc. cit. 23 s. Yalkert, "Bobri,” Art and Industry, 28:104-9, April, 1940. Ill painters. The campaign started with a one-week exhibit at the Y/aldorf-Astoria hotel in Hew York.^4 The Columbia masterwork record advertisements present fine portraits in color reproduction of outstanding opera s i n g e r s . T h e Dole Pineapple interests, client of N. W. Ayer & Son, also got top French and American artists to paint and draw for 9A their advertising campaigns. Educational interests. In numerous ways, advertising is an agent for the dissemination of culture to the great mass of American population. It finances the three greatest educational media of America; newspapers, magazines, and radio. Advertising educates the public in efficient buy ing and good markets. It increases the knowledge by DrO90 noting sales of books." It keeps the public informed as to the latest styles, newest inventions, discoveries, and imP9 provements .^ 24 "Art for Advertising," Art Digest, 14:10, Septem ber, 1940. Time, March 24, 1941, p. 56. °A P7 "Art for Advertising," loc. cit♦ Falk, o£. cit., no. 15. G-oode, o£. cit. , p. 29. 29 Frank H. Young, Advertising .Layout (New York: Covici Friede, Publishers,1928), p .~21. Laudable living habits and ideals. By education, advertising stimulates desires for better living conditions. It holds up incentives that kindle ambition for success in life. It has helped to raise the standards of public health by its educational influence on personal hygiene and sanitation in the home. It instructs in the selection and *r) preparation of foods and other health matters. ^ Today, the average American standard of living allows for much leisure time. Advertising is an important force for education in the use of leisure time, teaching people that leisure is an indispensable part of life and holding up incentives for attaining it. Advertising suggests in numerable ways of finding enjoyment by picturing sports, amusements, books, travel, and other pleasures. Opportuni ties for recreation and self-improvement are presented for a variety of tastes and i n c omes.^ Advertising spreads news, speeds up production and services. It is a part of today’s way of life— expert de signing, machine production, highly organized distribution, and intensive selling and buying.32 Falk, ^ 0£. cit., no. 15. Ibid., n o . 13. 32 "The Case for Advertising," Nation’s Business, 28:33, duly, 1940. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS In analyzing the principles and practices of adver tising, it was found that advertising, as an industry em ploying many thousands of persons and involving millions of dollars, is a valuable economic factor in the world today. As an adjunct to selling, it has increased the material wealth of the nation and promoted industrial growth. By informing the consumer of facts concerning pro ducts and services, advertising has sold products and ser vices .which have materially raised the standards of living. Advertising illustration, as a part of advertising, has made these contributions to society. Because of the intensive research and analysis made by advertising of consumer, products, markets, and media facts, advertising and advertising illustration are a fair ly accurate reflection of the lives and thinking of the American people today as a whole and in selective groups. Because the successful advertising illustration does reflect the thinking of the times, and because it contacts and is understood by the vast numbers of the Nationrs populace, advertising illustration can be considered an important democratic art form. No attempt has been made to evaluate the aesthetic standing of this art. The most that can be 114 said in this regard is that the field of advertising is attracting recognized fine artists. With the almost-daily scientific discoveries in m a terials and reproduction methods, the advertising artist is able to constantly raise the standards of his work. Many advertisers have become "art-conscious" to the extent that they support the editorial distribution of fine arts. Advertising illustration is an educational factor in today’s social system, informing the public of historical and current events, of inventions and discoveries. This art by entering the lives of the American people, aiding the growth of a greater economic system, and raising cultu ral standards has become an essential and desirable force in the social system of today. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Artists1 Counsellors, there and How to Sell Your Drawings. New York: Artiste1 Counsellors Publishers, 1937. 35 pp. Bradshaw, Percy V . , Art in Advertising. School, n. d., 496 pp. Brooks, Henry 1:1., The Olden Time Series. and Company, 1886, 34 pp. London: Press Art Boston: Ticknor Dell, John and 1. 11, Watson, Layouts For Advertising. Chicago: Frederick JA Drake & Company” 1988. 195 pp. Gardner, dames, Drawing for Advertising. London: Adam & Charles Black Publishers, 1940. 44 pp. Goode, Kenneth K . , and Harford Powel, dr., What About Advertising? New York: Harper 5c Brothers, 1929, 339 pp. Hopkins, Claude C ., liy Life in Advertising. 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