A study of pupil personnel in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles elementary schoolsкод для вставкиСкачать
A STUDY OF PUPIL PERSONNEL IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND PASO ROBLES ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education by Alexander Bruce Hawk June 1941 UMI Number: EP54036 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP54036 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 c^- T h is thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the * C h a ir m a n o f the ca nd id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presented to a n d accepted by the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . Guidance Committee .P....®,..Hull.............. Chairman D. Welty Lefever Irving R. Mellbo TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE THE PROBLEM........... '.......... Statement of the p r o b l e m .................. 1 Analysis of the problem.......... 2 Need for this s t u d y . .............. 3 Method of procedure and sources of data. . . 4 Related investigations .................... 5 Pasadena survey. . .................... Sacramento survey. . . . . . . II. III. 1 6 .......... 7 Unpublished Masters’ theses................ 9 Organization of thesis .................... 11 LOCATION AND ORGANIZATION.................... 13 Purpose of c h a p t e r ......... 13 San Luis Obispo school district............ 13 History of San Luis Obispo County........ 14 Paso Robles school district................ 16 Summary of chapter........... 17 AGE GRADE PLACEMENT OF PUPILS................ 20 Purpose of c h a p t e r ........................ 20 The age-grade study........................ 20 Retardation in San Luis Obispo schools . . . 24 Retardation in Paso Robles schools ........ 26 Causes of retardation...................... 28 CHAPTER IV. V. PAGE Pupil age at achool entrance.......... 29 Summary of chapter.......................... 30 MENTAL STATUS OF THE PUPILS .......... 32 Definition of t e r m s ........................ 3^ Mental Age.............. ~5k Intelligence quotient .................... 3^ Intelligence grade placement..........* . . . 3^ Mental ability.............................. 35 Mental age grade placement in San Luis Obispo 35 Mental age grade placement in Paso Robles . . 38 Summary of chapter......................... 41 PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT.............................. 44 Purpose of the chapter...................... 44 Purpose of the achievement 44 testing-program. . Tests used................................ 45 Time tests were g i v e n .................... 47 Range in grade placementin San Luis Obispo. • 48 Achievement in San Luis Obispo elementary s c h o o l s .................................... Range in grade placement Achievement in Paso Robles Summary of chapter. VI. 50 in Paso Robles . . 52 elementary-schools 54 ................... PUPIL PROGRESS PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose, of chapter.................. . 58 62 62' CHAPTER PAGE Principles of promotion policies. . .. ......... 62 General causes of non-promotion................ 66 Causes of non-promotion in San LuisObispo. . . 69 Causes of non-promotion in Paso Robles........ 70 Relation of educational achievement and mental .............. -ability in San Luis Obispo. 73 Relation Of educational achievement and mental .................. ability in Paso Robles. 73 Comparison of pupil progress in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles elementary schools. . . . . . . . Summary of chapter. VII. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION Purpose of chapter. VIII. .-............... 83 OF THE COURSESOF STUDY . . .. 81 87 ..................... 87 Evaluation of the courses of study.............. 87 Legal requirements of the course of study . . . 92 Length of school day................ •#*... 92 Time allotments in Paso Robles.................. 97 Summary of chapter. . . • • • • . . • • . • • . . 99 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMEND ATIONS. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . ......... 102 Purpose of chapter................ 102 Resume of p r o b l e m .............. 102 Location and organization of school districts studied.......................... 102 CHAPTER PAGE Age-grade placement of pupils, . . . . . . . . . . Mental status of the pupils. ........ . . . . . . 106 Pupil achievement. 108 Pupil progress problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . The courses of study. BIBLIOGRAPHY............................... 104 109 . 112 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. PAGE Age-Grade Distribution in the San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools. . . . II. ................ Age-Grade Distribution in the Paso Robles Elementary Schools...................... III, 25 * Intelligence Grade Placement of Pupils in the San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools........ IV. 37 Intelligence Grade Placement of the Pupils in Paso Robles Elementary Schools............ V. 27 39 Composite Grade Placement of all San Luis Obispo Schools Derived from Progressive Achievement T e s t s ................ , . . . VI. 49 Relationship in Achievement above or below.the norm in San Luis ObisporSchools as derived from Progressive Achievement Tests........ VII. 51 Composite Grade Placement of Paso Robles Elementary School derived from Progressive Achievement Tests...................... VIII. 53 Relationship in Achievement above or below the . norm in the Paso Robles Schools as derived from Progressive achievement Tests IX. 55 Deviation of subject gradesnorms from ability norms in San Luis Obispo Elementary schools 74 TABLE X. PAGE Deviation of Subject Grade Norms from ability norms in Paso Robles elementary schools. . . XI. Evaluation of Courses of study in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles................. XII. 90 94 Weekly Time Allotments in San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools. . . XIV. . Suggested Schedule of weekly subject time allotments. .’............. XIII. 79 . . . . . . 96 Weekly Time Allotments in Paso Robles Elementary Schools......... 98 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM A growing school population and a general expansion of the school’s educational program has steadily increased the cost of education. The public is becoming more critical regarding the school, its expenditures, and its products. Survey techniques have been established whereby it is possible for school administrators to evaluate the school program so that the school administration and the public may know if they are receiving value commensurable with the moneys expended. Sears, in reference to school surveys said: The assumption is that there can be no intelligent administration, supervision, or teaching without: (1) a reasonably scientific determination of aims and procedures; followed by (2) a critical evaluation of results obtained; together with (3) an interpretation of these results for future policies.1 In the present study an effort is made to apply the above criteria to the schools of a given area; namely, San Luis Obispo and'Paso Robles. Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study to ascertain in so far as possible: (l) the educational needs of the pupils of grades two to six inclusive in the 1 Jesse B. Sears, The School Survey Mifflin Company, 1925), p T U . ‘ , (Boston: Houghton 2 elementary schools of San Luis Obispo City and Paso Robles, as shown by the age-grade placement, the mental status, the subject matter' achievement, and the progress through grades of the pupil personnel; (2) to set up criteria for the analysis and evaluation of the curricula of these cities to determine what provisions have been made to meet the educa tional needs of the pupils; and (3) to make recommendations, based upon best current educational practices, for the improvement of conditions as determined by this study. All other administrative problems, important as they are, have been excluded from this study. Analysis of the problem. From an analysis of the problem at hand it was apparent that the answers to the following questions were essential before a solution to the problem was possible. 1. At what age do the pupils of the elementary schools in San Luis Gbispo and Paso Robles enter school? 2. What is the range in age within the several grades or groups? 3. How well are the pupils of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles placed in relation to mental ability? 4. Were the pupils' subject matter achievements satisfactory in relation to their mental abilities? 5. What proportion of the pupils are classified as failures by the schools? 6. What policies determine pupil progress through schools? 7. Are the schools providing experiences which challenge the ability of all the members of the group? 8. What recommendations are suggested by best educational practices for the improvement of conditions found by this survey? The problem of pupil needs involves, therefore, a study of age at school entrance, the age-grade placement, the mental status of the pupils, subject matter achievement survey and a study of pupil progress through the grades and of non-promo tion. A critical analysis of the courses of study was neces sary to determine how well they are meeting the apparent edu cational needs of the pupils. Recommendations for improvement of conditions must come from an evaluation of the study and a comparison with acceptedly better educational materials, methods, and techniques.. Need for this study. There is no doubt that San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles school districts could benefit from a study of this kind. It has been impossible to find any record of such an investigation ever having been made in these cities, and inadequacies may be revealed by a survey which would be of value to the administrators of both school districts. Current educational trends indicate that the elementary schools are going through a period of rapid change, especially in regard to methods of instruction and courses of study. .Because of these recent changes in educational practices and the necessity for periodic check-ups for greatest efficiency, it is felt there is a definite need for this study at the present time to determine to what extent the schools in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles have adopted modern procedures. Method of procedure and sources of data. In this study are included the elementary schools, grades two to six in clusive, in the cities of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles. There are.three San Luis Obispo schools with a pupil personnel of 856 and two Paso Robles elementary schools with 535 pupils included in the survey. The first step was to find the age- grade placement and the age at school entrance of the pupils as furnished by school records and the building principals. From the data assembled, tables were designed to present graphically these pertinent facts. The intelligence quotients and mental age-grade place ments were found by carefully checking the results of the tests given to all pupils included in this investigation. The subject matter achievements of the pupils were ascertained by the use of achievement tests. are listed in Chapters IV and V). (These tests 5 The extent of pupil failure was obtained by a careful examination of each students' permanent record card. The curricula were then checked by criteria set up by Stratemeyer and Bruener^ to determine to what degree the curricula were adequate for the needs of the pupil personnel. Belated investigations. A great many school surveys have been made throughout the United States in recent years. It has been the purpose of this study to present some surveys of outstanding importance to indicate the procedures and tech niques used by these authorities; then to give brief summaries of recent unpublished.u-.mas ter s ' theses related to the problem at hand. There is little doubt that two of the school survey specialists most noted today on a national scale are George D. Strayer and Nickolaus L. Engelhardt, professors in educa tion, Teachers' College, Columbia University.2 These two men have-been developing techniques and making school surveys throughout the United States for many years. One of their latest surveys was made at Ridgefield, 2 Florence B. Stratemeyer and H. B. Bruener, Rating Elementary School Courses of Study (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers' College, Columbia University 1926). 5 Engelhardt, Nickolaus L., and George D. Strayer, (Ridgefield Press 19377* A Report of a Survey in Ridgefield, Connecticut 6 Connecticut, in 1937. -Although this study was not as com prehensive as some they have made. and. is -concerned primarily with present school buildings, school curriculum, and school building needs, it is a fine example of the survey technique. That section of the Ridgefield, Connecticut survey dealing with the school curriculum was of particular value to the present study. Outstanding California surveys: 1. Pasadena survey. A survey was made of the Pasadena City Schools in 1930 under the direction of Hull and Ford,^ professors in education at the University of Southern California. This was a very comprehensive survey which investigated the entire Pasadena educational system. It was revealed in Chapter XIII that there is a gradual increase in the number of pupils who are over-age and under-age as they progress through school. The amount of retardation and acceleration is relatively small. Pasadena elementary schools were found to rank second in percentage of normal aged pupils when compared with schools in eighteen California cities. progress through the grades. Chapter XIV deals with pupil In the elementary schools it was found that 66 per cent had made normal progress, 27 per ^ Osman R. Hull and Willard S. Ford, Survey of the Pasadena City Schools (Los Angeles, California: CalTfornia Taxpayer’s Association, Incorporated 1931) Report 119. cent had made slow progress, and 7 per cent were accelerated. Chapter XV is concerned with the promotional policies. It was found that four and three tenths per cent of the elemen tary pupils failed. The greatest rate of failure occurred in the first grade where 11.5 per cent of the IB and 14.1 per cent of the LA pupils failed. Beyond the first grade the percentage of failure was found to be very small. Chapter XVI is a study of the relationship between achievement and ability. A comparison of achievement and mental ability of the pupils in three representative schools found the most effective teaching of formal subjects in the middle grades. Achieve ment in.the upper and lower grades was less in keeping with the mental ability of the pupils. The present writer found the Pasadena survey extremely helpful for suggested techniques and tables. 2. Sacramento survey. The Sacramento City Schools' survey was made in 1928 under the direction of Sears,^ pro fessor in education at Stanford University. Sears was one of the first educators to see the value of the school survey and is widely known for his work in, this field. The Sacra mento survey was a most comprehensive study of the entire city schools' problems. Chapter XI is concerned with the 5 Jesse B. Sears, Sacramento School Survey, Sacramento Board of Education, 1928. vol. II. 8 elementary school curriculum. Among other things, the survey revealed that the curriculum was lacking in a definite state ment of minimum essentials, that there were inadequate pro visions for individual differences, lack of library materials, too few supplementary readers, and many books obviously out of date. Many of the courses of studies needed revising to meet adequately the needs of the pupils. In Chapter XVII pupil progress through the grades is discussed. The major findings in this chapter were: (1) that there was a wide range in the age of pupils entering school, average age close to six years; (2) that too early school entrance tended toward greater failure; and late entrance showed little if any value toward school progress; (3) that the age-grade study showed 33 per cent of the pupils re tarded, 57 pez* cent making normal progress, and 10 per cent accelerated; and (4) the progress through school investiga tion found that 29 per cent of the children had repeated a gra,de section while 13.3 per cent had skipped work. Chapter XVIII revealed the results of the study of pupil ability and achievement. The study showed that: (l) the Sacramento children were well up to standard in ability, (2) spelling was a half year above standard, (3) arithmetic was slightly more than one year below standard, (4) reading was about one year below standard in rate and comprehension, (5) there was wide variability in achievement between schools, 9 and (6) some of the reasons for the poor showing undoubtedly included poor teaching, poor supervision and poor administra tion. The Sacramento survey furnished an excellent example of survey technique and was of particular value to the study at hand for its age-grade study and the pupil progress through school investigators. Unpublished Masters’ theses. A significant study was made by Gilbert in San Gabriel, California in 1932-1933.^ In Chapter III of the above study, placement and progress of pupils is discussed. This investigation revealed that 14 per cent of the pupils in San Gabriel were retarded, 66 per cent making normal progress, while 20 per cent were under-age or accelerated. the pupils. Chapter IV is a study of the mental status of A greater spread of ability in any given upper grade than the lower grades and a consequent over-lapping in adjacent sections was revealed. The mental ability for the district as a whole was found to be satisfactory. A discussion of pupil subject matter achievements is found in Chapter V. A progressive increase in the range of grade placements’from the lowest to the highest grades was indica ted. Achievement in the several subjects approached normal 6 Carl E. Gilbert,"Analysis of Pupil Classification in' San Gabriel, California.” (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934). 10 in the first four grades, but in the low sixth, seventh, and eighth grades there was a decided decline in practically all the subjects. The San Gabriel survey was of interest because of its similarity to the present study. The findings and conclusions furnished data with which to compare the results of this study. A survey of pupil achievement and ability in Ventura, 7 California by Stewart' concludes that achievement medians lag behind those of general ability in grades four, five, and six, a total of twelve school months, but surpass those of ability in grades seven and eight, a total of nine school months. Recommendations are made that more time be devoted to spelling, literature, history, and language usage. It is also recommended that school and county norms be established yearly. The study of Pupil Achievement and Ability in the Rural Schools of Ventura County was presented because of its simi larity to the study at hand. An analysis of the elementary pupil personnel in Wins low, Arizona, by McKinney^ concluded that the retardation of 7 L. R. Stewart, ”A. Study of Pupil Achievement and Ability in the Rural Schools of Ventura County,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 1934). ^ Willie T. McKinney, ’’Analysis of the Elementary Pupil Personnel in Grade Placement in the Washington and Lincoln Schools of Winslow, Arizona,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937). 11 the English-speaking children "was normal hut a high percen tage of the Spanish-speaking group was retarded, A high degree of correlation was found to exist between retardation and slow progress, indicating that age at school entrance had little effect on the whole number of retarded cases. The mental status and pupil achievement studies revealed that the mental ability of the pupils as a group is average and the achievement in each grade approximated the norm, Although the present study does not include schools with excessive foreign language population, the Winslow, Arizona survey was of interest because of the contrasting data presented on the progress through school of the Englishspeaking and Spanish-speaking children. Organization of thesis. Chapter I of this thesis has presented the problem, the method of procedure, and related investigations, The first step in the presentation of the study is a brief description, of the communities and the schools where this study was made which is given in Chapter II, In Chapter III, by means of an age-grade and age-atschool-entrance study, some of the causes of maladjustment of the pupils are revealed. The second phase of the problem was to determine the mental status of the pupil personnel. This part of the study is presented in Chapter IV. In Chapter V are presented data which clearly indicate pupil achievement. In Chapter VI is completed the study of the needs of the pupils by showing the relation between educational achieve ment and mental ability by presentation of a pupil progress study, and a discussion of non-promotion and its causes. The question of how well the curricula meet the apparent needs of the pupils is studied in Chapter VII. The importance of any study is not only to find what is wrong, but also to suggest methods, materials, and tech niques which will lead to the improvement or solution of the problem. In chapter VIII, the final chapter of this thesis, summaries of the problems and the recommendations for their improvement are given. An annotated bibliography of sources of material,found extremely helpful in this study,is presented at the conclusion of the thesis. CHAPTER II LOCATION AND ORGANIZATION Purpose of chapter. The purpose of this chapter is to present the background and local conditions in the cities of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles which, it is hoped, will aid in understanding the significance of the results obtained in this study. Oftentimes, factors which on the surface do not seem important or are overlooked entirely have a very important bearing upon administrative and teaching problems in particular and pupil achievement in general. With these thoughts in mind, examination is made of the school districts included in this survey to obtain information to serve as a background for further study. San Luis Obispo school district. The city of San Luis Obispo is located on the coast Hi-way (U.S.Hi-way 101) approximately 190 miles north of Los Angeles and ten miles inland from the coast at Port San Luis, which is the second largest port in the world for the shipping of oil, and which, until the development of the railroad made San Luis Obispo one of the most important cities in the Central coast section of California. San Luis Obispo had its beginning on September 1,1772 when Father Junipero Serra founded the mission there. The Ik village grew up around the mission and became an important link in the Padres' chain of missions because it was almost the half-way point and was accessible by water as well as the overland route. Jespersen^- in his History of San Luis Obispo County credits the mission Fathers at San Luis Obispo as having made one great contribution to mission architecture by intro ducing the red tile roofs in 1782. Heretofore, the roofs had been made of dry tule During Indian attacks blazing arrows were fired into the dry tule with disastrous results to buildings and supplies. The Padres, weary of continually patching up their buildings, turned their ingenuity to the manufacture of tile to replace the inflammable tule, and these proved so successful they were soon adopted by all the missions. Thus to the blazing arrows of the Indians may we give thanks for the beautiful tiled roofs so characteristic of Spanish Mission architecture. The City of San Luis Obispo was incorporated in 1863 and for many years was a typical old California town. Many Americans came to live in the village but it still remained Spanish in nature. Early Spanish influence is still shown by a large Mexican population, the names of the streets, and the architecture of the buildings. 1 Chris N. Jespersen, editor, History of San Luis Obispo County (United States of P merica 19397~P•"17. 15 The climate of San Luis Obispo is very mild due to the proximity of the Pacific Ocean and the city does not ex perience extreme temperatures so common in that part of California farther inland. The average rainfall is slightly in excess of twenty inches per year. There is very little industrial development in San Luis Obispo; therefore, the city depends upon being a rail road division point and upon farming, dairying, truck farming, and the above mentioned oil shipped from Port San Luis and Cayucos. The schools of San Luis Obispo are organized on a six-three-three basis. There are three elementary schools, one junior high school and one senior high school. As this study is concerned only with the elementary schools, our attention will be focused on these three. The three elementary schools Fremont, Emerson, and Hawthorne, include a kindergarten and grades on through the sixth. The average .approximates eight hundred twenty-six pupils, but inasmuch as this study does not include the kindergarten or the first grades, the number of pupils will be considerably less. The elementary schools’ population was made up of eighty-five per cent whites, seven per cent Mexican, five per cent Swiss-Portuguese, and three per cent Japanese and Chinese. The school population is more or less stable because 16 of the agricultural occupations of most of the parents. The one exception to this is that part of the school population whose parents are engaged in the oil industry. However, the number of pupils effected is small and offers little or no administrative or teaching problems. Paso Robles school district. The city of Paso Robles is located near the lower end of the Salinas Valley approxi mately half way between Los .Angeles and San Francisco on United States Hi-way 101 and eleven miles from the northern boundary of San Luis Obispo County. The town grew up around a group of hot sulphur springs which since the earliest times have been recognized for their remarkable meidicinal properties. The hot springs are still regarded as very valuable, and the Exchange Club is attempting to have a hot springs foundation of the west established there. Paso Robles, a town of twenty-eight hundred population, is situated in the eastern edge of the coast range. The rolling hills and fine valleys and plains of the surrounding country lends itself to wheat growing, cattle raising, dairy ing, and almond orchards from which a majority of the people earn a livelihood. The climate is one of extremes, varying from as low in winter as ten degrees above zero to as high as one hundred fifteen degrees in summer. The rainfall varies from eight 17 inches in dry years to as high as thirty inches with an average yearly rainfall between ten and twenty inches. The Paso Robles Elementary School District became a union district in 1934 when the Oak Flat, Estrella, Bethel, Encinal, and San Marcos school districts voted to join in a union district. The union district forms the second largest elementary school, numerically, in San Luis Obispo County. The enrollment for the 1939-1940 school year was five hundred eighty-five. There are three elementary schools in Paso Robles: one includes a kindergarten and the first five grades; a second is an intermediate departmental school comprising the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades; and the third is a small opportunity school of two teachers to which are sent a few children, who, it is felt, would do better with a special curriculum. The average enrollment per class approximates thirty pupils. As would be expected in an agricultural community of this type, the school population is very stable. During the almond harvest in the early fall there is a slight increase in the enrollment caused by children of migrant workers, but there are not enough of these pupils to cause any administra tive or teaching problems. The population in the Paso Robles Elementary Schools is made up of ninety per cent whites, six per cent Mexican, 18 and four per cent Swiss-Portuguese and. others. As has been stated before, only grades two to six are,included in this study. The children in the Opportunity School are not included in this study because most of these pupils have physical language, mental or speech handicaps which prevents their participation in a traditional curriculum. It is of impor tance to note that many of the Mexican pupils are sent to the Opportunity School until they have overcome their language difficulties or have completed the fifth grade. For this reason many of the Mexican pupils will not be included in this study. Summary of chapter. The purpose of this chapter has been to give the reader some of the background of the communi ties included in this study so that a clearer interpretation of the findings can be made. It has been stated that San Luis Obispo is the trading center for a large agricultural and dairying district. There are three elementary schools of which only grades two to six are included in this study. The school population is made up of eighty-five per cent white, seven per cent Mexican, five per cent Swiss-Portuguese and three per cent Japanese and Chinese. It has been brought to the attention of the reader that Paso Robles Union Elementary District is the second 19 largest numerically in San Luis Obispo County. The community is the trading center for a large agricultural district. The school population is stable, consisting-of ninety per cent white, six per cent Mexican and four per cent Swiss-Portuguese, and others. It has been noted that the children of the Opportunity School, including many of the Mexican pupils are not included in this study because of the special type of work done in that school. CHAPTER III AGE GRADE PLACEMENT OF PUPILS Purpose of chapter. The purpose of this chapter is to present the age of the pupils in grades-two to six in the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles Schools in relation to the grade in which they are working, A study of this kind is made to determine the percentage of pupils making normal, retarded, or accelerated progress through school. After the age-grade data has been compiled, it does not necessarily present a complete picture. The causes of retardation and pupil age at school entrance are necessary before the infor mation obtained can be fully interpreted. The age-grade study. The importance of age-grade data to present school administrators has been increased due to a change of policy relating to pupil progress through school. From earliest colonial times until very recently the emphasis of the schools was placed upon the mastery of subject-matter by all students regardless of ability, and failure to do this meant a repetition of the grade until the work was completed. Under such a plan a high percentage of retardation was in evitable. In recent years, progressive school administrators have realized the gross injustice of such a plan and are attempting to adjust the school curricula to the needs of the 21 individual pupil. A concise explanation of the newer philosoP phy as given by Henry J. Otto reads as follows: A plan which is perhaps more feasible and more in harmony with the purposes of public education is to . . . provide teaching procedures and a type of class room organization adapted to the educational needs of’ the pupils. After all, one of the major functions of a primary school is to provide a wholesome environment in which children may grow up. The quantity of academic skills and acquired during the elementary school career and the exact time they are acquired is of secondary importance that every child be surrounded with, and have an opportunity to develop in, an environment in which right attitudes and ideals may develop.1 The age-grade data therefore is very important because from this it can easily be determined to what extent the newer philosophy is being used inaa given system. Sears, in reference to age-grade studies says: They provide a valuable index as to the efficiency of the curriculum and are also essential in determining the cost*of instruction;2 To be of any value to the school administrator, the data contained in any school survey or study must be accurate. The ages used in this age-grade study were compiled as of September first, 1939# They were taken from test material, checked by the teacher with her' register, and re-cheched with •the permanent records in the office to eliminate any errors. In making an age-grade study it is assumed that most 1 Henry J . Ottto, "Promotion of Pupils in Elementary Schools," The American School Board Journal, 87:20-21 July 1933. 2 Jessie B. Sears, The School Survey Mifflin Company, 1925), p.~2F8. (Boston: Houghton 22 pupils enter school at approximately the same age, which is determined by law in California as six years of age. If a school has semi-annual promotion, children may enter school if they'will, be six within three months after school opens. If there are no mid-year starting classes children who will be six.within six months of the opening day of school are permitted to enter. The difference in age of school entrance allowed by law between schools having semi-annual promotions and those using annual promotions makes a different standard necessary when comparing two such school systems. In schools having mid-year beginning classes, a one year span is considered normal; thus a pupil who enters the lower half of the first grade at the age of six, or six and one-half years, is considered to be of normal age for that grade. The normal age group for each subsequent half grade is a corresponding half year older. Children who are younger than the normal age are considered to be accelerated while those older than the normai age are said to be over-age or retarded. In schools using annual promotion, a differential of one and one-half years is considered normal by most authori ties, Thus a child entering the first grade at five and one- half, six, or six and one-half would be considered to be of normal age. For each succeeding grade the normal age would be one year older; that is, the normal age for the second 23 grade would be six and one-half, seven, or seven and one-half years of age. After the age-grade data has been compiled it is important to have some standard to use for comparison. While there is no nationally accepted standard and school adminis trators do not agree on.what the average percentage of • accelerated, normal and retarded progress should be, Heck suggests: That for putposes of comparison, ten per cent accelerated, fifty-two per cent normal, and thirtyeight per cent retarded is perhaps an average situation,3 A, compilation made by Cooke^ of age-grade data from fifty-nine school surveys made from 1908 to 1928 including twenty-four rural, thirty-one city, and four foreign countries reveals that between 1908 and 1928 there was a decrease in the per cent of pupils who were of normal age for their re spective grades. This decrease in the percentage of normal pupils corresponds approximately with the increase in the percentage of pupils accelerated for their respective grades. There was scarcely any fluctuation between 1908 and 1928 in the percentage of retarded pupils. The composite result of all these age-grade studies 3 Arch 0, Heck, Administration of Pupil Personnel (Boston: Ginn and Company, I929), p. 377’*" ^ Dennis H. Cooke, ,fA Study of School Surveys with 'Regard to Age-Grade Distribution,- Peabody Journal of Education 8:259-266, March, I93I. 24 shows that twenty-one per cent were accelerated, forty-eight per cent were of normal age, and thirty-one per cent were re tarded. The fact that two hundred ten thousand pupils were /included in these studies and they were made in many sections of the country indicates that these figures could be used as a standard for compairson. Retardation in San Luis Obispo schools. The age-grade study in the San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools is presented in Table I. In the compilation of this composite table it was found that the three elementary schools revealed approxi mately the same percentage of acceleration and retardation. It was- evident that the administration through the Superin tendents office had been unusually uniform. It was noted that variation in retardation between the schools in San Luis Obispo ranged from approximately twenty-nine per cent in one school to forty-three per cent in another. It was found that the school with the highest percentage of retardation had the lowest per cent of acceleration. Variation in acceleration between the three schools was rather small, ranging from approximately four per cent in the lowest to eight per cent in the highest. San Luis Obispo is to be congratulated on the uniformity of its administrative policies affecting the age-grade status of the pupils. A study of Table I, a composite of all the San Luis TABLE I AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION IN THE SAN LUIS OBISPO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Grades 2-B 2 -A 3-B 3 -A 4-B 4-A 5-B 5-A 6-B 6-A 2 W 18 T o “~ 7 17 14 "T<T 6 2 1 1 2 7 “2<F“ 14 "To~“ 4 4 1 1 7 "TF~ 15 3 “25“ 20 7~ ’4 5 3 1 3 3 2 2 1 “T 3 ~ 14 8~ 4 3 3 1 6 ~2B‘“ 20 10 6 2 3 1 1 7 “~2T“ 20 “T T “ 10 5 3 1 1 3 “T F 8 IT 8 2 2 2 3 1 2 31 42 60 50 59 54 54 65 58 58 32 31 17 5 3 5 3 1 58 650 4 24 30 43 370 217 1 2 “T T ” 13 3~ 3 5 1 2 69 49 72 55 69 48 85 44 81 2 47 20 0 31 18 9 43 20 7 31 17 3 46 20 1 29 18 7 48 30 2 30 12 8 41 32 _ _ _____ _ __ _ _ ' _ 630 _ 2.90 68.12 29.98 63.27 36.73 12.50 59.72 27.78 12.73 56.35 30.91 _ _ _ _ 4.35 ■ 2.08 66.67 60/42 28.98 37.50 , 8.24 56.47 35.29 4.55 68.18 27.27 9.88 30.62 39.50 6.90 41.38 51.72 .83 .73 .44 26 Obispo Schools, disclosed that, 6.83 P©** cent of the pupils were accelerated, 58,73 per cent were making normal progress, and 34 ,44 per cent of the children were retarded, "When these figures were compared to those presented by Heck^ as a fair standard for purposes of comparison, it was evident that, while there was much room for improvement in this respect in San Luis Obispo, it compared very favorably with the average standards now in use. It was noted from Table I that of the 217 pupils retarded, 146 were retarded a year or less, further indicating that a majority of the students in the San Luis Obispo elementary schools were working at or near the level in which they should have been according to their age* Retardation in Paso Robles Schools. The results of the age-grade study in the Paso Robles Schools are presented in Table II. It was revealed from this study that I9 .6I per cent of the pupils were retarded, 76.86 per cent were making normal progress, and 3.53 per cent of the students were accelerated. The study also revealed that of the fifty pupils who were retarded, forty-one were retarded one year or less. Of the nine pupils who were accelerated all of them were accelerated six months or less. It was noted with satisfaction from this study that more than 96 per cent of the pupils in 5 Heck, op. cit, p . 377. 27 TABLE. II AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION IN THE PASO ROBLES ELEMENTARY' SCHOOLS Age 2 3 Grades 4 5 6 Total 11 15 29 16 16 32 19 29 24 27 22 ■\4 6 2 3 6.6- 6.11 7.0- 7.5 7.6- 7.11 8.0- 8.5 8.6- 8.11 9.0- 9.5 9.6- 9 . H 10.0-10.5 10.6-10.11 11.0-11.5 11.6-11.11 12.0-12.5 12.6-12.11 13.0-13.5 13.6-13.11 14.0-14.5 11 15 14 .1 2 1 Total 44 52 44 53 62 255 0 40 4 0 39 13 0 35 9 ■ 1 43 9 8 39 15 9 196 50 44 52 44 53 62 255 PERCENTAGES 0 0 1.89 75.0 79.55 81 .13 .25.0 20.45 16.98 12.90 62.91 24.19 3.53 76.86 19.61 Accelerated Normal Retarded Total Acc. Normal Redtarde 0 90 .91 9 .09 13“ 15: 9 9 2 1 1 5 21 9 "■"T" 7 1 — 1 8 19 16 6 3 8 20 19 .. ¥ ' 6 2 3 28 the Paso Robles Elementary Schools were working at or within one year of the grade in which their chronological age would place them. The figures presented in Table V indicated that insofar as the age-grade study is concerned, the Paso Robles Elementary Schools were fa;r above the standards used for comparison in such studies. Causes of retardation. There are many causes of retardation in the schools, a great many of which are factors beyond the control of the school. Six common causes of re tardation given by Reavis^ are: (l) ineffective habits of work, (2 ) personality difficulties, (3 ) deficiencies in previous training, (4 ) physical defects, (5 ) mental disability, and (6 ) psycho-physical defects. Of the six reasons given above, the first one is of greatest importance and one which the schools can do much to eliminate* If the proper motivation is supplied, if the course of study is of vital interest to the pupils, and if differentiated assignments are used, each child should de- . velop an interest in the work and should be kept working up to his mental ability. Deficiencies in previous training is another given cause for retardation in school. While it is important that /r ° W. C. Reavis, Adjustment in Junior and Senior High School (New York: D.C.Heath and Company, I9S7'), PP. 11^"-1X9. ■ 29 children learn the essential fundamentals, it is felt by many educators that too much stress has been planed on the mastery of subject matter. It has been said that it is not how muc|i is taught but how well. If each teacher takes her pupils where she finds them in the courses of study and guides them forward as far as time and their mental abilities will permit, this old time-worn cause for retardation will disappear. Another important cuase of retardation in school is late entrance in school. This factor is of great importance, particularly to the elementary school, yet it is beyond its control. No age-grade study would present a full picture of retardation in any school until a study has been made of the age at school entrance of the pupils of that school. Pupil age at school entrance. A careful check of the • permanent records of the San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools revealed that of the 217 retarded children, 46 or 21 per cent of those retarded had entered school late or had remained out of school for one or more semesters. The remaining 171 pupils or 79 Per cent of those retarded were found to have repeated .one or more semester!s work. In Paso Robles it was found that, of the 50 pupils whom the age-grade study had reve&lpd as retarded, 28 children or 56 per cent of those retarded had repeated one or more semesters of work in other schools prior to their enrollment in the 30 Paso Robles Schools, 8 pupils or 16 per cent of those retarded had repeated one.years1 -work in the Paso Robles Schools, and 14 children or 20 per cent were retarded due to late entry in school or withdrawal from school for a year due to illness.' It was determined from the above data that retardation in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles Elementary Schools was not excessive, and 28 per cent of the latter were due to late entry in school or to temporary withdrawal due to illness or causes beyond the control of the school. Summary of chapter. It was found from this age-grade study that; first, 34.44 per cent of the pupils in grades two to six in the San Luis Obispo City Schools were retarded, 58.73 per cent were making normal progress, and 6.83 Per cent were accelerated; second, that retardation in the several grades varied from 27.27 per cent in the five A to 51.72 in the six A; third, of the 217 pupils found to be retarded 46 or 21 per cent were retarded because of late school entry; and fourth, 171 children or 27 per cent of the total enrollment had repeated one*or more semesters of the school work. While the per cent of retardation in the San Luis Obispo dementary schools com pared favorably with the average school system, it was indi cated that the number of pupils repeating grades or sections thereof could be reduced by a change in the administrative policies which would limit non-promotion to only cases where 31 it is certain that the child will benefit most by repeating the grade and by changing the courses of study to meet the needs of a greater number of the pupils, thereby eliminating the cause of a majority of the retardations. The age-grade study in the Paso Robles Elementary Schools revealed: first, that 19.61 per cent were retarded, 76.86 perh cent were making normal progress and 3*53 Per cent were accele rated; second, that retardation by grades varied from 9*09 per cent in the. second grade to a high of 25 per cent in the third grade; third, that of the 50 pupils found to be retarded, 28 had repeated one or more semester1s work in other schools before attending school in Paso Robles and Ilf pupils were re tarded due solely to late entrance in school or absence for a year due to illness; fourth, that 36 or 10,20 per cent of the total enrollment was retarded due to repetition of one year’s work or more; and fifth, that 8 pupils or only 3 .Ilf per cent of the total enrollment was retarded due to repetition of a year’s work or more in the Paso Robles elementary schools. The results of this age-grade study indicated that the percen tage of pupils retarded in the elementary schools of Paso Robles was exceptionally small. It was recommended to the superintendent of schools that the administrative policies, which have made such a fine record possible, be continued in an attempt to reduce still further the number of pupils re tarded. It was found that six of the common causes, of retarda tion in the United States were (1) ineffective habits of work, (2 ) personality difficulties, (3 ) deficiencies in previous training, (4 ) physical defects, (5 ) mental disability, and ' (6 ) psycho-physical defects. It was recommended that those causes of retardation over which the school has any control should be studied carefully with a view of eliminating as many as possible, thereby reducing the number of retarded pupils to a minimum. CHAPTER IV MENTAL STATUS OF THE PUPILS. Purpose of the chapter. It. is the purpose of this chapter to present the mental abilities of the pupils In the elementary schools of San Luis Obispo’and Paso Robles as indicated by the results obtained from the California Test of Mental Maturity,1 Form A, Primary and Elementary Battery. The results of the test will also furnish information to determine whether pupils were making satisfactory progress through school, their educational achievements and whether the courses of study were adapted to the needs of the pupils. These matters are presented in following chapters. The California Test of Mental Maturity was chosen first, because past experience in using the tests has been satisfactory second, they were devised and standardized by California educa tors and therefore should be more applicable to a California school situation; third, because the achievement tests used elsewhere In this thesis were devised by some of the same men and should therefore be better for comparative purposes; fourth,, because this test gives three mental ages and intelli gence quotients; namely, of total mental factors, language factors, and non-language factors; and fifth, it was felt that 1 Elizabeth T. Sullivan and Others, California Test of Mental Maturity, Southern California School "Books LepositoryT 34 the diagnostic and analytical values of such a test would be of great help to the local school administrators and teachers after this study had been made. Definition of terms. In.order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation of the test results and to avoid explana tions later in the chapter, it was thought to be better pro cedure to define the terms to be used in the diiscussion to follow. Mental Age (M.A.) The M. A. is a basic concept in the measurement of capacity to learn. It is derived from the test score of an intelligence test and is defined as intelligence or mental maturity which is equal to the average intelligence or mental maturity of a particular chronological age (C.A.) group. Thus a mental age of eighty-four months means mental maturity equal to the average of those who are eighty-four months old chronologically.2 Intelligence quotient. (I.Q.) The I.Q. is the ratio between mental age and chronological age. A. student eight years old (chronologically) who has a mental age of twelve years' would have an I.Q. of one hundred fifty The M.A. indicates the level of mentality while the I.Q. reveals the rate of mental growth. An I.Q. of one hundred fifty indicates a rate of maturation fifty per cent above average.3 Intelligence Grade Placement. The intelligence grade placement is the mental age transmuted in terms of grade place ment and indicates the grade level in which the childs* mental age places him. ? Ernest W. Tiegs, Tests and Measurements in the Im provement of Learning (Boston: Hough ton MifTITn Gompanv7T939) pp. 30 -jr. 3 Ibid., p. 3 1 . 35 Mental Ability. This is a term practically synonymous •with mental age and is used herein to indicate the ability to accomplish school tasks assigned by the teacher. Wilson and Hoke, write that: Mentality may be defined as .the inborn capacity for acquiring intelligence. Intelligence as commonly under stood represents the extent to which an individual can adjust himself to his environment. The intelligence of an individual is conditioned on two factors: first, his mentality, and second, his environment. An appropriate environment is necessary in order that an individual may acquire intelligence commensurate with this ability.4 Mental sge grade placement in mental ages used in this study were San Luis Obispo.The obtained from the California Test of Mental Maturity Form A,. In order to reduce scores to a common basis, andto a form better adapted to comparison, it was decided to convert the mental ages into intelligence grade placement. The use of the term grade placement in this study represents the grade and the month where the child’s mental ability places him. Results are shown on the basis of a ten month school year. Thus, if a pupil has an intelligence grade placement of four and two-tenths it shows that hfe has an average ability of a pupil in the fourth grade and second month. The grade placement of the 528 San Luis Obispo pupils ^ Guy M. Wilson and Kremer J. Hoke, How to Measure (Hew York: The Macmillan Company, 1928), P.~3T7. 36 •who completed this test is shown in Table III. It was observed that there was a distribution of five grades in the Two B grade ranging from six-tenths to 5*1!-. Ifl- spite of the wide distribution the median for the class was 2.4 with a norm of 2.2 It was found that the 65 pupils in the Two A presented a range in distribution of five and one-half years with a median of 2.8 and a norm of 2.7* The Three B class included 56 pupils with a distribution of five grade placements with a median of 3*5 and a norm of 3*2. The Three A group of 67 children had a distribution of six grades ranging from 1.2 to 6.6 with a median of 4.0 and a norm of 3*7* • Both the Four B and the Four A, classes had a range in distribution of five and one-half grades. The former had a median of 4.5 and a norm of 4.2, while the latter presented a median of 5*0, and a norm of 4.7* It was observed that except for a few individuals on either extremes, the majority of the pupils in these two grades were fairly well grouped. The Five B included 51 pupils and showed a distribution of six grades. Several pupils were considerably below standard with the result that the median fell one month below the norm of 5*2. The Five A class presented a range in distribution of seven and one-half years caused by three pupils on the higher extreme and four pupils on the lower extreme. median for the group was 5.6 with a norm of 5.7. The TABLE III INTELLIGENCE GRADE PLACEMENT OF PUPILS IN THE SAN LUIS OBISPO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Intelligence grade Placement 2 -B 2 -A. 3-B 3 -A 4-B 4 -A 5-B 5 -A 6 -B 1 1 4 2 — 6 -A 1 2 1 2 4 6 -pp. 9-9.9 9.0-9.4 8 .5-8.9 8 .0-8.4 7.5-7.9 7.0-7.4 6 .5-6.9 6 .0 -6.4 5.5-5.9 5.0-5.4 4.5-4.9 4.0-4.4 3.5-5.9 3.0-3.4 2 .5-2.9 2 .0 -2 .4 1.5-1.9 1 .0 -1 .4 0.5-0.9 2 5 7 11 11 9 7 1 1 2 3 8 7 11 8 14 9 1 1 Total 54 65 56 67 42 40 51 39 64 50 2.4 2.2 2.8 2.7 3.5 3.2 4.0 3.7 4.5 4.2 5.0 4.7 5.1 5.2 5.6 5.7 6.6 6.2 6.3 6.7 Median Normal 1 1 4 10 15 5 8 13 1 4 2 11 11 10 11 7 6 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 9 8 ir~ T “ 4 1 l 1 3 3 6 9 T~ “Tf 1 4 1 1 1 1 5 6 5 7 8 4 1 1 2 2 6 1 6 8 2 5 2 1 1 5 8 8 7 7 “F “ 2 7 3 3 5 5 7 1 2 2 1 * Total 6 4 2 8 15 22 33 26 36 53 58 59 55 39 38 43 20 9 3 528 38 The Six B class included 64 pupils who presented a range in distribution of seven and one-half grades. This extreme spread was due to six pupils with very high grade placements and two with rather low grade placements. median for the class was 6.6 with a norm of 6.2. The The six A. class presented a distribution of six and one-half grades with a median which was .4 months below the norm of 6 .7 * The intelligence grade placement is one important check used to determine if pupils are working in their proper grade level. It was observed from a study of Table III that a majority of the pupils were well placed. However, there were on the extremes enough pupils who of necessity presented teaching and administrative problems. Unless these pupils were given special consideration in the classroom actitities, they probably could have been more advantageously placed in another group. Mental age grade placement in Paso Robles. The mental ages used in this study were obtained from scores made on the California Test of Mental Maturity Form A. The mental ages were reduced into intelligence grade placement because it was felt that these scores would form a better basis for compari son and would give a better indication as to proper grade placement. In Table IV there is presented the grade placement of 39 TABLE IV INTELLIGENCE GRADE PLACEMENT OP THE PUPILS IN THE PASO ROBLES ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Grade Placements 10.0-10.9 9 .0 - 9.9 8 .0 - 8.9 7 .0 - 7.9 6 .0 - 6.9 5 .0 - 5.9 4.0- 4.9 3 .0 - 3.9 2 .0 - 2.9 1 .0 - 1.9 Totals Median Norm Grades 2 3 4 5 6 Totals 1 1 1 1 10 24 33 44 35 33 9 1 2 9 “T3~ 31 2.6 2.2 1 10 13 4 11 9 lo TT TT” 5 5 ■ 7 4 3 38 37 40 .II" 1 3.3 3.2 4.5 4.2 1 10 _I r TT~ 7 l 3 1 5.1 5.2 45 6.0 6.2 191 40 the 191 pupils of Paso Robles elementary school ■who completed the test. This number was considerably less than it should have been but was unavoidable due to extended epidemics and long and numerous absences which made it impossible to give the tests until such a later time as to preclude their use in this study. Inasmuch as these absences were from all grades it is not probable that they would have changed the results to any great extent. There were thirty-one pupils in the second grades included in the study and, although there is a distribution of three grades, the median was .4 higher than the norm of 2.2. It was also noted with interest that all but six scores were found to be within one year below or above the class median indicating that those pupils were well placed in their present grade. The third grades presented a distribution in grade place ment of four years, but except for four pupils on the extremes, the class- was well grouped with a median of 3*3 and a norm of 3.2. The fourth grades of thirty-seven pupils had the same distribution as the third grades, with-four pupils on each extreme and the remainder of the class well grouped. The median for the fourth grades was three-tenths higher than the norm of 4.2. The fifth and sixth grades both had a distribution of eight years due to four pupils, three with very high grade placements and one very low. It was noticed that as the grades advanced the spread became greater with the result that the -medians for both grades were slightly under the norm, .1 in the fifth grade and .2 in the sixth. Inasmuch as the intelli gence grade placement is one criterion used to ascertain if pupils are properly placed, it was indicated fromthe results shown in Table IV that except for a very few cases on both extremes, the pupils were working at the proper grade levels. The modern school recognizes the wide distribution of mental abilities within any given grade and attempts to meet the needs of those pupils below and above the class average by means of differentiated assignments, projects, and other activities designed to challenge the initiative and ability of every pupil in the class. Summary of chapter. The mental status of the pupils in the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles City Schools was de termined by the use of the California Test of Mental Maturity, Form A, Primary and Elementary Batteries. These tests were used because they were easily given and scored, past experience in using them had proved satisfactory, the tests gave three mental ages and intelligence quotients instead of one, and it was felt that the diagnostic value of these tests would be of great help to the local school administrators and teachers 42 after this study had been completed. In order to reduce scores to a common basis and to a form better adapted to comparison, the mental ages were con verted into intelligence grade placements. The intelligence grade placement was used in preference to mental ages because it gave a broader view of the entire mental statuscproblemtby presenting additional information on pupil progress through school,, educational achievement, and whether the courses of study were adapted to the needs of the pupils. It was concluded from this study of the intelligence grade placements of 528 pupils in the San Luis Obispo ele mentary schools, that there was a range in grade placements in each half gradeoof from five to seven and one-half grades. The extent of this range seemed excessive in view of the fact that each grade had an A add B section. In spite of the excessive ranges in Intelligence grade placements, it was found that all grade sections with the exceptions of the Five. B, Five A, and Six A were above the norm. There was a general trend toward a greater range in grade placements in each succeeding grade section. It was concluded from this study that a majority of the pupils in the San Luis Obispo Schools were well placed in their present grade and that much of the excessive range in intelligence grade placements was due to a considerable number of pupils with extremely high and low in telligence grade placements. It has been recommended to the *3 school administrators in San Luis Obispo that special attention be given to those pupils with extremely high intelligence grade placements. It was felt that many of these students might profit by a special promotion and in this way the ex cessive range in intelligence grade placements with its atten dant teaching problems would be reduced. A study of the intelligence grade, placements of the pupils in the Paso Robles Elementary Schools revealed; first, that there was a range in grade placements of from three grades in the second grade to eight grades in the fifth and sixth grades; second, the medians for the second, third, and fourth grades were above the norm and the medians for the fifth and sixth grades were one and two months below the norm respectively; third, there was a general tendency toward a greater dispersion of intelligence grade placements in each succeeding grade; and fourth, with the exception of a very few individual pupils on both extremes, the pupils in the Paso.Robles elementary schools were very well placed in their present grade. It was recommended that the two pupils in the fifth and sixth grades with extremely high intelligence gradeplacements receive special attention to assure that their su- ' perior mental abilities are challenged..- CHAPTER V PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT ' Purpose .of the chapter. It-was'the purpose of this chapter to' analyze the pupil achievement of the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles Elementary Schools as indicated by the results obtained from standardized achievement tests. The test battery used was organized to measure the five major fields of the courses of study; namely, reading vocabulary, reading, comprehension, arithmetic reasoning, arithmetic fundamentals, and language. The five major fields are subdivided into several sub-tests for diagnodtic purposes. It is realized that subject achievement is only one of the goals of the modern school and that no standardized•tests have been devised which will accurately measure some of the more desirable aspects of education, such as correct work habits, proper attitudes, and personality development. Until the time that such tests are devised and enjoy widespread use throughout the schools of the country, the subject tests will of necessity remain the most important medium used in comparing scholastic achievements of pupils within a given grade or' school, or for comparison between school systems. Purpose of the achievement testing program. It has been said that a school is no better than its. weakest teacher. 45 Excellent buildings, high salary schedules, and elaborate courses of study are only indications that every effort is being made to give the pupils as. many educational advantages as possible; but the only accurate method .of ascertaining the success of a school is through scientific checks such as standardized tests. Strayer reports that: Accurate accounting for pupil needs demands objective measures of the status of all the boys and girls in the system both as to their progress through school, and as to the individual adjustments that have been made for them.l Tiegs, in summing up the services of measurement con cluded that: The major purposes of measurement are (1) to aid the teachers better to direct learning activities by locating and analyzing learning difficulties, and (2) at certain points along the way, to make valid appraisals of the success of pupil-teacher efforts, . The fact that many measurement devices are not perfect and that others are relatively undeveloped does not justify a continuance of traditional atti tudes and wasteful practices. Diagnostic and appraisal testing supplant relatively uncertain and often erroneous impressions with accurate and useful information.2 Tests used. The choosing of a battery of achievement tests for school use involves the consideration of such factors as validity, ease of giving and scoring, reliability, number of forms, cost, and how well it adapts itself to the local 1 George D. Strayer, Educational Opportunities in Holyoke (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 19507T P •206. 2 Ernest W. Tiegs, Tests and Measurements in the Im provement of Learning:(Boston: Houghton Mil11lin Companv.“T939 ). pTTin . 46 school program. The Progressive Achievement Tests, Form A. devised by Tiegs and Clark-* were used in this study, the Primary Battery in grades two and three and the Elementary Battery in grades four to six. inclusive. These tests were chosen-not only because they met the requirements stated above and in addition offer a profile chart and other diagnostic and analytical values, but because the intelligence tests used elsewhere in this study were devised by some of the same authors. Therefore, it was thought the two batteries used to gether would give more reliable results. The authors describe the significant features of the tests as follows: 1. It is organized to test abilities and skills which are included in the objectives of education for these grades, and which are of extreme importance as the toold of further learning. 2. It is based upon the results of scientific studies in curricula and on the most progressive curricula of these grades now in use in some of the outstanding educational systems. 3. It provides for a diagnostic profile which reveals . graphically the pupil’s actual achievement in relation to normal achievement for his particular grade placement; and it provides in addition for those with unsatisfactory achievement a diagnostic analysis of approximately eightydifferent elements which may be responsible for learning difficulties. This analysis is accomplished by indicating which particular test items reveal each type of difficulty. 3 Ernest W. Tiegs and Willis W. Clark, Manual of Directions, Progressive Achievement Tests (Los* Xhgeles', California: California Test Bureau, I93TT* p. 1. ^7 4. Its organization and standardization provide for a variety of information, including the customary survey or inventory results, both for the test as a whole and for major divisions of the fundamental skills; for grade placement in "the skills as a whole, as well as five major fields; and for relative achievement in nineteen sub divisions of the five major fields. 5. While providing the usual survey or inventory results, the test is intended to be primarily of immediate prac tical value to the teacher in revealing which pupils are ahhieving satisfactorily, and for determining the parti cular type of remedial work necessary for those who are experiencing one or more of the eighty different types of learning difficulty.1!Time tests were given. When this study and comparison of the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles Schools was decided upon, it was agreed that to make the results as valid as possible, the test would be given two months after- the begin ning of school. This plan was followed, although the tests were not given at exactly the same time due to the fact that the San Luis Obispo Schools opened three weeks before the Paso Robles Schools. The tests in Paso Robles Elementary School were given by the writer, who has-had. experience in the administration of tests, especially those used in this study. It was arranged that no teacher would score the test results of her own pupils. The tests were then rechecked and tabulated, by ^ Tiegs and Clark, op. cit., p. 1. 4&; clerical help and the principal. Every effort was made to avoid any errors in the scoring and tabulation of the- scores. The tests were administered in San Luis Obispo by Mrs. Dorothy Francis, who has charge of all the testing in the schools of that-city and has had wide experience in this field. The tests were scored, rechecked and tabulated by expert statisticians available at that time. Range in grade placement in San Luis Obispo. The range in the total g^ade placement in the San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools is shown in Table V. The table showed a spread in grade placement in the Two B of three years, with a norm of 2.3 and a median of 2.5. The Two A class had a spread of two years with a norm of 2.7, and a median of 2.9. The Three B had a two and one-half years dispersion, a norm of 3«2,and a median of 3*4* The Three A. class indicated a spread of three and one-half years, and a median two months below the norm of 3*7* The Four B had a dispersion of three and one-half years, a norm of 4.2, and a median of 4.6 while the Four A showed a spread of four years, the norm was 4.7, the m e dian 5.2. The Five B and the Five A both had a dispersion of four years, the norm for the former was 5.2 with a median of 5.4 and a median of 5.9* The Six B had a spread of six. and one-half years, the largest in the schools, the norm was 6.2 while the median was 6 .3 . The Six A indicated a dispersion 49 TABLE V COMPOSITE GRADE PLACEMENT OF ALL SAN LUIS OBISPO SCHOOLS DERIVED FROM PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENT TESTS 1939-1940 Grade Placement 2B 8.5-8.9 8.0-8.4 7.5-7.9 7.0-7 A 6.5-6.9 6.0-6.4 5.5-5.9 5.0-5.4 4.5-4.9 4.0-4.4 3.5-3.9 3.0-3.4 2.5-2.9 2.0-2.4 1.5-1.9 1.0-1.4 Total Median Norm 3 10 —34 25 JB 4 11 29 15 14 3 49 72 5 17 ~ZT~ 3A Grades 4E 55 5TT 3 2 11 4 5 2 20 14 16 ” 6 7 14 “19 ^ . 4 ~Y*T~ 4 1 3 IT" 5 1 9 15 28 TI 15 4 3 1 48 86 - 55 1 4 5 16 9 ' 4 3 1 6E 55 3 1 3 10 5 10 7 16 "17 11 17 'TIT 4 4 ' 4 6 3 1 3 2 1 1 4 1 69 2. 5 2. 2 2.9 2.7 3.4 3.2 55 3.5 3.7 69 4.6 4.2 5.2 4.7 5.4 5.2 43 5* 9 5. 7 81 6.3 6.2 58 6. 5 6. 7 50 of five years with a norm of 6.7 and a median that fell below the norm two-tenths months or at 6.5* It is evident from the data presented that with two exceptions, namely, the Three A and the Six A, all the classes in the San Luis Obispo elementary schools had a median above the norm, and these two classes only fell below the norm two, months. It was noted that with the exception of the Two B and Six B classes, there was a tendency toward a greater dispersion in grade placement as the classes progressed through fechool. Two pupils in Six B and one in Two B were responsible for those two classes showing a greater spread than the following half grade. Ahhievement in San Luis Obispo elementary schools. In Table VI is presented a summary of San Luis Obispo achieve ment in the five subject tests included In the Progressive Achievement Battery. It was noted with special Interest that the achievement in all grades was well above the norm in reading vocabulary and reading comprehension and at the norm or above for all grades in language. It was obvious that the poorest achievement /was made in arithmetic, particularly in fundamentals and to a lesser degree in reasoning. In fundamentals there were seven half grades that were below the norm from one to three months, while there were three half grades which were from one to four months below the norm in 51 TABLE VI RELATIONSHIP IN ACHIEVEMENT ABOVE OR BELOW THE NORM IN SAN LUIS OBISPO SCHOOLS A.S DERIVED FROM ' PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENT TESTS 1959 - 1940 — 1 Reading Grade Vocabulary 6a . 6b 5A 5B 4A 4B 3 A, J>& 2A 2B .3 + •6+ 1.2+ 1.3 + 1.0+ .9+ •2+ .6+ .5+ .5+ Reading Arithmetic Arithmetic Comprehension Reasoning Fundamentals •2+ .4+ •9+ .9+ 1.0+ ■1.0+ •2+ .7+ .3+ .5+ .4.1.3 + •4+ .3+ .5+ .2.1+ Norm •2+ .18.104.22.168.3+ .1.3.1Norm •4+ Total for LanguageTests •2+ .3+ .5+ .5+ .7+ •4+ Norm .3 + •4+ .5+ .1.2+ .3 + .4+ •6+ .5+ .1+ #2+ •2+ •4+ NOTE: This table should be read as follows : The 2B class was five months above the norm in reading vocabulary, and five months above the norm in reading comprehension etc., See Table V for summary of grade placement scores in San Luis Obispo Schools. 52 arithmetic reasoning. This apparent general lack of achievement in arithmetic fundamentals was due, it was thought, to the fact that the tests were given early in the school year when much of the time was being devoted to a review of the previous year’s work. As a result, the pupils were not sufficiently familiar with the new year’s work to make a good score on the new fundamentals. It was shown in the tetal for all the tests that all grades were above the norm from one to six months, with the exception of the Six A. which was one month below the norm. It was apparentfrom a study ofTable Cl that the achievement in the San LuisObispo Elementary Schools is well up to or above standard. Range in grade placement in Paso Robles. •in the The range total grade placement ofthe Paso Robles pupils is shown by grades in Table VII. The data revealed that there was a spread in grade two of twenty-three months with a norm of 2.2 and a median of 2.2. The dispersion in the third grade amounted to two years six'months with a median of 3.4. and a norm of 3.2. Grade four had a range in grade placement of two years and three months with a- norm of 4.2 and a median of 4.0. The range in the fifth grade extended from 3.9 to 7.4. The median of the class was 5*6 and the norm was 5.2. The dispersion in the sixth grade was the largest of all ranging 53 TABLE VII COMPOSITE GRADE PLACEMENT OF PASO ROBLES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DERIVED FROM PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENT TESTS -i$40 - Grade Placement 9.5-9.9 9.0-9.4 8.5-8.9 8.0-8.4 7.5-7.9 7.0-7.4 6.5-6.9 6.0 -6.4 5.5-5.9 5.0-5.4 4.5-4.9 4.0-4.4 3.5-3.9 3.0-3.4 2.5-2.9 2.0-2.4 1.5-1.9 1.0-1.4 Total Median Norm 2 3 2 10 8 2 6 25" .E 4 5 5 15 -I T 8 5 1 6 8 15 I T 7 4 1 6 2 6 6 13 ~TT. ”'"■11 4 ’T 2 1 1 .19 7 2 45 2.2 2.2 52 3.4 3.2 44 4.0 4.2 53 5.6 5.2 63 6.2 6.2 54 from 3.4 to 8.0 with a norm of 6.2 and a median of 6.2. It was indicated from a study of Table VII that, with a three month exception in the third grade, there is a gradual increase in the range of grade placements in each succeeding grade. ■ The range in the second grade is one year nine months. In the third grade the range is two years three months. The range in the fourth grade decreases to two years three months and then increases sharply to three years, five months in the fifth and four years, six months in the sixth. Achievement in Paso Bobles elementary schools. The achievement of the pupils in the Paso Bobles Elementary Schools in reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, arith metic reasoning, arithmetic fundamentals, and language is shown in Table VIII. It was Indicated from this table that in reading vocabulary the fifth grade was above' the norm one year while the sixth grade was four months above the grade norm. The fourth, third, and second grades were three and two ifcLQhths below the norm. The failure of the second, third, and fourth grade,pupils to attain the norm was due, in part, to the fact that Paso Bobles has a ls,rge rural union school district with many children living so far from town and library facilities that practically all their reading exper iences are received at school. This handicap can be partially overcome if the children in the primary grades are given as 55 TABLE VIII RELATIONSHIP IN ACHIEVEMENT ABOVE OR BELOW THE NORM IN THE PASO ROBLES SCHOOLS AS DERIVED FROM PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENT TESTS 1£3'§-1^ 0> Total for Reading Arithmetic Arithmetic Reading Grade Vocabulary Comprehension Reasoning Fundamentals Language Tests 6 5 k 3 2 •4+ 1.0+ •3.2.2- •2+ •9+ •2+ •9+ Norm .3.4+ .3.3 + Norm •3-+ Norm .1.6+ .3+ .3.6+ .2.2Norm NOTE: This table should be read- as follows: the second grade was two months below the norm in reading vocabulary and at the norm in reading comprehension, etc., See Table VII for summary of grade placement scores in Paso Robles schools. Norm A+ .2.2* Norm 56 many easy books to read as time permits. The additional reading experiences gained in this way should help bring these grades up to grade norm in reading vocabulary. It was noted with'satisfaction .that in reading compre hension all grades were at or above the norm. The third and fifth grades were nine months above the norm, the fourth and sixth grades were two months above the grade norms, and the second grade was at the norm. The achievement in arithmetic reasoning was fairly satisfactory with the second grade at the norm, the third and fifth grades three and four months above the norm respectively, and the fourth and sixth grades three months below grade norm. The failure to achieve in arithmetic reasoning in the fourth grade might be explained by the fact that there is very little arithmetic given before the third grade and less in the third grade than formerly, with the result that fourth grade children at the beginning of the year have so many fundamentals to learn and re-learn that they have difficulty doing any problem that does not clearly indicate the process to be used. This difficulty could be minimized if more thought problems were given and the problems were correlated with the children's experiences in the classroom, playground and in the home. In arithmetic fundamentals the situation was much better. The third grade was six months above the norm, the second grade three months above, the sixth grade one month above, and the fifth grade at the norm. The fourth grade was one month below the norm for the grade. As stated before, achieve ment slightly below or at the norm may be due to the fact that the tests were given two months after school started and review work may have prevented much progress on the new processes. This is particularly true in the fifth grade where long division is the new fundamental for the first semester. This is often a stumbling block for many pupils until they have become familiar with the new processes involved. The language achievement was the least satisfactory of all the tests with the fifth grade six months above and the second grade at the norm. The third and fourth grades were two and the sixth grade three months below the norm. While the degree below the norm for these three classes was not excessive, it was indicated that perhaps a larger time allot ment should be given to language study with special emphasis given to correct language usage. The pupils are only in school five or six hours out of the twenty-four and their, language. usage outside the classroom largely determines their achieve ment in this field. The stressing of correct language usage in school may bring a greater carry-over in playground, home, and out of school activities. The achievement for the battery of tests was on the whole satisfactory. - The fifth grade made the best score being four months above standard, the third grade was two months above grade norm while the second and sixth grades 58 ■were at the norm. The fourth grade was the only on& to fall below the norm, being two months below. The fact that this class was slightly below the norm in every test but reading comprehension indicated that either the class as a whole had a lower mental status, a large number of pupils were not achiev ing up to their ability, or that during their school experiences the fundamentals as measured by these tests had not been properly learned. This problem is discussed further in Chapter VI when the relation between mental ability and achievement are analyzed. Summary of chapter. The achievement of the pupils of the elementary schools of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles was determined by the use of the Progressive Achievement Tests, Form A. These batteries of tests were used because of previous successful experience with them and because the intelligence tests used in connection with this study were devised by some- of the same authors. The primary Battery was used in grades two and three and the Elementary Battery in grades four to &x inclusive. Every effort was made to make the test results as reliable as possible. The range in grade placements in the San Luis Obispo Schools ranged from two years in the Two A class to six and one-half years in the Six B. There was a tendency toward a greater range in grade placements in each succeeding grade. I 59 The medians for all classes were above the norm for the grade with the exception of the Three A and Six A classes. Both of these groups were two months helow the norm. Pupil achievement, as revealed by the tests used,was indicated to be satisfactory in the' San Luis Obispo elementary schools. It was noted that achievement in all grades was well above the norm in reading vocabulary and reading comprehension and at the norm or above, for all grades in language. The poorest achievement was made in arithmetic, particularly in fundamentals and to a lesser- degree in reasoning. There were seven half grades below the norm from one to three months in fundamentals and three grade sections which were below the norm from one to four months. It was shown in the total for all tests that all grade sections, with the exception of the six A, were from one to six months above the norm. The Six A 1 class fell one month below the norm for the grade. The range in grade placements in Paso Robles was found to be two and one-half grades in the second grade, three in the third, two and one-half in the fourth, four in the fifth, and five and one-half grades in the sixth. With the exception of the fourth grade there was a greater dispersion in grade placement in each succeeding grade. The median for all classes was at or above the norm except in the fourth grade which fell two months below the norm. So It was indicated from the test results that pupil achievement in Paso Robles was satisfactory. The results of all the tests disclosed that the fifth and third grades were well above the norm, the second and sixth grades were at the norm and the fourth grade two months below the norm. In reading vocabulary the fifth grade was one year above the norm, while the’ sixth grade was four months above the norm. The fourth grade was three months below the norm and the second and third grades fell tw:o months aunder the norm for their grades. It was pointed out that Paso Robles is a large rural union district with many pupils living so far from library facilities that practically all their reading experiences are gained in school. It was thought that this factor might partially account for the scores made in reading vocabulary in the second, third, and fourth grades. All grades were at or above the norm in reading compre hension. The scores on this test seem .to substantiate the point made regarding the low scores made in the reading vocabu lary test, i.e., more easy reading. The achievement in arithmetic reasoning was fairly satisfactory with all classes at or above the norm except the fourth and sixth grades which fell below the norm three months. In arithmetic fundamentals the achievement was much better with all classes at or above the norm with the exception of the fourth grade which fell below the norm one month. 61 It was revealed that the achievement in language was tie least satisfactory of all the tests. The fifth grade was six months above the norm, the second grade was at the norm, the third and fourth grades were two months below the norm, and the sixth grade fell three months below the norm. While the degree below the norm for these three classes was not excessive, it was indicated that a larger time allotment should be given to language study with special emphasis given to correct language usage. CHAPTER VI PUPIL PROGRESS PROBLEMS Purpose of chapter. It was the purpose of this chapter to present some principles of promotion policies in the United States, some general causes of school failure, the causes of non-promotion in the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles Elementary Schools, the relation of educational achievements and mental abilities in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles and a comparison of pupil progress in the two school systems. Principles of promotion policies. The beliefs of administrators regarding the policies which should govenn pupil promotion range from rigid application in each grade of highest subject matter standards of achievement, to one hundred per cent promotion and the thought that failure and non-promotion for any child are tragic experiences and should not be tolerated. The criteria on the basis of which it is decided whether a pupil shall or shall not be promoted to the next higher grade at the end of the semester or year vary from subjective ratings of deportment and effort, to objective measures of academic achievements and mental abilities.■ The problem of non-promotion has been one of first magnitude for many years. The practice of failing pupils comes down to us from early colonial times when the underlying philosophy of the schools was mastery of subjest-matter.' Up to about 1890 the schools were, for the most part, very formal, and the courses of study were constructed to teach facts add knowledge. The schools were interested mainly in the transmission of accumulated knowledge of the past to the next generation. It was felt that the mere process of acquiring such knowledge was good mental discipline. Soon after 1890, some educators began to realize that the curriculum should be constructed to meet the needs of the pupils, and that individual differences had to be taken into consideration. The courses of study had been made to suit the average child. Educators became aware that under this plan, the gifted children on one side, and the slow children on theoother, were being penalized under such a system. Individual differences and promotion of pupils have been recognized as a problem for these many years, but the movement to solve the problem has been slow. Although much has been done, recent studies indicate that promotion practices vary widely not only in the United States, and within states, but within systems themselves. Casewell’s survey-1- of non-promo tion in seven states and thirty-seven cities found that ^ H. L. Casewell, "Non-Promotion in Elementary Schools,” Elementary School Journal, May 1935, PP* 644-47. 64 non-promotion varied from 4.9 per cent in Utah to 16.7 P©r cent in Virginia* The non-promotion in varied from 2 . 3 per cent in Long Beach, California, to 16*7 In. Nashville, Tennessee. Non promotion practices in New York City were found to vary 32 per cent between schools. In one study Otto2 found seventeen different criteria or bases were used for promotion* These measures were used singly or in combination in one hundred twenty-two different arrangements. Approximately two hundred promotion plans were found in operation in the United States. In a survey of eight year elementary schools containing 116,651 white pupils, Blose and Segel3 found that approximately twenty per cent failed the first year. Of those'pupils failing in the first grade only thirteen per cent were expected to graduate from the eighth grade. Of those failing in the second grade only fourteen per cent were expected to graduate. Failing pupils in the third grade had a graduation expectancy of fifteen per cent; fourth grade, sixteen per cent; fifth grade, twenty-two per cent; sixth grade, thirty-one per cent; and seventh grade, only fifty per cent. Robinson^ reports the average failure rate in the 2 Henry J. Otto, "Pupil Failure as an Administrative Device,” Elementary School Journal, 34:576-89, April, 1934. 3 D. T. Blose and D. Segel, "School Life Expectancy of Failures in the Elementary School,” American School Board Jour nal, 86:29-30, March, 1933* ^ B.B.Robinson, "Failure is Too Costly to the Child,” Parent Magazine 11:22-3, January 1936. 65 elementary schools throughout the United States to be ten per cent. The average failure rate in the first grade is twenty per cent. Ayer and Ulrich studied the school progress of 15,846 pupils. Five years after these pupils had entered the first grade they found fifty-four were still in the first grade and only 8,910 or fifty-six per cent had made normal progress and entered the sixth grade. School administrators throughout the United States not only have had a difficult time in determining who shall be promoted, but have had considerable difficulty in deciding how often these promotions should occur. Various promotion plans have been used as administrative devices with indefinite results. Most school systems now use the traditional annual or semi-annual promotion plan. Many studies have been made regarding the merits of the annual and semi-annual promotion plans without establishing either as having outstanding’ su periority over the other. f. Lindsayu found that neither the annual or the semi annual promotion plan was strong enough to cause distinct superiority in those schools in which it was used. Chism,^ in a survey among four hundred ninety cities 5 F.C.Ayer and F.H.Ulrich, "School Progress," Review of Educational Research, 6:164-68, April, 1936. 6 j# Lindsay, "Annual and Semi-Annual Promotions,11 Columbia Teachers College Contribution, No.570, 1933. 7 L. L, Chism, "Classification and Promotion. Practices in the Elementary School," Elementary School Journal, 33:89-91 October 1932. - 66 in the United States found that fifty-five and seven-tenths per cent of the elementary systems promoted pupils on an annual basis. D. P. Eginton made an important contribution to the whole problem of promotion when he said: The value of the various kinds of traditional promotion plans as administrative devices cannot be determined apart from the changes that have been made in the curriculum. It is high time for adminis trators and parents to recognize that the basic problem is not how often pupils are promoted but rather, what adjustments follow that will ensure more satisfactory pupil growth.8 General causes of non-promotion. Some of the reasons given many times for pupil failure are: lack of mental ability, poor health, immaturity, family life and social background, attitudes, interest, social distractions, emotinnal life, juvenile delinquency, sex difficulties, difficulty of subjectmatter, racial and language difficulties, lack of effort, illness, lack of funds,-and fear reactions. Adams^ found that most of the causes for failure as given by the teachers were factors beyond the control of the school such as a lack of mental ability, transfers, poor home conditions, absence, physical and mental defects. 8 D.P.Eginton, "Classifying and Promoting Pupils," Nations Schools, 14:23, August,1934. 9 ¥. L, Adams, "Why Teachers Say They Fail Pupils," Education Administration and Supervision, 18:594-600, November, 1932. 67 Reasons given for failure over which teachers did have control were found to be: work too difficult, work below teachers* subjective standards, pupils1 lack of interest, and careless and indifferent pupils. The study-.concluded'that: one-third of the failures were not due entirely to the teacher; much failure was caused by lack of pupil interest, and teachers still use fear as an inducement for better work. Boyer and Cheyney in a survey in Philadelphia report several reasons teachers give for pupil failure. The causes of failure are: 1. Because the teacher believes repetition will teach them to work harder and thus make more successful individuals. (a) Studies in Philadelphia show that most failures were due to level of mental ability. (b) They also found that repeating a grade does not make them successful to the extent that future failure is avoided. On the contrary, failure seems to breed discouragement, a sense ' of insecurity and further failure. (c) The efficiency of a school system,.in so far as it can be measured by achievement in subject matter, should be judged by the extent to which each pupil is led to attain the highest standards of workmanship of which he is capable. Failure to . attain this is frequently due to inadequate deter mination of individual pupil standards. Results of standardized tests indicate that standards are frequently set too low for pupils with high I.Q. On the other hand, the fact that a pupil with an I.Q. of ninety- has but one chance in ten in escaping retardation one or more times in the elementary school indicates a lack of success in providing In dividual goal for pupils with I.Q. below one hundred. City averages do not constitute real standrads for most pupils in this group. 2. Certain pupils failed because it is believed the grade will lay a better foundation for future progress. 68 (a) In most cases of over-ageness of pupils in grades four to seven where the teacher specified reading weakness, a check of the records showed that the pupils had repeated one or more times in the first or second grades. Evidently repetition had failed to .provide adequate basic reading skills. (b) The average over-age non-promoted pupil in grades four and five had a level of achievement on standardized tests equal to that of the average of the lowest twenty-five per cent -of the pupils who were promoted. His learning rate is, however, very low. (I.Q.) It is his low learning rate and not his low level of achievement which prevents success whenever new work is attempted. No amount of repetition will remedy this.situation. 3 . Certain pupils who learn more slowly than the average are failed because it is believed (by the teacher) they will just skim over the work of each grade section and not really master any of it. (a) Studies showed first, that failing pupils did not have mental ability to really master any of the work no matter how often repeated, and second, pupils in schools with higher promotion rates and less retardation learn more in school life. Achievement should be considered in human terms, namely, in terms of progress per year of the pupil’s life rather than in terms of administrative units or achievement per grade section. 4. Many teachers feel that without the stratifying influence of uniform requirements for promotion from grade to grade, the groups in the upper grades would become so heterogeneous that group methods of instruc tion would be impossible. Actual test results in Philsdelphia show, however, that even under conditions where promotion has been based largely on achievement, there exists a wide range of ability in the upper grades. The test scores on the middle eighty per cent of all twelve year olds show a .range of five grade score units, while the middle eighty per cent of all seventh grade pupils had a range of three and seventy-five hundredths grade score units. We should therefore expect the range of abilities in the seventh grade under conditions approaching promotion on a chronolo gical age basis, to be less than the average of all twelve year olds and probably not very different from the range we have at present. Thus the degree of heterogeneity which would exist if pupils were 69 promoted on a chronological age basis could not be appreciably greater than if they Fere promoted on any other basis which permitted a reasonable rate of progress through the grades.10 A natural conclusion of any discussion of pupil failure and its causes should be, can failures be reduced or eliminated; if so, how? McGinnis,concludes that pupil failures can be reduced to a minimum if the teaching, supervisory, and adminis trative workers will honestly try to find the causes of failures and attempt to eliminate them. One of the greatest obstacles to overcome in the reduction of failures is the tendency to place the blame for all pupil failure on causes beyond the control of the school. Techniques for discovering pupil disabilities, and programs of remedial teaching, and supervision to meet the needs of the pupil are necessary in the elimination or reduc tion of failure. Equally, of course, if not more important, is an educational philosophy that most pupil failures can and should be eliminated. Causes of non-promotion in San Luis Obispo. It has been the policy of the school administrators of San Luis Obispo to base non-promotion on: first, social immaturity coupled with Inability to do the work of the grade; second, lack of reading 10 P.A.Boyer and W.W.Cheyney, "is Non-Promotion a Defen sible Policy,” Elementary School Journal, 33: 647-51, May, 1933. 11 W.C.McGinnis, ’’Dodging the Blame for Failures,” Journal of Education, 117**209-11, April, 1934. 70 readiness in the first and second .grades; and third, language difficulties. Social immaturity plus inability to do the work of the grade section has been the major cause of non-promotion-in all grades, particularly in grades three to six. The school administrators have felt that .their policy of demanding themastery of the minimum essentials has proved successful^ The second most important cause of non-promotion has been a lack of reading readiness in the first and second grades. Although a considerable number of pupils are held back by this procedure, the policy has been defended on the grounds that reading is the most important fundamental taught in the schools, and if it is once mastered, normal or even rapid progress can be expected in the higher grades. On the other hand, it was felt that without adequate reading ability slow progress could be expected as the pupil continued in school. The third and somewhat minor cause of non-promotion was language difficulties. The procedure, where a pupil had language difficulties and came from a home where a foreign language was used, has been to hold the pupil in the primary grades until the language difficulties have been overcome and then gradually place the pupil at the proper grade level by means of special promotions. Causes of non-promotion in Paso Robles. For the past seven years it has been the practice in the Paso Robles 71 Elementary Schools to have practically a one hundred per cent non-failure program. There have been eight exceptions or non-promotions in those seven years, four of which occurred in the 1939-1940 school years It has been the policy in the Paso Robles Elementary schools not to have pupils repeat in grades one and two because they have failed to learn to read. The administrators have felt .that, inasmuch as, children do not develop at the same rate, it is futile to expect them all to learn to read at the same time. If a child has not learned to read by the end of the third year in school, he is considered a reading problem and all factors involved are carefully considered before the decision is made as to where the child should spedd the next school year with greatest profit to himself. Data presented later in this chapter indicates that this policy has been successful in Paso Robles. There was one case of non-promotion in the first grade. The boy was mentally and socially immature with an added physical handicap. The combined factors made promotion to the second grade almost an impossibility. The parents recognized the problem and suggested that the child be retained another year in the first grade. The fact that the problem had been recognized in the home aided the school in its attempt to place the child in the proper grade level. . It has been noted 72 with interest that since the boy has been retained in the first grade, he has shown definite improvement and will no doubt greatly profit by the non-promotion. There were two non-promotions in the third grade. One was due to the recommendation of a state psychiatrist after a careful study of the ca.se, which involved mental retardation due to a severe illness. The second case involved social immaturity coupled with physical disabilities. The problem had been recognized in the home and it was decided after a conference with the parents to retain the child in the third grade for another year. There has not been sufficient data collected on these two cases to indicate whether or not the pupils have profited more from the non-promotion than they would have been expected to gain from experience in the succeeding grade. The other non-promotion occurred in the fifth grade. This boy was retained because of lack of effort and poor school attendance. Here was a case of a boy with above aver age intelligence, exceptional reading ability, and excellent health who refused to put forth the. necessary effort to do the work or even attend school regularly. It was decided after careful consideration of all factors involved and consultation with the parents to retain the boy. It has been noted that the child has been attending school regularly, his effort has improved, and his social adjustment and general behavior has 73 been much better. Although the improvement in the quality of his work has not been commensurate with the other factors involved, it was concluded that the boy has gained more from the non-promotion than he would have from a year’s work in 1he next grade with his former hbbits of work and attitude toward school. Relation of educational .achievement and mental ability in San Luis Obispo. A student’s achievement, as measured by achievement tests, should equal his mental ability, as measured by intelligence tests, if he is working to capacity, regardless of the grade in which he is working. It was recognized that while a comparison of the achievement of a class with mental abilities has its limitations, the relation of the two indi- • cates to a large degree the success of the school in keeping the children working up to their capacities. It was decided to compare the class medians in achievement, as obtained from the Progressive Achievement Tests, with the class medians of mental ability, as obtained from the California Tests of Mental Maturity, to determine the relationship between the two and to see if the pupils had been working up to capacity. In Table IX is presented the comparison between achieve ment and mental ability in the San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools. It was, revealed from this study that in achievement TABLE IX DEVIATION OP SUBJECT GRADE NORMS PROM ABILITY NORMS IN SAN LUIS OBISPO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Medians in 'terms of Grade Placements . Reading Vocabulary Beading Comprehension Arithmetic Arithmetic Reasoning Fundamentals Language Total Grade Placement Total Deviation 6A Mental Ability' 6A Achievement Deviation 6.3 7.0 + .7 6.3 6.9 + .6 6.3 ‘ 6.3 0 6.3 6.4 + .1 6.3 6.9 + .6 6.3 6.6 + .3 633 Mental Ability 633 Achievement Deviation 6.6 6.6 0 5A Mental Ability 5A Achievement Deviation 6.6 6.8 + .2 5.6 6.9 +1.3 5.6 6.6 +1.0 6.6 6.1 - .5 5.6 6.0 +4.0 ' 6.6 5.9 - .7 5.6 5.4 -2.0 6.6 6.5 - .1 5.6 6.2 +6.0 6.6 6 .4 - .2 5.6 5.9 +3.0 +3.4 533 Mental Ability 533 Achievement Deviation 5.1 6.5 +1.4 5.1 6.1 +1.0 5.1 5.6 + .5 5.1 5.0 - .1 5.1 5.7 + .6 5.1 5.6 + .5 +3.9 4A. Mental Ability 4A, Achievement Deviation 5.0 5.7 + .7 5.0 5.7 + .7 5.0 5.0 0 5.0 5.0 0 5.0 5.4 + .4 5.0 5.3 + .3 +2.1 433 Mental Avility 433 Achievement Deviation 4.5 5.1 + .6 4.5 5.2 + .7 4.5 4.7 + .2 4.5 4.3 - .2 4.5 4.6 + .1 4.5 4.7 42 +1.6 3A, Mental Ability 3A Achievement Deviation 333 Mental Ability 333 Achievement Deviation 4.0 3.9 - .1 4.0 3.9 - .1 4.0 3.4 - .6 4.0 3.7 - .3 4.0 -3.8 - .2 -1.8 3.5 3.9 + .4 3.5 3.1 - .4 3.5 3.5. + 0 2A Mental Ability 2A-*Achievement Deviation 3.5 3 .8 + .3 2.8 3.2 + .4 4.0 3.5 - .5 3.5 3.3 • - .2 2.8 3.0 + .2 2.8 2.7 - .1 . 2.8 2.7 '- .1 2.8 3.1 + .3 3.5 3 .4 - .1 2.8 2.9 + .1 2B Mental Ability 2B Achievement Deviation 2.4 2.7 + .3 2.4 2.7 + .3 2.4 2.4 0 2.4 2.6 + .2 2.4 2.7 + .3 2.4 2.6 + •2 +1.3 Total Deviation Bank of Subjects +5.8 1 +4.8 2 - .2 4 -2.0 5 +2.5 3 +1.4 +12.3 . +2.3 -1.3 + »p + .8 75 the Two B class was three months above ability in reading, vocabulary and comprehension, at the norm in arithmetic reasoning, two months above ability in arithmetic fundamentals,, three months above the norm in language, and two months above ability for all the test. The achievement of the Two A class was four months above the ability in reading vocabulary, and two months above in reading comprehension. Achievement was oneramonth below ability in arithmetic reasoning and fundamentals, three months above in language, and one month above ability for all tests. The Three B class had an achievement three months above ability in reading, vocabulary, four months above in reading comprehension, two months below in arithmetic reasoning, four months below in arithmetic fundamentals, at the norm in lan guage, and one month below ability for all tests. Achievement in the Three A, class was one month below ability in reading vocabulary and comprehension, five and six months below in arithmetic reasoning and fundamentals, three months below in language and the score for all the tests was two months below the ability median. The Pour B class had achievement medians above ability medians in all tests except arithmetic fundamentals which fell below the norm two months. Achievement exceeded ability six months in reading vocabulary, seven months in reading compre hension, two months in arithmetic reasoning, one month in 76 language, and two months for all tests. Achievement in the four A exceeded ability in reading vocabulary and comprehension seven months. Achievement was fit the norm in arithmetic reasoning and fundamentals, four months above the norm in language, and three months above ability for the total test score. The Five B had an achievement one year four months above the ability norm in reading vocabulary, and one year above in reading comprehension. Achievement exceeded ability in arithmetic reasoning five months but fell one month below in fundamentals. Achievement in language was six months above ability and in total score the class was five months above the norm. The deviation of achievement over ability in the Five A class was one year three months in reading vocabulary, one year in reading comprehension, four months in arithmetic reasoning, six months in language and three months on all tests. Achievement in arithmetic fundamentals fell two months below the ability median. Achievement in the Six B class exceeded ability only in reading vocabulary by two months. Achievement was at .the norm in reading comprehension, five months below in arith-'■ metic fundamentals, one month below in language, and.two months below ability on the total test score. 77 In the Six A class achievement was at or above the norm for ability in all tests. Achievement exceeded ability seven and six months in reading vocabulary and reading compre hension respectively, was at the norm in arithmetic reasoning, one month above the norm in arithmetic fundamentals, six months above in language, and three months above for all tests. It was concluded from this study of educational achievement and mental ability in San Luis Obispo that: (1) achievement on the whole was satisfactory and a great majority of the pupils were working at the limits of their mental abilities; (2) achievement was best in the Five B class with the Five A. next; (3 ) ability exceeded achievement in the Three A. and Six B class. (It was indicated that special efforts should be made in these classes to enable them to achieve up to their mental abilities); (4 ) achievement in reading, with the exception of the Three A,, was outstanding; (5 ) achieve ment in arithmetic, particularly in fundamentals, was con siderably below ability. (It has been recommended to the superintendent of schools that more time be allotted to arithmetic instruction .in the third, fourth, and fifth grades); (6 ) excessive achievement above ability in some testa and classes was due in part to the considerable number of pupils who have repeated one or more grade sections in the San Luis Obispo Schools, (The extra time spent- in a grade or grades plus the repetition of the work of that grade enables many pupils to attain an educational age above their mental age); and (7 ) a ranking of subjects revealed that reading vocabulary was first, reading comprehension was sedond, language was third,.arithmetic reasoning was fourth and arithmetic funda mentals were fifth. Relation of educational achievement and mental ability in Paso Robles. The relation of achievement and ability in the Paso Robles Elementary Schools is shown in Table X. A study of the table revealed that the achievement medians fell below the ability median in all tests except arithmetic fundamentals, in which it equalled the norm. Achievement fell below the norm in reading vocabulary six months, and four months below in leading comprehension, arithmetic reaisoning, language, and on the total test score. Achievement exceeded ability in the third grade eight months in reading comprehension, two months in arithmetic reasoning, and five months in arithmetic fundamentals. Achievement fell below the ability norm three months in reading vocabulary and three months in language.' Achievement exceeded ability on the total test score by four months. The fourth grade fell below the ability median in achievement in all tests. Achievement was six months below the norm in,reading vocabulary, one month in reading compre hension, six months in arithmetic reasoning, four months in TABUS X DEVIATION OP SUBJECT GRADE NORMS PROM ABILITY NORMS IN PASOROBLES ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Medians in terms of Grade Placements Reading Vocabulary Reading 0 ompr ehens ion Arithmetic Arithmetic Reasoning Fundamentals Language Total Grade Placements Total Deviation 6 th Ability 6th Achievement Deviation 6.0 6.6 + .6 6.0 6.4 + .4 6.0 5.9 - .1 6.0 6.3 + .3 6.0 5.9 - .1 6.0 6.2 + .2 +1.3 5th Ability 5th Achievement Deviation 5.1 6.2 +1.1 5.1 6.1 +1.0 5.1 5.6 + .5 5.1 5.2 + .1 5.1 5.8 + .7 5.1 5.6 + .5 +3.9 4th Ability 4th Achievement Deviation 4.5 3.9 - .6 4.5 4.4 - .1 4.5 3.9 - .6 4.5 4.1 - .4 4.5 4.0 - .5 4.5 4.0 - .5 _ -2.7 3rd Ability 3rd Achievement Deviation 3.3 3.0 - .3 3.3 4.1 + .8 3.3 3.5 + .2 3.3 3.8 + .5 3.3 3.0 - .3 3.3 3.4 + .1 +1.0 2nd Ability 2nd Achievement Deviation 2.6 2.0 - .6 2.6 2.2 - .4 2.6 2.2 - .4 2.6 2 .6 0 2.6 2.2 - .4 2.6 2.2 - .4 — —2 .2 + .2 +1.7 - .4 + .5 - .6 - .1 +1.3 Total Deviation Rank of Subjects 3 1 4 2 5 80 arithmetic fundamentals, and five months in language. The score for all the tests found achievement five months below the ability median. ■The fifth grade was the only .class in Paso Bobles or San Luis Obispo in which achievement exceeded ability in all the tests. Achievement in reading vocabulary was one year and one month above the norm, reading vocabulary was one year above, arithmetic was five months and one month above in reasoning and fundamentals respectively, seven months above ability in language, and five months above the ability norm for all tests. Achievement exceeded ability in the sixth grade six months in reading vocabulary, four months in reading compre hension, three months in arithmetic fundamentals, and two months on the total test score. Achievement fell below the ability median in arithmetic reasoning and language one month, A ranking of subjects found reading comprehension first, arithmetic fundamentals second, reading vocabulary third, arithmetic reasoning fourth, and language fifth. It has been concluded from this study of the relation of educational achievement and mental ability in Paso Robles that: (1) achievement in relation to ability was satisfactory in the third, fifth, and sixth grades; (2) achievement in the second and fourth grades in relation to ability is unsatisfactory. 81 (it was recommended to the superintendent that steps be taken at once to ensure achievement more commensurate with ability); (3 ) achievement was best in the fifth and sixth grades; (4 ) achievement was exceptionally poor in language, (It was indicated that a greater time allotment should be allowed for language in all grades with special emphalis on language usage); (5 ) the poor achievement in the second grade was due, in part, to the fact that pupils were not retained in the first grade because they did not learn to read and many of the second grade pupils were just beginning to read when this test was given; and (6 ) a ranking of subjects placed reading comprehension first, arithmetic fundamentals second, reading vocabulary third, arithmetic reasoning fourth, and language fifth. Comparison of pupil progress in San Luis Obispo and Paso Bobles elementary schools. A comparison of the pupil progress in two school systems using different standards as a basis for promotion shows the difference between the standards used rather than the difference between the school systems, In San Luis Obispo the major causes of non-promotion have been -social immaturity plus inability to do the work of the grade and a lack of reading readiness in the first and second grades. Of the 630 San Luis Obispo children included in this study, it was found- that sixty-six or 10.48 per cent 82 experienced non-promotion during the 1939-1940 school year. A study of the records disclosed that of the sixty-six pupils who were failed thirty-three, or fifty per cent of those failing were in ‘the second and third grades. It was found that during the 1939-1940 school year, in grades two to six nineteen pupils or 3.02 per cent, made rapid progress; 545 children, or 86.50 per cent, made normal progress and sixty-six, or 10.48 per cent, made slow progress. The study disclosed that the greater percentage of pupils who experienced non-promotion were found in the lower grades, and .the number of failures decreased in’each successive grade section. "While comparable data is difficult to uncover and there is no accepted standard to use as a comparison, it was felt that the percentage of pupils making accelerated, normal, and slow progress in San Luis Obispo was an average situation. The Paso Robles Elementary Schools have been operating for several years on a virtual one hundred per cent non failure program. During the 1939-1940 school year there were four pupils who were not promoted. Of the 255 pupils included in this study, 251 pupils or 93*43 PeP cent made normal progress; and four.children, 1.57 per cent, made slow progress during the 1939- 1940 school .year. It was noted with interest that only eight pupils had exper ienced non-promotion in the Paso Robles elementary schools in the past seven years. The four pupils who were failed in the 83 1939-1940 school year were special cases and were held hack only after all factors involved had been carefully considered. From data presented elsewhere -in this thesis it was t concluded that the non-failure program.as used in the Paso Robles elementary schools had been successful and more in line with the latest philosophy of education., It was indicated that the policy should be continued. Summary of chapter. The pupil progress problems may be summarized as follows: 1. Principles governing pupil promotion in the United States vary from highest mastery of subject matter to one hundred per cent promotion. 2. Until recently the courses of study had been made to suit the average child with the result that the gifted and slow children were penalized. 3. It was found that approximately two hundred promotion plans were in use in the United States, 4. The average failure rate in the elementary schools throughout the United States was found to be ten per cent. 5. Most school systems use the annual or semi-annual promotion plans. Neither p]aa has been given outstanding superiority over the other. 6* Some of the more frequent causes given for non promotion have been lack of mental ability, poor health, 84 ■ immaturity, family life and social background, attitudes, interest, juvenile delinquency, difficulty of subject matter, and racial and language difficulties. 7. Studies have been made on the causes of non promotion, as given by teachers, -which concluded that most of the reasons given were beyond the control of the school. 8. Many educators believe that pupil failures can be ■reduced to a minimum if the teaching, supervisory, and ad ministrative workers will honestly try to find the causes of failures and attempt to eliminate them. 9. Non-Promotion in San Luis Obispo elementary schools has been based on social immaturity coupled with inability to do the work of the grade, lack of reading readiness in the primary grades and language difficulties. 10. For several years the Paso Robles elementary schools have operated on a virtual non-failure program. There have been eight exceptions to this in the past seven years, four of which occurred during the I939-I940 school year. 11. A comparison of achievement in relation to ability in the San Luis" Obispo elementary schools disclosed that: a majority of the pupils were working at the limits of their mental abilities; achievement in reading with the exception of the Three A. was outstanding; achievement in arithmetic was considerably below standard; excwssive achievement in some tests and classes was due in part to the number of pupils 85 who' had repeated grade sections; and a ranking of subjects revealed that reading vocabulary was first, reading compre hension was second, language was third, arithmetic reasoning was fourth, and arithmetic fundamentals was fifth. 12. It was conduced from a comparison of achievement- in .relation to ability in the Paso Robles elementary schools that: a majority of pupils In the third, fifth, and sixth grades were working at a satisfactory rate; achievement in the second and fourth grades was unsatisfactory; achievement was exceptionally poor in language; poor achievement in the second grade was due, in part, to the fact that, pupils had not been retained in the first grade because they had not learned to read and many second grade pupils were just beginning to read when the test was given; and a ranking of subjects placed reading comprehension first, arithmetic funda mentals second, reading vocabulary third, arithmetic reasoning fourth, and language fifth. 13. Of the 630 San Luis Obispo pupils included in this study, it was found that during the 1939-1940 school year nine teen pupils or 3*02 per cent made rapid.progress, 545 students or 86.50 per cent made normal progress, and sixty-six pupils or 10.48 per cent made slow progress. It was concluded that this was perhaps an average situation. 14. A study of pupil progress in Paso Robles Elementary Schools revealed that of the 255 pupils included in this study, 86 251 pupils 98.45 per cent made normal progress and four pupils or 1.57 per cent made slow progress during the I939-I940 school year. The four pupils who were retained were special cases which involved physical and mental disabilities. It was con cluded from evidence presented in this chapter that the almost one hundred per cent non-failure program of-the Paso Robles elementary schools had been successful and was in keeping with the newer philosophy of education in regard to pupil progress. CHAPTER VII ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE COURSES OF STUDY Purpose of chapter. It was the purpose of this chapter to analyze and evaluate the courses of study used in the elementary schools of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles. A. rating scale, prepared by educational experts and 'widely used throughout the United States, has been used. The legal requirements of the courses of study, the length of the school day, and a comparison of time allotments for each subject have been examined to determine if adequate safe guards have been made for normal pupil needs. A, list of suggested recommendations has been included in the summary of the chapter. Evaluation of the courses of study. The cities of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles are located in San Luis Obispo County. Both school systems have used the county/ courses of study as a basis for the work done in the schools. Inas much as the county courses of study have not been revised for quite some time, both school systems have made use of newer materials to supplement the courses of study. The courses of study were rated by three administrators who were familiar with courses of study in use throughout the United States. scale and the standard were patterned after those devised by The 88 Stratemeyer and Breuner^- .of Teachers College, Columbia University. Rating.was made on the following main points, namely: (1 ) recognition of educational objectives; (2 ) what to teach, organization of subject matter; (3 ) recognition of and adaptation to pupil’s needs; (^) adaptation to teachers’ needs; (5 ) course of study itself; and (6 ) the general rating. made on afive point scale: excellent, The ratings were for the upper ten per cent; very good, for thenext twenty per cent; good, for the middle forty per cent; fair, for the lower twenty per cent; and poor, It for the lowestten per cent. was decided torate only the courses of study in reading, arithmetic, and language because these were the sub jects tested by achievement tests in this study and because all the courses of study were developed under the same directors between 1930 and 1932. It was, therefore, assumed that ratings given these three courses of study would be approximately the same as those given the other courses of study bad they been used in this study. One of the principal reasons for this assump tion was the fact that the courses of study had not been re vised since they were devised. It was noted with great interest that these courses of study were rated as among the best in the 1 Florence B. Stratemeyer and H.B.Breuner, Rating Elementary School Courses of Study (New. York: Bureau of PublTcations, Teachers’ College, Columbia University, 1926). 89 United States by Teachers* College, Columbia University, when they were first developed. However, ratings at the time this study was made could not be compared with the previous ratings, because there had been no revisions made to keep the courses of study up to date. A summary of the ratings of the reading, arithmetic, and language courses of study are presented in Table XI. That the San Luis Obispo County courses of study do not now measure up to highest present day standards in the re cognition of educational objectives was evidenced by the fact that this section received five good and four fair ratings by the judges. The fact that all ratings were made in the middle forty or lower twenty per cent indicated the need of immediate revision. Subject matter ratings were rated somewhat better by the judges, receiving eight good and one fair. The absence of any ratings above the middle forty percent lead to the conclusion that, these sections of the courses of study should be modern ized. The third criterion, the recognition of and adaptation to pupil’s needs, received three ratings of good, four of fair, and two poor. It was evident from the judges ratings of this section of the courses of study that it was unsatisfactory in its present form. .It was an obvious conclusion that the sat isfactory achievements of the pupils in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles Elementary Schools were not due to the present 90 TABLE XI EVALUATION OP COURSES OP STUDY IN SAN LUIS OBISPO AND PASO ROBLES Grades 1-6 judge Read. Arith. Lang. I. A. Recognition of Educational Objectives Statements regarding 1. Objectives 2. Standards of Attainment 1 2 3 G G F F G F G G F 1 2 3 G G G F G G G G G 1 2 3 G F G P P F F F G D. Adaptation to Teachers * Needs Statements regarding 1. General helps for teachers 1 2. Method ■ 2 3 . Illustrative lessons 3 if. Reference materials for teachers 5. Reference materials for pupils G G F F F F F G F. 1 2 3 P F F P F F P F F 1 2 3 F F F P F F F G F B. What to teach: Organization of Subject matter Statements regarding 1. Content 2. General organization 3. Use of textbooks C. Recognition of and Adaption to Pupil!s needs Statements regarding 1. Recognition of the individual 2. Activities 3 . Projects and.problems A. Use of tests and measurements E. Course of Study Itself Statements regarding 1. Mechanical make-up 2, Course of Study as a whole III. General Rating NOTE: Ex = Excellent; V.G.= very good; G = good; F = Fair; P poor. 91 courses of study, but rather to better teaching and use of more recent materials from other sources. The fourth criterion rated was adaptation to teachers1 needs. Inasmuch as, the courses of study are made to guide the teacher, this section is perhaps the most important part of the entire courses of .study. three good and six fair ratings. The judges gave this section It was indicated from these ratings that the teachers in San Obispo and Paso Robles have not received the help from this source that they had a right to expect. The course of study itself and its mechanical make-up was rated next. Because of its bulkiness, and poor printing in some parts, the judges gave this section a rating of six fair and three poor. The unanimity of the ratings indicated that many improvements were necessary to make the courses' of study of practical value to the teachers. V ;- The courses of study received a general rating by the judges of one good, seven fair, and one poor* It was con cluded from the judges ratings that the courses of study were not satisfactory in their present form. It has been recommended that committees of teachers add administrators be formed to study the problems involved in the revision and modernization of the present courses of study. 92 Legal requirements of the course of study. Section 3.761 of the School Code for the State of California 1937 edition provides that: The course of study in the elementary schools of ■ each city, county, and city, and caunty shall include instruction in the following prescribed branches in the several grades in which each may be required inthe course of study adopted in pursuance of this Article, Viz: (1) reading, (2) writing. (3 ) spelling, (4 ) language study, (5 ) arithmetic, (6 ) geography, (7 ) history of the United States and of California, (8 ) civics, including a study of the constitution of the United States, (9 ) music, (10) art, (11) trainfor healthful living, (12) morals and manners., and such other studies not to exceed three as may be pre scribed by the board of education of the city, county, or ci$y and county. Section 3.762 of the school code^ also provides that a minimum of fifty per cent of each school week must be devoted to the study of reading, writing, language, spelling, and arithmetic in gradeseone to six inclusive. Length of school day. The length of the school day’s attendance is determined by the local school boards. However, minimum school day’s requirements have been established by law. The School Code of the State of California^ provides that a minimum school day’s attendance in grades one, two and three shall be two hundred minutes. In grades four, five, and six the minimum school day’s attendance is set at two hundred forty minutes. In each case the minimum school day’s attendance shall be exclusive of noon intermissions and recesses. ST.^cHooT~CodeTf the State of California (1937 edition) p. 193 3. Ibid pl93 4. Ibid pp236-37 93 The school hoard In San Luis Obispo has established the length of the school day’s attendance as follows: in the Two B; 220 minutes 240 minutes in the Two A and the third grade sections; and three hundred minutes in grades four, five, and six. The length of the school day;! s attendance in Paso Robles has been established by the school board as follows:- 220 minutes in the second grade; 240 minutes in grade three; 270 minutes in the fourth and fifth grades; and 340 minutes in grade six. Time allotments in San Luis Obispo. Years ago in the old formal type school, the teaching and mastery of subject matter was all important. Under such a program the schedule was very rigid and each subject was.taught for a definite time period.■ At the end of that time another subject was presented whether the previous lesson had been concluded or not. ‘ While it is true that most schools today are run on a schedule and time allotments for the several subjects are given, to prevent over or under teaching of any subject, the time allotments are usually only approximate and there is enough flexibility in the schedule to allow an efficient teaching-learning situation.. Time allotments for the several subjects vary between school systems. The only standard for the State of California that was available on time allotments was that suggested by the California Curriculum Study which is presented in Table XII. 94 TABLE XII SUGGESTED SCHEDULE OF'WEEKLY SUBJECT TIME ALLOTMENTS (Recommended by the California Curriculum Study) Grades 2 - 6 Minutes per Week Subject Arithmetic Reading Music Art Healthful living Writing-Spelling Language Recesses Social Studies Mi sc ellanenous Total II III IV V VI 140 395 75 90 120 150 125 100 30 215 325 75 90 120 160 165 110 105 215 245 75 90 120 165 170 110. 205 220 190 75 80 125 150 185 110 260 50 220 160 75 75 125 140 190 110 280 ■ 75 1,225 1,365 1,395 1,445 1,450 95 While school systems are free to work out their own time allot ments, it was found that the time allotments in the San Luis Obispo Elementary Schools closely approximated or exceeded most of those suggested by the California Curriculum Study. The weekly time allotments for the San Luis Obispo Schools is presented in Table XIII. A comparison of the San Luis Obispo time allotments with those suggested by the California Curriculum Study revealed that the time allotments in San Luis Obispo in arithmetic in the third and fifth grades and in langus,ge in the second, third, and fourth grades were considerably below that recommended, inasmuch as achievement in arithmetic in relation to ability ranked fifth in the San Luis Obispo Schools, it was felt that an increase in time allotment in ibhis subject would be desirable in those grades whose present time allotment falls below the recommended standard. Achievement in language in relation to ability in the San Luis Obispo elementary schools ranked third in the subjects tested. While achievement for the schools as a whole was sat isfactory, it was poorer in grades two and three than any other grade. It was recommended, therefore, that time allotments in this very important subject should be increased substantially in gradessbwo and three, and to a lesser degree in the fourth grade. It was felt that the additional time would enable the teachers in these grades to raise the achievement standard up. TABLE XIII WEEKLY TIME ALLOTMENTS IN SAN LUIS OBISPO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Subjects Arithmetic Reading Music Art Healthful living Writing-Spelling r* Language Recesses Social Studies Miscellaneous Total Grades 2 - 6 Minutes per Week ... TV . VI v 11 “T r r 130 300 100 80 100 150 80 100 110 50 180 280 100 80 100 180 150 100 240 140 220 275 123 125 100 125 130 100 225 225 175 240 125 100 100 250 150 100 180 230 275 200 120 120 100 150 130 100 280 175 1,200 1,550 1,650 1,650 1,650 - 97 to o p above the norm fop those grades. Time allotments In Paso Robles. While the- setting up of a rigid time schedule for each subject is not desirable from the'point of view of the teacher and pupil, it is neces sary to insure the proper teaching emphasis upon all subjects in the curriculum and as an administrative aid in the operation of the school. It was noted with interest that the teachers in the Paso Robles schools emphasized the fact that the scheduled times were only approximate because of correlated activities and projects. Although the time allotments were only approx imate, it was felt that a study of them might disclose a close relationship between pupil achievement and time allotment. A. comparison of the weekly time allotments in the Paso Robles elementary schools with the suggested weekly subject time allotments recommended by the California Curriculum Study disclosed that time allotments innPaso Robles were very sat isfactory with the exception of reading and language. It was found that the reading time allotment in the second, third, and fourth grades in Paso Robles were considerably less than.the time recommended by the California Curriculum Study. The time allotments in language study in the Paso Robles elementary schools were found to be considerably below the reccommended standards in every grade from two to six inclusive. The fact that the time allotments in Paso Robles were less than the time recommended by the California Curriculum 98 TABLE XIV WEEKLY TIME ALLOTMENTS IN PASO ROBLES/ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Grades 2 - 6 Minutes per Week , Subjects Arithmetic Reading Music Art Healthful living Writing-Spelling Language Recesses Social Studies Miscellaneous Total II III IV 150 310 80 75 100 125 70 100 40 70 200 300 100 60 100 130 125 150 150 35 225 200 100 60 100 160 150 150 250 10$ 250 250 100 60 100 150 120 150 250 70 250 180 100 120 250 125 125 100 250 . 250 1,200 1,350 1,500 1,500 1,800 V VI 99 Study in reading and language was of greater significance when it was recalled that achievement in relation to ability was poorest in language in all grades except the fifth and achievment in reading was considerably below the ability norm in grades two, three, and four. It was concluded from this study that one of the contributing factors involved in the low achievment in readingand language in schools was due the Paso Robles elementary to insufficient teaching time. It has been recommended that the time allotments in reading in the second, third, and fourth grades, and language in all grades be increased up to or above the standard recommended by the California Curriculum Study. Summary of chapter. In chapter VII has been pre sented a rating of the courses of study for reading, arithmetic and language used in the elementary schools of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles. The rating scale used was that devised by Stratemeyer and Bruener of Teachers’ College, Columbia University. Rating was made on a five point scale, excellent for the upper ten per cent, very good for the middle forty per cent, fair for the lower twenty per cent, and poor for the lowest ten per cent. It was noted that when the courses of study were devel oped in 1930-1932 they were rated as among the best in the United States. Due to the fact that there had been no revisions made since that time, the judges' ratings In I939-I940 when this study was made presented a very different picture. There were no ratings given better than good, a majority of the ratings 100 were fair and a few of them poor. It was indicated from a critical analysis of the courses of study that when compared to modern courses of study embodying the newer philosophies of education and present trends in methods of instruction, the San Luis Obispo County courses of study in reading, arithmetic, and language were very unsatisfactory. It has been recommended that, the county superintendent, in cooperation with the teachers aand administrators of San Luis Obispo County take immediate steps to revise and revitalize the courses of study to bring them up to modern educational standards. It was noted that the School Code of the State of California provided that reading, writing, spelling, language study, arithmetic, geography, history of the United States and of California, civics, music, art, training for healthful living, and manners and morals must be taught in the elementary schools of the State. The School Code provided further that a minimum of fifty per cent of each school day must be devoted to the study of reading, writing, language, spelling and arithmetic in grs.des one to six inclusive. The length of the school day is set by local boards of trustees; however, the minimum school day, as established by the School Code, is two hundred minutes in grades one, two, and three. The minimum school day’s attendance in gradessfour, five and six is 240 minutes. loi Suggested weekly time allotments recommended by the California Curriculum Study have been presented. The approximate weekly time allotments in the severallsubjects in the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles elementary schools have been compared with the above recommended standards. 'It was found that most of the time alloments in the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles Schools compared favorably with those recommended ~'by the curricu lum study. It was noted with interest, however, that subjects, in which achievement fell below the ability medians, had time allotments considerably below the recommended standard. It was indicated that the time allotments in theSan Luis Obispo Schools for arithmetic in the third and fifth grades, and in language study in the second, third, and fourth grades should be increased to conform more, closely with the standards suggested by the California Curriculum Study. It was hoped that such a change might enable the pupils in these classes to raise these classes to raise their achievement to a level more commensurate with mental ability. It was found that time allotments in Paso Robles for reading> in the second, third, and fourth grades and for language study in £ll grades were considerably below the recommended standard. It was also noted that achievement in relation to ability in these grades and subjects .was below standard. It has, therefore, been recommended that the time allotments in these grades and subjects be increased to approximate more closely the suggested standard of the curriculum study. CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this chapter is to present a summary of the findings and conclusions of the previous chapters* Head- ings for the chapter follow the study divisions and will in* elude the conclusions and recommendations made in each section of the study. Resume of problem* It has been the purpose of this study to present in so far as was possible: (1) the educa tional needs of pupils of grades two to six inclusive in the elementary schools of San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles, as shown by the age-grade placement, the mental status, the subject matter achievement, and the progress through school of the pupil personnel; (2) a critical analysis and evaluation of the courses of study of these cities to determine what provisions have been made to meet the educational needs of the pupils; (5) to make recommendations based upon best current educational practices for the improvement of conditions as fevealed by this study. All other administrative problems have been excluded from this study* Location and organization of school districts studied. The City of San Luis Obispo is located on the Coast Hi-way (United States Hi-way 101) approximately one hundred ninety miles north of Los Angeles, The city was started in 1772 or four years before the American Beclaration of Independence, The schools of the city are organized on the traditional sixthree-three basis. There are three elementary schools, one junior high school and one senior high school. The average enrollment for the 1959-1940 school year in the elementary schools was 826 pupils. The number of pupils included in this study was considerably less due to the fact that kindergartens and first grades were excluded. The elementary school population was made up of 85 per cent whites, 7 per cent Mexican, 5 per cent Swiss-Portuguese, and 3 per cent Japanese and uhinese. The city of Paso Robles is located near the lower end of the Salinas Valley on united States Hi-way 101. It is located approximately halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, Paso Robles grew up around and has long been famous for its hot sulphur springs. schools in Paso Robles: first five grades; There are three elementary one includes a kindergarten and the a second one is an intermediate depart mental school comprising the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, and the third a small opportunity school for the first five grades with a special curriculum. The school*s popula tion is made up of 90 per cent whites, 6 per cent Mexican, and 4 per cent Swiss-Portuguese* 10# Age-grade placement of pupils. This study was made to determine the percentage of pupils making normal, retarded or accelerated progress through school; It was found that for comparative purposes 10 per cent accelerated, 52 per cent normal, and 38 |>er cent retarded was an average situation in the United States* The age-grade study in San Luis Obispo disclosed that £ 6.83 per cent of the pupils were accelerated, 58*73 per cent were making normal progress, a n d .34*44 per cent were retarded* It was found that of the £17 pupils who were retarded, fortyr six or .21 per cent was due to late school entrance or absence from school. One'hundred seventy one pupils or 79 per cent of'those retarded were found to have repeated one or more semester’s work. The study revealed that retardation in the several grades varied from 27.27 per cent in the Five A to 51*72 per cent in the Six A. Although the per cent of retardation in San Luis Obispo was not excessive, it has been recommended that: (1) the number of pupils repeating grade sections should be materially reduced by a change to administrative policies which conform more closely with the present day philosophy of continued pupils progress through school; and (2) courses of study should be adopted which will meet the needs of the greatest number of pupils, thereby eliminating the cause of a majority of the retardations. 105 The age-grade study in Paso Robles revealed that 3,53 per eent of the pupils were accelerated, 76.86 per cent were making normal progress, and 19*61 per cent were retarded. Re tardation varied from 9.09 per cent in the second grade to a high of 25 per cent in the third grade. It was found that of the fifty retarded pupils, fourteen were retarded because of late school entry or absence from school, twenty-eight were retarded due to repetition of a grade in other schools before attending Paso Robles schools, and eight pupils or 3.14 per cent were retarded because of non-promotion in the Paso Robles schools. It was concluded from the age-grade study in the Paso Robles elementary schools that a great majority of the pupils were working in or near the proper grade level and that the per cent of retarded pupils was exceptionally small. It has been recommended that the administrative policies which have made this fine record possible be continued in an attempt to reduce still further the number of retarded pupils. Six common causes given for retardation in schools throughout the United States have been: ineffective habits of work, personality difficulties, deficiencies in previous training, physical defects, mental disability, and psycho physical defects. It has been recommended that, instead of placing the blame for retardation on causes beyond the control of the school, every factor involved in retardation should be studied with a view toward changes which would eliminate as many as possible. Mental status of the pupils♦ The mental status of the pupils in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles City schools was determined by the use of the California Test of Mental Maturity, Form A, Primary and Klementary Batteries. These tests were used because of ease in giving and scoring them, past satisfactory experience in using them, the three given mental ages and intelligence quotients instead of one, and the fact that the diagnostic value of these tests would be of great value to the local school administrators and teachers after this study had been completed. Mental ages were converted into intelligence grade placements, a form better adapted for comparative purposes and one which gave a broader view of the entire mental status problem. A study of the intelligence grade placements of the San Luis Obispo elementary pupils revealed that there was a range of grade placements in each half grade of from five to seven and one-half grades. This seemed excessive in view of the fact that each grade had an A and B section* There was a general tendency toward a greater range in grade placements in each succeeding grade section* It was concluded that a majority of the pupils in the San Luis Obispo schools were well placed in their present grade and that most of the ex cessive range in grade placements was due to a number of pupils with extremely high or low intelligence grade place ments* It was recommended that the school administrators in San Luis Obispo give special consideration to those pupils with extremely high intelligence grade placements. It was felt that many of these students might profit by a special promotion. In this way the excessive range in intelligence grade placements with its attendant teaching problems would be reduced, and the pupils would be more apt to be kept working up to their abilities. A study of the intelligence grade placements of the pupils in the Paso Robles elementary schools lead to the following conclusions: first, that there was a range in grade placements of from three grades in the. second grade to eight grades in the fifth and sixth grades; second, there was a general tendency toward a greater dispersion of in telligence grade placements in each succeeding grade; and third, with the exception of a very few pupils on both ex tremes, the pupils in the Paso nobles elementary schools were very well placed. It has been recommended that the two pupils in the fifth grade and the two in the sixth grade with very high intelligence grade placements receive special attention to io8 assure that their superior mental abilities are challenged, Pupil achievement. The achievement of the pupils in . the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles elementary schools was presented in Chapter If. The Progressive Achievement Tests, Form A were used, the Primary Battery in the second and third grades and the Elementary Battery in grades four to six inclusivei It was found that the dispersion of grade placements in San Luis Obispo ranged from two years in the Two A class to six and one-half years in the Six B, There was a tendency toward a greater range in grade placements in each succeeding grade. Pupil achievement, as revealed by the tests used, was indicated to be satisfactory in the San Luis Obispo schools. Achievement in reading vocabulary and reading comprehension was above the norm in all grades. The poorest achievement was made in arithmetic fundamentals. The scores for all the tests revealed that all grade sections except the Six A achieved above the norm. The Six A class fell one month below the norm for the grade. The dispersion of grade placements in Paso Robles ranged from two and one-half grades in the second grade to five and one-half grades in the sixth grade. With the exception of the fourth grade there was a tendency toward a greater dispersion in grade placements in each succeeding grade. The test results revealed .that as a whole achievement in Paso Robles elementary schools was satisfactory* The third and fifth grades were well above the norm, the second and sixth grades were at the norm, and the fourth grade fell two months below the norm for that grade. Achievement in all the tests was satisfactory with the exception of language. In this test three grades, the third, fourth, and sixth, fell below the norm two and three months. TOaile the degree below the norm was not excessive, it was indicated that a greater emphasis should be given this sub ject. Recommendations for changes were made in Chapter ?I. Pupil progress problems. The pupil progress problems may be summarized as follows: 1. Principles governing pupil promotion in the United States vary from highest mastery of subject matter to one . hundred per cent promotion. 2. Until recently courses of study were made to suit the average child. 5. It was found that there were approximately two hundred promotional plans in use. in the united States. 4. The average failure rate in the elementary schools of this country was found to be 10 per cent. 5. Most school systems use the annual or semi-annual promotion plans. Neither plan has been rated as having outstanding superiority over the other. 6. Some of the more frequent causes given for non- promotion have been lack of mental ability, poor health, im maturity, family life, and social background, attitudes, interest, difficulty of subject matter, and racial and language difficulties. 7. Most teachers have given as causes of non-promotion, those factors which were beyond the control of the school. 8. Many educators agree that pupil failures could be reduced to a minimum if teaching, supervisory, and administra tive workers would honestly try to find the causes of failures and attempt to eliminate them. 9* The causes of non-promotion in San Luis Obispo elementary schools have been: social immaturity coupled with inability to do the work of the grade, lack of reading readi ness in the primary grades, and language difficulties. It was recommended that all non-promotion in San Luis Obispo, based on immaturity and lack of reading readiness, be post poned until the end of the third year in school. In this way many of the useless non-promotions would be eliminated with out subjecting the children to the questionable repetition of a grade. 10. For several years the Paso Robles elementary schools Ill have operated on a virtual non-failure program* 11. A comparison of achievement in relation to ability in San Luis Obispo disclosed a majority of the pupils were working up to their ability. standing. ability. Achievement in reading was out Achievement in arithmetic was considerably below A ranking of subjects revealed that reading vocabulary was first, reading comprehension second, language was third, arithmetic reasoning was fourth, and arithmetic fundamentals was fifth. IE. It was concluded from a comparison of achievement in relation to ability in the Xaso Robles elementary schools that a majority of the pupils in the third, fifth, and sixth grades were working at a satisfactory rate. Achieve ment in the second and fourth grades was unsatisfactory. It was found that achievement in language was very poor in all grades but the fifth. A ranking of subjects placed reading comprehension first, arithmetic fundamentals second, reading vocabulary third, arithmetic reasoning fourth, and language fifth. 13. Of the 630 San Luis Obispo pupils included in the pupil progress study it was found that during the 1939-1940 school year nineteen pupils or 3.0E per cent made rapid progress, 545 pupils or 86.50 per cent made normal progress, and sixty-six pupils or 10.48 per cent made slow progress. 112 . 14. A study of pupil progress in.Paso Robles element ary schools revealed that of the 255 pupils included in the study, 251 or 98.45 per cent made normal progress and four pupils or 1.57 per cent made slow progress during the 19391940 school years. It was concluded that the promotional policies in use in Paso Robles had been successful and in keeping with the newer philosophy of education pertaining to pupil progress* It was recommended thet the present policy be continued. The cpurses of study. The courses of study in read ing, arithmetic, and language used in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles elementary schools were rated by a scale develop ed by Stratemeyer and Bruener of Teachers* College, Columbia University. Rating was made on a five point scale, excellent for the upper 10 per cent, very good for the next 20 per cent, good for the middle 40 per cent, fair for the lower 20 per cent, and poor for the lowest 10 per cent. It was noted that the courses of study in use in San Luis Obispo County were developed from 1930 to 1932. At that time they were rated as among the best in the United States. Since that time, however, there have been no [email protected]~ visions with the result that they were very much out of date when this study was made during the^1939-1940 school year* The courses of study were rated by three school ad ministrators familiar with courses of study throughout the 113 United States. There were no ratings better than good. The total ratings were nineteen good, twenty-four fair, and ten poor* It was clearly indicated that the present courses of study were out of date and therefore, could not meet the needs of the pupils. It was recommended that the county superintendent, in cooperation with the teaching and ad ministrative staffs of the schools in San Luis Obispo, take immediate steps to revise the courses of study so that apparent pupil needs can be adequately met. Suggested weekly time allotments recommended by the California Curriculum Study were presented. The approximate weekly time allotments in the San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles elementary schools were compared with the recommended standards. It was found that most of the time allotments in San Luis Obispo and Paso Robles were satisfactory. However, it was noted that subjects, in which achievement fell below the ability medians, had time allotments considerably below the standards recommended by the California Curriculum Study. It has been recommended to the respective superinten dents of schools that time allotments for those subjects, in which achievement fell below the ability norm, be increased to more closely approximate the recommended standard. It was expected that an increase in time allotment would be an im portant step toward an improvement of pupil achievement. B I B L I O G R A P H Y 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, ¥. L., "Why Teachers Say They Fail Pupils,” Educational Administration and Supervision, 18:594-600, November, 193^ • An enlightening article on pupil failure from the teachers point of view and one which contributes much to help solve the problem of non-promotion. Ayer, F. C., and F. H. Ulrich, ’’School Progress,” Review of Education Research, 6:164-68, April, 1936. A fine report of pupil progress in elementary schools in the United States. Blose, D. T., and D. Segel, ’’School Life Expectancy of Failures in the Elementary School,” American School Board Journal, 86:29-30, March, 1933. A, fine article that questions the wisdom of too numerous non-promotions. Boyer, P. A., and ¥. ¥. Cheyney, ”ls Non-Promotion a Defensible Policy,” Elementary School Journal, 33 •647-51, May, 1933. An exhaustive study of non-promotion In the elementary schools of Philadelphia that presents scientific data about pupil failures. J California School Code 1937, Gardiner, Robert A.., editor, School Code, State of California, Sacramento, California, 661" pp.-— Casewell, R. L., ’’Non-Promotion in Elementary Schools,” Elementary School- Journal, 644-47, May, 1933. A. survey which emphasized the variation in promotional . practices in the United States. Chism, L. L., ’’Classification and Promotion Practices in the Elementary School, Elementary School Journal, 33:89-91, A. survey of the use of annual and semi-annual promotion plans in four hundred ninety cities. 116 Cooke, Dennis H., "A Study of School Surveys with Regard to Age-Grade Distribution,” Peabody Journal of Education, 8:259-266, .March, 1931.A compilation of age-grade data from fifty-nine school surveys made from 1908 to 1928 including twentyfour rural, thirty-one city, and four foreign surveys. Egington, D. P., "Classifying and Promoting Pupils,” Nations Schools, 1^:23, August, 1934. An article which presents the fundamental problems involved in the promotion of pupils. Engelhardt, Nickolaus L., and George D. Strayer, A Report of a Survey in Ridgefield, Connecticut. Ridgefield Press, 1937. A recent example of the survey technique as used by these nationally known educators. Gilbert, Carl E., "Analysis of Pupil Classification in San Gabriel, California,” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1934, 190 pp. A. fine allied study which provided valuable aids in surveys pertaining to pupil personnel. Heck, Arch 0., Administration of Pupil Personnel. Ginn and Company, 1929. Boston: A thorough study of pupil personnel problems in the United States. This book was of great help in furnishing age-grade study material. Hull, Osman R., and Willard S, Ford, Survey of the Pasadena City Schools. Los Angeles, California: GalifornTaTaxpayer1s Association, Report 119. 331 pp. s - - • A. comprehensive survey and analysis of the Pasadena City Schools. This survey contributed many helpful suggestions for the study at hand. Jespersen, Chris N., editor, History of San Luis Obispo County. United States of America,“l939. JIB pp. This recent history of San Luis Obispo County provided much of the material in this study pertaining to the early history of the county. 117 Lindsay, J. A., "Annual and Semi-Annual Promotions," Columbia Teachers’ College Contribution, Number 570, 1955• 170 pp. An excellent summation of the annual and semi-annual promotion problem. McGinnis, W. C., "Dodging the.Blame for Failures," Journal of Education,.117?209-11, April, 1954. This article deals with the underlying philosophies of non-promotion and presents valuable suggested remedies. j McKinney, Willie T., "Analysis of the Elementary Pupil Personnel in Grade Placement in the Washington and Lincoln Schools in Winslow, Arizona," Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1957* 124 pp. Otto, Henry J., "Pupil Failure as an Administrative Device," Elementary School J ournal, 54:576-89, April, 1954. , "Promotion of Pupils in Elementary Schools," American School Board Journal, 87:19-21, July, August, September, 1955. Henry J. Otto is a nationally known authrotiy on promotion of pupils and pupil progress in the elementary school. His writings have added greatly in this study. Reavis, ,W. C., Adjustment in Junior and Senior High School. New York: D. 0 . Heath ’and~Company, 1926. This book presents excellent materials pertaining to retardation and its many causes. Robinson, B. B., "Failure is too Costly to the Child," Parent Magazine, 11:22-5, January, 1956. This article was of value in this study because it presented average pupil failure rates in the United States. j. Sears, Jesse B., The School Survey. Company, I925T 455 PP. Boston: Houghton Mifflin A valuable book containing recommended techniques for making school surveys. _______, Sacramento School Survey, Sacramento: Board of Education, 1928. vol's-. 572 pp. An excellent example of school survey technique. 118 iL Stratemeyer, Florence B., and H. B. Bruener, Rating Elementary i School Courses of Study. New York: Bureauof Publications, (Teachers1 College, Columbia University, 1926. 193 PP. The most comprehensive work to date dealing with the rating of courses of study. Information from this book provided the rating scale and other materials used in connection with- this.study. f O Strayer, George D., Educational Opportunities .in Holyoke. New York: Teachers' College Columbia University, 1930. 479 PP. An interesting study of survey technique that con tributed much toward the pupil achievement problem. / Stewart, L. R.,- "A Study of Pupil Achievement and Ability In the Rural.Schools of Ventura County,” Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Southern.California, Los Angeles, California, 1934, 81 pp. This thesis was of great help in the present study because of the similarity between the two studies. "7 / Tiegs, Ernest ¥., Tests and Measurements in the Improvement of Learning. Boston:" Houghton Mifflin Compan^T~^39^ 490 PP. A recent and comprehensive study of tests and measure ments which proved an invaluable aid to the extensive testing program which was Involved in this study. V Wilson, Guy E., and Kremer J. Hoke, How to Measure, New York: (j The Macmillan Company, 1928. 597 pp. revised e edition An excellent reference for any survey involving the use of standardized tests,.