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Xsrox University Microfilms
300 North ZoabRoad
Ann Arbor, Michigan 46100
Walden, Helen.
New York,
Jean Paul and Swift...
.W25 '1940.
2p.l.,210 typewritten leaves. 29cm.
Thesis (Ph.D.) - New York university,
Graduate school, 1940.
Bibliography: p.206-210.
Shelf List
Xerox University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
L ib b a iY
N. Y. Uat^J
Helen Walden
Submitted In partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Doetor of Philosophy
at Hev York University.
February 1940
Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Jean Paul's Relationship to Swift- - - - - -
Familiarity with Swift »s Works - - - - -
Jean Paul's Estimate of Swift as a
Man and a Humorist - - - - - - - - - - -
Jean Paul's Theory of Humor- - - a*
-- --
The Comic as the Opposite of the
Humor as the highest form of the Comic -
Irony, and the Role of Swift in
Jean Paul's Theory - - —
- - - - - -
The Influence of Swift upon Jean Paul's
Early Satires- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lob der Dumhelt- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Qr&nlflndlsohe Prosease - - - - - - - - - - -
Auswahl aus des Teufels Papleren - - - - - -
The Influence of Swift upon the Works of
Jean Paul in his Prime - - - - - - - - - - -
1 1 0 4 7 5
Die Unalchtbare Logs - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hesperus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Quintus F lxleln; Jubelsenior - - - - - - - -
SlebenkHia- - - -
-- - - - -
-- --
Pal ingene slen- - - -
-- -- - -
-- --
Titan- - - - - - - -
-- -- --
-- --
The Influence of Swift upon Jean Paul's
Later Works - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Flegeljahre - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Vorsohule der Aesthetlk - - - - - - - - -
Levana- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sohmelsle, Katnenberger. Flbel- - - - - -
Per Komet - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Conclusion- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bibliography- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
It would be difficult to find two individuals more
disparate In character and In personality than were
Jonathan Swift and Jean Paul Friedrich Richter
the for­
mer, cold, reasoning, unemotional, a man of the world; the
latter, warm-hearted, illogical, governed by his emotions
in all of his relationships, and helpless as a woman in
affairs of the world.
However, two authors may differ com­
pletely in personal characteristics and yet, paradoxical as
it may appear on the surface, the one may be strongly In­
fluenced In his writings by the other.
That is the case in
the relationship of Jean Paul to Swift, as this study will
attempt to prove.
Human nature Is not simple; an individual
is a complex of contradictory qualities; and while it is
true that Jean Paul was ruled by the heart and Swift by the
mind, yet there was an element in Jean Paul’s nature, par­
ticularly evident in his youth, that was attracted to
Swift’s caustic form of expression and responded to It by
On the other hand, Swift, too, was capable of
love as evidenced by his deep affection for "Stella"; but
through the vicissitudes and disappointments of his life
"he had learned, however much he loved the one, to hate the
Jean Paul’s love was all-embracing, including all
Carl Van Doren, Swift (New York, 1930), p. 4*7.
Satires and Personal Writings by Jonathan Swift, edited with
Introduction and Notes by WiIlTam AlfredEddy (London and
New York, 1939), p. 429.
humanity, and to each new friendship that he contracted, he
gave himself completely and without reservation.
The problem of Swift's influence upon Jean Faul, as
such, has never to my knowledge formed the subject of a
special study.
The fact that Swift did exert a strong in­
fluence upon Jean Paul in his youth has been recognized by
most of his biographers and critics
self makes no secret of it.
indeed, Jean Paul him­
Ferdinand Josef Schneider has
devoted several pages of his Jean Pauls Jugend und erstes
Auftreten in der Llteratur to an examination of the influ­
ence of Swift upon the early satirical works of Jean Paul.
So, too, has the dissertation of Vera Philippovic, Swift in
Deutschland (which I have been -unable to obtain), as re­
corded in Price, EngllshXlerman Literary Influences.
ledgment must also be made at this point to the valuable
notes of JSduard Berend, the foremost authority on Jean Paul,
in his edition of the works of this author.
Schneider sees Jean Paul1^ acquaintance with Swift re­
vealed for the first time in his Lob der Dumrheit^
treats in some detail the reminiscences of Swift's Tale of
a Tub to be found in this work as well as in the (ir6nl£ndlsche
Prozesse which grew out of it.3
He finds, too, that at the
ST Ferdinand Josef Schneider, Jean Pauls Jugend und
erstes Auftreten in der Literatur (Berlin, 1005)7 P* $25.
5. Ibi'a'.T~PP~r~3?5T 335 ff., ‘347, 357 f.
end of tills early period of apprenticeship, Jean Paul did
Indeed emerge as "the German Swift',
a realization of the
hopes and aims of his Leipzig period.4^
Philippovic states:
'UngefMiir mit dem zweiten Viertel des 18* Jahrhunderts beginnt sich Swift in der deutschen
Literatur ffthlbar zu machen. Ann&hernd ein
Jahrhundert hilt er vor, um dann mit Gulliver's
travels der deutschen Kinderliteratur anheimzufalien.
Seine ‘
.Virkung In Deutschland 1st niernals tief und niemals von grosser Bedeutung gewesen. kigentllchen Einfluss hat er nur auf die
zwei mehr oder weniger geistesverwandten K&pfe
ausgettbt, nlmlich auf die Satiriker Rabener und
Lichtenberg; und selbst diese Zwei wflrden wohl
schwerlich ein anderes Gesicht zeigen, vrenn sie
die Schriften des Dechanten nicht gekannt
h&tten..... Man kann fast sagen, dass er seit
1760 nur noch bei den Anhlngern der alten
Richtung in Deutschland lebt." 5
In her dissertation, ’’Philipoovic has collected references
to Swift from the works of Gottsched, Bodmer, Haller, Hagedorn, Liscow, Rabener, Gellert, Kftstner, Lessing, Lichtenberg, Herder, August Wilhelm and Friedrich von Schlegel,
and Jean Paul Richter*
None of these, however, wrote any
extensive work in Imitation of Swift.
Johannes Alt finds in the earliest works of Jean Paul
an indiscriminate mixture of the characteristics of Pope,
Young and Swift which render them at times quite insufferable.7
4* Ibid*, p. 364*
Quoted in Lawrence Marsden Price, Engllsh>German
Literary Influences. Bibliography and Survey (Berkeley^' 1919),
pp. l V 8 f .
6* Ibid., p. 179.
7. Johannes Alt, Jean Paul (M'&nchen, 19^5), p* 34.
Czerny, in his Sterne, Hippel und Jean Paul has the following
to say with regard to Jean Paul's literary sources:
"HVie sehr nun gerade Jean Paul von der ganzen
deutschen, englischen und franzbsischen Literatur
des 16., 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts mitbestimmt 1st,
zeigt ein blosser Blick in seine V/erke; es wimmelt
darin von Zltaten und Beziehungen auf andere
Autoren. In der Vorrede zur zwelten Auflage der
’GrbnlSndischen Prozesse' und auch sonst haufig
weist er selbst auf seine Muster hin.
So haben
denn auch schon Spazier und Gottschall EinfHlsse
Swifts, Sternes, Popes, Rabeners und Hippels gefundenj aber zu einer n&heren Betrachtung dleser
Einwirkungen 1st noch niemand vorgeschritten.
Czerny also notes the fact that Jean Paul in his first liter­
ary efforts shows in a strong measure the influence of Sv/ift®
as well as that of Sterne and Hippel.
All of these discussions, however, restrict themselves
to Jean Paul's early satirical works, and no detailed analy­
sis of the later works of Jean Paul with reference to a
possible influence of Swift seems to have been made.
It is the purpose of this study to trace the relation­
ship of Jean Paul to Swift in detail throughout all of the
major works of Jean Paul, to determine the extent to v/hich
an influence of Swift upon Jean Paul may have prevailed at
the various stages of his literary development, and to
ascertain the nature of such an influence.
References of
all kinds by Jean Paul to Swift will be examined, whether
they take the form of Imitations (direct or indirect) of
8. Johann Czerny,*Sterne, Hippel und Jean P a u l V
Forschungen zur neueren Llteraturgeschichte, XXVII (Berlin,
1904), p. 2•
9. Ibid., pp. 51 ff., 54 ff.
Swift’s style, form or material; expressions of admiration
or of criticism of Swift as a man and an author; allusions
to his works or to the influence of his works upon his own
writing; or whatever form they may assume.
It Is hoped
that an examination of the works of Jean Paul in this light
will show that Swift had a decisive influence upon the
humorous, satirical and stylistic characteristics of Jean
Paul as a writer.
Jonathan Swift, born In Dublin In 1667, lived his early
years In indigence as did Jean Paul; but Swift's poverty
would have been considered luxury by Jean Paul, and 'must
be measured not by his needs but by his pride.1110 He re­
ceived a good education through the assistance of his
uncle, and was given his Bachelor's degree "special! gratia"
at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1685; later he studied for
an ecclesiastical career at Oxford, where he took his
Master of Arts degree in 169B; and was ordained deacon In
1694 and priest in the following year.
After serving for
a number of years as secretary first to Sir
William Temple,
ambassador to the Hague under Charles II, and then for a
short period to Lord Berkeley, Swift began his career of
political pamphleteer In 1701 with his Discourse of the
Contests and Dissensions between the Nobles and Commons in
10. Carl Van Doren, Swif^t (New York, 1930), p. 7
Athens and Rome.
This was followed in 1704 by The Tale of
a Tub, a scathing satire on the denominational differences
of the Church, and the Battle of the Books, in which he
championed the 'Ancients" against the 'Modems"
both of
which works had been written some years earlier (1697-99).
While he was strongly partisan in his political writings,
first on the side of the Whigs and later secretly the
editor of the Tory organ, the Examiner, yet for Swift the
Church was always above party and had first claim to his
Returning to Ireland after the death of wueen
Anne in 1714, he became the Irish patriot and defender,
and took up the cudgels In behalf of his oppressed country­
In 1794 he published the Drapler letters in protest
against Walpole's copper coins for Ireland.
He wrote the
great work of his life and one of the world's masterpieces
of satire, Gulliver's Travels, during the years 1721 to
In it he exposed humanity to Itself vith all the
deadly venom that his poisoned pen could pour forth.
last fifteen years of his life were racked by illness
(a form of auditory vertigo) and finally by madness in­
duced by his physical suffering.
He died in 1745, eighteen
years before Jean Faul was b o m .
Swift, though b o m in Dublin and later, after many u n ­
fulfilled promises, finally appointed Dean of St. Patrick's
in that city, considered himself English, not Irish.11
came of pure English patrician stock sent to Ireland to
rule the savage, rebellious population of the island; and
he left this alien nation, "a people as unknown to him as
the antipodes’12 for England when the Irish Revolution
broke out.
At the home of Sir William Temple he met and
conversed with King William, and was sent by Temple to the
royal presence in the capacity of diplomatic counsellor in
the matter of the Triennial Bill.
His interest in public
affairs and party politics was an active one and his asso­
ciates in London were the statesman, Lord Oxford and Lord
Bolingbroke, close advisers to ^ueen Anne.
In his essay on
The Life and Writings of Addison (1838), Macaulay has the
following to say regarding the Influence of Swift upon the
political life of his time:
** may well be doubted whether St. John did
so much for the Tories as Swift, and whether
Cowper did so much for the Whigs as Addison....
Swift would, In all probability, have climbed as
high, if he had not been encumbered by his
cassock and his pudding sleeves. As far as the
homage of the great went, Swift had as much of
it as If he had been Lord T r e a s u r e r .*13
Swift regarded himself not as a statesman but as the driving
11. fff.- Thomas Sheridan, The hlfe of the Rev. Dr~.
Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick* s, Dublin TLondon, 1787),
ITS and note pi T557 aTso Samuel Johnson, Lives of the
English Poets (London and Toronto, no date), Vol. IT7 p. 257;
and Thomas Babington Macaulay, Critical, Historical and
Miscellaneous Essays and ?oems (New York, no date), Vol. Ill,
5 5 4 .-------------------------------
12. Van Doren, 0 £. clt., p. 211.
13. Macaulay, 0 £. clt., Vol. Ill, p« 38.
consclence of statesmen.^
He was a friend of Addison and
Steele, and contributed to the Tatler
and Spectator; and
later joined the circle of poets, Arbuthnot, Pope, "lay,
Parnell, in the
Scrlblerus Club.'15
Associating In
hich determined n-itional and international des­
it was natural that Swift should develop a broad,
objective, long-range view of life, and that his writings
should reflect this breadth of vision.
As Thomas Macaulay
so aptly states in his essay on Sir William Temple:
writes like a man who has passed his whole life in the
midst of public business and to whom the most Important
affairs of state are ss familiar as his weekly bills.
•Turn him to any cause of nolicy,
The Gordian knot of it he will unloose,
Familiar as his garter.
When In 1727 Swift planned to go to France, with letters of
Introduction which Voltaire had given him, he wrote to his
French translator of Gulliver1s Travels that 'SI done les
livres du sieur Gulliver no sont calculus que pour les isles
Britanniques, ce voyageur doit passer pour un tree pitoyable
Les memes vices et les mfimes folies r6gnent par
tout; du moins, dans tous les pays civilises de l'Europe: et
1 'auteur, qui n ’^crlt que pour une ville, une province, un
royaume, ou mftme un sl&cle, m4rite si peu d ’etre traduit,
Van Doren, op. clt., pp. *72 and 107.
Sheridan, op. clt"., p. 159.
Ibid., pp. 1201T.
Ilfacaulay, 0£. cit., Vol. II, p. 326.
a u ’il ne m6rite pas d'&tre®
Jean Paul, however, was the product of a small village
which, even in decentralized Germany, was remote from all
movements, currents, and influences that were felt in the
larger German cities and towns.
his formative years were
spent in a number of such villages and small towns, V/unsledel, Hof, Joditz, Schwarzenbach; so that their life and
atmosphere became his element.
His horizon became wider
with his attendance at the University of Leipzig, but he
retained throughout his life the impressions of his early
years; and in his writings the years of his childhood are
idealized and painted in glowing colors, as the only truly
happy period of his life.
He then moved about restlessly
from place to place, visited and lived in many of the larger
cities and literary centers, but was unable to acclimatize
himself, and felt like a fish out of water in all of them.
He had outgrown the narrow, cramped, uneventful srhere of
his childhood years and yet had not attained the breadth of
view necessary for recognition as an eoual among the liter­
ary leaders of his day.
Prom this sense of not belonging
anywhere, Jean Paul developed a realm of his own, a world of
his own creation, to which he escaped---© world that lay
above the petty, prosaic, inconsequential life of his youth
r8.' Satires and Personal Writings by JoiiatKan Swlft^
edited with Introduction and Notes by William Alfred Jfiddy
(London and New York, 1932), p. 434.
(the world he knew so well and reflected so faithfully In
his Idylls) and yet far below that rarefied st.ratosohere
inhabited by Goethe, Schiller, '..ieland and the recognized
leaders of art and thought in Germany.
The life that he
portrays with a warm, yet somewhat condescending humor in
Wutz, Pixlein, Slebenk&s, Flbel, is the only life he truly
knows from his own experiences.
These are therefore among
the best products of his prolific pen.
The early satires
are the pose of a youth arrogating the superior attitudes of
a maturity that he admires end desires to achieve for him­
This Jean Paul practically admits in the "Vorrede'* to
the second volume of the GrftnlSndlsche Prozesse, in Y/hich he
says he attacks only literary follies and expresses the wish
that he had similarly restricted his satire in the first
"Unser einer, der von alien Gem&chern Bedlams
kelne besser kennt pis die Studierstuben, v>eil er
darin geboren und erzogen worden, sollte erst an
vergoldeten Bticherriicken, die ihm j eder Bibliothekar gern zeigen wird, seine (ieisel tiben, e h 1
er sle fiber die mit holldndischem Tuche bekleideten
Menschenrlicken zu legen wagte. Denn belacht er
Narren, die er nicht kennt, so &hnlicht er den
Hexen, welche den Gegenstand ihres Zorns verwunden
wollen, indem sie nur sein Bild aus .'achs verwunden. Ich rezensiere mich hier, aber ich lobe mich
nicht, und was jetzt so arg stinkt, 1st nicht
Eigenlob, sondern Bigo^ede!.'*
Jean Pauls Sftmtllche Werke. Historisch-kritische
Ausgabe (Weimar, 1 9 2 7 ff.), erste ilbteilung, Vol. 1, p. 121.
(This edition of Jean Paul’s works is cited hereafter as W . ,
with the division and volume numbers indicated by Roman and
Arabic numerals respectively.)
The novels (and particularly his "chef d'oeuvre” , tha
"Classic" novel,20 Titan) are likewise untrue In that
they deal with classes of society of which he has no first­
hand knowledge but which he must reconstruct out of his
Although he did In his later years develop
some friendships with members of the aristocracy and even
the nobility, yet he was never really acoepted on an equal
footing In the sense that Goethe was accepted, but remained
always at the fringe of this upper stratum of society, an
outsider looking In*
In actual experience, therefore, his range of vision Is
very limited; yet In his Imagination It Is boundless*
accounts to a large degree for Jean Paul's lack of a sense
of proportion and of perspective; he sees life either micro­
scopically or In terms of aeons and universes, but never
d e a r l y as It actually exists In the common experience of
time and space*
The relationships he describes are there­
fore never altogether natural and normal ones, but appear
always distorted to some extent
that Is, either unnaturally
magnified or Infinitesimal, depending upon which end of the
glass he applies to his eyes---snd always subjective, that
la, as they appear to his eyes.
Jean Paul himself was fully
cognisant of his Inability to experience life as most men do,
and expresses this Idea In his first novel, Die Unslchtbare
SO. Cf. W., 1, 6, pp. tXXVIII ff., opinions of Herder
and the BomanFlolsts*
12 -
Loge, when the young hero, Gustav, after the death of
Amandus, flees the society of others and stands alone on a
hill-top, watching his friend's interment from a distance:
*Er ftihlte zum ersten male, dass er auf der
Erde nicht einheimisch sei, das Sonnenlicht
schien ihtn das in unsere Nacht gewebte DfLmnerlicht elnes grbssern Konds zu seln.1' 1
In a letter to his friend Hermann, dated Aug. 1, 1788,
Jean Paul offers by way of consolation the following recipe
for happiness:
"kftge dir der mraum das geben, was dir die kenschen versagen. Fliehe mit deiner Phantasie in
die Kindheitsauen zurhk, und vergis Ciber dem
Mondschein der Vergangenheit und vor dem Sternenhimmel der Zukunft die schlogenden Esel in der
”SPThe implication is that he himself has found this method
Swift, too, understood such escape mechanisms to which
men resort in their flight from reality, but had only scorn
for such human frailty.
This is evidenced by his satirical
definition of happiness:
If we take an examination of whet is generally
understood by happiness, as it has respect either
to the understanding or the senses, we shall find
that all its properties and adjuncts will herd under
this short definition, that it is a perpetual posses­
sion of being well deceived. And, first, with rela-
W., 1, 2,' p. 274'.
gle Briefe Jean Pauls. Herausgegeben und erldutert
von Eduard ^5erend (Mfirichen^ 1922 ff.), Vol. I, #232, p. 259.
Cited hereafter as Briefe, by volume, number, and page. This
passage is misquoted by Richard Otto Spazler, Jean Paul Fried­
rich Richter. Ein biographischer Commentar zu dessen Werken
(Leipzig, 1^40), p. 184.
tlon to the mind or understanding, ftl's manifest
what mighty advantages fiction has over truth;
and the reason is just at our elbow, because
imagination can build nobler scenes and produce
more wonderful revolutions than fortune or nature
will be at expense to fur nish....Again, if we
take this definition of hanniness and examine it
with reference to the senses, it will be acknow­
ledged wonderfully adapt.
How fading and insipid
do all objects accost us that are not conveyed in
the vehicle of delusionJ
How shrunk is every­
thing as it appears in the glass of nature I So
that if it were not for the assistance of artifi­
cial mediums, false lights, refracted angles,
varnish, and tinsel, there would be a mighty
level in the felicity and enjoyments of mortal
m e n . 23
and again in almost the identical words,
to prove that
’’the outside is inf initely preferable to the in" :
"bast week I saw a woman flayed, and you will
hardly believe how much it altered her person
for the worse....He that can, with Epicurus,
content his ideas with the films and images
that fly off upon his senses from the superficies
of things; such a man, truly wise, creams off
nature, leaving the sour and the dregs for
philosophy and reason to lap up.
This is the
sublime and refined point of felicity called the
possession of being well deceived; the serene
peaceful state of being a fool among knaves.*24
For Swift, the world may be, and is, rotten to the core;
but it Is the part of a man to face the facts as they are,
to combat the existing evils with all the powers at his di s­
not to attempt to conceal or ma sk them with the
rosy tints of the imagination.
Satire to him was public
P 3 . The Prose ,Yorks of Jonathan Swift, P . P ., "edited by
Temple Scott (London^
11*77 Vol'. I, "A Tale of a Tub", p. 119.
Cited hereafter as T.S., by volume and page.
24. Ibid., I, p. 120 f.
14 -
spirit "prompting men of genius and virtue to mend the
world as far as they are able. **25
He wrote to his friend,
Dr. Sheridan, to "expect no more from man than such an
animal is capable of, and you will every day find my de­
scription of Yahoes
[si<^ more resembling.
and deal vrith every
man as
so, or flying from him,
old true lesson,"26
should think
a villain, without
valuing him less. This isan
and in
the same letter he
to "laugh with all men, without trusting any."27
Both Jean Paul and Swift agree that this is not the
best of all possible worlds.
But where Swift is too bitter
in his views, Jean Paul is too prone to place the best
possible interpretation upon life
and, as a last resort
where all else fails, to laugh at it as a grandiose farce,
as Swift does too, but without Sv/ift 's malice.
It Is because
of this fundamental difference in their philosophies that
Jean Paul can never quite, in spite of his strenuous efforts
at imitation of Swift, achieve the mordant quality in his
satire that is Swift’s natural medium of expression.
Paul's satire emanates from a warm heart; Swift's from cold
25. Satires and Personal Writings by Jonathan SwlftT,
edited by William Alfred Eddy (London and New York, 1932),
"A Vindication of Mr. Gay and the Beggar’s Opera", p.263.
This edition will be cited hereafter as Eddy.
26. T.3., Vol. XII, p. 146. (Letter of Sept.11, 1725)
27. Ibid., p. 147.
15 -
Familiarity -with Swift's Y/orks
Jean Paul's acquaintance with the works of Swift began
when he was a student at the University of Leipzig, and his
interest in this author continued throughout his life.
nephew, Richard Otto Spazier, who lived in Jean Paul’s home
during the last months of the letter's life, in his biogra­
phy of Jean Paul describes the author's study as follows:
"Mitten in der Stube stand ein unscheinbares I;epositorium mit eisernen hlammern am Boden festgemacht, mit Kxcerpten und Manuscrinten bis oben
herangeffillt, dem Penster narallel, las Im Sommer
die aufgehende Sonne zuerst begriisste; zwischen
beiden der Sopha, auf dem er gewBhnlich halb
liegend las, und dem desshalb zur grBssern Bequemlichkeit und Ver&nderung der Stellung die
Fusslehne fehlte. Davor der eichene Arbeitstisch; auf diasem die ausgesuchtesten Pedern
neben dem verschiedenartigsten, selbst buntfarbigen Papier auf sorgffiltigster Unterlage,
Brillen, Blumen, Bucher,
unter letzteren immer
die kleinen englischen Ausgaben von Swift und
In der bestimmtesten Qrdnung.1'!
This would Indicate not only that Jean Paul in his lator
years read Swift In the original, but also that he fre­
quently had occasion to refer to the works of this English
author whom he so greatly admired, inasmuch as he kept them
constantly before him on his writing-table.
Tl Richard Otto Spazier, Jean Paul Friedrich Richter.
Ein biographischer Gommentar zu des sen Yrferken. ("Leipzig, 1840)
Vol. V, p. 197; cf. also Spazier, Jean Paul Friedrich Richter
in seinen letzten Tagen und im Tode (Breslau" I&26), pi
16 -
The works of Swift were known in Germany in the
eighteenth century, but did not exercise so great an In­
fluence upon German literature as did those of certain
other contemporary English writers such as Defoe, Richard­
son, Fielding, Sterna.^
Gulliver's Travels, the best
known of Swift's works, won its way into Germany less
rapidly than did Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, for example.3
"Not -until a French edition of fifteen hundred
copies was sold out in one year was its oopularity noted and the French version turned Into
21 For the influence of Sterne upon Jean Faul, cf.
Joseph Claude Hayes, Laurence Sterne and Jean Paul (Hew York
University Dissertation, 1939).
In this connection an incident related by Lord
Orrery In his Letters to his Son is of interest, not only
because it states S\vIftH"s opinion of his contemporary,
Daniel Defoe, but also In that It is an excellent example
of Swift's trenchant satire:
111 cannot help pointing out to you, one particu­
lar piece of satir, that Is entirely in Swift's
own style and manner. In the fourth page [pam­
phlet against repealing the test act] he expresses
himself thus. ''One of these authors (the fellow
that was pilloried, I have forgot his name) is
Indeed so grave, sententious, dogmatical a rogue,
that there is no enduring him.' The fellow that
was pilloried was Daniel Defoe, whose name Swift
well knew and remembered, but the circumstanoe of
the pillory was to be introduced; and the manner
of Introducing It shews great art in the nicest
touches of satir, and carries all the marks of
ridicule, indignation, and contempt. The scoffs
and sarcasms of Swift, like the bite of the
rattle-snake, distinguish themselves more venom­
ously dangerous, than the wounds of a common
serpent.” (Remarks on the Life and Writings of
Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick*si Dublin;
Tn a Series of Letters from John Earl o f Orrery to
ETs Son, the-Honourable Hamilton Boyle-TLondon,
T 7 5 2 T T P . T 5 4 1 -----------------------------
17 -
German (1727) and only one more translation
appeared during the century. A reviewer of
a translation of 1304 expressly assumed that
everyone was familiar with the work, but there
were notably few imitations of Gulliver in
At the time of the appearance of the French transla­
tion of Gulliver1s Travels, the work was cornir ended in
Gottsched's journal, Der Biedermann, and an extract from
the French version was given in German translation, as
well as a si3eclmen of Georg Christian -Volf's translation
of The Tale of a Tub.5
"Tiagedorn discovered 'Sv/ift ische Erf Indung' In
LIscow's 'Briontes' (173°) and Bodmer joined
with others in calling him 'der deutsche Swift',
but neither he nor any other German remotely
deserved the title. Pope and Arbuthnot and
his acknowledged master, Boileau, were far
more Important to LIscow than Swift.”®
Jean Paul himself makes this comparison between Swift and
Liscow In a letter of July 19, 1783, to his friend Oerthel
In Leipzig:
"Liskov 1st ein herlicher Satiriker, er iibertrift Kabnern und erreicht Swiften; von lhm
h ab' Ich sine bessere Ironie gelemt, die ich
meinen gedrukten und raeinen schon abgeschriebenen Sachen geben zu kbnnen gewtinscht hfitte.1’7
The contributors to the Bremer Beytr&ge were greatly
Lawrence Marsden Price,' The deception of EngTIsK
Literature in Germany (Berkeley, 1537)', p. 45.
5 T T 5 1 H T , p. ‘ggV
6. THT?. , p . 46.
7. Brlefe, I, #54, p. 98.
18 -
indebted to English journalism, and the contributions of
Habener in particular show the influence of the Spectator
(to which Swift also contributed), and of Swift's works,
which he must have read in translation, as he knew no
"The ’Bremer Beitr&ger1 introduced one innova­
tion into Herman journalism. Basing their or­
ganization on the Scriblerus Club, of which
rope and Swift were members, they met in a
coffee house in Leipzig and discust and amended
deliberately the contributions offered, which,
if finally accepted, were unsigned and given
out as the joint product of the group. In
Switzerland the 1Gesellschaft der tlahlern1 had
already organized itself similarly."^
The first direct German translation of Sv-'ift's works
was that of Heinrich V/aser, Satyrische und ernsthafte
Schriften von Dr. Jonathan Swift, in eight parts (ZiArich,
Orell, 1756-1766). Two later editions followed, one in
Hamburg end Leipzig, 1756 ff., and another in 1766 ff.
Another translation of Swifts -und John Arbuthnots vorzilglichste prosalsche Schriften satyrischen und humorlstlschen InhaIts was made by Degenhard Pott in 1798-99
(6 Thle., Leipzig, Veygand).®
Jeon Paul was familiar with
both of these translations of Swift, but preferred the
former, as will be shown subsequently.
There is no evidence that Jean Paul had read any of
8— Price % x>p. eft"., p. 60 f .
9*. toalT^elT Price and Lawrence Larsden Price, The
Publication of English Literature in Germany in the
Eighteenth Century (Berkeley, 19347T p. 231 fFT
19 -
Swift's works before entering the University of Leipzig in
kay 1781.
Here he attended lectures on the English language
and began to familiarize himself with English literature.
Ich las den Pope; er entziikt mich, eben so den
Young. Er 1st unffelbar) in der englischen
Sprache noch viel herlicher.
Ich lerne sie
iezt, und vorz^iglichj um die vortrefliche Y/ochenschrift den Zuschauer zu lesen, von der wir im
Deutschen eine elende Uebersezzung haben.'110
Jean Paul's essay, Etwas fiber den kenschen, written during
the summer of that year shows the influence of Pope's
B3say on Man, and his Lob der Dumheit that of Pope's Dunclad
and Erasmus' Encomium Moriae.
A letter of Jean Paul to
Pfarrer Vogel in iiehau, dated March 8, 1787, in which he
st a t e s :
*ich wil Bticher schreiben, um bficher kaufen zu
k&nnen; ich wil das Publikum beleren, (erlauben
Sie diesen falschen Ausdruk wegen der Antitese)
um auf der Akademie l e m e n zu kftnnen; ich wil
den Kndzwek zum Mittel machen und die Pferde
hinter den A'agen spannen, um aus dem bfesen Holwege zu kommenJ”H
reveals that he has reached a turning-point in his career.
Having found the professors at the university, contrary to
his expectations, unwilling or unable to help him in a
situation which was fast becoming desperate, he decided to
take matters into his own hands;
10. Brlefe, I, #1?, p. 34; letter to Vogel from
Leipzig, November 1781.
11. Brlefe, I, #P0, p. 40.
20 -
"Ich finderto nun die Art meines Studirens; ich
las wizzige schriftsteller, den Seneka, den
Ovid, den Pope, den Young, den Swift, den
taire, den Rousseau,
den Boileau, und was
ich alles?'12
That is to say, during the course of his first year of
attendance at Leinzlg, Jean Paul had become familiar with
the foremost exponents of rationnlistic satire, ancient
and modern.
The dire need of his family caused Jean Paul
to discontinue his study of theology, (greatly to the dis­
appointment of his mother
who had hoped to see
him aclergy­
man like his father), and
to become a free lance writer. He
made all efforts to have his Lob der Dunhelt published,
sending It to Christian Boie, the publisher of the Deutsches
Museum. In Gbttingen, who rejected it.
Returning to his
mother In Hof in the Spring of 1782, he sent the manuscript
to the publisher
eygand, with the same result.
After his
return to Leipzig, he re-wrote and expanded the work under
the title Grttnlfindlache Prozesse in six months, and finally
succeeded In having It accepted by Voss In Berlin, who pub­
lished it in February 1783.
At this time Jean Paul was still not sufficiently famil­
iar with the English language to read the works of the English
satirists without the aid of a dictionary, for in Juno of 1783,
V F — griefeT TT #20, p. 4'0.
21 -
while he v/as In Hof for the summer months, he asked
Pfarrer Vogel to lend him his cop7.
r of Tope, saying:
"W&re Pope franz6sisch geschrleben und felte
mir ein Lexikon in derselben Sprache: so \rlird *
Ich meine Bitte urn ein Lexikon in das Gleichnis einkleiden: ein deutscher Schliissel sperret
kein franzBsisches Schlos. Allein da er engllsch geschrleben, so mus Ich Ihnen bios in
simpeln Deutsche sagen, dass mir zur Lesung
desselben mein Lexikon felet, das Ich {ini Leip­
zig gelassen. K&nten 3Ie das Ihrige auf einige
Zeit entberen, so wiird 1 Ich 3ie darum bitten.
Im entgegengesezten Palle bitte Ich 3ie um
Schftnfeld*s Landwirtschaft, anstat um den P o p e . " 13
The following week (June °1, 1783), Jean Paul wrote a
letter to Johann Adam Hagen in Hof, whose son Georg
Christian was a schoolmate of Richter*s In Lelozig and,
like Richter, studied theology there:
'Vergeben Sie mir, dass ich, ohne Ihnen bekant
zu sein, eine Bitte an Sie wage. Doch ich wil
sie tun, e h 1 ich sie entschuldlge. Sie betrift
die MItteilung der satlrischen Schriften Swifts,
die Sie, soviel mir Ihr Herr Sohn In Leipzig
versichert, besizen und die hier soviel ich weis
niemand welter hat.
Ihre Lesung auf einige
7ochen 1st mir so notwendig, dass Ich dnmit die
Unhftflichkeit, mich Ihnen durch eine Bitte be­
kant zu machen, vielleicht entschuldigen k8nte.“14
Jean Paul was at this time working on the second part of the
Grftnlflnd1sche Brozesse.
In a humorous letter of Dec. 5, 1784 from Hof to his
friend Oerthel who was then still studying In Leipzig,
Richter tells how he first became acquainted with the works
Brlefe, I, #49, p. 80.
Brlefe, I, #51, p. 86.
- ?
of Swift in the shop of the book-seller Seiler in Leipzig,
and what a profound influence they exerted upon his own
it is In the form of a monologue by the letter,
which speaks of Richter as its father.
It tells how "mein
Papa, der H. Richter" had alvrays endeavored to write a
correct and exemplary German, had studied the language with
the foremost masters, and had taken lessons from a certain
Lessing, fourteen hours a day, to whom he had paid each week
nearly 11Blnen Groschen Informirgeld" .
The money was practi­
cally wasted, however, for
"... .ungliiklicher '/else wurde er in Leipzig mit
einem alten Ubersezer, der 4 Oder 5. Treppen hoch
(d.i. 5. F&cher hoch Im Repositorium) bei Seilern
wohnte, bekant.
In die sen alten Kan verliebte er
sich nach und nach und er lag zulezt den ganzen
Tag bei (fiber) Ihm: von diesem lies er sich gewisse Bonsmots (I) eines gewissen alten englischen
Spasmachers, Swifts, verdolmetschen, wievrol Ich
glaube, der alte Ubersezer hat lhn manchmul zum
Barren gehabt. Allein wenn er nur nicht darhber
auch zugleich die alte, hole, stammelnde St inane
des alten Marines llebgewonnen hfttteI Denn selltdem sprlcht er vftllig wie der alte tJbersezer und
es bringt lhn nichts davon ab.
Der alte tTbersezer1 was Heinrich daser, whose translation
of Swifts satlrische und ernsthafte Schrlften In eight
volumes, published In Zurich In 1755-1766, left an indel­
ible mark on Jean Paul's style.
Jean Faul must have read Swift's works again in 1785,
although there is no record to show when or from whom he
obtained them; In May 1786 he again feels a strong desire to
T5I— Brlefe, I, W ^ T p T 14T7
read them, and again begs permission to borrow them.
23 -
time he addresses himself to Karl John. Albrecht Maier,
proprietor of the Vierlingsche Buchhandlung in Hof, in the
following circuitous fashion:
!!Viele Nachtwandler verstanden sich bios aufs
Klettern; aber einige waren auch mit der seele
th&tig und machten zum Erstaunen aller Wachenden
Predigten usw. '.'/ahrhaftig ich und Sie mtissen
dartiber erstaunen, dass ich heute zu frilh, da
ich aufstand, einen Zettel von meiner Hand geschneben antraf, den ich im Schlaf gemacht und
den ich Ihnen hier abkopiere: 'Lieber Dechant
SchwiftJ du kamst mit dem H. (Maier) alhier angefahren; aber begehre doch von ihm veniam exeundi
und besuche mich. Ach, lieber Schvrift, wie wflnscht •
ich dich zu sehen, da ich dich so lange nicht gesehenl Vor einem Jahre beschmuzte ich dich freilich beinahe so sehr wie du die Menschen durch
deine Satiren; aber heuer wil ich dir mit der Reinlichkeit eines Knglftnders begegnen und was kan ich
mehr thun als dass ich Villens bin, dich wie sonst
die Damen das Abendmal, mit Handschuhen anzufassen?
Gehe ihn wi~
’ nit aber sicher
davon her,
nichts denke
als an,den Swift: im Traum geht es mir hernach
vor.* 16
Again, on March 15, 1787, he asks Pfarrer Vogel for the
English Mlssoellanles. (sicJ)17
In 1790 Jean Paul went to Schwarzenbach as schoolmaster
to seven children of his friends there.
One of the subjects
of his instruction was the English l a n g u a g e , a n d it is
probable that Jean Paul himself benefltted from this instruc­
tion more than his pupils did.
In any case, however, although
1ST Briefe, T,"#178, p. 2P.2TI ---------------------------17. Brlefe, I, #197, p. 238.
18. W ., I, 12, Levana, p. 378.
24 -
Jean Paul may have Improved his own knowledge of English in
the process of teaching it to the Clbter, Vblkel and Vogel
children, he never did master it to perfection.
He says
ironically of himself that "eh1 Ich Im Englischen perfekt
war”, he always wrote M sch" Instead of 1sh'*
in Hesperus he wrote
In the Teufels Paplere
he refers to literary critics as 11Highwaymens'1
Der Jubelsenior he speaks of "King’s Benchs".^
1795, he counted Swift among his
and indeed,
and in
By October
Schoosbhcher'1 which he
knevr by heart, as he did the works of Herder, Goethe,
9 7
Sterne. °
Johann Friedrich .abegg, a clergyman who visited
Jean Paul in Leipzig, tells of a conversation which took
place on May 6, 1798, in which the author expresses himself
in similar terms on the subject of Swift!
"Das Ungewbhnliche, insofer^ eben deswegen frappiert
und kontrastiert, darzustellen, 1st franzftsischer
V/itz und Lsune. Aber das gev/bhnliche Kleine der
Menschennatur widerstrebend zu finden und, indem
man in seiner Erhabenheit bber dasselbe in der Litte
zwischen Schmerz und jsrhebung darftberschwebt,-dies auszudrflcken, heisst Humor und gibt die Erscheinung der Erhabenheit und des Komischen nebeneinander.
Swift ist darin unhbertrefflich.”-"Den habe ich noch nicht g e l e s e n
"Glticklicher I
So haben Sie noch einen gftttlichen Genuss. Meine
Lleblinge kann ich nicht mehr aufs neue geniessen,
ich weiss sie auswendig, habe das Buch selbst nicht
einmal mehr. Den Swift mdssen Sie ja lesen."---24
19. W., T~, §7 'Komischer ^mhang" to the first volume of
Titan, p. 250, and Berend's note p. 525.
20. W., I,
3, p.
21. W., I,
1, p.
22. W., I,
5, p.
23. Erlefe, II, #179, p. 120; letter to J. Chr. K. Moritz
of October 30, 1795.
24. Eduard Berend, Jean Pauls Persfenllchkelt (Miinchen
und Leipzig, 1913J, p. 22.
That Jean Paul1s personal library at this time was not very
voluminous is evident from Abegg's statement:
‘Seine Biblio-
thek 1st sehr schwach, diese steht gleich an der rriire und
1st nicht geh&rig geordnet....*25
In a note to Thierlot dated Leipzig, Larch 23(?), 1798,
Jeun Paul writes: "Guten Morgen I
um Swift: Ich mache eine Vorrede.
Ich bitte Sie, lieber Th.,
"26 which, as 2erend
points out, undoubtedly refers to the preface to the Pallngeneslen which is dated March 23, 1798.
Another note to Bfcttiger in .Veimar (1798? 1799?):
"Lieber Freund und Geberl
.ier i?t der Lank und
wieder eine Bitte
, um Swifts forks, damit ich
aus ihnen die ungelesenen suche.
Several memoranda of the end of the year 1799 and the
early part of 1800 Indicate tha.t he has borrowed from Herder
or returned to him certain volumes of Swift's works.
Herder's library the English authors, and particularly Swift,
were amply represented.
Jonathan Swift was one of Herder's
favorite writers, and His interest In awift extends from his
early Riga period to the end of his life.
FIs library con­
tained a 28-volume English edition of Swift's works v.ith
which the Herzogin Luise presented him In 1800, from her own
library}2® an 8-volume German translation of Swift's works,
25. ibid., p. 19. Cf, also article by H. Deiter,
"Johann Friedrich Abeggs Relse Im Jahre 1798”, Euphorlon, 1909,
XVI, p. 738.
26. Briefe, III, #76, p. 58.
27. Briefe, III, #185, p. 159.
28. Luise Schork, Herders Bekanntschaft mit der englischen
Llteratur (Breslau, 1928), p. 29 and note 2.
as well as a number of editions of Swift's individual vrorks,
some in German translation, including The Tale of a Tub, A
Discourse concerning the Mechanical Operation of the Spirit,
Antl-Longln, and his Directions to Servants.
Herder also had
In his possession Sheridan's biography of Swift which had
appeared In German translation in 1795; a German translation
of Lord Orrery’s letters to his son, ani Johnson's biography
of Swift.
Jean Paul had read all of these works and referred
to them in his own writings from time to time.
It is there­
fore very likely that he became f aril liar with certain of
them through Herder's library.
During the period of nearly twenty years, therefore,
from his first acquaintance with Swift in 17dl at the age of
eighteen, through the year 1800, Jean Paul was dependent
entirely upon the generosity of his friends for his perusal
of Swift's works.
rfis letters from this time on reveal no
further requests to borrow the works of Swift.
Jean Paul was by this time a recognized and popular
author; his Hesperus, published in 1795, had been a best­
seller and had made him famous at one stroke. This "Tragelaph
von der ersten Sorte", as Goethe called It, had made him
especially popular with women readers, and a second edition
of this novel became necessary within two years after the
in a note to Schiller of June 10, lr795, accompanying
the first volume of Hesperus.
27 -
He had gradually worked his way out of his financial
difficulties to economic independence, and could now satisfy
the innate desire for books tir-t he had cherished ever since
his childhood.
He had carried out his program ’’to write
books in order to be able to buy books" and it is very like­
ly that he began to accumulate a library of his own as soon
as he was able to do so; although, as we have seen from
Abegg’s statement of May 1798, nuoted above, Jean Paul’s
library at that time was not very large.
In the Vorschule der Aestnetlk, in speaking of the
superiority of the JSnglish lan mage for Ironical nur^oses
because It had retained to a considerable degree the struc­
tural forms of the Latirt, also of the German language at
the time of Liscow when the Latin stylistic constructions
still prevailed, Jean Paul states in a footnote: "Daher
ziehe ich Swifts lahme Uebersetzung durch '.ifaser den neuern
gelenken vor."®^
As Berend points out,^l a new translation
of Swift's works by Degenhard Pott in six volumes had appear­
ed In 1798-99.
To this, and to the numerous translations of
individual works of Swift which had appeared since Vtaaer’s
translation of 1756-66, Jean Paul here refers.
As he was
working on his Vorschule from the Fall of 1803 to July 1804,
he may also have seen one of the two new editions of Gulliver *s
'V., I, 11, p. 13d. '
W . , I, 11, Anmerkungen, p. 451.
Travels which appeared, in Leipzig in
At any rate,
this statement Indicates that by 1804 Jer.r. Paul ires still
reading Swift chiefly in German translation, and that he
regarded Vaser's translation as superior to the later ones
in that it preserved the irony of the original more faith­
fully; also that he did not yet possess at this time the
set of Swift's works in English which Spazier saw on his
Indeed, as late as October 1819 he makes the state­
ment :
‘Von Swifts Milhrchen von der Tonne h a b 1 ich eine
von Max ftir sechs Kreuzer gekaufte--Uebersetzung (Altona, 1748) auf meinem Schreibtisch
liegen und lese f a s t abendlich darin, nachdem
Ich die bessere Uebersetzung und das Original
selber mehrmal gelesen."33
This indicates Jean Paxil's high regard for and sustained
interest In the British author, and it may well be assumed
that he purchased the entire set of Sv/ift 's works in English
soon thereafter.
32. Mary Bell Price and Lawrence Marsden Price, The Pub
llcatlon of English Literature in Germany in the Eighteenth
Century”(Berkeley, 1§34), p. 232.
33. Wahrheit aus Jean Paul's Leben (Breslau, 1826 ff.),
Vol. II, p. lOl.
29 -
Jean Paul's Estimate of Swift
as a Man and a Humorist
Not only did Jean Paul regard Swift's works as his
'Schoosbiicher" which he practically knew by heart, 34 t>ut
he was familiar as well with the details of Swift's life
and his personality.
His feeling for Swift was a composite
of great admiration for the satirist and 9 t y l i s t , of sym­
pathy with his general attitude toward the foibles of man­
kind, and of pity for Swift's cold, embittered life and
cruel fate.
He regarded Swift as his model and his teacher
in the use of irony, and would have liked nothing better
than to be considered 'the German Swift1’.35
Indeed, Gleim
wrote to Herder with somewhat exaggerated enthusiasm, that
he found "mehr als Swift, mehr als Yorick1 In Jean Paul's
Hesperus;56 and Herder himself, in his Adrastea, in a dia­
logs© between 'Tronie’ and "Kritik1, lets the former speak
thus: "Meinen Jean-Paul indess vergesae ich nicht, In dem,
nebst seinem eignen, Swift's, Fieldings und Sterne’s Gelst
mit einander ihre Yirtschaft treiben.'
For this compli­
mentary reference to his own works from Herder, whom he
idolized, Jean Paul wrote to Karoline Herder from Coburg on
34. Eduard Berend, Jean Pauls PersbnlichkeTt Tiffinchen~
und Leipzig, 1913), p. 2157
35. Ferdinand Josef Schneider, Jean Pauls Jugend und
erstes Auftreten in der Literatur (Berlin7 1905), p. 3t>4.
36. W . , I, 3, Introduction, p. XXXIX.
37. TTohann Gottfried Herder, S&mtliche Werke (Berlin,
1886), Vol. 74, Adrastea (1803), 5. 3d., p. 196.
November 22, 1903: "Frir die IXte Adrastea sag1 ich. EmpfSingers
und Lesers Dank. • • ich wiirde meinen herlichen Lorbeerkranz
darln nicht aufzusezen wagen, wenn er nicht vorher ware so
scharf ged&rt worden, das? man lhn fiir eine halbe Dornenkrone tragen kan."38
When Jean Paul discusses humor In its philosophical
aspect, as an attitude toward life in general, (v/hat he calls
v/eIt-Humor), his first thought Is of Swift.39
He mentions
him in the company of Shakespeare, Cervantes, Rabelais, Vol­
’'Swifts Guliver
Jslcl] • . . steht hoch auf dem tar-
pejischen Felsen, von welchem dieser Geist das Menschengeschlecht hinunterwirft.'40
His Aesthetlsche Untersuchungen (a collection of memo­
randa and Ideas dating from 1794 on, in preparation for the
Vorschule der Aesthetlk), contain a note which reveals Jean
Paul's high regard for Swift’s genius:
"Schon die Struldbrugs allein (die Unsterbllchen)
mftssten Swift zu einem -J- Shakespeare erhtthen, er,
der dichterischste Mensch in England, besonders
durch Gullivers Reisen
Das Fiirchterliche, wie
sein Alter seine DIchtung realisierte, wiewohl
hier nur ein Vorgeftihl dieses Alters regierte.-Wie kann man Swift die Yahoos so ftbelnehmen, da
sie doch nur die satirische Karikatur enthalten,
wenn er auch im Leben tiber Menschen zttrnte?"^!
58. Brlefe, XV, #427. p. 283.
39. Cf. W . , I, 11, Vorschule der Aesthetlk, Par. 32,
"HumoristIsohe TotalitAtV p. I12.
40. Ibid., p. 113.
41. Sduard Eerend, Jean Pauls Aesthetlk (Berlin, 1909),
p. 110; cf. also Herder, Y/erke, Vol. 23, Adrastea, Erster
Band (1801), pp. 18C-189.
Thls observation was doubtless inspired by Lord Orrery’s
somewhat sententious remarks on the same subject:
''The description of the Struldbruggs, in the
tenth chapter, is an instructive piece of moral­
ity: for, if we consider it in a serious light,
it tends to reconcile us to our final dissolu­
tion. Death, when set in contrast to the immor­
tality of the Struldbruggs, is no longer the
King of Terrors: he loses his sting: he appears
to us as a friend: and we chearfully obey his
summons, because it brings certain relief to the
greatest miseries. It is in this description,
that Swift shines in a particular manner. He
probably felt In himself the effects of approach­
ing age, and tacitly dreaded that period of life,
In which he might become a representative of
those miserable immortals. His apprehensions
were unfortunately "fulfilled. He lived to be
the most melancholy sight tnat was ever beheld:
yet, even In that condition, he continued to
Instruct, by appearing a providential Instance
to mortify the vanity, which Is too apt to arise
In the human breast.”^0
In Jean Paul’s Klelne Bti.cherschau, a collection of
literary criticisms, he reviews
Der Gross- Hof- und Staats-
jspopt Lotario Oder der Hofnarr von Dr. J. A. Kessler*1 (1808).
In this critique he again places Swift on a par v/ith Shake­
speare and Aristophanes:
'Von gegenw&rtigem politlsch- und literarischsatirischen Gesohichtsroman erwarte man nicht
etwan, auf das Versprechen des TItels und Titelkupfers hin, jenen humoristischen Strom, der wie
bei Aristophanes, Shakespeare und Swift alles umrelsst, aufw&hlt, zerrissen spiegelt und selber
mit dem Gewiohtigsten gaukelt.
Remarks on the Life and Writings o f TTr. Jonathan
Swift, Dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin; In n Series of Letters
from John Earl oF Orrery to his Son, tKe Honourable Hamilton
Boyle (London, 1752), p. Tl6.
43. W., I, 16, p. 384.
38 -
The Kleine Btlcherschau was the last work which Jean Paul
published during his lifetime; it was completed in Anril,
18°5, seven months before his death.
It contains many other
references to Swift, sc in the review of Johann Arnold Kanne 1s
Er st e Urkunde der GescMchte oder allgemelne kythologie;^4
in his own foreword to E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Pantaslestiicke
in Callots Lanier (1814) which is couched in the form of a
review;45 in his critique of Mme. de Stael’s De I ’.^llemagne
(1814);4® of Ferdinand Delbriick’s Ein Gastmahl.
Reden und
Gesprdche fiber die Dlchtkunst (1809 );47 and several others.
At about the same time (February to April lS^S), Jean
Paul wrote his Klelne Hachschule zur aesthetischen Vorschule.
The opening paragraph of this work mentions Swift in the
company of Goethe, Rabelais, Butler, Sterne, as evidence
that a sound background of learning is a prerequisite for
success as a writer, even for the humorist:
Ausser den klassischen Alten, welchen die
Jahre und die Lebens Erfahrungen so viel als uns
die Biicher leisteten, und die auf einer reichen
Unterlage des dssens Ihre dichterischen GemSlde
auftrugen, h a b ' ich in den Briefen wahrscheinlich
noch Gothen angeffthrt, der sich wirklich auf so
vlele .Vissenschaften gelegt, als h a b 1 er nie einen
Vers gemacht.
Sogar auf Satire und Humor dehnt'
ich meine S&tze aus; denn ich habe die Abschrift
eines Briefs mit der klaren Eehauptung vor mir,
dass beide ohne Gelehrsamkeit nicht ausreifen,
V/., I, 16, p. 286.'
Tbld., pp. ^91 ft*
I F H . , pp. 322 ff.
TETcT.,p. 397.
wie denn Rabelais, Butler, Swift, Sterne viel
gelehrter gewesen als Rabener und andere deutsche
For this idea Jean Paul is doubtless indebted to Swift, who
states in his preface to the Battle of the Books:
Wit without knowledge being a sort of
cream, which gathers in a night to the top,
and by a skilful hand may be soon whipped into
froth; but once scummed away, what appears
underneath will be fit for nothing but to be
thrown to the hog s.’’49
In the seme work, Jean Paul again compares the style of
German satirists to that of the jfinglish masters of irony, to
the disadvantage of the former:
'Man gebe mir ironische Stellen von Lessing,
von Jieland, sogar von Lichtenbergs Timorus:
ich will in alien hie und da ein Vordringen und
Durchschimnern des Lachgesichtes durch die diinne
Maske der ironie nachweisen; so wie man etwa im
15ten Jahrhundert die Schuhe tiber den Ziehen
durchschnitt, um an diesen die Kinge zu zeigen.
Selten verdlent Liscov eine solche Rtige; aber
niemals der ironische Alleinherr Swift, ja
nicht elnmal die Gasellen dieses Altmeisters,
ein Arbuthnot, Addison, Steele."50
All of the above quotations from the last works that emanated
46. Ibid., p. 421.
49. T.S., Vol. I, p. 160.
50. W. , I, 16, pp. 439 ff.
as compared with Voltaire:
So Macaulay writes of Swift,
^Voltaire is the prince of buffoons. His merri­
ment is without disguise or restraint. He gambols;
he grins; he shakes the sides; he points the finger;
he turns up the nose; he shoots out the tongue. The
manner of Swift is the very opposite of this. He
moves laughter, but never joins in it. He appears
in his works such as he appeared in society. All
the company are convulsed with merriment, while the
Dean, author of all the mirth, preserves an invincible
34 -
from Jean Paul's pen show beyond a doubt that the high esteem
in which he had held Swift from the time of his first ac­
quaintance with him continued unabated to the end of his
in fact, grew and developed with him.
In all the
stages of his long and prolific literary career,
in his
early satires, his theoretical works, his novels, his humor­
ous idylls,
from him.
he studied and analyzed Swift, and learned
This is seen from several notations which Jean
Paul made for his autobiography.
He lists a number of topics
for treatment under various headings.
Under the caption
'Leipzig Student*, topic #5 is listed as 'Y/arum mich der
bittere Swift so ergriffen” , and #14 "Herder mit Swift.n51
Berend in his "Anmerkungen! raises the question as to the
gravity, and even sourness of aspect, and gives
utterance to the most eccentric and ludicrous
fancies, with the air of a man reading the commination service." (Thomas Babington Macaulay,
Crltlcal, Historical and Miscellaneous Essays and
Poems, Voll 171, ^The Life and ,,'rit:*ngs of Addi­
son” , p. 46)
Jean Paul could not have been acquainted T^ith Macaulay's re
marks about Swift, as they were written some ten to fifteen
years after his death; but he might well have read the
Memoirs" of Mrs. Laetitla Pilkington, a frequent guest in
Swift's home in Dublin and for a time a great favorite of
his, who reports on Sv/ift's behavior in company!
'I cannot recollect that ever I saw the Dean laugh;
perhaps he thought it beneath him; for when any
pleasantry passed, v/hich might have excited it, he
used to suck in his cheeks, as folks do when they
have a plug of tobacco in their mouths, to avoid
risibility." (Memoirs of Mrs. Leetitia Pilkington,
Vol. 1, p. 91 )
51. W., II, 4, p. 373.
significance of the 1; item
does it mean that
Jean Paul read and enjoyed Herder and Swift at the same
time, or that he wanted to draw comparisons between the
two writers, or to justify his own predilection for Swift
with that of Herder for the English author?5-
As this out­
line was begun in 1818, in Jean Paul's fifty-fifth year,
and fifteen years after Herder's death, it seems more
likely that Jean Paul, in his reminiscence upon his own
literary beginnings, intended to pay a tribute at this
point to the two authors wro had exercised such a strong
influence, each in his own way, upon his own career ms a
both had affected his philosophy as well as his
writing, which was always the most faithful reflection of
his momentary outlook upon life.
As Alt points out,*^ it
was the reading of Herder's Ideen zur Phllosophie der
Gescdlchte der Henschheit in the middle of the eighties that
opened Jean Faul's eyes to the concevt of a harmonious
humanity and restored his faith in a wise and good God as
the moving spirit of the universe
at a time when this
faith had been shaken by the rationalism of his first Lelnzig
period, when Swift's sardonic humor dominated his outlook.
Doubtless the common admiration of Herder and Jean Paul for
the English author established an immediate bond of interest
52. W., tl, 4, Anmerkungen, p. 5^9.
53. Johannes Alt, Jean Paul (Kilnchen, 1925), p. 46 f f .
36 -
and friendship between them at the time of Jean Paul's
first visit to V/eimar and meeting with Herder in 1796,
and Herder's views on Swift and the English form of irony
influenced those of Jean Paul.
More cogent is the item lirted in the plan for the
autobiography as #33 under the heading '’Gharrikterzttge1':
’’Die Ironie nimmt (verb, in fodert von) mir
Tage, wo ich zu didaktischen Darstellungen kaum
Stunden brauchte; sie macht, dass ich meine
Prose so langsam vollende als andere ihre Verse,
ja noch langsamer (denn in der Ironie gibts
keine Reime, keine Flickblumen, nur scharfe
reine Verstandworte), zumal da ich nur auf
wenige Muster
die englischen und die meinigen
beschr&nkt bin.**®4
>ihen Jean Paul speaks of English irony, he has only one
person in mind
He here clearly recognizes the
quality in himself which makes it so difficult for him to
emulate Swift, namely, his inability to restrict himself
to "scharfe reine Verstandworte'.
His own expansive per­
sonality overflows the limits of pure reason and seeks
expression in the wider, less limited realms of the imagi­
It is the subjective element, predominant in
Jean Paul's nature, that carries him away in spite of his
most strenuous efforts to see and describe reality clearly
and objectively, that distorts his perspective, that con­
stantly interposes himself as subject between the object
and the reader.
64. Y/., II, "4, p. 376
37 -
Even when he was most consciously and deliberately
imitating Swift, in his first published v/ork, the Gr6nlSndlsche Prozesse, Jean Paul recognized the perils
attending an exclusive and concentrated production of
satirical works.
The second volume of the Gr6nl&ndlsche
Prozesse closes with a collection of epigrams, one of
which is entitled
Ueber den misanthropischen Swift :
Das Talent zur Satire, das den Warren verwundet, verwundet, zu sehr gen&hrt, zuletzt
seinen eigenen Besitzer.
So v;ie der Wagel,
der in Feinde Y/unden schneidet, den selber,
der ihin tr&gt, durch iiberf lttssigen Wachstum
verwundet und von seiner neuen Lftnge in sein
eignes Fleisch zurhckgebogen wird; oder so
wie der Zahn, womit das Thier andere verletzt,
seinen eignen (Jaumen verletzt und ihm das
Kfluen verleidet, wenn tiberflflssige Llnge und
Spitze ihn zum sogenannten Y/olfzahn umgewandelt.*55
Jean Paul already recognized clearly at that time, in the
midst of satirical effusions, that an 'Essigfabrik' was
not his natural habitat.
He understood himself well enough
to realize that, although satire m?ght well serve as a
medium for introducing hi iself to the reading public and
establishing himself as a wit, it was, for him, an arti­
ficial medium of expression; and that continued production
in this direction, if prolonged beyond that point, would
constitute a danger for his literary future
an astute bit
38 -
of self-analysis for a boy of nineteen about to embark upon
a literary career.
At the same time, the language in which
this reasoning is couched, v.ith its metaphorical constructions,
is thoroughly imbued v'ith the spirit of Swift.
So coma let ely
did the iflnglish satirist dominate Jean Paul in his first
attempts at authorship, that his forms and attitudes became
a stock-in-trade with Jean Pa\il as a vrriter, upon which he
drew almost unconsciously in his later works.
Jean Paul was familiar not only with Swift’s works in
their entirety, but had read the most important biographies
of Swift that had been written up to his time.
He was famil­
iar with many anecdotes about the British author and drew
upon a number of incidents related of Swift for his own
So, for example, Viktor, the hero of Hesperus, en­
joyed the society of 'Puhrleuten, Hanswlirsten und Katrosen"
as did Swift; also, like him, he selected his reading matter
most indiscriminately from among "alte Vorreden, Programmer,
Anschlagzetteln von Reisekftnstlern, die er alle mit unbeschreiblichem Vergntigen durchlas."^®
to 'Stella
Swift himself wrote
from London, that in the midst of conferences
and discussions with statesmen and diplomats, "I borrowed
one or two idle books of Contes de F^es, and have been read­
ing them these two days, although I have much business on my
The same idea recurs in the
56. W.'i T~, 51
/orschule der
57. T.S., Vol.XX, "Journal to Stella", Letter XL,
Jan. 26, T7T1-12, p. 387.
39 -
‘Vive la Bagatelle, ruft erhaben der halbwahnslnnige Swift, der zuletzt schlechte Sachen am
liebsten las und machte, well ihm In dlesem Holsplegel die nirrische Endlichkeit als die Feindin
der Idee am meisten zerrlnaen erschien und er lm
schlechten Buche, das er las, ja schrieb. dasjenlge genoss, welches er sich dachte.H®°
This latter fact Jean Paul may have gleaned from the bio­
graphy of Swift by Samuel Johnson in his Lives of the
English Poets:
'His favorite maxim was 'Vive la bagatelle': he
thought trifles a necessary part of life, and
perhaps found them necessary to himself."59
while Thomas Sheridan's biography recounts that Swift in­
cluded among his friends not only the great, but also "a
considerable number in an humbler sphere, v/hose sole patron
he wss, and for whom he made ample provision, merely on
account of their merit or distress, without being influ­
enced by ties of consanguinity, or partial recommendations.
Lord Orrery is less charitable in his views on the English
author and the company he kept:
"After the great names, which I have just now
mentioned, it is matter of astonishment to ^ind
the same person, who had enjoyed the highest,
and the best conversation, ecuall ;r delighted
with the lov/est and worst: and yet It is certain,
from Swift's settlement in Dublin as Dean of St.
Patrick's, his choice of companions In general
shewed him of a very depraved taste."61
i; Tl, p.-Hq. --------------------------------------------
59. "Samuel Johnson, Lives of the English Poets (London
and Toronto, no date), VoTl TT, p. 265.
60. Thomas Sheridan, The Life of the Rev. Dr.Jonathan
Swift, Dean of 3t. Patrick's, Dublin (London, 1^87), p . 15^.
61. Orrery, o p . clt., p. 43.
and again:
"By this desire of* 'letting the world see* what
other men of less wit, and more discretion, would
carefully have concealed, he has placed himself
open to xhe censure of his enemies, and beyond
the reach of any defence from his friends. He
has not only committed to the press a most despi­
cable heap of writings, but has publicly recorded
the lowest amusements of his private scenes of
life, without having once suspected, that per­
sons, whose stations, or abilities, have fixed
them in a conspicuous attitude, are looked upon
by the rest of mankind v/ith a very critical, and
a very envious eye. Augustus, as I remember,
was a little ashamed to be discovered at a game
of cobnuts; and even Domitian was cunning enough
to withdraw into his closet to catch flies.
Great minds, you will say, require to be often
unbent. I allow it; but those relaxations might
be chosen, so as to make idleness arpear in a
beautiful light: and Swift would have forfeited
a less degree of fame by playing many years at
push-rin (the records of which he could not have
printed), than by composing various kinds of
nonsense, which, by his ovm option, have been
honoured with a place in his works."62
Vehrfritz, in Titan,
when describing Scnoppe's strange
behavior shortly before his ^enth, says of him:
"Gearbeitet hab' er sehr wenig, BUcher von Gewicht, wie Herr iehmeier wisse, selten angesehen, leichter die allerschlechtesten von
Bauern, z.b. ganze Traumauslegebucher.---"63
"Einst sel in der tiefen hitternncht die Orgel
isr habe an der Klrchthiire gelauscht
und Schoppen deutlich einen kurzen Vers aus
elnem Hauptlied singen und orgeln hftren
Darauf sei dieser laut vom Chore hersb und auf
die Kanzel hinauf gestiegen und habe eine
Kasualpredigt an sich selber mit den vorten
angefangen: *mein andflchtiger ZuJhbrer und
Freund in Christo*
Im Jixordium hab' er dts
6P. Ibid., p. 163^
63. W . , I, 9, p. 322.
41 -
stille, lelder so schnell vergangne oltick vor
dem Leben bertihrt, obwol nicht nach rechter
Homiletik, da der Zweite Thell fast den Eingang
darauf elnen Kanzelvers mit sich
gesungen und aus Hlob, Kap. 3, wo dieser die
Preude des Nicht-Seins zelgt, den H6sten Vers
verlesen, der so lautet: ’war ich nicht gltickselig? war ich nicht fein stille? hatt' Ich
nicht gute Ruhe? und kormt solche Unruhel....
Da hab' er, grausend sei es zu hbrer gewesen,
die benachbarten Todten unten In der Kirche
und In der fiirstlichen Oruft angeredet und gef ragt: ob sie zu klagen M t t e n ?
'Erstoht (ssgt1
e r ), setzt euch In die Sttthle und schlagt die
Augen auf, falls sie nsss sind. Aber rie sind
trockner als euer 3taub. 0 v/Iu liegt die uner.dliche Vorvrelt so still und schSn gewickelt in
den eignen Schatten, auf das ^ette der delbstAsche welch gelegt, und hat nicht ein TraumCrlied mehr, in das eine /unde geht.
alter Sv/ift, der du sonst so sehr in der letzten
Zeit nicht bei Verstande warst und an jedexn ueburtstage das ganze Kapitel durciilasest, woraus
der heilige Text unserer Erntepredigt genommen
ist, Swift, wie bist du nun bo zufrieden und
gftnzlieh hergestellt, der Hass deiner Brust ausgebrannt, die Zahlperle, dein Ich, in der heIssen
ThrSne les Lebens endlich zerbaizt und zerlassen,
und diuse steht ollein hell daJ
Und du hattest
vor dem Kflster gerreiigt wl e ich." ^4
This anecdote concerning Swift Jean ?rul had read in
Orrery's third letter, vfhlch tells how Swift, as a young
preacher in Lar.acor, ’/hen no one had cone to the church
except the sexton Roger, had neverthelerr conducted the
service and preached the entire sermon, opening with the
words, "Dearly beloved Roger, the scripture moveth you and
me in sundry places.'^5
54. Ibid., p. 323 f., and Berend*s note, p • 5Y8T.
Orrery, op. cit., p. HO; cf. also
, I, 9, Berend's
note, p. 578 and Sheridan, 0 £. cit., p. 389.
42 -
As we see from the paragraph quoted above, Jean Paul also
knew of Swift that 11On his birthday he was In the habit of
performing a significant piece of ritual.
He read the chapter
of Job in which the patriarch curses the day he was born....
In Jean Paul's Des Rektors ^lorien Falbels und seiner
Prlmaner Relse nach dem Plchtelberg, the hero declares:
erfragte mithsam einen Or sthof filr Puhrleute, well ich, wie
Swift, da am liebsten logiere.|:^7
s0 Johnson relates of
'He travelled on foot, unless some violence of
weather drove him Into a waggon, and at night
he would go to a penny lodging, where he pur­
chased clean sheets for sixpence.
while Lord Orrery declares:
'During his mother's lifetime, he scarce ever
failed to pay her an annual visit. but his manner
of travelling was as singular as any other of his
actions. He often went in a waggon; but more fre­
quently walked from Holyhead to Leicester, London,
or any other part of England. He generally chose
to dine with waggoners, hostlers, and persons of
that rank; end he used to lye at night at the
houses where he found written over the door
Lodgings for a penny. He delighted in scenes of
Tow life.7r519 " --Jean Paul, therefore, was not only familiar with John­
son's and Sheridan's biographies of Swift, but had also
read the letters of Lord Orrery to his son, published In
1751 under the title: Remarks on the Life and Writings of
66. Bertram Nev/man, Jonathan Swift (Boston,
67. W., I, 5, p. 226.
68. Johnson, ££. cit., Vol. II, p.247.
69. Orrery, o£. cit., p. °1.
1957), p. 212.
43 -
Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick13 , Dublin; in a
Series of Letters from John Earl of Orrery to his Son, the
Honourable Hamilton Boyle.
The eleventh letter of Orrery
to his son contains a transcript of a letter which Orrery
senior had received from Deane Swift (Swift's nephew and
It is dated Dublin, April 4, 1744, a year and
a half before Swift's death but long after the Dean had been
totally deprived of reason, and relates the following In­
cident :
'. . .on Sunday, the 17th of fc'.arch, as he sat in
his chair, upon the housekeeper's moving a knife
from him as he was going to catch at It, he
shrugged his shoulders, and, rocking himself,
said, I am ’what I am, I an what I am: and, about
six minutes afterwards, repeated the same words
two or three times over."70
To this incident Jean Paul refers In his Titan, placing the
words in the mouth of Schoppe:
’’'j'/enn Philosophen etwas, z.B. eine Idee Oder sich
aus sich ablelten, so leiten sie, 1st sonst was
an Ihnen, das restierende Unlversum auch so ab,
sie sind ganz jener betrunkne Kerl, der sein
’.Yasser In einen Springbrunnen hlnein H e s s und
die ganze Nacht davor stehen blieb, well er kein
Aufhftren hftrte und riithln alles, was er fort vernahm, auf seine Rechnung schrieb
das Ich denkt
Sich, es 1st also Ob-Subjekt und zugleich der
Lagerplatz von beiden
Sapperment, es gibt ein
empirisches und ein reines Ich
die letzte Phrasis,
die der wahnslnnige Swift nach Sheridan und Oxford
kurz vor seinen Tode sagte, hiess: ich bin Ich-Philosophisch genugJ”-TO. Orrery, op. cit., pT 91 f.
71. V/., I, 9, p.“ 336.
44 -
Berend in his 11Anmerkungen" points out that Jean Paul here
confuses Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, with Lord Orrery,
who was also a friend of Swift
Jean Paul again refers
to these words of Swift in portraying Schoppe's madness,
which assumed the form of an egorhobia:
"Aus Todtenkleidern wird der Warn© herausgeschnitten, und ich liege darin schon unter dem
'Ich bin Ich», das waren zwar des alten
hflbschen Swifts Endworte, der sonst wenig sagte
in seiner so langen TollJheit
Ich m6cht * es
aber nicht wagen, so bei mir zu sein
Uu, getrost, die unendliche <elsheit hat alles geschaffen, auch Tollheit in Menge.
Aber Gott
gebe nur, dass Gott selber nieraals zu sich sagt:
IchJ Das Universum zitterte auseinander, glsub1
ich, denn Gott findet keine dritte Hand.**73
Jean Paul even went so far as to adopt certain of
Swift's idiosyncrasies and mannerisms in the conduct of
his own life.
For example, Sheridan relates of Swift:
*. . . h e laid it down as a rule, that he never
would solicit the acouaintance of any man, let
his Guallty or station be what It would; but
that all who were desirous of the honour of being
ranked among the number of his friends, should
make the first advances to him.!,74
This rule of conduct is enunciated by Swift In his o ournal
to Stella:
'Mr. Secretary told me the Duke of Buckingham
had been talking to him much about me, and de­
sired my acquaintance.
I answered, It could
not be: for he had not made sufficient advances.
Then the Duke of Shrewsbury said, he thought
that Duke was not used to make advances.
I said
7°. W., I, 9, Berend's note, p~. 587.
73. W . , I, 9, p. 413.
74. "Sheridan, o£. cit., p. 161.
I could not
advances In
more from a
Swift reiterates
45 -
help that; for I always expected
proportion to men's quality, and
Duke than other men."75
this tenet In another letter to
”. . .and the Duchess of Shrewsbury came up
and reproached me for not dining with her. I
said, that was not so soon done; for I expected
more advances from ladies, especially duchesses;
she promised to comply with any demands I
pleased; and l agreed to dine with her tonorrov/,
if I did not go to London too soon, as I believe
I shall before dinner.'76
and again in a letter to Lady Hetty Germaine, 173°-33:
"Her present Majesty heard of my arrival, and
sent at least nine times to command my attend­
ance, before 1 would obey her, for several
reasons not hard to guess....
In the same spirit Jean Paul writes to Karoline Herder
from MeInIngen, January 9, 1802:
‘Der Herzog besucht uns oft, ich ihn 6 fter;
und schlag es oft ab nach alter Sitte melner
and to his friend iimanuel from Coburg, June 4, 1804:
"Der Hof 1st In Saalfeld; ich hatte das Vergntlgen, kurz vorher gegen ihn grob zu sein;
nfimlich auf die Sontags Einladung oline weitere
Grund-Angabe nicht zu kom en. Gle5chwohl wurd'
Ich wfihrend meiner Reise noch 2 mal lnvitiert."79
A letter to Oerthel In Leipzig, dated Hof, Novem­
ber 16, 1784, closes with a postscript which reads;
T.3., Vol. II, Journal to Stella, LetterXXIII,
May 18, 1711, p. 179.
Ibid., Letter XXXI, London, Sept. 75, 1711, p. 256.
sKeridan, oj>. cit., p. 215.
Briefe, IV, #'257 p.*142.
Briefe, IV, #471, p. 330.
46 -
wIch habe meineri Brief nach der Regel Swifts
geschrieben: wenn man an einen Freund schraibet,
so mus man sich nie auf den Arm stttzen 9 Is
hbchstens bis der Brief fertig ist.H80
Orrery relates th- t he often herrd Swift say,
'..her I sit
down to write a letter, I never lean on my elbow till I
have finished it'1,®-*- the implication intended being that
he wrote down his thoughts just as they occurred to him,
with no attempt at polished style.
However, Swift’s ex­
pression is always characterized by a crystalline clearness
because it proceeds from clear, logical reasoning, and there­
fore required no polishing.
Jean Paul’s thought processes,
on the other hand, are nsrociative rather than logical and
their sequences are often difficult to follow.
It would
therefore have been of greater benefit for hi a style if he
had followed Swift’s practice rather than his preceat In
this respect, and had "leaned on his elbow" more often.
In his method of dispensing charity, Jean Paul also
Imitated swift, for his daughter, Emma Richter, wrote to
the art critic and painter Ernst Fbrster (whom she later
Jtirde es Sie z.B. nicht langweilen, wenn ich
erzfthlte, dass der Yater Im ausgehobnem Einsatz
eines Toilettenkastens ein Lbchelchen fhr
Pfennigs und eins f&r Zweipfennigsthcke hatte?
dass er, wle Swift, In der linken .vesten66. Brlefe, I, #55, p. 139.
81. Orrery, 030. cit., p. 161.
47 -
tasche kleines und kleinstes CJeld fftr nrtne
So Johnson relates of Swift that "he made a rule to himself to give but one piece at a time and therefore always
stored his pocket with coins of different value."83
Sheridan records similarly of Swift's dispensing of
charity that in order to 'proportion his bounty to the
necessities and merits of the different objects he met
with, and yet give but one piece of money at a time, he
constantly kept a pocket full of all sorts of coins, from
a silver three-pence to a crown piece."^4
These facts would indicate, trifling as some of them
may appear, thrt Jean Paul was as thoroughly familiar - lth
Swift, the man, as he was wit
Swift, the satirist.
he was
for Je n Paul not merely on author whom he admired and
’•hose style he strove to Imitate, but a living character
for whom he felt a strong attraction, an individual of such
powerful personality that even his eccentricities and manner­
isms impressed and left their mark upon Jean Paul.
8 2 .' Sduard Berenfr, Jeon "Pauls P er abn 1 Ic'hk'e'Yt (hllncherT
und Leipzig, 1913), #156, p. 2 9 9 .
83. Johnson, ojo. olt., Vol. II, p. 258.
84. Sheridan, op. cIt., p. 389.
48 -
The Comic as the Opposite of the Exalted
The importance which Jean Paul attributes to Humor in
the field of literature Is indicated by the prominent place
which he assigns to It In his tentative outline of the con­
tents of his Vorschule der Aesthetlk.
"Humor" Is the second
topic which he plans to treat, preceded only by "1. Poesie,
That Is to say, a discussion of poetry In general,
and of the characteristics of the true poet is to be followed
by a treatment of the subject "Humor".
It 5s characteristic
for Jean Paul that in mentally breaking up the general field
of literature into its component elements, "Humor'
should be
the first sub-division that occurs to him for exposition and
for humor is essentially and inherently Jean Paul's
medium of expression.
In fact, he originally contemplated a
humorous treatment of this scientific work on poetics , 2 but
after serious consideration he wisely decided against this
form which would have been altogether Inappropriate to the
Indeed, when his book emerged in 1904, in spite of the
many changes which more than ten years of work and thought
had effected, Jean Paul had still preserved the original
r r ~ W .~7 I, *1T,""Thtroductldn," p. X W
2. T b l d . , p. XVI.
49 -
order (or disorder) of treatment to the extent that Humor Is
the first special phase of aesthetics to be given considera­
Part I of the Vorschule consists of eight "Programs",
the first five of which deal with poetry in general
nature of poetry and of poetic powers, qualities of the
genius, characteristics of Greek and of Romantic poetry,
while the last three are devoted to Jean Paul's
theory of humor.
In more than one sense the Vorschule der Aesthetlk Is
truly his own work, as Jean Paul claims it to be in his pre­
face to the first edition, wherein he calls special attention
to his chapters dealing with the various forms of humors
"Ueber die gegenwhrtige Aesthetlk h a b ' ich nlchts
zu sagen, als dass sie wenigstens mehr von mir
als von andern gemacht und die meinige 1st, Insofern ein Mensch im druckpapiernen '.Veltalter, wo
der Schreibtisch so n a h 1 am B&cherschranke steht,
das Wort mein von einem Gedanken ausspreehen darf.
Indess sprech' ich es aus von den Programmen tiber
das Lftcherliche, den Humor, die Ironie und den
Witz; Ihnen vHinscht' ich wol bei forschenden
Richtern ein aufmerksames, ruhiges Durchblftttern,
und folglich der Verkniipfung wegen auch denen,
die theils vor, theils hinter ihnen stehen, und
andere sind ohnehin nicht da."5
Again, eight years later, in the author's foreword to
the second edition, he replies to his critics who have
pointed out trifling faults and have overlooked Important,
weighty considerations; to them he commends the chapter on
3. Ibid•, p • 16.
Humor as being particularly deserving of careful perusal.^
’.Vhat, then, is Jean Paul’s theory of humor?
After taking Issue with other definitions of humor,
(those of Kant, Schiller and others), Jean Paul himself
defines the comic, In a word, as the infinitesimal, ("das
unendliche Kleine");
diametrically opposed to the exalted,
the sublime, the infinitely great.
In order to arrive at a more thorough understanding of
humor, Jean Paul begins with a philosophical and psycho­
logical analysis of the exalted.
This for two reasons:
(1 ) its processes, by parallel as well as by contrast, serve
to throw light upon the psychology of humor.
(2 ) it is the
first of the two elements <rhich, struck one against the
other, ignite spontaneously and give off the spark we call
humor •
The exalted is defined by Jean Paul as the infinite
applied to reality, to the sensate world.
It Is always
accompanied by an Internal or external sign perceptible to
the senses.
It is divided into three groups: (1) the quan­
titative, of which the eye is the organ;
(2 ) the qualitative,
for which the ear Is the sensory organ.
Both of these exter­
nal forms of the lofty may be referred inward and become
spiritualized through the agency of the Imagination, result­
ing in the sense of inconmensurability (quantitatively) or
4Y ~ibfdY, VorrediT zur zweiten "~Auflage", p f Tl.
of divinity (qualitatively).
(3) Nobility of ethics or of
behavior which is manifested in Inverse ratio to the per­
ceptibility of the Inner or outer sign.
In the case of qualitative grandeur (acoustic), the
sound must be both extensive and intensive.
The quantita­
tively sublime (optical) is based not on intensity but on
monochromatic extensity, which becomes a symbol of the
infinite when It is bounded, limited by another color.
The application of the infinite to a physical object-that Is to say, the bridging of the gap between the sensuous
sign as cause an! the spiritual product as effect
can only
be accomplished by nature; It cannot be achieved by any act
of reason or of will.
The imagination, however, operating
autonomously by virtue of its experiences, can make this
In order to derive a sense of the ridiculous, the in­
finitely grand, the awe-inspiring, must be confronted with
its opposite, the Infinitesimal; the resulting Incongruity
is ludicrous.
The contrast itself lies in the realm of
reason (not of the senses)
more particularly, the unreason­
In order, therefore, that a sensation may be expe­
rienced, the absurdity must be manifested to the senses
through an action or a concrete situation.
This becomes
possible only when the action represents the wrong means
for accomplishing the purposes of the mind or when the
situation contradicts and belies the judgment of the mind.
52 -
The purely sensuous alone or the purely intellectual alone
cannot become ridiculous; the humorous aspect is gained
when an abstract mental concept is translated in terms of
the senses*
This transposition is effected by the observer
of the action or of the situation by attributing his own
insight and judgment to the individual observed.
That is
to say, the observer assumes, contrary to fact, that the
observed individual knows what he (the observer) knows and
yet behaves in a manner entirely out of keeping with the
situation in which he finds himself.
Thus an infinite
incongruity is created.
It is the imagination, therefore,
that here again (as in the case of the exalted) constitutes
the connecting link between the internal and the external;
It is able to perform this office (again as In the case of
the exalted) only through the perceptibility of the Incon­
gruity to the senses.
And herein lies the crux of Jean Paul's
theory of humors the self-deception which we (as observers)
practise in ascribing our own contradictory knowledge to the
F r . T h V T s c h e r explains,- as Jean Paul- fai l'ed to do,”
that this false assumption on the part of the observer is
justified by the consciousness common to both participants in
the humorous situation, the observer and the observed. (Gf.
Friedrich Theodor VIscher, Aesthetlk oder Wlssenschaft des
Schftnen (Stuttgart, 1858), p. 3135T5 rFh'e’ seYf-co’nsci'ousnes's
of the observer and that of the observed are identical in
nature. The humorous act or error Is a violation of the
letter's real consciousness by his unconscious, and invites
the reaction of the observer: 'his consciousness should have
made him aware of his error; he should have perceived the
true situation just as I do; then he would not have behaved
as he did."
other 13 behavior proves that the ridiculous, like the
exalted, originates not in the object, but within the
The same action or situation may therefore ap­
pear to us to be ludicrous or reasonable depending upon
whether we do or do not thus impose our own knowledge
upon the Individual observed.
The force and rapidity with which the sense impression
impinges upon our consciousness are the determining factors
that impel us to make this substitution; that is why we do
not practise this involuntary self-deception in all cases
of error or mlsunderstanding.
The element of suddenness
accounts for the fact that we may laugh at the occurrence
at the time when It takes place, whereas the same contrast
may not seem to us at all ridiculous when we reflect upon
It later.
In addition to the real disparity, therefore, there Is
the second apparent discrepancy which we subjectively Inter­
that is to say, not only Is the individual observed
In actual conflict with the external world (in his particular
situation), but also in a spurious inner conflict with him­
both combine to create the comic aspect of an act or
a situation.
To sum up, therefore: according to Jean Paul's theory,
the comic as an Infinite non-sense perceived by the senses,
comprises three elements: (1 ) the objective or real contrast
existing between the effort or state of the individual ob-
54 -
served and the visible situation; (2 ) this situation itself
as it presents itself to our senses, the sensate contrast;
and (3) the contrast between (1) and (2) or the subjectlve
contrast, which we ourselves introduce by imposing our own
insight upon the observed individual.
Through the medium of
art, the various forms of the risible in literature arise
(humor, satire, wit, irony, whimsy, burlesque, ribaldry,
etc.), depending upon which of these three constituent ele­
ments of the comic is permitted to predominate.
As Pr. Th. Vischer correctly points out, the second
contrast enumerated by Jean Paul, “'der sinnliche Kontrast" ,
is quite superfluous , 6 as all the necessary elements of the
comic are contained in the so-called "objective" and "sub­
jective" contrasts, and the "sensate'1 contrast adds nothing
which these do not already include.
This point is also made
by Kommerell,,', who also, while acknowledging Jean Paul’s
brilliant achievement in the invention of the "subjective
contrast', takes exception to the terminology he uses in his
explanation of this phenomenon.
He objects to the terms
"Lelhen" and "Unterlegen", as they do not describe accurately
what takes place in the mind of the observer.
discrete impressions
Kather, two
a true, actual state of affairs and
. Fr'ledrich TheodoF^V 1s~cK~erY Ae a tHe tIk ~ode~r ~.VTs~se~nscliaTt
dea Schftnen (Stuttgart, 1858), Far. 176, p. 385.
7. irfax Kommerell, Jean Paul (Frankfurt a/M, 1933), p. 404.
a supposed (’out. incorrect) one
are united to form one
comic impression of an erroneous behavior pattern.
is indeed correct.
However, Kommerell's cuarrel with
Jean Paul anent his method of deriving Romantic humor
from the subjective and objective contrasts, is mere
He simply creates difficulties of interpreta­
tion in order to refute them .8
The three conflicting impressions, i.e. the observer’s
true chain of thought, the other’s true thought sequence,
and the other's imputed thought processes
each exerting
a pull in a different direction yet all confined simulta­
neously within the frame of one picture in the mind of the
set in motion an arbitrary, unhampered and
therefore pleasurable mental play from one to the other.
The comic is therefore the enjoyment which the mind expe­
riences in this freedom of movement, a release from the
conflicts with which it has been occupied.
In the review of Ferdinand Delbrhck's Ein Gastmahl
contained in his Klelne Biicherschau, the last of his works
to be published during his lifetime, Jean Paul takes issue
with Delbriick's views regarding the comic in literature, a
subject to which Jean Paul had, as he says, devoted twenty
years of study and research, and upon which he considered
himself an authority.
. Ibid., p.""405.
He repudiates Delbrhck's statement
that laughter is a necessary concomitant of the spirit of
humor, and cites Shakespeare and Swift as examples in his
argument to prove the incorrectness of this view:
'Ueberhaupt mischen und verarbeiten wir Seele
und Kbrper zu sehr in Sins, liber die Grfinzen
der Gesichts-, der Sch&del- und anderer
Gliederlehrer hinaus; iiber Shakespeare’s und
Swifts Angesicht zleht das Gel&chter iiber
die Welt, tind es bleibt ernst; auf dem Antlitz eiyies Pascals wobnt ein heiliger Himmel,
es bleibt auch ernst; nicht den ganzen Geist
kann der Leib, nicht den ganzen Gott die
Schbpfung aussprechen."^
In other words, the spirit of the comic cannot be bound
within the narrow confines of bodily attitudes but extends
far beyond their limits and is independent of them.
Humor as the highest form of the Comic
In the 'Geschichte meiner Vorrede zur zweiten Auflage
des Quintus Flxlein", Jean Paul had promised that he would
one day publish a work In which the nature of humor would
be analyzed and expounded:
. . ich werde einmal In einem kritischen verkchen geschickt darthun, dass alle deutsche Kunstrichter (den neuesten ausgenommen) den Humor
nicht bios j&mmerlich zergliedern, sondern auch
(was ich nicht vermuthet h&tte, da das Vergniigen
an der Schftnheit durch die Unwissenheit In Ihrer
Anatomie so sehr gewinnt) ncch erb&rmlicher genlessen, wiewol sie als Richter in der Finsternis
den Areopagiten glelchen, denen verboten war,
iiber elnen Spass zu lachen (Aeschin. in Timarch.)
Oder einen zu schreiben (Plut. de glor. Athen.)—
ferner dass die krumme Llnie des Humors zwar
57 -
schv/erer zu rektifizieren sel, dass er aber
nichts Regelloses und Willkiirliches vornehme,
well er sonst nlemand ergbtzen kbnnte als
seinen Inhaber
dass er mit dem Tragischen
die Form und die Kunstgriffe, obwol nicht die
Materie theile-— dass der Humor (n&mlich der
&sthetische, der vom praktischen so verschieden und zertrennlich ist wie jede Darstellung
von lhrer dargestellten oder darstellenden
Empfindung) nur die Frucht einer langen Vernunft-Kultur sei und dass er mit dem Alter
der Welt so wie mit dem Alter eines Individuums wachsen mlisse. " 1 0
The promise here made by Jean Paul is fulfilled in his
Vorschule der Aesthetlk.
Jean Paul defines humor as the Romantic form of the
The distinguishing characteristic of Romantic
poetry Is the infinity of the subject, as a result of
which the objective world loses all sharp outlines.
is this subjectivity which differentiates the Romantic
from the Greek plastic form of art in which all objects
are clearly defined.
The contrasts of the lower, more
na'Ive and objective forms of the comic, however, are
In order to derive a net result that will be
infinite- — that is to say, a form of the comic (finite)
that will be Romantic (infinite)
Jean Paul proceeds with
an ingenuity of method worthy of a problem in mathematics.
Given: the conflict between the idea (infinite reason) on
the one hand, and all of finite reality on the other.
To find: humor.
Let infinite reason equal contrast (1),
58 -
the objective contrast; let finite reality equal con­
trast (3), the subjective contrast.
.Ye superimpose finite
reality upon infinite reason and obtain a finite applied
to the infinite, (a product that is the ooooslte of the
exalted, which was defined as the infinite applied to
reality), or a negative Infinite
of the contrast.
merely the infinity
The answer is humor.
The infinite Idea, however, which is the objective
contrast upon which the subjective contrast of finite
reality is superimposed, must necessarily reside within the
observer himself.
In order to be able, therefore, to Inter­
polate the subjective contrast of finite reality (the actual
humorous situation) upon the objective contrast (the idea),
the observer identifies himself with the observed,
virtue of this fact, he himself becomes an active partici­
pant and not merely an innocent bystander in the situation.
In Jean Paul’s own words, the following then takes place:
"Folglich setz' Ich mich selber in diesen Zwiespalt . . .
und zerteile mein Ich In den endlichen und unendlichen
Faktor, und lasse aus jenem diesen kommen.
Da lacht der
Mensch, denn er sagt: unmbglichJ es 1st viel zu tol l l ' H
That is to say, the locale of the entire humorous conflict
Is removed from the world of reality without the observer
and is made to take place within his own mind, as a conflict
11. w7~, 1, 1 1 ,'"Par• 3 4 ,"HumoristIsche""subJektivlttfif7”,"
p. 119.
59 -
between the finite and the infinite elements of his own
This Is the Romantic process of subjectifying
all reality.
In laughing at the other, the observer is at
the same time laughing at himself
which both are a part.
at all humanity of
Subject and object having become
Identical, the folly or error of the observer Is as great
as that of the individual observed.
In the hierarchy of the comic, humor occupies the
highest place.
Satire Is at the outer boundary of the
comic, belonging half to this realm and half within the
realm of morals; and its field is correspondingly limited,
whereas the field of humor is practically boundless.
siflage is in an Intermediate position between satire and
pleasantry or fun; it is the modern, v*or Idly form of play­
ful humor.
humor can flourish only where there Is an
underlying earnestness and seriousness; where this is
lacking,"wit, the leveller of all things, laughing at
virtue and vice alike and abrogating both, takes the place
of humor.I**
For this reason It Is the most serious nations
(British) and professions (clergy) that produce the great­
est humorists; and in this connection Jean Paul mentions
gloomy Ireland as the home of the masters of humor, Swift
and Sterne.13
wit differs from humor in that the former
W T T iy^T/Tar.' ?§Y pT 104.
Tbid., p. 105.
deals only with Intellectual relationships betv/een abstract
things, whereas the letter treats of the manifold relation­
ships and situations of persons in action.
The scope of
humor is therefore much wider than that of wit.
Humor is a totality and attacks the general foibles of
humanity, not the particular folly nor the individual fool.
Though it may express itself symbolically through the indi­
vidual (as Swift does through his Gulliver and Cervantes
through Don Quixote ) , ! 4 it is tolerant and mildly disposed
toward the individual folly, ever-mindful of the all-toohuman in human nature.
It applies its small finite measures
to the infinite and laughs at the result; yet a dim con­
sciousness and recollection of the Infinite brings to this
laughter an undertone of pain and an element of greatness.
Just as the ridiculous (small) Is the opposite of the
exalted (grand), so humor lr the negative aspect of pathos,
The comedy of the Greeks was merry and light­
hearted; the humor of the Romanticists expresses their sub­
conscious yearning and vain hope for a restoration of the.
close contact with nature that man has lost through the
14• C f . W. , I, ll, Par. 35, p. 129: "Es erquickt den
Geist ungemein, wenn man ihn zwingt, im Besondern, ja
Individuellen • . • nichts als das Allgemeine anzuschauen,
in der schwarzen Parbe das Licht.”
61 -
All men are conscious to a greater or lesser degree;
and the ordinary run-of-the-mill mortal experiences the
world and himself as part of it, as an entity.
But a
higher state of consciousness of self separates the indi­
vidual from the external world; and when such a higher
consciousness becomes creative, it is called genius.15
In the creative artist, this separation of the indi­
vidual from the world about him is always followed by a
second rift of the ego itself into two parts
and an observing element.
a feeling
Genius has many forms of ex­
pression, depending upon which element of the personality
For the tragedian, the separation of I and
world is infinite, but the ego Is not sharply divided;
his product,
the tragedy, reflects both his emotions and
his observations.
For this reason Jean Paul could not have
become a tragic poet; he does make this second division of
his Individuality to a very high degree
to the degree of
a philosophic consciousness of his divided personality.
Is this very quality, however, which makes him a humorist;
Indeed, which led him to his Ingenious derivation of humor.
Humor, as the Romantic' form of the comic, is highly sub­
the nIM of the humorist becomes the subject matter
of his humorous treatment.
The Individuality of the humor­
ist Is the center of his conflict between himself and the
1"5. Max Kommerell, Jean Paul, pp. 400 ff.
external world, and this necessitates a division of his ego
into a finite and an infinite component
which he himself is fully conscious.
a conflict of
The singular "I" of
the Romantic poet has become a duality, with a finite and
an infinite constituent.
"Kir 1st immer in meinem Bewusst-
sein als w & r 1 ich doppelt, als wAren zwei Ich in mir: ich
hbre mlch im I n n e m reden.'l^
It is to this lack of a sense of one-ness with all
nature and all mankind, to this strong sense of apartness,
that Kommerell attributes not only Jean Paul’s humoristic
propensities but also his Inability as a humorist to create
immortal symbols that will live in the memory of man for
all time.
The will is there and the understanding, the love
for his fellow-men, and he makes an almost superhuman effort
to overcome the insurmountable obstacles that separate him
from those about him.
Yet the consciousness of his own in­
dividuality is too strong in him; he cannot break down its
barriers and enfold the world and all humanity in his embrace,
as he would like to do.
alone can work magic.
He has lost the common touch, that
His humor is a philosophical idealism
that stands apart and observes all too clearly how far the
world of reality falls short of the ideal.
It is this insu­
larity of the modern individual, and this philosophical con­
sciousness of self that makes Jean Paul nearly, but never
quite, a great humorist.
16. W., IT,' 5",“ p. 59.
17. Kommerell, o|>. clt •, pp. 417 ff.
63 -
Irony, and the Rdle of Swift
in Jean Paul’s Theory
Y/hat rdle does Jean Paul assign to Swift in his thBory
'of the comic, and to what extent did Swift contribute to
the formulation of Jean Paul's ideas on the subject?
answer to these ouestions is found in the Vorschule:
" . . . w o zeigt sich die komische Objektivit&t?
so folgt aus der destimmung der drei
Bestandtheile des L&cherlichen
, wo bios der
objektive Kontrast oder die objektive Maxima
vorgehoben und der subjektive Kontrast verborgen
wird; das ist aber die Ironie, welche daher, als
reiner Repr&sentant des l&cherlichen Objekts,
immer lobend und ernst erscheinen muss, wobei
es gleichgttltig 1st", "in welcher Form sie spiele,
ob als Roman, wie bei Cervantes, oder als Lobschrift, wie bei Swift."1®
Swift is for Jean Paul the unparaHelled master of the
use of irony, "dieser elnzige ironische Alte vom :3erge, der
ironische Grossmeister unter Alten und Neuern1.1®
Jean Paul
analyzes carefully the method by which Swift achieves this
mastery of ironic effects, and discovers that the secret
lies in complete, disinterested objectivity.
"Man sieht . . . wie die Bitterkeit elner Ironie
von sich selber mit ihrer K&lte und Ernsthaftigkeit zunimmt ohne Y/illen, Hass und Zuthun des
Schreibers; die swiftische ist nur darum die
bitterste, well sie die ernsteste ist.-In the eighth Program of the Vorschule, Jean Paul
attempts to distinguish between and define the various
forms of the comic, such as humor, wit, irony, whimsy.
18. W . , I, 11, p. 134.
19. Ibid., p. 136.
2 0 . TEIcT., p. 137.
64 -
"Aus allem Bisherigen ergibt sich die Kluft
zwlschen Ironie und Laune, welche letzte so
lyrisch und subjektiv ist als jene objektiv
. . . die Laune hat tausend krumme Vege, die
Ironie nur Einen geraden wie der Srnst
"Sterne hat weit mehr Humor als <*itz und
Ironie; Swift mehr Ironie als Humor; Shake­
speare Witz und Humor, aber weniger Ircnie
im engern Sinne."22
The form of the comic, therefore, to which Swift is
assigned in Jean Paul’s scheme is irony.
This is the
purely objective aspect of the comic, the form in which
the objective contrast dominates whereas the subjective
factor is relegated to the background.
That this com­
pletely objective attitude necessary for the ironic treat­
ment of a subject is extremely difficult to achieve and to
maintain is avowed by Jean Paul in his last work, Klelne
Nachschule zur Asthetlschen Vorschule (1825)s
"So sehr verlangt die Ironie schon von der
Seite ihrer rhetorischen Darstellung bei
aller humoristischen warmen Begeisterung
einen solchen Gegenfrost der Sprache, dass
das Ansichhalten, das nur den Gegenstand
allein erscheinen l&sst, sogar lieber abgeniitzte als ktihne Wendungen der Sprache
und lieber Yeite als Ktirze, mit welcher
Klopstock in der Gelehrten-Republik stindlgte, und fast fttr jede Zeile eine wiederholte Anstrengung gebietet."2^
Jean Paul studies Swift's style in every detail,
language, forms of expression, devices by which he maintains
the appearance of seriousness and the semblance of a detached
^T. W., I, ll, p. 1387
22. Ibid., p. 130.
23. W T T -1» 16, p. 433.
65 -
sclentific attitude---, to derive from this model the
principles of irony.
He elucidates by original examples
the true and the spurious irony, and expresses the view
that one who can honor and appreciate Swift can have only
contempt for his less proficient Imitators.
The ironic
material must be completely objectified; the mask of
seriousness must be preserved throughout, not only in
respect to language but also in regard to subject matter.
'Daher kann der Ironiker peinem Objekte kaum
Grtonde und Schein genug verleihen.
ist hier das Leihhaus fiir das Tollhaus.-Aber die ironische Menge um ihn her findet
man auf zwei auselnander laufenden Irrwegen;
elnige leihen gar nichts her als ein Adjektivum und dergleichen; sie halten einen blossen
Tauschhandel des Ja gegen das Hein und umgekehrt fiir scJh&nen lieben Scherz.... Der zweite
ironische Irrweg ist, die Ironie zu einer so
kalten prosaischen Nachahmung des Thoren zu
machen, dass sie nur eine ..iederholung desselben ist. Eine Ironie aber, wozu man den
Schlfissel erst im Charakter des Autors und
nicht des vVerks antrifft, ist unpoetisch...."g4
This idea dates back many years before the Vorschule.
Jean Paul's literary remains contain a partly completed
satirical work entitled B ltschrlft der deutsohen Satlriker
an das Publlkum, written during the summer of 1783.
this petition the satirists complain that the impending
extinction of pedantry was robbing them of their most
lucrative subject for satire.
74. W., I, 11', pp. 140 f.
Speaking of himself In the
66 -
third person as the author of the Bitschrift, Jean Paul
"Dieser zwelte Swift wird die Welt n&chstens
mit einem Band Satiren beschenken, worin er
der Thorheiten vor der Siindflut nicht im
geringsten schonet."25
and he goes on with a scathing denunciation of modern
satirists as compared to the earlier masters of this arts
" . . . wir Satiriker insgesamt sprachen so
wie unsre Urosv&ter, wiewol wir nicht so wie
sie spasten, well uns nicht an Belustigung,
sondern an Nachamung gelegen war
schleppenden Perioden giengen auf Kriiken und
husteten alten Unrat vor. Worten herau?
brachen eisgrauen Biichern die holen, gelben
und achtzigiSrigen Z&ne aus, wir reiheten
sie an einen Paden auf, v/ir hiengen dar satirische Ordensband &ber unsern Rflikken, wir
schrien auf unserm Teater: melne Herren , s_o
konte Swift nicht spasseni Per arma Man
Katte die Z&ne nur
Swift himself claimed irony as his own bailiwick and
was not sparing in his punishment of trespassers upon his
territory, denouncing even his friend Arbuthnot for pre­
suming to invade his jurisdiction:
Arbuthnot is no more my friend,
Who dares to irony pretend,
Which I was born to introduce,
Refin'd it first, and shew’d its
u s e .
The distinguishing characteristic of irony, there­
fore, is dissimulation, a form In which the intended impli­
cation is the opposite of the literal sense of the words.
26. W., II, 2, p. 23". "
' ........ .
26. W., II, 2, p. 43.
^ • Satires and Personal Writings by Jonathan Swift,
edited by William Alfred Eddy TLondon and" New "York, 193W ),
"On the Death of Dr. Swift" (1731), p. 480.
Like satire, it holds up abuses, errors, or vices to repro­
bation or ridicule, but satire is not necessarily ironical.
Indeed, so convincingly did Swift maintain the appearance
of seriousness in his irony, that It was often accepted at
its face value and its author censured as a Free Thinker.
For this reason Swift was compelled to publish his works
anonymously and only once, in his A Proposal for Correcting,
Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue (1712), In
the form of a letter addressed to Oxford, did he publicly
acknowledge his authorship by affixing his own name to his
work .^ 8
This danger for the ironic poet (namely, that his
irony will be taken seriously) is recognized by Herder In
his Adrastea In the conversation mentioned above^® between
"Satyre" and ,,Kritik":
"Satyre: Denn meistens (du kannst es nicht
lSugnen) sind die Parodieen ein solcher Hohlspiegel, wie eben meines Swifts .erke. Seinen
nahrhaften Engl&ndern zu Oefallen zog er die
LInien seiner Caricaturen so lang und queer;
er machte seine Umrisse so ausf&hrlich und
mahlte sie In der eigensten Sprache der Thoren
so aus, dass Blbdslnnige einige seiner Ironieen,
seine pollten Gespr&che z.B. ftir echte Wahrheit
nahmen. Sein Mj-LhrcKen "von der Tonne brachte
Ihn daher um den Bischofshut; sein satyrischer
"28. Swift wrote" to ^Stella 11 on "May 10, 1712 s ""My
to the Lord-treasurer about the English tongue is now
ing; and I suffer my name to be put at the end of it,
I never did before In my life." (T.3., Vol. 11, p. 7;
also Bertram Newman, Jonathan Swift, pp. 166 ff.)
29. Cf. above, pT 2§V
Vorschlag das Chris tenthum abzuschaffen, 3 0
massiv er ausgeflihrt “ist, 'brachte Xhn, ~den
strengsten Vertheidiger der hohen Klrche und
den religibsesten Mann In das Gerhcht der IrreligiosltiAt. So lohnen darstellende Parodleen, In denen Er vielleicht der grT5sseste
Meister aller Zeiten war: denn iiberhaupt 1st
Ironie eine tfiirze fiir wenlge G a u m e n . 1l3 0
Jean Paul also feels, as does Herder, that Irony is
not every man's dish.
His Scherze In Quart contain "Vier
kleine Ironien; und wie ich dem Laser meine Ironien verst&ndlich machen wollen'' :
?'Jetzt z.B. arbeite ich an dem sehr einsichtsvollen Versuche, dem Leser meine Ironien verst&ndlich zu machen. Denn ich besorge, dass
ich ohnehin schon in den Fehler des D. Swifts
gefallen, der das ralihaama Gesch&ft, seine
Ironie zu verstehen, fast grfcstentheils dem
Leser zuschob und iiberhaupt zu glauben schlen,
dass der blosse Inhalt der Ironie und das
blosse Nachdenken ies Lesers, ohne v/eitere
typographische Winke (z.B. eine Hand am Rande)
zu einem Schlflissel derselben schon tauge."31
The reference here is to Swift's Complete Collection of
Genteel and Ingenious Conversation, where he states:
"± did therefore once intend, for the ease of
the learner, to set down In all parts of the
following dialogues, certain marks, asterisks,
or nota bene's (In English, mark-wells) after
most questions, and every reply or answer; di­
recting exactly the moment when one, two, or
all the company are to laugh: but, having duly
considered that this expedient would too much
enlarge the bulk of the volume, and consequently
the price: and likewise that something ought to
be left for ingenious readers to find out, I
have determined to leave that whole affair, al­
though of great Importance, to their own dis­
507 lierefer, slmtliche .Verke, Vol. R4,~ Ad r astea ~Cl8 0 3 ) ,
5. Ed., p. 193.
31. W., II, S>, p. 392.
32. T.S., Vol.11, p. 204.
69 -
For Swift, irony was the natural medium for expressing
his views.
Implacable and relentless as he was by tempera­
ment, he found in its trenchant acrimony a gratifying vent
for his bitterness toward a world that had stupidly failed
to recognize his uncommon abilities.
So in his vindication
of Gay's Begga r 1s Ogera he takes occasion to defend himself
against his critics:
"I demand whether I have not as good a title
to laugh as men have to be ridiculous, and to
expose vice, as another hath to be vicious.
If I ridicule the follies and corruptions of
a court, a ministry, or a senate, are they
not amply paid by pensions, titles, and power,
while I expect and desire no other reward
than that of laughing with a few friends in
a corner?'33
The fine distinction between satire and irony is already
recognized by Jean Paul in his first published work, the
Gr 8 nlAndlsche Prozesse.
In the preface to the second volume
he compares the satires of Pope ^ith the irony of Swift, and
frankly confesses that his own aim was to unite both figures
of speech:
'Der englische Juvenal, Pope, reitet einen satirischen Pegasus, welcher sowol beisst als fliegt,
und ©r Hhnlicht dem Kasuar, des sen Fliigel mit
Stacheln bewaffnet slnd. Eine starke Einbildkraft spornet immer so sein Lachen an, dass er
ihm nie den Zttgel zu halten vermag; daher in
seiner vortrefflichen Dunzlade ihm die Ironie
unm&glich gellngen kbnnen. Der englische Luzian,
Swift, dessen satirische Dornen unter Weihrauch
duftenden Rosen lauern, iibertraf Popen in der
Ironie zu sehr, um ihn in der St&rke des Ausdrucks
S3• T.S. , Vol. ?, p • 3 IB.
70 -
zu erreichen, ijnd wenn die Ironie seines Busenfreunds in vorbrennende Schttsse ausartet, so
scheint er hingegen die Sicherheitflinte des
Herrn Regnier zu fiihren. Ueberzeugt, dass der
Zufall sie ihm nicht losschiessen kftnne, geht
der Dechant mit derselben den Winkelzllgen des
Schwarzwildprets so lange nach, bis sie die
Hoffnung zu tref fen losdrttckt. Nur muss er
freilich zu einem einzlgen satirischen Hieb
oft in ganzen Selten ausholen.
Die Satiren
dieser beiden Genies wiirde nur die iibertreff en,
welche ihre ausschliessenden Vorzttge in einem
gewlssen Grade zu vereinigen ftbernShme. Die
Vereinlgung ist nicht unmbgllch; allein zu
ihrer V/irklichkeit mftssten vor her viele erb&rmliche Versuche den Yteg gebahnet haben. Ftir
einen solchen erb&rmlichen Versuch bitt' ich
nun den Aufsatz liber die Seltenheit der Thorheiten anzusehen; ttbrigens hat einer, welcher
Popen und Swiften elend nachahmet, nicht nbthig,
urn Verzeihung zu bitten, dass er beide noch
elender vereinigt.
That Jean Paul was correct in adjudging his ambitious
attempt to combine the style of Pope and of Swift in the
Grttnlftndische Prozesse as 'elend" and "erb&rmlich", cannot
be disputed.
At the same time, it cannot be expected that
a young writer in his maiden work could approach the chiseled
language of a Pope nor the sure aim of a Swift.
At any rate,
by his own admission these British writers were his first
models and represent the standards of authorship that he set
for himself.
It Is to them that, he doubtless refers in one
of the epigrams with which the Grftnl&ndlsche Prozesse close:
steller, tun
noch nicht,
hat zu gute und zu schlechte Schriftnicht zu sinken; aber England slnkt
denn es hat nur die ersten: und auch
nicht, denn es hat GottlobJ nur die
sm rrrrTTrp.' “h t t : --------35. Tbid., p. 206.
-7 1 -
Lob dor Domhelt
Inasmuch as Jaan Paul's first venture upon the unoharted saa of authorship was ooneurrant with his first
acquaintanoa with and anthualasm for Swift, It Is to ba
axpaetad that tha Influanea of Swift upon his aarly lit­
erary attempts would ba a particularly strong one.
Is Indeed tha case*
His early works are direct lmlta-
tlons of tha English writer and literally team with ideas
gleaned from those works of Swift with which he first be­
came familiar In Leipzig, namely, Gulliver»s Travels.
The Tale of a Tub, and The Battle of the Books.
In some
cases Jean Paul frankly acknowledges Swift as his souroe
and his own work as a deliberate Imitation of his English
In other Instances, his indebtedness to Swift Is
somewhat less dlreot but nevertheless plainly discernible
and In still others the lnfluenoe Is expressed as a sub­
conscious lmltetlon of Swift's style and mannerisms which,
with Jean Paul's Inordinate gift for ass Isolation, had
beoome part and paroel of his satirical style.
Pas Lob der Dumhelt, whloh was not aocepted for pub­
lication but was later revised and expanded Into Jean Paul's
first published work, Qrftnllndlache Prozeaae. Is at the
same time Jean Paul's first literary effort and the first
Indioation of Swift's influence.
Jean Paul matriculated in Leipzig on May 19, 1781, and
must hare began at once to read omnlvorouBly, especially
the Latin, French and English satirists.
His letters home
to his mother and to his friends, Pfarrer Vogel in Rehau
and Rektor Werner in Schwarzenbaeh, oantaln welled hints
that he has already, within two months of his arrival in
Leipzig, conceived the idea of earning money by his p e n .1
This is indicated also by the draught of a letter to the
publisher of the Deutsches Museum, dated the end of August
1781, enclosing a manuscript for publication, vhloh, how­
ever, was not accepted.2
In the interim between May and
August 1781, Jean Paul had written the essay Etwas %ber
den Menschen under the lnfluenoe of Pope's Essay on Man,
whioh is probably the manuscript referred to in this
After reading a translation of Erasmus' Encomium morlae,
Jean Paul began in November 1781 to write his Lob der Dumheit, and on March 8 , 1782 sent it in a letter to Pfarrer
Vogel for his opinion, Neh' loh das Manuskrlpt dem Verleger
This letter contains the first open avowal of
17 Briefs',' T . H T O r b V 1*1 #12, p T T g T
— -----------2. Briefs, I, #11, p. 14 f. and Briefs, II. #515, p. 297.
3. Briefs, I, #2 0 , p. 41.
-7 3 -
his intention to write, as well as the first mention of
Swift as one of the "wlzzlge Schriftsteller" that he has
read during the past year.
On April 4, 1782, having re­
turned to his mother in Hof for the Easter holidays, he
sent the manuscript to the publisher Weygand in Leipzig.
When he returned to Leipzig, he found to his disappoint­
ment that Weygand had rejected his work.
A closing para­
graph written subsequently to the body of the Lob der
Dumhelt reads i
"1783: Arme oBttlnl Pope lobte dlch in Versen
und loh nur In Prose; warum blleb doch delne
sohlechtere Lobrede ungedrukt ?n4
It Is evident from Jean Paulfs early letters from Leipzig
that he read Pope and Young before he became familiar with
and It Is altogether possible that he was led to
Swift through Pope's Dunolad.
In an Introductory Inscrip­
tion, Pope had dedicated this work to his friend Swift,
apostrophizing him In the following verses:
"0 thouI whatever title please thine ear,
Dean, Drapler, Bickerstaff, or Oulllverl
Whether thou choose Cervantes' serious air,
Or laugh and shake in Rabelais' easy chair,
* Or praise the Court, or magnify Mankind,
Or thy grieved country's copper chains unbind;
Prom thy Boeotla though her power retires,
Mourn not, my Swift, at aught our realm acquires.
Here pleased behold her mighty wings outspread
To hatoh a new Saturnlan age of lead."
whloh may have drawn the attention of Jean Paul to Swift.
4. W., ll, 1, p. 347.
5. fff. Briefs, I, #17, p. 34.
A rough draught of tha preface to tha Lob dar Dumheit,
which Jean Paul later crossed out and re-wrote, contains a
number of motifs whloh are found also in Swift's Tale of a
"Dumheit" speaks In the first person:
"ich wll mlch In dlesem Bfiohelgen loben; es
erfordert daher die Etiquette, dass loh mloh
In der Vorrede tadle. Allein es wlrd mir
schwer, elne lAge su sagen, die mlr nlehts
hi 1ft, und mloh gegen mloh so su beseugen,
wle sloh andre gegen mloh beseugen•"®
Swift declares In the Author's Prefaoe to the Tale of a Tub
"As for the liberty I have thought fit to take
of praising myself, upon some occasions or none,
I am sure It will need no excuse, if a multi­
tude of great examples be allowed sufficient
authority: for It Is here to be noted, that
praise was originally a pension paid by the
world; but the moderns, finding the trouble
and oharge too great In oolleetlng it, have
lately bought out the fee-simple; since which
time the right of presentation is wholly in
ourselves. For this reason it Is, that when
an author makes his own eulogy, he uses a oertaln form to deolare and Insist upon his title,
whloh is oaamonly In these or the like words,
*X speak without vanity'; whloh I think, plainly
shows It to be a matter of right and Justice.
How I do here once for all declare, that in
every enoounter of this nature through the
following treatise, the form aforesaid Is im­
plied; whloh 1 mention, to save the trouble
of repeating It on so many occasions."7
and, similarly, in "A Digression In the Modern Kind” :
"I hold myself obliged to give as muoh light
as is possible into the beauties and exoellenolea of what I am writing; beeause It is become
the fashion and humour most applauded among the
first authors of this polite and learned age,
when they would correct the 111-nature of crit­
ical, or inform the Ignorance of oourteous
6 . W., 11, 1, H Laser ten und Anmerkungen11, p. 40d.
7. ^*j3«, Vol. 1, p. 43 f.
-7 5 -
readers* Besides, there hare been several
famous pleees lately published, both in
verse and prose, wherein, if the writers
had not been pleased, out of their great
humanity and affeetlon to the publle, to
give us a nlee detail of the sublime and
the admirable they contain, It la a thousand
to one whether we should ewer have discover­
ed one grain of either*"8
and again t
"This expedient was admirable at firsts our
great Dryden has long carried It as far as
It would go, and with Incredible sucoess*
He haa often said to m e In confidence, that
the world would have never suspected him to
be so great a poet, if he had not assured
them so frequently In his prefaces that It
was Impossible they oould either doubt or
forget It."9
Jean Paul oontlnues In his "Vorrede" t
"Ueberdles k&nte man von der Vorrede auf das
Buoh schliessen; [a*R* naohtr. gestr. denn
wer wird wol so Beltverseh(wendend) seln, um
ausser der Vorrede auoh das Buoh su lesent)
well man um die Zelt su erhalten, nur lene
su lesen brauoht*"10
3o Swift had pointed out the dangerous possibility that the
preface alone might be perused b y the reader, and not the
text of the book that follows s
"I much fear his [Dryden*s] Instructions have
edified out of their plaoe, and taught men to
grow wiser In certain points where he never
intended they should; for It is lamentable to
behold with what a lasy scorn many of the yawn­
ing readers of our age do nowadays twirl over
forty or fifty pages of preface and dedication
(which Is the usual modern stint), as If It
were so much Latin* Though It must be also
"s . t : s .T 7 ot; " l , p. os.
9* TbTd*, p* 94*
10* W * , I I , 1, p* 406*
-7 6 -
a 11 owed, on tha other hand, that a very con­
siderable number la known to proceed orltloa
and wits by reading nothing else. Into
whloh two faotlons 1 think all present read­
ers may justly be divided. How, for myself,
I profess to be of the former sort; and
therefore, hawing the m o d e m Inclination to
expatiate upon the beauty of m y own pro­
ductions, and display the bright parts of
my discourse, I thought best to do it In the
body of the work; where, as It now lies, It
makes a very considerable addition to the
bulk of the volume; a circumstance by no
means to be neglected by a skilful writer."*!.
"Dumheit" then prooeeds In defense of her self-praise t
"Bln billlger Leser wlrd das Lob auf mloh
so aufnemen, wie das Lob, das ledem Obnner
In leder Dedlkazlon gegeben wlrd; loh hltte
auoh an meiner stat elnen Ofamer loben
kbnnen.n 12
Swift, too, has something to say on the subject of patronss
"I confess to have been somewhat liberal In
the business of titles, having observed the
humour of multiplying them to bear great vogue
among oertaln writers, whom I exceedingly
reverence. And Indeed it seems not unreason­
able that books, the children of the brain,
should have the honour to be christened with
variety of names as well as other Infants of
quality. Our famous Dryden has ventured to
proceed a point farther, endeavouring to In­
troduce also a multiplicity of godfathers;
which la an Improvement of nuoh more advan­
tage upon a very obvious acoount. It Is a
pity this admirable Invention has not been
better cultivated, so as to grow by this time
Into general Imitation, when suoh an authority
serves It for a precedent."13
Jean Paul then goes on to defend his originality
against any possible imputation of an attempt to Imitate
I l V f 78.7 Tor; IT p. M f.
12. W.7 II* 1* p. 407.
IS. T » S » , Vol. 1, p. 6 8 .
-7 7 -
Erasmus;---”neine Dumheit geh&rt mlr zu
lch bln original
, Just aa Swift In his Apology counters Wotton'a
charge that in his Battle of the Books he has plagiarized
the French writer and Aoademlolan, Francois de Calliires,
who had written a Combat des Llvres. ^ T o substantiate his
claim of originality, Jean Paul offers In evidences
"lener schrelbt latelnlsch, lch deutseh, lener
1st alt, lch neu, er sms erst auf einen Schneider
warten, der ihm anstat seines altrbmlschen Cewandes eln neues Stutserkleld anmlst, lch habe
die neueste Fa9on, und die neueste Modefarbe,
grfin. Wire Erasmus nloht neulleh Ubersezt
worden, so Jhitt' lch seiner gar nloht gedaoht;
denn [werj wolte so pedant lech seln, lhn su
kennen, loh wll nloht aagen su lesen-— es 1st
elne gross# Kluft swlsohen belden W&rtern,
heutzutage kent asn alls [oder alte) Bdcher,
und llest ale nloht."15
Any one, or possibly even two, of these Ideas might
have occurred to Jean Paul Independently, but, occurring
as they do all together in one paragraph,, they present,
cumulatively, inoontestlble evidence of Swift's Influence.
The fact that this original version of the preface was
not used in the finished essay does not vitiate this con­
Das Lob der Dumheit in its final form also contains a
number of ooncepts whloh point to Swift as their source.
It mast be kept In mind in all of the following quotations
from this work that the goddess "Dumheit” Is here speaking
wr"f .s. r^orrT; ttsc:
18 . W. , II, 1, p . 407.
in the first person, vaunting her achievements and her
role of benevolent monarch over her vast empire of the
arts and sciences.
"Dan erhftlt man, zwar nloht vie Darius durch
die Stlnme elnes Pferdes, doch aber durch
die Stiasae elnes Esels die vlchtlgsten Erenstellen, und was das Laster elner geerten
Hure nloht ausf&ren kan, endlgt die Helllgkeit elnes Priesters- — und dan blfthet die
Dumheit auf Kanzeln, auf Kathedern, auf Rlohteratftlen, und auf ledem h l m l o s e n Kopf
grttnt der Lorber des Rums, wle das Mos auf
dem Kopfe elnes alten h&lzernen Esels vor
elnem Stadtore.---"!®
In the same way, Swift In his "Digression concerning Critics" ,
pays tribute to the ass as having been instrumental In bring­
ing about literary perfection and suocess.I?
After seme general remarks in her own praise, "Dumheit"
proposes to take up In order the various classes of fools
that owe their good fortune and happiness to her benefactions,
observing the following order of precedence: "Weiber, Sturzer,
M&ehtlge, H&flinge, Edelleute, Theologen, Fhllosophen, Poeten"18
all of whloh are also the targets at which Swift's satiric
darts are aimed.
The lines:
"Melstens hat der F&rst seine H&fllnge, wle manoher
Relohe seine B&oher, nur des sehfenen Einbands und
des glftnsenden Tltels wegen; sle slnd, gleleh den
geschnlzten Sngeln, die in manohen Klrohen um den
Altar he rum sum Schmukke desselben befestlgt slnd,
nlohts als Zlerraten des Trans, deren Gestalt
lhren Wert aua»aoht."19
18': WTT TTT'l. p T " 5 I S f.: cFV also W.Ti:Hr.~7fa>gnlHIglsoE?
Prosesse.“p. 21.
I T T T.S., Vol. 1, Tale of a Tub, p. 74.
18. W.7 II* 1* p. 3C77
19. T b l d . , p. S16 f.
-7 9 -
may bo compared with those of Swift in The Examiner, referring
to Henry St* John, later Vieooont Bollngbrokes
"Besides, he hath clearly mistaken the true use
of books, which he hath thumbed, and spoiled
with reading, when he ought to have multiplied
them on his shelvess not like a great man of
my acquaintance, who knew a book by the back
better than a friend by the face; although he
had never conversed with the former, and often
with the latter**20
The urge to write books, according to Jean Paul, is
derived principally from the gastric juioest
"Die Gtelerten haben versohledne Bewegungsgrttnde, warum sle B&cher sohrelben; a lie in
die moisten dleser Bewegongegrhnde lessen
slch one Zwang aus den reizenden S&ften des
Magens herleiten. Ich wll elnlge Bewegungsgrunde zur Autorsohaft, die dooh alle nah
Oder entfernt mit dem Hunger zusammenh&ngen,
anfhren, u m meine Elnwlrkung auf die meisten
Sehrlftsteller *u e r w e i s e n * 2!
In this regard Jean Paul speaks from personal experi­
ence, for the rough draught of a letter to Pfarrer Vogel,
written Maroh 8 , 1782, statess "ioh dachte bel mlr selber:
'lch wll wlzzlg warden, um sat zu warden*'"22
In spite of
his dire poverty and the hardships and deprivations he had
to endure in Leipzig, Jean Paul's attitude toward life re­
mained a positive one.
For this reason, the pose of the
satirist attraoted him, for it enabled him to laugh and
poke fun at the follies and vices about him, and in doing
w :
s r p . T r a r . -------------------------------
21. t. , II, 1, p. 321.
22* Briefe, I, note p. 461; cf* also #20, p. 40*
-8 0 -
so to give vent to his sense of the injustice rampant in
the social soheme.
He was confident that he could by this
means furnish the same amusement to the reading public that
the perusal of Swift's works had afforded him; and at the
same time win aoclalm for himself as a writer and improve
his straitened financial condition*
It was with this idea
in mind that he wrote the Lob der Dumheit.
Perhaps Swift's
statement in The Tale of a Tub provided the Impetus:
"Mature herself has taken order, that fame and
honour should be purchased at a better penny­
worth by satire than by any other productions
of the brain; the world being somtest provoked
to praise by lashes, as men are to love."23
At any rate, Swift in the Author's Prefaoe of The Tale of a
Tub tells In a like manner how his work came into being;
"* . • the shrewdest pieoes of this treatise
were oonoelved in bed in a garret; at other
times, for a reason best known to n^self, I
thought fit to sharpen my invention with
hunger; and, in general, the whole work was
begun, continued, and ended, under a long
ocurae of physio, and a great want of money."24
Jean Paul, then, with "Dumheit" as his mouthpiece, lists
the seocndary causes that Impel authors to their authorship,
and goes on to explain the origin of literature in greater
detail as follows;
"Elnlge Aerste lelten aus dem Hagen alle Krankheiten her; lch wolte no oh leichter aus dem
Hagen den Ur sprung der melsten Schr iften erklaren. Der Hagen sect elnen Oelerten, der
B5.”TT177 VoT. 17 pT 45'.
, p. 42.
-8 1 -
selnen K&rper nleht ao wle seine Sale mlt
Luf t und Wind n&ren kan, in ein galertaa
Feuer, und dla Ton unten aufgeatlegnen
Dllnste arhallan durch Ihra Entxttndung daa
ganze Idaengebleta daa Autora so ser, daaa
er lauter naua Warhaltan alaht und daa
Dranga endlloh weieht, ala iai Drukke mltzutellen... .Daher gleicht dar Magan dar
H&le Aeol's, aua welcher dla Tier Hauptwlnde, theologisoher, luristlaoher, medizlnlsoher und phllosophlsoher, hervorbreohen. Da leh nun mlt grosser Grttndllehkalt bawlaaan haba, daas dar Magan dla
Finger anrelset, naoh dar Unsterbllchkelt
zur Verl&ngerung daa Laban a xu grelfen: ao
hah1 loh zuglelch aehon halb bawl a sen, daas
lch dla Mutter, wanlgatana dla Amme dar,
In Hunger empfangnen und geboraen, Galateakinder bln *”25
That this concept was derived fram S w i f t s discussion
of the Aeollats "who maintain tha original cauaa of all
things to ba wind*2® Is beyond a doubt:
"A few of thalr moat Important precepta • * •
are by no means to ba omitted; among whloh tha
following maxim was of much weight; That since
wind had tha master share, as wall as opera­
tion, In every compound, by consequence, those
beings must ba of chief excellence wherein
that prlmordlum appears moat prominently to
abound; and therefore man la In the highest
perfection of all created things, as having,
by the great bounty of philosophers, bean
endued with three dlstlnot anlmas, or winds,
to whloh the sage Aeollsts, with mnoh liberal­
ity, have added a fourth, of equal necessity
as well as ornament with the other three; by
this quartum prlneiplum, taking In the four
c o m e r s of the world. Which gave occasion to
that renowned caballst, Bumbastua, of placing
the body of a man in due position to the four
cardinal points."27
p. 328.
W., II, 1, p. 522 f.; ct, also Schneider, op. clt.,
T.3., Vol. 1, p. 106.
Tbld. , p. 107•
-8 2 -
"Dumhelt" now takes up the individual professions and
sciences-— first in order being theology.
"Doch lch habe vergessen, dass lch su elner
Zelt rede, wo fast der halbe Stan der Theologen von sd.r abgefalien 1st, und wo lch deawegen elne aufrlchtlgere Betrdbnls f&le als
die elner Wltwe, die so hlnter lhrem Flore
trauert, wle ihre, ebenfals nit Flor bedekten
Fferde. Ich wll einige Bllkke zurftk in die
vergsngnen Jarhunderte tun, dan it nan neine
vorige Macht bewundern und nelne lezzlge
nicht veraohten 1 e r n e . "28
Swift speaks In the sane tenor of the clergy of his own
and of earlier tines in A Letter to a Young Gentleman, Lately
Entered Into Holy Orders"t
"Ignorance nay perhaps be the mother of Super­
stition, but experience hath not proved it to
be so of Devotion; for Christianity always
made the most easy and quickest progress In
civilized countries. I mention this, because
It is afflrned, that the elergy are In nost
oredlt where ignorance prevails, (and surely
this kingdom would be called the paradise of
clergymen, if that opinion were true) for
which they Instance England In the tines of
popery. But whoever knows any thing of three
or four oenturies before the Reformation, will
find the little learning then stirring, was
more equally divided between the English clergy
and laity than It Is at present. There were
several famous lawyers in that period, whose
writings are still in the highest repute, and
some historians a«d poets, who were not of the
Chur oh. Whereas, now-a-days our eduoation Is
so corrupted, that you will hardly find a young
person of quality with the least tincture of
knowledge, at the same time that the clergy
were never more learned, or so scurvlly treated."29
58. W.
I, “p7 "55,B.----29. 7.3., Vol. 3, p. 216 f.
In this connection Jean Paul makes use of a simile also
employed by Swift:
"Nur auf die Dumheit l&st sieh diese Heiligkelt pfropfen, und nur duroh mlch traben dlese
Helllgen In den Hlmmel, wle Muhanmed auf selnem
Esal In's Paradies."30
Swift In his Dlsoourse on the Meehanleal Operation of the
Spirit says:
" 'Tls reoorded of Mahomet, that, upon a wisit
he was going to pay In Paradise, he had an
offer of several wehloles to oonduet him u p ­
wards; as fiery chariots, winged horses, and
oelestlal sedans; but he refused them all, and
would be borne to Heaven upon nothing but his
"Dumheit" defines a sermon as:
"Bin Ding • • . das ser leioht 1m Sohlafe gemaoht, aber achrner one Sehlaf angehbrt werden
lean; . • . eln Ding • • . in welohem sehleohte
Oedanken In achleehter Spraohe gesagt werden;
eln Ding, welehes eben soviel Oehelmnisse als
Hebralsmen enthilt, die belde vom Predlger
one Verstand worgebraoht und vom Zuhbrer one
Verstand gehbrt werden...."32
In a like manner, Swift, observing that "when a man's
thoughts are olear, the properest words will generally offer
themselves first, and his own judgment will direct him In
what order to plaoe them, so as they may be beat understood" ,33
cautions the young clergyman against the use of obscure terms,
"fine language", or expressions unintelligible to the meanest
among his parishioners:
5 6 . W., II, 1,
31. 7 .3 . , Vol.
32. W . , II, 1,
33. 7 . S., Vol.
299; of. also Schneider, op. cit..p. &?8 .
p. 198.
p. 204.
-8 4 -
"Some gentlemen abounding In their university
erudition, are apt to fill their sermona with
philosophical terms and notions of the meta­
physical or abstracted kind, which generally
have one advantage, to be equally understood
by the wise, the vulgar, and the preaoher him­
self ." 34
Jean Paul agrees with Swift that most sermons are not
only obscure, lacking In clearness and logic, calculated to
appeal to the emotions rather than to reason, but are gen­
erally so hastily constructed that the "product of all this
will be found a manifest Incoherent piece of patchwork."35
The lines of Jean Paul, regarding the careless, hurried
preparation and the resulting soporific effect of sermcns
end religious traots t
"lch Ubergehe die ttbrlgen theologlschen Schrlften,
die Gebetb&cher, die aus ser r&renden Worten und
morgenl&ndlschen Redensarten, zur BefCrderung der
Deutliohkeit, zusammengeaezt slnd und von dem
Verfasser kurz vor dem Elnschlafen oder ser kurz
naoh dem lezten Morgentraum verfertlgt werden,
tun das Sehlafen und Tr&umen des Lesers und also
seine Andacht, m&gllchst zu befbrdern,
can be oompared with those of Swift:
"And lastly, read your sermon onoe or twice for
a few days before you preach it* To whloh you
will probably answer some years hence, 'That It
was but just finished when the last bell rung
to church'j"37
"1 believe those preaohers who abcftmd In eplphonema's, if they look about them, would find
one part of their congregation out of counte­
nance, and the other asleep, ezoept perhaps an
W 7 1 . 5 . ; Vol. jt,"p . srs.
35. TbTd., p. 213.
36. ¥T7”II, 1# p* 329 f»
37. T *S •, Vol. 3 , p . 208.
Old female beggar or two In the isles, who
(if they be sincere) may probably groan at
the sound*"38
As for the originality of a sermon, and the ability
and value of moving the listeners to tears, Jean Paul has
the following to says
"Durch mlch wlrd f e m e r eln Oeistlieher sein
Amt mit weniger M&he verwalten, well lhm die
Aufkl&rung seiner Zuhftrer eben so glelohg&ltlg 1st, als die seinigej-— er wlrd lelohter
Predigten machen, in denen sein Oberer nichta
von Kesserel und Vernunft wlttert, In denen
seine Kollegen den gestolnen Unsin aus swansig
Postlllen, bewundern, in denen sein Sohulmelster den Stempel seines elgnen Oenle's mlt
Held bemerkt, und die in der abgelebten Matrone
die Tr&nen auspumpen, mlt welchen sle in den
alten Sttnden das Unvermfegen su neuen b e w e i n t ..."39
while Swift expresses the same ideas in these two sentences:
"And particularly I have observed in preaohlng,
that no men suooeed better than those, who
trust entirely to the stook or fund of their
own reason, advanced Indeed, but not overlaid
by eomneroe with books: Whoever only reads in
order to transcribe wise and shining remarks,
without entrlng into the genius and spirit of
the author, as it is probable he will make no
very Judicious extract, so he will be apt to
trust to that collection in all his composi­
tions, and be misled out of the regular way
of thinking, in order to introduce those materials which he has been at the pains to gather..."*0
"A plain convincing reason may possibly operate
upon the mind both ef a learned and ignorant hear­
er as long as they live, and will edify a thou­
sand times more than the art of wetting the
handkerchiefs of a whole ocngregatlon. * * ."**
36 •
T.S* , VoT• 3, p •
W . , II, 1, p.330 f.
¥•S »1 Vol. 3, p.218 f •
Ibid*, p. 206.
86 -
After Jean Paul has finished with the clergy, he pro­
ceeds to the other professions* taking In order "Rechtsgelehrten"* "die elne Dunkelheit um sleh verbreiten, durch
welohe sie lhren Raub berhkken";4® "Aerzte" ("Es 1st gewls,
dass ihnen die Welshelt ser unn&tlg 1st, wenn sie elnen
Kranken durch eln Todesurtel d.h. eln Rezept, ▼om Leben
zum Tode brlngen" )j45 11Philosophen" , whom he calls "die
Erf inder des TJnsins* den der Theologe kanonlslrt" .44
also finds the members of the various learned professions
reoondlte In their language:
"I know not how it comes to pass, that pro­
fessors in most arts and sciences are general­
ly the worst qualified to explain their meanings
to those who are not of their tribe: a common
farmer shall make you understand in three words,
that his foot Is out of joint, or his oollar-bone
broken; wherein a surgeon, after a hundred terms
of art, if you are not a scholar, shall leave
you to seek. It is frequently the same case in
law, physlok* and even many of the meaner arts."4®
Then "Dumheit", In order to prove "dass die Loglk am
beaten one Loglk geschrleben und die Kunst zu denken am
besten durch Nlchtdenken gelert wlrd" ,46 reveals the psycho­
logical processes followed by the author of a system of
"lch zelge lhm den Arlstoteles* wle an lhm nichts
mer slchtbar 1 st als der Unsin seiner Komnentatoren, wle seine Vererer In lhm das CteaohSpf ihrer
christliehen Dumheit anbeten und diesem Vater
der Vernunft die Vernunft stun Opfer darbrlngen,
4 2 ; w v ; i i T T T pT'isst:—
4 3 * Tbld>, p. 331 f.
P* 332.
AS. T.S7, Vol. 3, p. 202.
AS. W . , II* 1* p. 332.
wie Abgbtter dem Vater dar Mensohen die Menschen.
Ich zalge lhm, wle untrfigllohe Theologen Hire
helllgen Melnungen in heldnlaohen Sohlusarten
beweisen, oder wle nan lane kezzerlsche Loglker,
alnen Ramus, Vanlnl, u.s.w. zu lhrer Belerung
hln In'a h&lllsche Peuer zum Arlstoteles
After seeing whloh, the loglolan can reaoh only one con­
clusion, "Heine Loglk aol nloht vernfinftlg, aber gelert sein.
Ioh wll den Arlstoteles nloht lasen, noeh wenlger Ihn verstahen lernen; aber ioh wll lhn unaufhBrlleh zltlren;"48 and
"Dumheit* Is highly pleased with herself, saying: "so maoht
man elne Loglk; so naoht ale die Dumheit*"*9
motif Is Indubitably oulled from Chapter VIII of
tha "Voyage to Impute, etc."
In tha island of Glubbdubdrlb,
Inhabited by sorcerers and magicians, Gulliver Is permitted
to oonverse with tha spirits of the dead:
"Hawing a desire to sea those ancients who were
moat renowned for wit and learning, 1 sat apart
one day on purpose, I proposed that Homer and
Aristotle might appear at the head of all their
commentators: but these were so numerous, that
some hundreds were forced to attend In the court
and outward rooms of the palace* I knew, and
could distinguish those two heroes at first
sight, not only from the orowd, but from eaoh
other*.,• 1 soon discovered that both of them
were perfect strangers to the rest of the com­
pany, and had newer seen or heard of them b e ­
fore* And I had a whisper from a ghost . • •
that these commentators always kept In the most
distant quarters from their principals In the
lower world, through a consciousness of shame
and guilt, because they had so horribly mis*
represented the meaning of those authors to
47. ¥ . , 1 1 , 1 , p. 333.
48. ^ild*, p, 333,
49. 1513*, p. 334.
-8 8 -
posterlty. I Introduced Dldymus and Eusthanlus
to Homer, and prevailed on him to treat them
better than perhaps they deserved, for he soon
found they wanted a genius to enter Into the
spirit of a poet. But Aristotle was out of
all patience with the account 1 gave him of
Scotus and Ramus, as I presented them to him,
and he asked them whether the rest of the
tribe were as great dunces as themselves."SO
That Jean Paul had Swift in mind at this point Is re­
inforced by the following sentence In which Swift Is men­
tioned by name, although the reference Is an error on the
part of Jean Pauls
"Die Metaphyslk 1st elne Landkarte vom Relche
der lfBgllehkelten; wer weIs nun nlcht, dass
man bios mlt der Phantasle elnes Dunsen gegen
dieses Land zu fllegan ken, so wle, naoh
Swift's Ers&lung, der Kapltaln Brunt mlt
selnen gefl&gelten Kaklogallinlem naoh dem
Mcnde flog?---*51
Friedrich Lauehert in an article entitled "Die pseudoswlftlsohe 'Raise nach Kaklogalllnlen und In den Mond'ln der
deutsohen Literatur"52 shows that the work here referred to,
A v °yege to Caoklogalllnla by S. Brunt (London, 1727) was
generally attributed to Swift at the end of the eighteenth
References to It ooour In the works of Hamann and
Herder, who both regarded It as emanating from the pen of
Swift, although it Is not to be found anywhere among Swift's
A translation of this Gulliver-Imitation had appeared
5 0 . T .5'.~,“ ~VoTr 'E;~ g C T lv e rn n T rk 'w ^ T s T pT 'Z0G~.--------------------51. W # , II, 1 , p. S58*
52. Friedrich Lauohert, "Die pseudo-swlftlsohe 'Relse
naoh Kaklogalllnlen und in den Itond' In der deutsohen LIteratur", Euphorlon, XVIII, 1911, pp. 94-98 and 478.
-8 9 -
under the title Sam Brunts Rsise naeh Kaklogalllnien, und
welter In dsn Mond nebst andsrn morallschsn und aatlrlsehsn
Wsrksn H m . D. Swifts by 0. C. Wolf, (Leipzig, 1735) with
two latsr editions in 1736 and 1751*
Its popularity is
further attested by the faet that two new translations were
published in 1800 and 1805 respectively.53
Orbnlftndlaohe Prozesse
After the rejection of the Lob der Dumheit, Jean Paul
set to work again, nothing daunted, to write a "nagelneuen
Satyr" , which he completed within six months54 and which
appeared as his first published work under the title of
QrbnHndlsoJhe Prozesse oder Satlrlsohe Sklzzen, in February
However, the work is not so "new" as the author elalmft
it to be, for much of it is a revision and expansion of the
satires contained in the Lob der Dumheit, as Jean Paul admits
in the preface to the seoond edition, May 1881:
"Der Verfasser sohrleb sie Ldiese Jugendarbeltj
in selnem neunzehnten Jahre als Student in
Leipzig nieder* In selnem aohtzehnten hatte
er naeh Erasmus eine zwelte Lobrede der Narrhelt gemaoht, welehe, da sie selber sleh unter
keine Presse einzudrangen vermochte, ihre
besten Stellen den GrBnUhxdlschen Prozessen
zum Drueke abtreten muaste..•."55
Raise des Capltains Samuel Brunt naoh Kak1ogaTlini an
und in den Mond, naeh dem Eng 11 achen~dea Swif F fray uberaetat
by joEann Frledrioh Kinderllng (Berlin, i860); and Rels'en~und
Abenteuer in Kaklogalllnien und im Monde, naeh Swift fray
be arbeitst~fLeipzig, 1865); c f . aTso Mary Sell and Lawrence
Marsden Prioe, The Publication of English Literature in Ger­
many in the Eighteenth Century TT954T* P* Msd.
ST. T ^ i e f a T f 7 I S e T T T ~60.
56• TTTf” 1, 1, p • 3 •
-9 0 -
Thia preface, too, contains a reference which bears a
striking resemblance to a thought expressed by Swift.
Paul acknowledges
his indebtedness at the time ofwriting
the QrBnltndiache
Prozesse to the English satirists for his
first attempts in
this form of the comic :
"Jetzo sieht er frellleh eln, dass man nur
zwischen ernster Bltterkeit und frelem Scherz,
zwlschen Juvenal-Perslus und zwischen Eoraz,
Oder Aristophanes, Oder Swift oder Sterne oder
Shakespeare, welche alle mlt ihrem Komischen
dem Juvenal-Perslus entgegen stehen, aussohliessend zu wihlen und slch zu entsohelden
habe, indem die wlderspenstlge Hin- und Hermlsohung des Spottzorns mlt der Inst, der
Busspredlgt mlt dem Lustspiel laser nur entweder elne falsche sloh selber aufrelbende
Ironie, oder elne eben solohe Strafrede und
folglich beidea auf einmal geb&ren k a n n . " 5 6
Swift, in his Vindication of M r . Qay and the Beggar *s Opera,
in speaking of the properties of humor, makes a similar
"By what disposition of the mind, what influ­
ence of the stars, or what situation of the
climate this endowment is bestowed upon man­
kind, may be a question fit for philosophers
to discuss. It is certainly the best ingre­
dient towards that kind of satyr, which la
most useful, and gives the least offence;
whloh instead of lashing, laughs men out cf
their follies, and vices, and is the character
whloh gives Horace the preference to Juvenal."57
As Eduard Berend points out in his introduction to the
first volume of Jean Paul's published works, it is only
necessary to compare the long ohapter headings of the second
: t . 7 Y,' T T p T T - f ; ---57. f.3., Vol. 9, p. 318.
-9 1 -
part of the Qr&nllndlaehe Prozesse, with their satirical
implications, with the short captions of Part I, to realize
how Swift's Influence over Jean Paul has progressed and to
what extent it has benefltted Jean Paul's use of irony.
There can be no doubt that a title like that of the fourth
satire of Part II, "Bittschrift aller deutscher Satlrlker
an das deutaohe Publlkum, enthaltend elnen bescheldenen Erwels von dessen jetzlger Armuth an Thorhelten, nebst Bitten
und Vorsohl&gen, derselben zum Beaten der deutsohen Satire
abzuhelfen* is an imitation of such titles of Swift's as
"A Digression concerning the Original, the Use, and Improve­
ment of Madness In a Commonwealth" in his Tale of a Tub; or
his An Argument to prove that the Abolishing of Christianity
in England m a y , as things now stand, be attended with some
Inconveniences, and perhaps not produce those many good
Effeota proposed thereby; or A Modest Proposal for Prevent­
ing the Children of poor People in Ireland from being a, Burden
to their Parents or Country, and for making them beneflclal
to the Public.
It was while he was engaged in this work
that Jean Paul wrote the letter of June 81, 1783 to Johann
Adam Hagen, quoted above,58 in whloh he asks permission to
borrow Swift's satlrioal works, for which he has urgend need.
Inasmuch as so many of the satlrioal ooneepts of this
work are taken over bodily from the Lob der Dumheit, it would
Ms. Mriefe, I,
p. 86; see p. 8l above.
-9 2 -
be a needless repetition to point out each instance of
Swift»s Influence that occurs In the QrBnl&ndIsohe Prozesse.
Suffice It to say that the allusions to self-praise In the
preface;59 to the effect of an empty stomach upon literary
productiveness;60 to critics as asses;6?, and several others
all contain the same references to Swift* with slight varia­
tions of language* that they showed in the earlier work.
Only those Influences of Swift which are new In the
lftndlache Prozesse, therefore, will be here pointed out.
The Tale of a Tub and Qulllver1s Travels are the works of
Swift most frequently drawn upon in the QrBnlBndlache Prozesse .
In a number of Instances* Jean Paul made excerpts In his note­
books of passages from Swift that had particularly impressedhim* as pointed out
There are also
by Berend inhis"Anmerkungen"
to be found inthe Qrfcnl&nd1ache Prozesse
certain instances in which Jean Paul added to and expanded
the reference to Swift contained in the earlier satire* so
that it here follows more closely the words of Swift than it
did in the Lob der Dumheit.
This is the case in the reference
to the wooden statue of an ass at the city gates.6S
In the
QrBnllndlsche Prozesse, the simple allusion to such a statue
in a simile is extended to include the reason for the erectibn
5S. W., I, 1, p. ID".
60. Tbld.* pp.
IS and 15.
61. TF13. * p. 2 1 .
62. W T T ' T l p 1 , p. 315 f.
-9 3 -
of a statue in honor of the ass:
"Auf dlese Weiae hftngt an der Fruohtbarkelt des
Hlntern der Spinnen die Fruohtbarkelt genieartiger K&pfe; auf dlese Welae nutsen dem Parnass
unter alien Spinnen die nathrlichen am moisten.--Daher verehre ioh neben den huldreiohen M&zenen
auch die Eael. Denn die NHscherei elnes Esels
veranlasste* naoh Herodot* die Beschneldung der
Welnst&cke; dafftr errichteten ihm die Hauplier
in Arglen ein steinernes Ebenblld; und das hBlzerne Ebenblld desselben vor den Stadtthoren
m&oht' ioh fast der Dankbarkelt der Dichter anempfehlen* da nooh ttber dieses seine langen
Belne lhr Aetherleben f&gllch abbilden.--"66
Swift uses the same Incident to make a different point in
his "Digression concerning Critics" In the Tale of a T u b :
"Pausaniua Is of opinion* that the perfection
of writing correct was entirely owing to the
institution of critics; and* that he can possi­
bly mean no other than the true critic* Is* I
think* manifest enough from the following de­
scription. He says* they were a raoe of men*
who delighted to nibble at the superfluities,
and excrescencles of books; which the learned
at length observing* took warning* of their
own accord* to lop the luxuriant* the rotten*
the dead* the sapless* and the over-grown
branohes from their works. But now* all this
he cunningly shades under the following allegory;
that the Naupllans in Argia learned the art of
pruning their vines* by observing* that when an
ASS had browsed upon one of them* It thrived the
better* and bore fairer fruit. But Herodotus*
holding the very same hieroglyph* sneaks much
plainer* and almost in terminls. 64
The same prooess of expatiatlon Is followed in connection
with the benefits to literature produoed by hunger.
In the
CrSnl&ndlsehe Prozesse Jean Paul adds the observationt
6 5 . W . , I, 1, p. SI and Berend's note p.- 5557
64. T.S., Vol. 1* p. 74.
"Dlesem Hunger verdanken wir die Qeschlokllohkeit* mlt weleher der Philosoph auf metaphyslsohen Sellen tanst* auf den Beutel der mild*
th&tigen Bewunderung hoffend, und mlt weloher
seine Ideen, glelch dem Rauche* In die Hbhe
wlrbeln* wo, so viel er welss* neben dem Korbe
sokratlscher Abstrakslonen auoh der slmnllchere
Brodkorb hlngt*”^
which goes baek to S w i f t s reference to the scene in
Clouds in which the philosopher Socrates
is suspended In mld-alr In a basket*
Swift’s version* con­
tained in the Introduction to the Tale of a Tub Is couched
In the following languages
"To this end* the philosopher’s way* In all
ages* has been by erecting certain edifices In
the air; but* whatever praotlce and reputation
these kind of structures have forswrly possessed*
or may still continue In* not exoeptlng even
that of Soorates* when he was suspended in a
basket to help contemplation* I think* with due
submission* they seem to labour under two Incon­
veniences* First* That the foundations being
laid too high* they have been often out of
sight* and ever out of hearing* secondly* That
the materials being very transitory, have suffer­
ed muoh from inclemencies of air* especially in
these north-west regions.*66
The first satire of the Qrflnlfendlsche Prozesse, en­
titled "TJeber die Sehrlftstellerel" attaoks* among other
literary fools* the scholars who steal their Ideas from
other writers.
One adds his own rhymes to the thoughts of
a number of other writers* which* fused together* are given
out as his own creation; another "flieht eln so m&hsellges
Handwerk, begn&gt slch mlt der Beraubung elnes Elnslgen*
4B* W.* T, 1* p. lb and Berend's note p. £43*
66* 7* 3* * Vol. 1* p* 48*
-9 5 -
reltet, durch seine Pygm&enlenden bewogen, wle Gulliver auf
den Bruatwarzen elnes jungen Midchen von Brobdlgnag, so auf
denen elner elnzlgen Muse, oder sohneldeth&ehstens
fremden Pegasus den Schwanz ab, steokt
lhn zwischen seine
klndlsohen Belne und rudert damlt auf die Ewlgkelt zu.n67
Swift, too, In his verses On Poetry, A Rhapsody makes a tart
comment on poetasters who sustain themselves by Imitating
their superiors in the art and who, like all other human
beings, prey upon and devour one another:
"The vermin only tease and plnoh
Their foes superior by an Inch.
So, naturalists observe, a flea
Has smaller fleas that on him prey;
And these have smaller still to bite 'em,
And so proceed ad Infinitum*
Thus every poet, In his kind,
Is bit by him that comes behind.
Jean Paul continues:
"Elnlge mauaen dem Autor nlchts als das Buch,
welches sie daf&r mlt elner elgnen Vorrede und
auoh elnem elgnen Register ausstatten, d.h. mlt
elnem bessern Kopfe und elnem b e s s e m Schwanze
versohQnern; eben so schaffet Seheuohzer das sogenannte EInhorn, In dem er dem Bllde des Pferdea
elnsB Eselachwanz und eln Horn auf der Stlrne
Swift, In his Tale of a Tub, In the "Digression In
Praise of Digressions", had referred to the Index of a book
as Its tall:
"The most accomplished way of using books at
present, la two-fold; either, first, to serve
them as some men do lords, learn their titles
exaotly, and then brag of their aoqualntanoe.
' ’ 6*7. W > , t, I, p. 50; of .' T.S77 Vol. 6 , Qullfver~'V
Travels, p. 121.
$8 . The Poetical Works of Jonathan Swift, with a Life by
Rev. John Mltford (Boston, 1855), Vol. Il, p. 74.
69. W., I, 1, p. 50 and Berend's note p. 569.
-9 6 -
Or, secondly, which Is Indeed the choicer,
the profounder, end politer nethod, to get
e thorough insight into the index, by
which the whole book is governed and turned,
like fishes by the tail. 70
and in his "Digression concerning Critics" had declared
critics to be "Asses with Horns11.7^
This chain of thought
leads Jean Paul inevitably to an attack upon critics:
"Hun konm* ioh auf die Scharfrlchter des
Rubies, auf die Zollbedienten des Neldes;
auf die Schweizergarde vor dem Tempel der
Ehre; auf die M&nner, welohe die Fehler des
Parnasses, gleioh gewissen a n d e m Leuten,
die die Stadt von Kothe relnigen, auf einem
Haufen zusammens char rent deren Tadel der
verw&Btenden Zeit vorgreift; deren Feder
den keinenden Lorbeer nit f res sender Dinte
sohw&rzt, und unter welohen Minner sind,
welohe wahrlioh lleber verliunden als verhungern
kurs auf die Sippschaft des Zoilus,
d.h. auf die Kunstrichter. Denn obsohon die
Barbarei untergegangen, so verwesten dooh
ihre Zihne nioht, sendern verwandelten sich
in Kunstrlohter, die nur zu oft einander
durch eine unelnlge stftrke aufreiben; eben
so gingen die gesaeten Zfthne jenes erlegten
bftotischen Drachen in Krieger auf, die sich
selber siegten."72
Swift, too, traoes the genealogy of the true critic
from Zoilus:
"Every true critic is a hero born, descending
in a direct line, fran a celestial stem by
Honus and Hybrls, who begat Zoilus, who begat
Tigellius, who begat Btcaetera the Elder; who
begat Bentley, and Ryner, and Wotton, and
Perrault, and Dennis; who begat Etcaetera
the younger."75
W * . s 7 7 “Vor. T, p."165.-----------------71. T b T d ., p. 74.
72. W . , I, 1, p. 51 and Berend's note p. 570.
75. 7.S., Vol. 1, p. 71.
-9 7 -
and finds that tha duties and prerogatives of the "true
critic" consist of the following:
"Now, from this heavenly descent of criticism,
and the close analogy it bears to heroic vir­
tue, it is easy to assign the proper employ­
ment of a true anolent genuine critic; which
is, to travel through this vast world of
writings; to pursue and hunt those monstrous
faults bred within them; to drag out the lurk­
ing errors, like Caeus from his den; to multi­
ply them like Hydra's heads; and rake them to­
gether like Augeas's dung; or else drive away
a sort of dangerous fowl, who have a perverse
inclination to plunder the best branches of
the tree of knowledge, like those stymphallan
birds that eat up the fruit."74
In speaking of the title-page, which he says is the
moat Important page of the entire book, Jean Paul suggests:
"Eln Tltelblatt wflrde sich sehr verschbnern
mlt elnem Portrbt-Blhtt des Verfassers gegenhber, wenn der koplerte Gelat in seinen Geslchtzhgen manchen Leser von dem Versuche
nlcht abschreokte, das original desaelben 1m
Buohe n&her kennen zu lernen; so entzleht
oft das ausgehangne Bild elner Mlsgeburt die
Neugler der Zusohauer der Betraohtung des
This figure had also been used by Swift In his Tale of a
Tub where it refers not to the title-page, but to the
"For my own particular, I cannot deny, that
whatever I have said upon this oooaalon, had
been more proper in a preface, and more agree­
able to the mode which usually directs it
there. But I here think fit to lay hold on
that great and honourable privilege, of being
the last writer. I olalm an absolute authority
v r : ’f.'i.Woi. i,“ p T T 2 V
75. W.7 I, 1, p. 58, and Berend's note p. 570.
-9 8 -
in right, as the freshest modern, which gives
me a despotic power over all authors before
me. In the strength of which title, I do
utterly disapprove and deolare against that
pernlelous custom, of making the preface a
bill of fare to the book. 7or I have always
looked upon it as a high point of indesoretion in manster-aongers, and other retailers
of strange sights, to hang out a fair large
picture over the door, drawn after the life,
with a most eloquent description underneath.
This hath saved me many a threepence; for my
eurloslty was fully satisfied, and I never
offered to go in, though often invited by
the urging and attending orator, with his
last moving and standing piece of rhetorics
fSlr, upon my word, we are just going to
begin.' Such is exactly the fate, at this
time, of Prefaces, Epistles, Advertisements,
Introductions, Prolegomenas, Apparatuses,
To the Readers.rt76
In his "Beschluss11 to the first part of the Orftnlftndlscfae Proseaae, whioh is really a foreword placed at the end
Instead of at the beginning, Jean Paul also refers to pre­
faces as ’’K&chenzettel", as Swift did in the quotation just
The third chapter, "Ueber den groben Ahnenstolz” justi­
fies the pardonable pride of nobility in its glorious an­
cestry s
MSle kennen den grossen Werth des alten Adels
und alten Klses, su welohem der elne durch
vlele Ahnen und der andere durch vlele Maden
erhoben w i r d . * 7 8
in the same metaphor that Swift employs with regard to
T B T ’T.S.; Vol.- 1, p. 95 f.-----------------------------77. W •, I, 1, p. 103.
78. Tbld., p. 72; cf. also Schneider, op. clt•, p. 347.
-9 9 -
"Wisdom” ;
"it la a cheese, which, toy how much the richer,
has the thicker, the homelier, and the coarser
coat; and whereof, to a judicious palate, the
maggots are the best .mT79
and again In his Letter of Advice to a Young Poet s
"I would recommend some of the approved
standard-authors of Antiquity for your perusal,
as a poet and a wit: toeoause maggots toeing what
you look for, as monkeys for vermin In their
keepers* heads, you will find they abound in
good old authors, as In rich old cheese, not
In the new; and for that reason you must have
the olassicks, especially the most worm-eaten
of them, often In your h a n d s . "80
In the fourth satire, "Uetoer Weitoer und Stutser1',
Jean Paul describes the latter In the following terms;
”Mlt Kttssen 1st er ftbrlgens frelgetolg; jeden
toewlrft er mit denseltoen von selnem Fenster,
wle die Affen den Vortoelgehenden mit ihren
Exkrementen von dem Baum he run ter... .Nlemand
beachmutst besaer als er mit zweldeutlgem
Witz relne Ohren. Dooh stehen such poetische
Bllder seiner Artlgkelt su Dlensten. Neulleh
aagte elner su melner Frau, er trftnke Wollust
aus ihren Augen.
*Wie Gulliver', sagte mein
Vetter, der ea htorte, 'eng11aches Bier aus
den Hhhneraugen elnea torobdlgnaklsehen Pr&ulelns trank.*"81
The "Zweites B&ndchen" of the GrftnHndlsche Prosesse
oontains the "Bittsehrift aller deutsoher Satlrlker an das
deutsche Publlkum, enthaltend elnen toesche idenen Erwels von
dessen jetzlger Armuth an Thorhelten, eto.,f, referred to
vy. T .g./T or. t ; p.~ sr.-------------80 • If•S •t Vol • 11, p • 99 •
W . , I, 1, p. 96; of. T.S., Vol. 8 , Gulliver's
Travels, p. 152.
-1 0 0
Lamenting the present scarcity of fools and folly,
and enunciating the right of satirists to expect folly from
the general public, Jean Paul declares that satirists are
reduoed to the necessity of using the most saered subjects
as material for their lampoons, such as religion, chastity,
the Bible, etc.j much as they would prefer "ordentllehe
Thorhei ten"•
"Eln Gesuoh an das Publllcum, die Setzzeit seiner
Thorhei ten reoht zu w&hlen und zu sohonen, 1st
also nloht bios andern llltglledern desselben,
sondern auch uns Satlrlkern erlaubt; und sobald
wlr nur erwlesen, dasa es uns die von jeher gewBhnllohe Anzahl Barren nloht mehr llefert, so
1st es verbunden, dleser Armuth abzuhelfen.
Frellieh da wlr dlesen Erwels frhher zu fhhren
nle nfethlg hat ten und immer mit der Anzahl der
Warrheiten der Welt zufrleden seln konnten, so
zufrleden, dass Swift sogar sine Lobrede auf
die ganze Welt verspracht so findst man unsern
Gesuoh eln wenlg unbesehelden und gr&belt desshalb naoh gezwungnem Tadel desselben."85
This promise Is made by Swift at the end of the Preface
to the Tale of a Tub, where he says s
*I am so entirely satisfied with the whole present
procedure of human things, that I have been some
years preparing materials toward nA Panegyric
upon the World ; to whioh I intend to add a second
part, entitled, "A modest Defenoe of the Proceed­
ings of the Rabble in all Ages."84
Swift makes a point similar to that offered by Jean Paul
In his Argument to prove that the Abolishing of Christianity
In England may. • • be attended with some Inconvsnlenoea, and
82. 8ee~~p. §1 above.
83. W77 I , 1 , P • 169.
84. T*S« i Vol. 1, p. 47«
perhaps not produce those many good Effects proposed thereby,
stating that such an inconsidered step would result greatly
to the detriment of satirists:
11• • • what wonderful productions of wit should
we be deprived of, from those, whose genius, by
oontlnual practice, has been wholly turned upon
raillery and lnveotlves against religion, and
would therefore never be able to shine or dis­
tinguish themselves, upon any other subjectJ
We are dally complaining of the great deollne
of wit among us, and would we take away the
greatest, perhaps the only topic we have left?"85
Jean Paul finds that satire Is justified and enjoyed
beoause of the fact that the reader never applies It to
himself but only to his neighbor, and therefore never takes
"A11eln es 1st gar nloht elnmal wahr, dass die
Satire die Thoren bessera und strafen wolle;
sle will ale ja nur vergn&gen. Dieses wlssen
selbst die Thoren so gut, dass sle In jeder
satirlschen Schllderung das Blld ihres Waohbars, aber nie Ihr eignes suchen und darum
auoh finden....In einer Lob rede sucht sun, wie
lm Spiegel, nie fremde Oegenstlnde, sondern
nur sich aelber sur&okgestrahlt; alleln bel
der Satire 1st es umgekehrt."86
So Swift states In the preface to his Battle of the Books*
"Satire Is a sort of glass, wherein beholders
do generally dlsoover everybody's faoe but
their own; which Is the ohlef reason for that
kind reoeptlon It meets with in the world,
and that so very few are offended with it."87
and similarly in his Discourse on the Mechanical Operation, of
the Spirit, he states that, "because I am resolved, by all
w r t v s :; foirTT p .‘t t :---------------------------86. W.7 I> 1, P* 170; of. also Sohnelder, op. clt.,p. 357 ff.
87. T.S., Vol. 1, p. 160.
102 -
means, to avoid giving offence to any party whatever":
"in all m y writings I have had constant re­
gard to this great end, not to suit and
apply them to particular oooasions and olroumatances of time, of place, or of person,
but to calculate them for universal nature
and mankind In general ."88
The unfortunate paucity of folly of whioh Jean Paul
oomplalns extends through all classes of society and Is
pursued by the author through eaoh one In turn---in the
same manner as was found In the Lob der Dumhelt.
the courtiers, Jean Paul deerles their weak attempts at
wit as not even worthy of ridicule j
"So kftme Tins ferner sure Satire, womlt lhr
In Gesellschaften gewbhnlioh feohtet, nloht
soharf, scndern l i e her11oh vor, wenn nur
uns nie elnfiele, dass lhr sle an eurem
harten Herzen sohlelft. Denn so lloherlloh
das Unternehmen 1st, wle die Schlangen mit
lockern Z&hnen zu beissen: so vernttnftlg
wlrd es durch den Umstand, dass lhr und die
Sohlangen den Vorwurf der Hnsuioht sohon
durch den Gift vermeidet, dem die loo kern
Zfchne den Weg nur haben bahnen s o l l e n . " 8 9
To this reference Jean Paul Is also indebted to Swift,
who In his "Digression concerning Critics" quotes Cteslas*
description of strange animals found in India:
"'Among the rest,' says he, 'there Is a ser­
pent that wants teeth, and consequently can­
not bite; but If Its vomit, (to which It Is
much addicted, ) happens to fall upon anything,
a oertaln rottenness or corruption ensues.
These serpents are generally found among the
mountains, where jewels grow, and they fre­
quently emit a poisonous juice: whereof who­
ever drinks, that person's brains fly out of
his nostrils.*"90
~ V o i T ~ r , ' _p ' r e i T -------------------------------------
89. W.7 I# 1# P* 179; ef. also Berend's note, p. 573.
90. T.S., Vol. 1, p. 75 f.
-1 0 3 -
Swift had also remarked in the Prefaee to the same work,
that "those, whose teeth are too rotten to bite, are best,
of all others, qualified to revenge that defect with their
In the attack on noblemen, Jean Paul declares that he
has been severely criticized for ridiculing their pride In
ancestry, and that many satirists, Including Swift, had
always regarded the pride of the nobility in their progenitors
as entirely praiseworthy and justifiable.
Jean Paul then
quotes from an unpublished artlole by Swift entitled Blnlge
Kautelen, die angehende Satlrlker zu beobachten haben, In
whloh the latter expresses his views on this subjeot:
"Dleser ernsthafte Aufsatz, der zwar, wle alle
seine eras thaf ten Auf sitae, (wle sehon der Graf
Orrery bemerkt) tlef unter seinen satlrlschen
blelbt, schelnt uns dooh wegen manohes guten
Raths seine Unbekannthelt (denn selbst der genaue Johnson gedenket desselben In Swifts
Lebensbesohrelbung mit kelnem Wort) nlcht su
verdlenen. Daher wlr nloht ttbel su thun
glauben, wenn wlr den Anfang der gedaohten
Vertheldigung des Ahnenstolzes ftbersetsan und
hler elnraoken."92
Then follows a lengthy translation of this non-existent work
of Swift's, In which Jean Paul very cleverly Imitates Swift's
Irony and style, even to the citation of page numbers and the
Indication of personal names by Initials and asterisks.
The seoond satire of Part II, "Bewels, dass man den
'91. *.S.,~~Vol. 1, p. 4i.
92. W * , I, X, p. 182.
-1 0 4
KBrper nloht bios fir den Veter der Kinder, scndern such der
Bicher ensusehen hebe, etc.", oontelns In Its d o s i n g para­
graph an allusion to Swift's Tale of a Tub:
"Man wlrd nftmllch wlssen, dass Zlerrathen welt
besser der phllosophie als der Diohtkunst
passen, und so wle die Deutsohen lhre Sohllde
mit Versch&nerung iberluden, lhrer Kleldung
hingegen alia Verxlerung mit der Wuth des
Martin 1m Mihrohen won der Tonne rersagten,
eben so sohlokt sloh fir das phllosophlsohe
SchiId der Mlnerwa wol rednerlsoher Bombast,
aber weder fir Ihren Kopfputs nooh die
andern Deoken lhrer Relze."93
The second volume of the QrttnlindIsche Prozesse closes
with a collection of epigrams, among which is one entitled
"Hitzllche Dunkelhelt":
"Wer vermlsset nloht wlllig In den Melnungen
jenes Denkers elne Deutllchkelt, die nur den
Nlohtdenkern die Verketzerung der se lban erlelohtern wirde? Wer versohmerzt nloht gerne
die Verdunklung, womlt die Laterne das Lioht
umgibt, iber den Schutz, den sle ihm gegen
da8 Blasen der Winde verlelht?"94
This figure was probably Inspired by Swift's Discourse
on the Mechanical Operation of the Spirit:
"Remark your commonest pretender to a light
within, how dark, and dirty, and gloossy he Is
without; as lanthorns, whloh, the more light
they bear In their bodies, east out so muoh
the more soot, and smoke, and fuliginous
matter to adhere to the sides*"95
Another epigram, "Der Kirper als dlohterlsche Jakobsleiter", ecu tains the thought:
55TTT.T I, T,"pVT5ff; cf . T r s r / " V o r r T 7 pp.' 9 T f f T '
94. W., I, 1, p. 211; of. also Berend's note p. 673.
95. 7.S., Vol. 1, p* 206.
-1 0 5 -
"Zwar komnt aus dam Magen, der Kiche des
delates, unsern Slnnen oft Verwistung und
Schmutz entgegen; allein 1st das h&here
Stockwerk, fir das die Kiche arbeitet, darum
minder silt reizenden Gerichten, mit Zierrathen und mit Praoht geschmickt?"96
which is paralleled hy Swift:
"Besides, there Is scmething Individual in
human minds, that easily kindles at the
accidental approach and collision of certain
circumstances, which, though of paltry and
mean appearanoe, do often flame out Into the
greatest emergencies of life."97
Another epigram on "Zeiohen fallender und stelgender
Llteratur” reads In part:
"So wle zur Anzelge des sehlechten Wetters
Blumen und Abtritte lhre unihnlichen Ausdinstungen verdoppeln, so kindlgen gute und
sohleohte Autoren durch hfeohste Anstrengung
lhrer widersprechenden Talente den Sturz
vom erstlegnen Glpfel des Geschmacks an,
und beide trelben Sch&nhelten und Fehler
auf lhre entgegengesetzten iussersten
Grlnzen, die das n&ehste Zeltalter sle
gegen elnen Mlttelpunkt vertauschen helsst,
wo sle einander weohselseltlg durch lhre
Hlhe sohw&chen."98
Swift, In nA Digression concerning the Original, the Use,
and Improvement of Madness, In a Commonwealth", employs a
similarly delicate if not altogether scientific simile to
aooount for the rise of new movements In world history, suoh
as "the establishment of new empires by conquest, the ad­
vance and progress of new sohemes In philosophy, and the
contriving, as well as the propagating, of new religions"s
w t v.7'f,'T,"P.~src:-------------------------97* T.S., Vol. 1, Tale of a Tub, p. 113.
98* W . , I, 1, p. 2(56.
"For great turns are not always given by
strong hands, but by luoky adaptation, and
at proper seasons; and It Is of no Import
where the fire was kindled, if the vapour
has onoe got up into the brain. For the
upper region of man is furnished like the
middle region of the air; the materials are
formed from oauses of the widest difference,
yet produce at last the same substanoe and
effect. Mists arise from the earth, steams
from dunghills, exhalations from the sea,
and smoke from fire; yet all clouds are the
same in eoegposltlon as well as consequences,
and the fumes Issuing from a Jakes will fur­
nish as comely and useful a vapour as lnoense
from an altar.1**®
It will be seen from the above that the references to
Swift found in the OrBnlHndlsohe Proaesse and in the Lob
der Dumhelt are culled for the most part from swift*s Tale
of a Tub.
This seems to be the work of Swift with which
Jean Paul first became acquainted and the one with which he
was most familiar; and it served Jean Paul as the most fruit­
ful source of his subject matter in these two satirical works.
Gulliver1a Travels ranks second in this respect.
It is evi­
dent, too, that Jean Paul was by this time familiar with most
of Swift*s early satires, suoh as The Battle of the Books,
A Discourse concerning the Mechanical Operation of the Spirit
and the Argument against Abolishing Christianity in England;
also that he had read the Letter to a Young Clergyman lately
entered |nto Holy Orders, the Letter of Advice to a Young Poet,
and the Vindication of M r . Gay and the Beggar *s Opera.
-1 0 7 -
Auawahl aus das Teufels Papleren
While Jean Paul was working on the seoond volume of the
QrBnlfcnd 1 sohe Prozease, during the summer of 1783 (It was
published in October of that year), he was already develop­
ing plans for a new satlrloal work.
Throughout the follow­
ing year he tried in vain to find a publisher for this new
In the fall of 1784 his financial straits had reached
such a point that he had to flee Leipzig because of his debts.
Returning to Hof, he continued his revisions of the manuscript
and his efforts to have it published.
He even sent the manu­
script to Herder in July 1785, who returned it in October
with a few well-meant words of advice.
Finally, in March
1786 it was aocepted by Beckmann in Gera, who gave it the
title Auswahl aus des Teufels Papleren; but because of various
delays and continual revisions it did not appear until the
beginning of 1789.
It is to be expected that this long period of gestation
(five and one-half years) would have wrought many changes
and developments not only in the final product but also in
the author himself.
It explains the heterogeneous character
of this collection of satires as well as Jean Paul's subse­
quent departure from this field of literature into the field
of the novel whloh afforded a wider so ope for his imagination.
The lnfluenoe of the English humorists is still rife in this
-1 0 8 -
work as it was in the Qrftnl&ndlsohe Prozesse, although in
some of the later satires there is evidence that Jean Paul
took to heart the oritioism of Christian Felix Wei see and
gave them "elnen mehr sternlseh-launigen Ton an Stelle der
strengen swiftlsehen Ircnie."100
While he was still in
Leipzig, he had sent the partly completed manuscript to
Friedrioh Hicolai,101 remarking that the foreword was not
yet completed, "welches H. Kranz verfertlgt, urn darln zu
bewelsen, dass er der D. Swift 1st, und die Ursache anzugeben, warum er seine Satiren in Deutschland anders sohrelbt
als sonst in England."
August Friedrioh Cranz, the author
of Charlatanerlen which had appeared in Berlin in 1780-1781,
was regarded by Jean Paul as the prototype of a satirist of
low order, and he had mentioned him disparagingly several
times in the QrBnltndlsche Prozease.102
However, Jean Paul
did not carry out this plan but wrote his V or rede under the
pseudonym of J. P. F. Hasus, stating that he had written his
best satires on another planet, before he was born, but that
other writers, whom he had imprudently penaltted to see them,
had stolen them from him and published them under their own
names t
"Sovlel 1st ganz gewlss, Swift und Sterne hmtten
kelnen Sohaden davon, dass leh lhnen ganze fiallen
1(50. W ., I , 1 , Berend's Introduction, p. X x x V l.
101. griefe. I, #77, p. 130, letter of June 19, 1784.
102. Cf7 WV, I, 1, pp. 169, 173, 212; of. also Brlefe,
I, Berend's note, p. 482.
melner ertr&gllohsten Satiren laut und gut
genug vordeklamlerte und solche Werke, wie
das Mlhrchen von der Tonne und den Tristram,
ihnen auf Wochen in der Handsohrlft vorstreokte. Ioh setzte ale daduroh in Stand,
es wie jener alte Poet zu machen, der (naoh
Seneka) die Qedichte, die ein anderer Poet
Bffentiich herlas, den Augenbllok in selnem
grossen Oed&ohtnls behielt und sle f&r seine
erkliLrte, well lhr wahrer Verfasser sle
nloht, wle er, auawendig herzubeten wusste;
sle trugen aueh wlrklloh jene zwel Werke, in
lhr unermessllohes Oed&ohtnis versteckt, auf
die Erde wider die gemelne Moral herunter
und hatten da nun zum Ruhme der grBssten
Autoren nlohts mehr vonnBthen, als dass sle
mlr, der ioh droben in der andern Welt noeh
paasen musste und ea auf gar kelne Art zur
Oeburt bringen konnte, den melnlgen stahlen
und aelne zu meinem hleslgen Fortkommen aufgesetzten Oedanken fftr lhre verkauften.••."103
In this foreword Jean Paul also makes the statement that
he has read Swift eleven times.
Tke Teufels Paplere contain only two references that
can be traoed directly to Swift, both of them taken from
Oulllver'8 Travels.
The first one occurs in the fifth satire
entitled "Unterth&nlgste Vorstellung unser, der e&mmtlichen
Spieler und redenden Damen in Europa, entgegen und wider die
Einf&hrung der Kempelisehen Spiel- und SpraehBIaschinenl,,
(probably precursors of our present-day slot-machines and
phonographs, respectively), which threatened to monopolize
the prerogatives of the gamesters and of the ladles and bring
them to a sure ruin.
He points out the havoc wrought by
machines in the industrial field (for example, the spinning
----- 105. W . V I T I ; p. SS'fl; "of. "al~s'o~~W., ~ 1 T ~ 7 ' YaTln'geneslen,
p. 167.
-1 1 0 -
maohlnes and the printing presses); how they operate much
more efficiently and qulokly than human workers, who there­
fore were unalterably opposed to their intreduction:
"So 1st noch bis auf diesen Tag die Bttchermasohlne in Europe unnachgemaeht geblleben,
deren Zusammensetzung Swift oder Gulliver
alien Buehhindlern unfehlbar in der lleblosen Abslcht so deutlioh beschrelbt, damlt
ihnllohe europ&lache lelohter darnach gezlmmert und daduroh gutmelnenden Autoren,
die sich blsher vom Bhohermaehen bekBstlgten
und kleldeten, eln j&mmerlloher Garaus gesplelet wttrde; denn die letztern haben sich
auf niohts anders eingeechossen."104
This remarkable invention was designed by one of the pro­
jectors of the Academy at Lagado, and was a contrivance by
means of whloh "the most ignorant person at a reasonable
oharge, and with a little bodily labour, may write books in
philosophy, poetry, politics, law, mathematics, and theology,
without the least assistance from genius or study."105
consisted of a frame, twenty foot square, in which were
plaoed small blooks of wood, connected by wires;
"These bits of wood were covered on every square
with paper pasted on them, and on these papers
were written all the words of their language,
in their several moods, tenses, and deolenslons,
but without any order. The professor then de­
sired me to observe, for he was going to set
his engine at work. The pupils at his command
took each of them hold of an iron handle, where­
of there were forty fixed round the edges of
the frame and giving them a sudden turn, the
whole disposition of the words was entirely
ohanged. He then eoomianded six and thirty of
the lads to read the several lines softly as
104. W., I, 1, p. 277"
105. T.S., Vol. 8, Gulliver1s Travels, p. 190.
tiiey appeared upon the frame; arvi where they
found three or four words together that might
make part of a sentence, they dictated to the
four remaining boys who were scribes. This
work was repeated three or four times and at
every turn the engine was so contrived, that
the words shifted into new places, as the
square bits of wood moved upside down....
the professor showed me several volumes in
large folio already oolleoted, of broken sen­
tences, which he Intended to piece together,
and <*&t of those rioh materials to give the
world a complete body of all arts and sciences..."106
The second ooours in the satire, "W&rde man nicht vlelen
Mlsbrluohen der bellettrlstlsohen Resensicnen steuern, wenn
keln anderer eln Buoh rezensleren dftrfte als der, der es selbst
This satire in support of self-recension by an
author, contains the last-minute confessions of a critic just
before he is to be hanged, "Rede unter dem Galgen, dessen
Redner nloht, wle elnlge Gelstllche, unter, s o n d e m nach derselben die Augen ruthat", as evidence that this group is un­
remitting in its efforts to effect the annihilation of its
arch-enemies, the authors.
Jean Paul points out the advan­
tages that would accrue not only to the author, but to the
public as well, from the universal practice of self-recension.
An author would treat the faults of his own work charitably,
if at all.
This constitutes the major difference between him
and the critic, namelys "dass der Kunatrichter allezelt durch
Lob zum Tadel, der Selbstrlchter aber durch Tadel sum Lobe
The critic lacks "jene Feinhelt des Doktor
w . t .3., v o r r & T p .'
107. W . , I, 1, p. 431.
-1 1 2 -
Swifts . * • mit ansche Inendem Tadel das Lob nur noch me hr
zu heben"10® which the author possesses*
Yet the critics
are not entirely to blame for their inability to reoognize
wit; the authors, too, are at fault beoause of their failure
to provide witty works which the critics would then be com­
pelled to read and condemn:
11• . . und auf kelnen fastern Orund konnte
selbst der Projektmaoher in La gado (in Gullivers
Reisen) gefusaet haben, da er verslcherte, die
Splnnen wftrden, wenn sle lauter bunte Fliegen
aufzunagen und morden bek&men, fthnliohe bunte
Fkden drehen und den ktinftigen Raub mit schftnern
Fallstricken umwickeln."10®
This is another of the ingenious projects conceived by a
member of the Grand Academy of Lagado:
"I went into another room, where the walls and
oelllng were all hung round with cobwebs, ex­
cept a narrow passage for the artist to go in
and out. At my entrance he oalled aloud to me
not to disturb his webs. He lamented the
fatal mistake the world had been so long in
of using sllk-worm8, while we had such plenty
of domestic insects, who infinitely excelled
the former, beoause they understood how to
weave as well as spin. And he proposed far­
ther, that by employing spiders, the charge
of dying silks would be wholly saved, whereof
I was fully oonvinoed when he showed me a vast
number of flies most beautifully ooloured,
wherewith he fed his apldera, assuring us,
that the webs would take a tlnoture from them;
and as he had them of all hues, he hoped to
fit everybody's fancy, as soon as he could
find proper food for the flies, of certain
gums, oils, and other glutinous matter to give
a strength and consistence to the threads. 110
~ —
109. Tbid., p. 438.
110. f .3., Vol. 8, p. 188.
There are many other Indirect Influences of Swift In
this last-named satire.
Among them may he mentioned the
derogatory allusion to Cranz :
". . . vlele Cranzlsche Sohrlf ten hahen es
hlos dem frfthen Lobe, womlt sle In grbsster
Ell der Verfas8er selbst lm yoraus belegte,
Dank zu wlssen, dass sle den Gerlchtsweg
vom Buohladen sum Kramladen, von Gef&ngnls
zum Rlchtplatze doch unter elner ganz betrlchtllchen Begleitung von elnlgen hundert
Lesern und des laohenden Pftbels zurftcklegten."111
whlch is closely paralleled by swift's attacks on Dryden in
the Tale of a Tubf^g and by the course traversed by a modern
book during Its short span ctf life:
"By these methods, In a few weeks, there starts
up many a writer, capable of managing the profoundest and most universal subjects. For,
what though his head be empty, provided his
oommon-plaoe book be full, and if you will bate
him but the circumstances of method, and style,
and grammar, and invention; allow him but the
oommon privileges of transcribing from others,
and digressing from himself, as often as he
shall see oocaslon; he will desire no more
ingredients towards fitting up a treatise,
that shall make a very comely figure on a book­
seller's shelf; there to be preserved neat and
clean for a long eternity, adorned with the
heraldry of its title fairly inscribed on a
label; never to be thumbed or greased by stu­
dents, nor bound to everlasting chains of
darkness in a library: but, when the fulness
of time is come, shall happily undergo the
trial of purgatory, in order to ascend the
and again in the nEplstle Dedicatory to His Royal Highness
Prince Posterity” :
tit: w r n m ; p r w ’
112. 7. S., Vol. 1, p. 37
113. Tbld., p. 105.
-1 1 4 -
"What Is than become of those Immense bales
of paper, which must needs have been employed
In such numbers of books? can these also be
wholly annihilate, and so of a sudden, as I
pretend? What shall I say in return of so
invidious an objection? it ill befits the
distance between your highness and me, to
send you for oeular conviction to a jakes or
an oven; to the windows of a bawdy-house, or
to a sordid lantern. Books, like men their
authors, have no more than one way of coming
into the world, but there are ten thousand
to go out of i t , and return no more.*114
Another is the reference to the endeavor of German
writers to build a higher Parnassus *
"Wenn nun aber eln ganses Volk von Rlesen die
Vergrdsserung elnes Fam a s s e s lm Ernste vorhat,
und jeder selnen Berg mit zu den Bergen der
andern hlnaufwirft: so wird eln solcher P a m a s s
ja wol am Ende selbst eln Rlese unter den
P a m a s s e n warden aha sen." 115
which bears a resemblance to the eon f H o t between the Ancients
and the Moderns in the Battle of the Books as to which should
possess the peak of highest elevation on Parnassus; the
Moderns taking the position that the Ancients should cut
down their hill-top to a point level with that occupied by
the Moderns.
The Ancients replied to this proposition:
"That as to the levelling or digging down, it was
either folly or ignorance to propose it, if they
did, or did not know, how that side of the hill
was an entire rook, which would break their tools
and hearts, without any damage to itself. That
they would therefore advise the Moderns rather
to raise their own side of the hill, than dream
of pulling down that of the Ancients; to the
ITT. f.S., Vol. I, p. 36.
116. W ., I, 1, p. 423.
former of which they would not only give
license, but also largely contribute." H ®
Jean Paul again designates crltlos as asses:
" . . . lch hoffe nloht unter die Leute zu
gehBren (die) sle . . . gar nooh lamer Esel
nennen: ioh werde ihnen dlesen p&belhaften
Hamen nlemals geben, da lch welss, dass sle
lhn nieht verdlenen, sondern wlrklieh ungelehrt slnd•"117
as Swift also does in his "Digression concerning Critics".H®
In the satire entitled "Von den fhnf Ungeheuern und ihren
Beh&ltnlssen, wovon ioh mich anfinglich n&hren wollen" , the
author describes eaoh of his monsters In turn, with evident
"Das zwelte Ungeheuer, das dort gleloh dem
Diogenes in elnem Welhrauohsfasse, welches
unter den Rauohf&ssern das heldelberglsohe
vorstellt, ohne Bewegung sitzt, 1st seiner
Elnsloht nach eln trefflloher, grosser, ja
aufgeblasener Mann. Alleln lch hab* lhn
slohtbar zu fast eingepackt, und ioh und
der geneigte Laser warden Muhe haben, lhn
ganz hinauszudrehen und zu schleifen und
neben uns her zu werfen.•••lch musste das
Baste bel der Saohe than und den armen Teufel
erst durch Kunst zu elnem ausserordentliehen
Wesen aufblasen, wle etwan die Bettelleute
die Kinder so lange mit elngeblasener Luft
verdloken, bis sle solche fur nat&rllche
Mlsgeburten, um das Almosen und Mltlelden
zu vergrBssern, ausgeben kBnnen."ll®
The process here employed by Jean Paul to enhance the value
of his monstrosity is derived from the mysteries and rites
— r r s r " f rs r," T o m ,~ p .'
117. W.7 I, 1, p. 436.
118. f.3., Vol. 1, p. 74 f.
lit. 1T.7 I* 1* P. 261.
-1 1 6 -
of the Aeollsts, (a generic tern embracing "all pretenders
to inspiration whatsoever"), as desorlbed somewhat less
fastidiously by Swift in his Tale of a Tub:
"It was an invention ascribed to Aeolus him­
self, from whom this sect is denominated;
and who, in honour of their founder's memory,
have to this day preserved great numbers of
those barrels, whereof they fix one in each
of their temples, first beating out the top;
into this barrel, upon solemn days, the priest
enters, where, having before duly prepared
himself by the methods already desorlbed, a
secret funnel is also conveyed from his
posteriors to the bottom of the barrel, which
admits new supplies of inspiration, from a
northern chink or cranny. Whereupon, you
behold him swell Immediately to the shape
and size of his vessel."120
It is evident from the foregoing that the influence of
Swift upon Jean Paul as a satirist has been a progressive
one, and that through the study of Swift's style his own
use of irony was developed and perfected.
From the early
clumsy attempts of the Lob der Dumhelt, through the inter­
mediate stages of the QrBnIt nd 1 sche Prozease, to the com­
plete mastery of this form in the Teufela Paplere, Jean Paul
had Swift constantly before him as a guide, a model, and a
15sr?. gTrvorrrrp^TW .'------
The early satires just discussed may be regarded as
preliminary exercises to Jean Paul's actual career as a
They constitute for him in a sense an entering
wedge into the hitherto closed door of literature.
them he was trying his hand, following foreign models and
attempting to develop a style of his own.
Having now
established a firm foothold, he fel£ that he could proceed
with greater confidence and independence in whatever direc­
tion his own inclination and fancy might lead him.
the completion of the Teufela Paplere, therefore, Jean Paul
abandoned the field of satire for that of the humorous
sketch, the idyll and the novel, forms which were more
congenial to him; and with the employment of these new
vehicles the period of Swift's greatest domination over
Jean Paul came to a close.
The "English" period of the
satires was followed first by a "Dutch" period of genre
plotures and oharacter sketches; this in turn by the typi­
cally "German" novels, Die Unslohtbare Loge, Hesperus,
Slebenkfts} and then by the "Italian" novel, Titan.
does not mean, however, that from this time on there is
no further indication of the Influence of Swift in the
works of Jean Paul.
On the contrary, references of some
kind to the English author continue to occur from time to
-1 1 8 -
tlme in almost all of Jean Paul's works; although, of
course, thay are not so frequent In the novels and idylls
as was found to be the ease In the satires.
From February 1790 to May 1794 Jean Paul taught sohool
in Sohwarzenbaoh where his life was relatively seeure and
peaceful compared with the stormy seas he had had to weather.
During the halcyon days of the first winter in Schwarzenbach
(1790-1791), he wrote Des Ants-Vogts Joauah Freudel Klagllbell
gegen seln an verfluchten D&mon, Des R eletor F lorlan Fllbels
und seiner Primaner Raise naoh dem Flchtelberg and the idyll,
Leben des vergn&gten Schulmelster lain Marla Wuz in Auenthal.
These works were written as "Vordbungen" for his first fulllength novel.
The last-named work, a little gem of its kind,
appeared together with the seoond volume of the Unsichtbare
Loge in Maroh 1793.
Through it Jean Paul introduced into
German literature an entirely new form, for Wutz has very
little in common with the earlier bucolic Idylls of Salomon
Gesaner and Maler Mdller except perhaps the rural setting.
It would be vain to look for any Influences of Swift in
the idyll Wutz, for from beginning to end it exudes a warmth,
a gentleness, a love of huaumity amounting at times to senti­
mentality, of which Swift would have been utterly incapable.
One oould, perhaps, speak here of a negative influence of
-1 1 9 -
Swlft, as the work expresses Jean Paul's deliberate reaotlon
In the opposite diraction---away from the sardonic skepticism
that had characterised his satires*
On the night of Novem­
ber 15, 1790, Jean Paul had experienced his unforgetable
vision of death, which had changed his entire outlook.
aus dlesem Erlebnls 1st die von den fr&heren satirlsohen
Werken und selbst nooh von Fllbels Relse so wait abllegende,
durch Trlnen llohelnde, eoht humoristlsohe Stlaonung der Idylle
geboren, die in soloher Relnhelt und Tlefe in der deutaohen
Literatur nooh nloht erklungen war."1
The experience and
its effects are given poetic interpretation in his "Auslluten
Oder sleben Letzte Worte an die Leser der Lebensbeschrelbung
und der Idylle" (i.e. TJnalchtbare Loge and Wutz) with which
the volume d o s e s .
In this declaration of peace and good-will
toward men, Jean Paul says:
"0 lhr guten Mensohen! warum 1st es m&gllch, dass
wlr uns unter elnander auoh nur elne halbe Stunde
Ach, in dleser gef lhr lichen DezemberNaeht dieses Lebens, mitten in dlesem Chaos unbekannter Wesen, welohe die HBhe oder Tlefe von uns
entfernt, in dleser verh&lleten Welt, in dlesen
bebenden Abandon, die sich um unaer zerstlubendes
Erd'ohen legen, wle 1st es da mBglloh, dass der
verlassene Mensoh nloht die elnzlge warme Brust
umschllnge, in der eln Herz llegt wie seines und
su der er sagen kann: 'mein Bruder, du blst wie
lch, und wlr kBnnen uns lieben’?— -XJnbegreif licher
Menschi du sammelst lleber Dolche auf und trelbest
sle, mitten in delner Hitternaoht, In die lhnliche
Brust, womit der gute Hlmmel delne wlrmen und be■ohlrmen wolltel""
., i , 2, BerenS *a Introduction, p • XLlX.
2. W • $ I, 2, p « 448 f •
-1 2 0
Jean Paul's philosophy which he oalla a "Gesammt- Oder
is summed up by the words of Viktor in
Hesperus : "ieh will die Menschen bios lleben, well sle
Menschen slnd."*
Compare with this love of humanity in
general the acrid words of Swift in his letter to Alex­
ander Pope of September 29, 1725:
"I have ever hated all nations, professions
and communities, and all my love is toward in­
dividuals* ...But principally I hate and detest
that animal called man, although I heartily
love John, Peter, Thomas, and so forth....Upon
this great foundation of misanthropy * . • the
whole building of my travels is erected; and 1
never will have peaoe of mind till all honest
men are of my opinion."5
and in the same letter:
"The ohlef end I propose to myself in all my
labours Is to vex the world rather than divert
it; and if I could oompass that design, with­
out hurting my own person or fortune, I would
be the most Indefatigable writer you have ever
seen, without reading* •• • When you think of
the world, give it one lash the more at my
In the same spirit he writes in A Letter of Advice to a Young
Poet (1720):
"My counsel is, that you use the point of
your pen, not the feather: Let your first
attempt be a coup d*eclat in the way of libel,
las^oon or satyr. Knock down half a score
reputations, and you will infallibly raise
your own."7
5. w., 1, 5, Hesperus, p. l75T
4. W., I, 4, Bosporus, p. 209.
5. Bddy, op. cli., p7 429.
6. Ibid., p. 727.
7. T6I3., p. 50.
-1 2 1 -
Dle Unslchtbare Loge
The transition on the part or Jean Paul from the
satirist to the novelllst was not a sudden one, but occurred
Between the Teufels Paplere and the first pub­
lished novel, Die Unslchtbare Logo8 lie the humoresques
Pllbel, Preudel and Wutz with which he bridged the gap.
tenor of Wuts would seem to indicate that he had entirely
done with satire, but this is not the case.
This form had
taken so strong a hold upon him, that he could not resist
its temptations, and In the Unslchtbare Logs he cannot re­
frain from inserting humorous "ExtrablAtter" In which he
made use of satirical material which he had already written
and not previously used.
Not only the "Bxtrablitter” but
also the text of the novel Itself contain such satirical
As far as the form and general spirit of
the novel are concerned, there Is far more of Sterne than
of Swift to be found In It.
Its subjeetiveness and abandoned
sentimentality bordering at times on the hysterical would
have seemed nauseating to a man of Swift's Innate moderation
and reserve; it Is not dlffleult to Imagine a clever parody
by Swift (perhaps In the manner of his Trltlcal Essay upon
8. At the age of sevent#en Jean Paul had~~wr Itten~a
novel In letter-form, Abelard und Helolse, patterned after
Qoethe's Werther and Rousseau's Wouvs lie Helolas---a work
which he Hlaselif recognised as premature. Of . uHeln elgen
Urteil &ber den Abelard” , written August 9, 1781, W., II,
1, p. 155.
9. Cf. W., I, 2, Berend's Introduction, p. XXVII.
-1 2 2
the Faculties of the Mind or his Complete Collection of
genteel and Ingenious Conversation) of the rhapsodic
apostrophes of Jean Paul and of the ecstasies with which
he revels In the Bane situation In anticipation. In ourrent
enjoyment and again In retrospect, for his hero, for him­
self and for huaanlty In general*10
In the preface to the Pnalchtbaro Loge there Is a
dlreot reference to Qulllvor»s Travels.
Here Jean Paul
takes ooeaslon to apologise for the enthusiasm for virtue
betrayed In the novel that follows, and begs that It will
not be taken seriously:
"Ich be serge wahrhaftlg nloht, dass vernftnftlge
Leute melne Anstellung gar fttr Ernst ansehen;
loh hoffe, wlr trauen belde elnander su, dass
wlr das Lioherllehe davon empfinden, statt der
Hainan der Tugenden dlese selber haben su wollen
heut su Tage sind die wenlgsten von uns su
den tollen Phllosophen In Lagado (In Qulllvers
Relsen) su reohnen, die aus Aehtung fCb* lhre
Lunge die Dlnge selber statt lhrer Benennungen
gebrauchten und allemal in Taschen und sicken
die Gegenstlnde mltbrachten, worhber sie sloh
unterhalten wollten."ll
Gulliver, upon visiting the Academy at Lagado, became ac­
quainted with a number of solantiflo projeots for the
advancement of human welfare, among which was the one
referred to In this quotation.
It is described by Swift
as follows:
10. Cf. for example, W., 1, 2 , pp. 390-460.
11. W7, I, 2, p. 16. ~
-1 2 3 -
"The other project was a scheme for
entirely abolishing all words whatsoever;
and this was urged as a great advantage in
point of health as well as brevity. For it
is plain, that every word we speak is in
some degree a diminution of our lungs by
corrosion, and consequently contributes to
the shortening of our lives* An expedient
was therefore offered, that since words
are only names for things, it would be more
convenient for all men to carry about them
such things as were necessary to express
the particular business they are to dis­
course on* And this invention would cer­
tainly have taken plaoe to the great ease
as well as health of the subject, if the
women, in conjunction with the vulgar and
illiterate, had not threatened to raise a
rebellion, unless they might be allowed the
liberty to speak with their tongues, after
the manner of their ancestors; suoh constant
lrreoonellable enemies to science are the
common people."12
Jean Paul also mentions Swift in the same foreword,
when he praises "Kunstrichter" as distinguished from
"Rezensenten"; he congratulates the former "dass er in
selnem Slmultantempel und Pantheon fdr die wunderllohsten
Helllgen Alt Hire und Kerzen da habe, fftr Klop stock und
Grebillon und Plato und swift."1®
An indication of the influence of Swift's style upon
Jean Paul is found at the end of the twenty-ninth Sektor.
He gives the reader an opportunity to write a few lines
himself and thus contribute to the progress of the plot by
■peculating as to the Resldentin's plans for Gustav.
IS. f.8.. Vol. ff,' Qul'liver +s' Travel's» “P~t.III', p
13. W ., 1, 2, p. 19•
-1 2 4 -
reader poses a number of questions as to her ulterior
motives, In which he indicates that he is not lacking in
wit; and continues with his suggestions:
"Oder (geht er also welter) geht die Resldentln
nicht so welt, sondern will ale aus Edelmuth,
worhber man oft die optischen Kunststftcke lhrer
Eoketterle verseiht, den schhnsten unelgenn&tslgsten Grhnden aufsuchen und ausblldenf-—
Oder kSnnens nloht auch a lies blosse ZufftUe
sein-— und niohts leuchtet mir so ein
, an
welohe sle, als Rennerin dureh Lusthaine, die
flatternde Sohlinge elnes halben Planes fllehend
befestlgt, ohne in ihrem Leben am andern Tag
naoh dem strangullerten Fang der Oohnensehnalt
im mlndesten su sehent-— Oder irr' ioh glnsllch, lleber Autor, und 1st von alien die sen
MSgllohkelten kelne wahrt"-Swift in his Tale of a Tub uses a similar atyllstlo con­
struction, wherein he sets up a number of possible hypotheses
to explain man's conceptions of good and evil, only to reject
them all at the end:
MWhether a tincture of malice in our natures
makes us fond of furnishing every bright idea
with its reverse; or whether reason, reflect­
ing upon the sum of things, can, like the sun,
serve only to enlighten one half of the globe,
leaving the other half by necessity under shade
and darkness; or whether fancy, flying up to the
imagination of what is highest and best, becomes
overshot, and spent, end weary, and suddenly
falls, like a dead bird of paradise, to the
ground; or whether, after all these metaphysical
conjectures, I have not entirely missed the true
reason; the proposition, however, which has
stood me in so suoh circumstance, is altogether
true; that as the most uncivilised parts of man­
kind have some way or other climbed up into a
conception of a God or Supreme Power, so they
have seldom forgot to provide their fears with
certain ghastly notions, which, instead of better,
have served them pretty tolerably for a devil.*!®
nnr.rir^; p.
15. T.S., Vol. 1, p. 111.
For the character of Viktor, the hero of Heaparua,
(1795), Jean Paul sat as hia own model; Viktor repreaents
the Incarnation of his ideals, all that he had hoped and
wished for himself, and all that, under more farorable
circumstances, he himself might have become.
Like Jean Paul
himself, Viktor is a "humorist", and his author accordingly
endues him with certain characteristics of Swift:
"Weiber bllllgen ea aber nle (scndern nur
Mlbmer), wenn einer wle Viktor cur brlttlschen
Ordenzunge der Humor Is ten gehbret
denn bel
lhnen und Hbfllngen 1st schon Wits Laune-das bllllgen sle nloht, dass Viktor (wle z.B.
Swift und vlele Britten) gern zu Puhrleuten,
Hanawbrsten und Matrosen herunteratleg, lndess
eln Prancose lleber zu LeuFeh Ton Tonhinaufkrlecht.
Denn die Weiber, die stets den
flhrger mehr als den Mensohen achten, sehen
nloht, dass sioh der Humorist welsmaoht, alles,
was jene Plebejer sagen, souffllere er lhnen,
und dass er abslchtlloh das unwlllkbrllohe
Homlsche zu kbnstlerlsehem adelt, die Narrhelt
zu Welshelt, das Er den -1r rhajis zum Nazionaltheater. Ebsn so wenlg begrlff eln Amtmann,
eln Kleinstftdter, eln Orossst&dter, warum
Horlon seine Leserei oft so jbmnerlloh wiihle
aus alten Vorreden, Programmen, Amschlagzetteln
won Relsekftnstlern, die er alls mlt unbesohreibllohem Vergn&gen durchlas---bios well cr sich
▼ordlchtete, dlesen gelstigan Futtersaok, der
bios unter den Lumpenhaoker gehSrte, h a b 1 er
selber gefertlgt und gefdllt aus satirlsober
Here Jean Paul expresses one of his favorite ideas,
namely, that women are constitutionally Incapable of appre-
-1 2 6 -
olatlng satire.
Klotllde expresses the same thought in a
letter to Emanuel:
"Die Satire aoheint aueh bios fbr das at&rkere
Geschleeht zu sein; loh habe In dem melnlgen
nooh keine gefunden, die Swifts oder Cervantes
Oder Trlstrams Werke recht goutlert h&tte."-— 17
Viktor, on the other hand, believes that S w i f t s satires
serve a moral purpose; and during the time of his separation
from Klotllde, he endeavored to improve his oharaeter and
make himself more worthy of her by reading Swift's works:
nBr hob seine satirisohe Xntoleranz
die aber
nleht halb so gross war wle die junger sohriftstellerlscher Spassv&gel
durch eigne Toleranzmandate auf. Er las Gullivers letzte Raise ins
Pferdeland als Rezept gegen Lbgen, wenn man an
den Hof geht."
The novel contains
some of which Jean Paul
a number of other references to Swift,
had already used
Paul's reply to his correspondent Knef, who proposed to send
him the Instalments of the novel via dog-post, Jean Paul
accepts the role of historian and writes:
"In Besuchzlmmern macht man slch durch allgemeine SatIren verhasst, well sle jeder auf slch
zlehen kann; persbnliche reehnet man zu den
Pfllohten der Mtdlsanoe und verzelht sle, well
man hofft, der Satlrlker falle mehr
die Person
als das Lester an.
In B&ehern aber
1st es gerade
umgekehrt, und as 1st mlr, falls elnlge oder
mehrere Spitzbuben In unsrer Blographle, wle ich
hoffe, Rollen haben, das Inkognlto derselben
ganz lleb. Bln Satlrlker 1st hierin nloht so
unglbckllch wle eln Arzt. Bin lebhafter medizInisober Sohriftsteller kann wenige Erankhelten
beschrelben, die nloht eln lebhafter Laser zu
haben melne; dem Hypochondria ten impfet er duroh
r f r ^ r r r r , ' ’s T m r x i v --------
18. V. , I, 4, p. 76.
-1 2 7 -
selne historischen Paslenten lhre Wehen so
gut eln, als wenn er lhn ins Bette su lhnen
legte; und loh bln feat verslehert, dass
wenlge Leute von Stande lebhafte Schllderungen der Luataeuohe leaen k&nnen, ohne
sloh elnsubllden, ale h&tten ale, ao aohwaoh
alnd lhre Herven und ao stark lhre Phantaslen. Hlngegen eln Satlrlker kann sloh
Hoffnung maohen, dass aelten eln Leaer seine
QesUllde morallscher Krankhelten, seine anatomlschen Tafeln von gelstlgen Mlageburten auf
aloh anwenden werde; er kann froh und frel
Deapotlaaus, Sehwlkohe, Stols und Harrhelt
ohne die gerlngate Sorge malen, daaa elner
derglelchen su haben sloh elnbllde; Ja loh
kann das ganse Publlkum oder alle Deutsche
elner Isthetlsohen Phlegma gegen allea, was
nloht In den Magen oder Beutel geht, beaohuldlgen; aber loh traue jedem, der mloh
H e a t , su, das8 er wenlgstena sloh nloht
darunter reohne, und wenn dleaer Brief gedruokt w&rde, wollt* loh mloh auf elnea
jeden Innerea Zeugnla berufen."19
This thought has been variously and more aueolnetly ex­
pressed by Swift, as far example In the preface to the Battle
of the Books; In his Discourse on the Me<^anJ-oal Operation
of the S p i r i t I n
the preface to the Tale of a Tub:
11But satire, being levelled at all, Is never
resented for an offenoe by any, slnee every
Individual person makes bold to understand
It of others, and very wisely removes his
particular part of the burden upon the
shoulders of the world, whloh are broad
enough* and able to bear It•"21
and again, in verse, In his poem On the Death of Dr. Swift,
is . w ., ~t, s,
20* ffoth quoted above, Chapter IV, p. 101.
21* T.8., Vol• 1, p • 46•
-1 2 8 -
"Perhaps I may allow the Daan
Had too much satire In his wain;
And seem'd determined not to starve it
Baoauaa no aga
could mora dasarra it.
Yat malloa naver was his aim;
Ha lash'd the vies, but sparad tha name;
Ho individual could resent,
Where thousands equally ware meant."22
At tha end of a short digression* Jean Paul resumes
the thread of his story with tha words: "
Es wird gleleh
angehen, rufen Puppanspieler; as wird glaloh auswarden,
r u f » lch.---*£3 a reference to Swift which he had used also
in his Qrftn lttndlache
Swift, in his Tale of a Tub,
refers to the barker
at tha entrance of a freak-show,who
excites the ourloslty of the bystander and lures him within
his gates with "his last moving and standing plaoa of
rhatorle*--Sir, upon my word, we are just going to begin."24
In a conversation between Viktor and Klotllde, they
discuss the happy memories of childhood, and Viktor observes;
"Dan umgaukelten Mens chan fhhren zwal Proapektmalerlnnen durch das ganze Theater, die ftpinnsrung und^die Hoffnung
in der Gegenwart 1st er
ingstllch, das Vergnftgen wird ihm nur in taus end
lllllputlsehe Auganblicka alngasohankt wle dam
Gulliver; wle soil das barauschan oder slttigen?"2®
An old ooupla at whose home Viktor spends the night on
one of his journeys afoot, leads him to refleot upon old age
in general and brings to his mind the sadness of Swift's last
years t
----------- ” -------- 7 9 * 7 -------------
. note p. 409.
-1 2 9 -
"Viktor besenders aah mlt schweren Gedanken
in einem alten Mensohen elne organlsierte
Vergangenhelt, geb&ckte verk&rperte Jahre,
den Gypsabdruok seiner elgnen Mumle vor
slch stehen. Jeder kind1ache, vergessllche,
verstelnerte Alte erlnnerte lhn an die
Elsenhaiamermelster, die In Ihrem Alter
wle die Kensohenseele elne krebsg&nglge
Bef&r derung erdulden und we gen ihrer gewfehnllohen Erbllndung wleder Aufglesser--dann Vorsohmidte
dann Hhttenjungen warden.
Der gute Newton, Linn*a, Swift wurden wleder
Hftttenjungen der Gelehrsankelt."26
Quintus Fixlain;
The idyll Quintus Flxleln, like Wutz, has very little
relation to Swift.
In the "Gesohiohte der Vorrede cur
Zwelten Auflage" (1796), Jean Paul refers to "den rauhen
Druok, woait die harten Rlesenhinde das Schloksala uns
welehe Raupen und Gulliver ergrelfen und tragen",27 and In
the body of the idyll, he refers again, as he did in the
Unalohtbare Loge22 to the "nlLrrlsche Philo sop hen in Gullivers
Relsen. . • die statt der Namen der Dlnge die Dlnge selber
in Skoken getragen brachten zum gesellachaftlichen Verkehr."2®
Quintus Pixleln, like his predecessor Wuts, also engaged
in literary activities.
In the preface of one of hla works
of a philological nature, he writes;
" 'Die Juden hatten lhre Msaora aufsuwelsen, die
lhnen aagte, wle oft Jeder Suchatabe in ihrer
Blbel vorkossne, s.B. das Aleph (das A) 43,277
■al---wie vlel Verse darin stehen, wo alls Kon-
27. W« , I, S, p. 31.
28. IJif. W . , I, 2, p. 16.
29. V., 7, 5, p. 89.
-1 3 0
sonanten auftreten (26 Verse sin da)
nur aohtslg (3 slnds)---wle viela Versa
man habe, worln gar 42 Wfcrter und 160 Konaonanten ersohelnen (nur elner 1st da,
Jerem. XXI. 7)
welches der Mlttelste
Buohstabe In einzelnen B&ohern ael (lm
Pentateuch 3.B.Moa.XI.42 lata daa adellge
V) oder gar In der ganzen Blbel.
Wo haben
aber wlr Christen elnen ihnliohen Maaorethen
fAr Lathers Blbel aufzuzelgenT 1st as genau
unterauoht, welches In lhr das mlttelste
Wort oder der mlttelste Buohstabe sel, weloher Vokal am menigsten vorkomme, und wle
oft jederT-— Tausend Blbelfreunde gehen aus
der Welt, ohne zu erfahren, dass das deutsche
A 323,015 mal (also Aber 7 mal After als das
hebrlisohe) In Ihrer Blbel stehe.'"30
While he Is occupied with this Indispenslble piece of
scientific research. Fix lain learns of the good fortune
that has befallen him, namely, of his inheritance through
the will of the late "Rlttmelsterln":
"Ob ihm gleloh die Mutter mlt geschrleben
hatte, dass er lm Testament bedaoht geworden-leh wunsohte aber, der Gterlcht shelter hltte
ausgeplaudart, wle vlel as gewesen---: so
flelen ihm fast mlt Jedem 0, das er masorethlsoh
in der deutsohen Blbel assortlerte und elntrug,
grosse Tropfen in die Peder und maehten die
Dints zu biass."31
Swlft, too, reoosBsends to the critics of his Tale of a Tub
a similar research problem involving the oountlng of 0's:
"And therefore, In order to promote so useful
a work, I will here take leave to glance a
few innuendoes, that may be of great assistance
to those sublime spirits, who shall be appoint­
ed to labour in a universal oosnsent upon this
wonderful discourse. And, first, I have oouohed
30. W», I, 5, p. 77.
31. Tbld., p. 98; of. also the referenoe to the letter
110" in Hesperus, W . , I, 3, p. 149.
-1 3 1 -
a vary profound mystery in the number of
0's multiplied by seven, and divided by
nine. Also, if a devout brother of the
Rosy Cross will pray fervently for sixtythree mornings, with a lively faith, and
then transpose certain letters and sylla­
bles, aooordlng to prescription, in the
second and fifth section, they will cer­
tainly reveal into a full reoelpt of the
opus magnum. Lastly, whoever will be at
pains to calculate the whole number of
each letter in this treatise, and sum up
the difference exactly between the several
numbers, assigning the true natural cause
for every such difference, the discoveries
in the product will plentifully reward his
In the Idyll, Der Jubelsenlor, Jean Paul begins a
discussion on the subject of "Sgolsmus" with the sentence;
"Die sonderbarsten Translokazionen nehm'
loh vorz&glloh mlt drelerlel Menaehen vor,
mlt Brobdignaks, mlt Lllllputern und mlt
mlr als dem Gulliver; leh versetze sle wle
eine algebr&isohe Gr&sse mlt alien Zelten
und Rltumen und sehe dann nach, ob leh sle
noch kenne.”33
Indeed, one might even say that Jean Paul used this formula
in all of his writing, and that the fantastio lands of Swift's
oreatlon are to be found symbolically represented in all of
his major works-— that the world of Wutz, Flxleln and Flbel
is a reflection of Lllllput, that of Titan is Brobdlngnag,
while the satires are laid in a setting of Lagado, Laputa add
the land of the Houyhnhnms.
In the "Appendix des Appendix" to Der Jubelsenlor,
Jean Paul speculates on suua's folly in deferring his pleasures
3 2 T T .'f r r ^ o r r r r iF t w s y
33. W . , I, 5, p. 442.
-1 3 2 -
untll he la too old to enjoy them:
"Der belogne I&genprophet, der Menseh, hebt
seine besten dleksten Sohlnkenknoohen f Ar
die Jahre auf, wo ihm die Z&hne ausfalien.'*34
A similar idea Is expressed by Swift in his Thoughts on
Various Subjeots t
"Very few men, properly speaking, live at
present, but are providing to live another
"My Lord Cromarty, after fourscore, went to
his country home in Soot land, with a resolu­
tion to stay six years there and live thrifti­
ly, in order to save up money, that he might
spend in L o n d o n . " 36
Slebenkls was originally planned as an idyll in the
manner of Wutz and Quintus Flxleln
one of a collection
of Blumen- , Frucht- und PornenatAoke as indicated by the
but In the writing it developed into a full-length
In it Jean Paul made use of many ideas formulated
much earlier and contained in his notes and essays, and
particularly he drew on his collection of satirical mate­
rials which he Incorporated into the novel in the form of
digressions and "Belgaben".
In these parts of the novel
the influence of 3wift is apparent.
In his notes for this
work, Jean Paul set up a number of rules to be followed in
~S£7'H7J T7^71pr"5IgT-----------------------------36 • T •8 ep Vol e 1 p pa S82 e
36 • TbTds f p • 287#
-1 3 3 -
the writing process, one of them being: "Sage alias
ironlsch, auoh das GleiohgAltige."37
At the parting of the two friends, Lelbgeber and
SlebenkAs, Jean Paul is overcome by his emotions and re­
flects upon friendship in general, and upon the friend­
ship of Swift, Pope and Arbuthnot in particular:
*0 lhr belden Freunde, du, der draussen, und
du, der zu Hausel-— Aber warum soil loh denn
immerfort das alte aufquellende GefAhl zurAokdrAoken, das lhr in mir so stark wleder
aufgeweokt und mlt welchem mloh aonst in
melnen Jugendj ahren die Freundschaft zwlschen
elnem Swift und elnem Arbuthnot und elnem
Pope in ihren Briefen glelchsam verstohlen,
aber so stark durohdrungen und erqulckt? Und
warden nloht auoh viele andere sloh glelch
mir erwArmt und ermannt haben an dem rAhrenden ruhlgen Lleben dleser MAxmerherzen unter
elnander, welehe, obsohon kalt und schneldend
und seharf gegen die Aussenwelt, in ihrer gemelnsohaftllohen Innenwelt zArtlich und feurlg
fAr elnander arbelteten und schlugen, glelch­
sam hohe PalmenbAume, langgestachelt gegen
das gemelne Unten, aber lm Glpfel voll k&stlichen Palmenwein der krAftigsten Freundschaft?-— "38
SlebenkAs' sharp letter to Rosa von M e y e m , who has
destroyed the peace of his home, also recalls Swift to
Jean Paul's mind.
SlebenkAs, who is the alleged author of
the Auswahl aus des Teufels Papleren, (just as Vult in
Die Flegeljahre is said to be the author of the GrbnlAndisohe Prozesse) ^ has beoorae so imbued with the spirit of
the three merry sages of London here named, that he can
w., t, <t, Introduction by Kurt Schrelnert, p. xVlI.
W .* I, 6, p. 57.
tV•| I, ID, p. 83.
-1 3 4 -
write the most scathing satires without feeling any bitterness
in his heart:
"Es lrgert mlch, wenn lchs dem Leser nloht beibrlngen kann, dass der Advokat dlesen bittern
Brief ohne die gerlngste Bitterkelt der Seele
hlnsehrieb: dieses holzersparende Mltglled
hatte slch so sehr in die fortglAnzenden Satlren
der drel lustlgen Welsen aus London-— Butler,
Swift, Sterne
, dleser drei Leiber des satirischen ftiesen Qeryon oder dleser drel Parzen
gegen den Thoren, nlnelngelesen, dass das Mitglled nlcht mehr wusste, ob es bitter sel oder
Aber das satlrlsche Kunstwerk vergess
er die Auslegung, ja er vergab sogar elner
Staohelrede auf sloh selber fAr ihren Wuohs
und Bau g e m die lings ten Stacheln.”40
In these words Jean Paul wishes to call attention to the fact
that he himself, In writing his sarly satires, was concerned
more with their style and superficial brilliance than with
their message*
In this respect he differs radically from
Swift, for whom style presented no problem at all.
He wrote
with the greatest facility; and by the simple expedient of
putting the "proper words In proper places",*1 the consummate
form of his works was achieved.
He was concerned wholly with
his subject; he wrote beoause he had something to say that he
felt needed saying; and he said it in his own inimitable
manner— -pithy, succinct, orystal clear.
Jean Paul, on the
other hand, wrote from an irresistible urge for self-expression;
and his "Manier", upon which he prided himself, is a sort of
improvisation, a continuously flowing stream of subjeotlve
*0 . w., r; s, p. roc.----41. J.S., Vol. 3, p. 200 f.
-1 3 5 -
assoelatlons, rather than a logically developed thought
He had none of Swift's contempt for humanity.
In his early satires he had attacked follies with which he
had had no first-hand contacts, merely because he fancied
himself in the r6le of critic.
Later, when he had grown
more mellow and regretted the sharpness of his early
writings, he often lnoluded himself In the human foibles
and weaknesses that he ridiculed.
This was entirely foreign
to Swift's attitude; he remained at all times the aloof,
cool, objective observer and critic of a foolish, stupid or
vicious humanity.
At the end of the story, when SlebenkAs is established
in Vaduz under the name of Lelbgeber, he shows the Count
his Auswahl aus des Teufels Papleren:
"Der Graf konnte die Paplere gar nloht genug
lesen und loben, und be Bonders erfreuete er
slch an dem treuen Elfer, womlt der Verfasser
von seinen belden Lands leu ten, dem brlttlsohen
Zwllllnggestlrn des Humors, Swift und Sterne,
sloh die rechten Wege des Scherzes zeigen
and the author hears this high praise of his work with
evident pleasure and gratification.
In connection with Siebenk&s' litigation concerning his
inheritance, Jean Paul discusses the practice of attorneys
to postpone legal settlements:
"loh denke, eln Advokat, der Qewlssen hat,
nbthlgt gern, so lang er kann, nloht sovol dem
Prozesae seines Kllenten---dleaen sohl&ts' er
-1 3 6 -
sogleioh, kbnnt1 er sonst---als dam seines
Gagners eln ausgedehntea Leben auf, um den
Gegner thells heimzusuohen, thells abzuschrscken, oder um Ihm eln gAnstlges Urthel,
wofAr nlemand stehen kann, von Jahr zu Jahr
zu entrAoken, so wle in Gullivers Re1sen
Leute mlt elnem sohwarzen Stlrn-Kleks zur
Qual eln unaufh&rllohes Leben erhalten."4^
a reference to the Struldbruggs in Laputa, described in
Part III of Gulliver1a Travels.
In the "Erstes FruchtstAek.
Brief des Doktor Viktor
an Kato den Altern Aber die Verwandlung des loh ins Du, Er,
lhr und Sle" , In which Jean Paul again preaches his doctrine
of love of humanity, Viktor (the hero of Hesperus) writes:
" . . . in den Tanzsilen, in den Vorzlmmern,
in grossen Gesellsohaften, deren heisser
Lerohenrost elnem Swift allea Fett ausbr&t,
ward1 loh selt melnen empflndsamen Relsen in
fremde Seelen froher und fetter. Dlese
Duldung des SAndera schliesst elne nooh
grAssere des Narren und die gr&sste des
Dunsen eln, obglelch die gross# Welt dlese
drel geduldeten Sekten gerade im umgekehrten Verh&ltnls ihres Unwerths bekrlegt."44
Lenette'a jealousy of Natalie finds an outlet in u n ­
complimentary remarks concerning her rival, which are so
oaustlc "dass Swifts sohwarze Kunst dagegen nur elne Waaserkumst iat.-AS
She oould not share her husband's pleasure in
a visit from Leibgeber:
"pAr Lenetten war eben dies# Palme aus Firmlans os tIndia ohen Besitzungen nlohta als
elne Stachpalme; und nle konnte ale wenlger
of. also
I, 6, p. 195 f. andSohreJnert'a note p. 345;
V . , I. 8, Fallnnenesien, p. 322.
I, 6, p. TOO.
Tbld., p. 438.
als jetzo Oesehmaok elnem solehen Staohelbeerstrauche, einemsolohen Pistelkopf-der so sohbn wsr, sis klm’er eben aus
Hamlltons Plnsel-— abgewinnen."4®
Jean Paul here appends an explanatory footnote conoernlng
the artist Hamilton, "der slch durch gemalte D1stein, wle
Swift durch andere, auszelchnete.11
The reference here Is
probably to Swift's attack upon critics in the preface of
The Tale of a T u b :
"How, if I know anything of mankind, these
gentlemen might very well spare their reproof
and correction: for there is not, through all
nature, another ao callous and insensible a
neri>er, as the world's posteriors, whether
you apply to it the toe or the birch. Be­
sides, most of our late satirists seem to lie
under a sort of mistake; that because nettles
have the prerogative to sting, therefore all
other weeds must do so too. I make not this
comparison out of the least design to detract
from these worthy writers; for It is well
known among mythologlsts, that weeds have the
pre-eminence o*er all other vegetables; and
therefore the rirst monarch of this island,
whose taste and Judgment were so aoute and
refined, did very wisely root out the rosea
from the collar of the Order, and plant the
thistles in their stead, as the nobler flower
of the two."47
Or, It may possibly derive from Lord Orrery's views with
which Jean Paul was also familiar:
"The remainder of this volume [of sermons] is
like a garden overrun with dooks and thistles,
among which some rose-trees accidentally make
their appearance. The scythe of time, or the
weeding-knlfe of a judicious editor, will cut
down the docks and thistles, but the beauty of
4 « 7 T 7 , I," 57'P. €&'.--47. 7.S., Vol. 1, p. 44.
the roses will particularly appear In some
sermons that are ourlous; and curious for
such reasons, as would make other works
despicable. They were written In a care­
less, hurrying msnner, and were the off­
spring of necessity, not of oholee: so
that you will see the original force of
his genius more in these compositions,
that were the legitimate sons of duty,
than in other pleoes, that were the natural
sons of love.*48
Lenette, for whom cleanliness and neatness was an
obsession and who spent all her time mopping and dusting,
had a particular aversion for Lelbgeber's dog, an aversion
whloh communicated
Itself also to his Blaster, sothat
felt the strongest
repugnance for Lelbgeber's hand with
whloh he might have petted the animal.
This leads Jean Paul
to the observation that nothing Is so unreasonable or unpre­
dictable as the feeling of disgust and the causes that may
produee it:
"Cicero sagts der Sehamhafte bringt nleht g e m
den Namen der schamhaftlgkelt — -dieses transsendenten Eke Is-— auf die Zunge, und so geht
der Ekle mlt dem Ekel urn, besonders da korperllehe und morallsche Relnhelt Maohbarlnnen
slnd, wle der relnllohe und keusohe Swift an
sloh *eigt."49
Jean Paul may have here referred to the anecdote concerning
Swift related by Mrs* Pllklngton In her Memoirs, to whloh
Sheridan also alludes in his biography of Swift:
"Servloe being ended, the Dean was surrounded
at the churoh-door by a crowd of poor; to all
of whom he gave charity, exoept an old woman,
48. Orrery, op. clt., p. 165.
49. V., I, 6, p. 434, footnote.
-1 3 9 -
who held out a very dirty hand to him* He
told her gravely, that though she was a
beggar, water was not so soaroe but she
might have washed her hands."SO
Swift's passion for personal cleanliness was notorious;
"he actually
so we are Informed by an astonished contempo­
washed his feet after walking, and 'changedhis
clothes every day, and likewise his linen*."51
His deep-
rooted antipathy to dirt and disorder had a moral as well as
a physical significance, "it was the outward sign of slack­
ness, slovenliness, waste, disorder, lack of self-control-—
of all the propensities of human nature whloh he chiefly hated
and satirized1*62
and he minced no words in attaoklng them.
letter to "Stella*, dated London, October 19, 1710, testifies
to Swift's conviction that "cleanliness is next to godliness."
He writes;
"Method is good in all things • Order governs
the world. The Devil is the author of confu­
sion. A general of an army, a minister of
state; to descend lower, a gardener, a weaver,
That may make a fine observation, if you
think it worth finishing; but I have not time.*53
80.' Memoirs~oTHffrs. l^tlYliTyipclhgton "(Pu51'ih~lT4STT
Vol. I, p. 53; of. also Thomas Sheridan, The' Life of the
Rev. Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin (London,
T7B7,“ p. 4 S T ---------- ------------ ----------- -----51. Hewman, op. olt., p. 84 f.; of. also Sheridan, op.
clt., p. 396.
52. Hewman, op. clt., p. 70.
53. T.S., VoTT ll, Journal to Stella, Letter VII,
p. 40.
-1 4 0 -
After the phenomenal success of Hesperus had made
Jean Paul an aoclalmed and popular author, he was approached
in July 1797 by the publisher Wilhelm Helnsius for a new
edition of the Auawahl aus des Teufels Papleren which had
appeared eight years earlier.64
This work was accordingly
revised and expanded, and on March 23, 1798, Jean Paul
borrowed from Thlerlot his copy of Swift66 which he required
In order to write the preface of the new work, which appear­
ed during the summer of 1798 under the title Pallngeneslen.
In this foreword, Jean Paxil again, as he has so often done,
and as Swift always insisted of his own works, disclaims
any Intention of individual or personal satires
"Kommst du nach lfArnberg, so schwAre, wie leh
allda schon selber that, dass leh lm ganzen
Buche auf keln Indlylduum satlrlsoh gezielet:
leh kann und mag kelnemllenachen auf seiner
fllegenden Flucht durch das Leben den Giftpfell der persAnllohen Satire vora ins Herz
oder auf das Sohulterblatt naohwerfen, die,
tingle loh der allgemeinen, kelne hellenden
Schmerzen maeht, sondern nur eltemde ."56
This foreword is followed by an "Alte Vorrede von
Slebenk&s selber" in whioh Jean Paul repeats the fiction
that Swift stole his Tale of a Tub from him,67 with the
exoeptlon that in this revision Jean Paul has added the
54. Cf. W., 1, 7, Berend's Introduction, p. XlTlI.
55. Brle7e, III, #76, p. 58.
7, p. 164.
57. C”f. W., I, 1, p. 226; see also p. 108 f. above.
-1 4 1 -
name of Butler (Hudlbra a ) to those of Swift and Sterne men­
tioned in the original Teufels Paplere.
Other slight addi­
tions, characteristic of Jean Paul's method of revision,
ooour also in this "Vorrede".
For example, in his apology
for the present work which is written here on earth whereas
the former had been written before his birth, he adds the
sentenoe :
"Hilt man mein antedlluvlanlaches Mlhrohen von
der Tonne oder Tristram zusammen mlt gegenw&rtlgem Posthumus, den leh bios auf dem Planeten gemaeht: so erstaunt man Aber den TJnterschied und begrelft nlcht, wle derselbe Kopf
vor selnem Leben so gut schrieb und naohher so
Also, where in the T eufela Paplere he had confessed to read­
ing Swift eleven times, he has now reduoed the nuadoer of
readings necessary to an appreciation of this author to three:
"Kein humorist laches Werk kann— -selnen swelten, drltten, vierten, xten Thell ausgenotnmen---das erstemal gefalien, sondern erst,
wenn man es sum zwelten-, drltten-, vierten-,
xtenmale lleset: muss nloht Swift drelmal,
Hudlbraa neunmal, Tristram elnundaohtsignal
durohgelaufen warden, ehe man etwas davon
goutlert?---Wenlgstens Einmal muss Jedea
launlge Werk gelesen warden, wenn es affisieren soil; und ich postuliere nloht wenlger."62
The new work ocntalns a number of references to Swift
not found in the Teufela Paplere.
The "Erater Relse-Anzelger"
contains (in "Mein Protokoll und Naehtblatt der Schltfer"), a
number of impressionistic plotures gained during a walk through
59. Tbld., p. 171.
the city at night, among them the following:
"Elne ganze Gasse lag atumm hlnab wle eln
Gottesaoker.---lm RAcken dea letzten Hauaea
war jemand auf jenem umgekehrten Rauohfang
und Isoliersohemel elngeaohlafen, der wenig
genannt wird
ausaer won den Aerzten, deren
ObJektentr&ger er iat---und auf dem, wle
Swift anmerkt, der Menseh am ernsthaftesten
aussieht-— wlewol er meinea BedAnkens eben
ao wenig laoht, wenn man lhn balblert
The "Dritter Relae-Anzeiger", whloh treats the same
subject as found in the satire of the Teufela Paplere en­
titled "wArde man nloht vlelen Mlsbr&uchen der bellettrlstisohen Rezenslonen steuern, wenn keln anderer eln Buch
rezensleren dArfte als der, der es aelbst gemaeht?", contains
several allusions to Gulliver'a Travels:
"Wire das Publlkum nicht selber mein Leser, so
kAnnt* lohs hler freler loben und mlt wenlger
Verdaoht: Jetzt darf leh bios sagen, es w&re
zu wAnsohen, die Franzosen, die Spanler, die
Neuspanler, die Heuseellnder hfltten die gedaohten genlallsohen Qulmbus-Pleztrums unserem
Musenberg mlt so vlelem Elfer erhalten wollen,
als die Deutaohen wlrklioh tha ten. Braohten
sle den jungen Fie strums nloht Gold, Weihrauch
und Myrrhen, indess Krltlker nach bethlehemltlsohem Kindermord a u s z o g e n ? H 6 1
Jean Paul here refers in garbled form to the appellation
"Qhlnbus Flestrln", or man-mount a in, given by the inhabitants
of Lllllput to Gulliver.22
"Wahrhaftlg das Publlkum schafft sogar selnen
Verstand bel Selte, sobald er die welsse oder
aohwarse Magie elnes Kraftprodukts zerstAren
will, und sum antworte mir emsthaft, ob und
m r y r r r ' t ; y ; -Pv
t s z
:-------------------- --
61. Tbld., p. 224.
62. T.S., Vol. 8, Gulliver 's Travels, p. 33.
-1 4 3 -
wenn es Je wol das Kolophonium, womlt dla
Flastruma das Blltzen dar Phantasla naohmaohten, fAr Geigenharz, odar die hartan
Erbaen, mlt daran trocknem Gerlusohe dla
Empfindsamen ainan Thr&nenregen theatrallsoh
gaban, fAr nlchts als Erbaen gehalten. loh
will wanlgstans hoffen, dass dar Fall nlcht
oft war; abar bai alnar genauern Untarsuehung
wArda alias auf dan einzlgen auslaufan, dass
dar belletristlsehs AktBr dan Laser selber
bei dem Arme nahm und in der Anzlehstube und
unter den Masohlnenwerken herumfAhrte: leh
will damlt sagen, dass die Fiestrums sloh
zuletzt selber in SpAtter der Flestrums verkehrten.... Ueberhaupt war auf das Publlkum
die Schuld des gesunknen Flestrums-Alters
brlngen will: der muss beweisen k&nnen, dass
es selnen so reinen damaligen Gesohmaok
8#itdem geAndert babe."26
In a conversation in the sixth "Relse-Anzelger", the
author becomes the champion of German womanhood, saying:
" . . . elne Deutsche mAsse nicht bios die
Tugend, auoh den Schein derselben haben-wie eln ChurfArst naeh Frankfurt, gesetzt
er w&re selber da, dooh seinen Repr&sentanten vam ersten Rang zur Wahl absohlokt
aber elne Franzbsin sei, wie Bolingbroke
den Swift nennt, oft elne umgewandte Heuehlerin und sei tugendhaft, ohne es zu
Lord Bolingbroke had said of Swift that he was "a hypoorlte
In the eighth "Relse-Anzeiger", the writer's Imposture
is about to be disoovered, and he finds himself in a dilemma:
"WofAr sollt' loh mloh ausgeben, fAr den
Conte---oder fAr den lnspektor---oder fAr
Endlich sehlen mir die Behauptung,
« 8 r " W 7 7 T ; T r P7
64. Tbld., p . 274.
65. df. Hewman, op. pit., p. 156; also Sheridan, op.clt.,
p. 421 and Introduction p. 2.
-1 4 4 -
das* ioh
leh selber sei, doch unter alien
The sen am erweislioJhsten su seln, und leh
konnte den 3atz postulieren: auoh a u sst' leh,
wenn leh das Orafendlplom h&tte behaupten
wollen, die unsohuldlge EmigrantIn entweder
zur lAgenhaften Heifer she Ifer in Oder sur
Denunzlantln maehen, und was war nloht Aberhaupt won elnem Jahrhundert, das duroh den
sohwarzen Strulbrugs S t l m f l e o k seines
felgen, unversohlmten, blutsehuldigen Vertrelbens der Yertrlebnen unsterblieh 1st,
in elner Rolle der l e t z t e m zu fArchten?"66
a reference to the Struldbruggs in Gulliver's Travels,
who were b o m with a blaok mark on their foreheads, as an
indication of their Immortality’.
To these individuals
Jean Paul also refers at the end of his Konjektural-Blographle,
when he says, in connection with the thought that death would
appear to us more desirable if it were denied us: "loh tr&umte
elnmal, durch Swift entzAndet, von elnem grossen Gelste, der
ewig auf die Erde geschmiedet wire."27
The sixth letter to Doktor Viktor in Jean Pauls Briefe
und bevoratehender Lebenalauf decries the harsh treatment
accorded to their fellow-men in the writings of the latest
philosophers, "wo man wie Swift und Bonapart zuerst die Leute
anfAhrt Problerens wegen."28
Sheridan reports in his aneo-
dotes of Swift that:
"Swift had got the oharaoter of a morose,
ill-natured man, chiefly from a practice of
his to whloh he constantly adhered. Whenever
he fell into the oompany of any person for
the first time, it was his oustom to try their
W ., X , 7, p . 322.
Tbld., p. 502, and Berend's note, p. 524.
WTT^I, 7, p. 420.
-1 4 6 -
tempera and disposition, by some abrupt
question that bore the appearance of rude­
ness* If this were well taken, and answer­
ed with good humour, he afterwards made
amends by his civilities. But if he saw
any marks of resentment from alarmed pride,
vanity, or ooneelt, he dropped all farther
intercourse with the party."28
The novel Titan, which Jean Paul designated as "den
reinsten, ldealsten, umfassendsten Ausdruok seiner PersAnllchkelt, das H&ohste, was er dlchterlsoh su lelaten befahigt sei",70 by its very nature precludes any extensive
influenoe of Swift.
Nevertheless, careful perusal reveals
evidences that Swift did contribute sane thing to the novel.
The most important contribution of Swift to this work
is not a literary one, but rather the reflection of his per­
sonality in the characterisation of Sehoppe.
is a combination of the traits of Jean Paul's young friend,
Johann Bernhard Hermann, and of Jonathan Swift.7*-
Jean Paul
had met and become the fast friend of Hermann at the Gymna­
sium in Hof which he had attended from 1779 to 1780*
was a youth of outstanding mental attainments and great promise,
but greatly handicapped in the pursuit of his studies and his
39. Sheridan, op.~~oft., p. 382.
70. W., I, 7, 5eren3T s introduction, p. LXXVIII.
71. T!t• Schneider, Jean Pauls Jugend und eratea Auftreten
in der Literatur (Berlin, l9o5),pp. 188 and 193•
-1 4 6 -
ambitlons by hia extreme poverty.
outlook upon U f a ,
This had embittered his
and in hi a Intimate outpourings to his
friend Richter, hla expression la oaustlo and oynlcal far
bayond his yaars.
Hermann left the Hof Gymnasium a year
later than did Richter, and then followed hla friend to
In the Interim Jean Paul had become acquainted
with the works of Swift, and found In them the same bitter
spirit that had characterized the letters and the conversa­
tions of Hermann.
What impressed Richter particularly, how­
ever, in the works of Swift, was the consummate form and
facility of style In which this bitterness was couched, the
detached Irony that masked the underlying disillusionment.
Although Richter tried to Imbue his friend Hermann with his
own affirmative attitude toward life, and to console and en­
courage him to overcome his obstacles, yet he could not fall
to recognize the fact that Hermann's misanthropy was justified
by his circumstances end that his poverty and his Illness did
Indeed make his plight a hopeless one.
In February 1790,
Hermann died In Obttlngen, where he had been studying medicine,
and Jean Paul felt the loss of his friend keenly.
It was the
third tragedy of this kind for him within a period of a few
years, for his first real friend, Adam Lorenz von Oerthel,
had died In October 1786, and In April 1789 Richter's brother
Heinrich had drowned himself In the Saale.
Jean Paul deter­
mined first to publish the posthumous works of Hermann, In
-1 4 7 -
order to perpetuate his memory and at the seme time give
financial assistance to Hermann's aged father.
He was,
however, unable to carry out this plan and decided Instead
to employ Hermann as a charaoter in one of his novels, as
a monument to their friendship, as he had once declared to
Hermann that he would do.72
Not only one, but a number of
Jean Paul's characters grew out of this plan.
Bernhard Hermann lent traits to Dr. Fenk and to Kaplt&n
Ottomar of the IJnalchtbare Logs; to Lelbgeber of Slebenkfts;
to Giannosso of Des LuftBchlffers Qlannoggo Seebuch; to
Dr. Katsenberger; to Schoppe of Titan, to Vult of FlegelJahre, and to other cynics and humorists among Jean Paul's
dramatis personae.
However, Swift, too, contributed to the character of
Schoppe, particularly to the manifestations of his madness
just before his death.
Schoppe, it Is related, had read
through the Llteraturzeltung In the order In which It was
given to him, without unfolding the sheets; he had examined
his own hands as If they were those of a stranger, saying
"da sitst ein Herr lelbhaftig und loh In Ihm, wer 1st aber
solcherT'f7 3
Indicating that he had lost his sense of his
72. In a* letter to Hermann of kay 20, 1766* "loh bln
des Teufels, wenn loh nlcht elnmal delnen gansen Karakter
In elnen Roman pflanse.11; Briefe, I, #224, p. 254. Cf. also
Johann Bernhard Hermann, Brlefe an Albrecht Otto und Jean Paul
(aus Jean Pauls Wachlass), herausgegeben von Kurt Sohreinert T
(Tartu, 193g-19s3), #3&, p. 124, letter to Jean Paul of
July 10, 1788.
73. V., I, 0, p. 322.
-1 4 8 -
own Identity; Just as Swift is said to have done when, upon
seeing his own reflection In a mirror, he cried out, ”0 poor
old manJ"74
Schoppe, In this last period, read no serious
works, hut preferred trifling and poorly written books, such
as those dealing with dream-Interpretations.
This was also
the case with Swift, whose motto was "Vive la bagatelleJ",
and who, after his return to Ireland following the death of
Queen Anne, wrote to Oay that "the most arrant trifles of
his former writings are serious philosophical luoubratlona,
In comparison to what he now busies himself about"
lnoldent of Schoppe entering the empty church, playing the
organ and preaching a sermon to himself has already been
quoted above, with reference to a similar lnoldent In the
life of Swift soon after he assumed his duties at Laracor.76
Schoppe1s reference to Swift's last words, "I am what I am",
has also been mentioned above.77
In a conversation between
Linda and Albano, In which the hero first discovers his love
for her, Linda also declares in the words of Swift: "loh bin,
was lch bln, und werde schwerlich anders."7®
She also says
of Princess Julienne: "Hie hat die Prlnzeasln elne Vorrede
und elne Mote gelesen, wie loh nooh kelne weggelassen";7® to
orrery, op. clt., p. 9l.
76. Letter orAugust 28, 1731, quoted in Orrery, op. clt.,
p. 163; of. also Sheridan, o p . clt. , p. 188 f.
76. See pp. 40 f. above.
77. See p. 43 above. Incidentally, these words eonstl- .
tute the refrain of the theme-song which Introduces the current­
ly popular animated cartoon charsoter, "Popeye the Sailor".
78. W., I, 9, p. 269.
79. T b l d . , p. 270.
which Jean Paul adds: "Welber, die Vorreden und Noten lesen,
alnd bedeutende; bel Mlnnern wire hl&chstens das Gegenttaeil
Schoppe In a letter to Albano encloses an Inquiry to be
inserted in the Relohsenselger as to the probable time when
he will become completely mad.
Here he lists eight Indica­
tions (In addition to the Inquiry Itself) that lead him to
regard the loss of his reason as altogether likely and immi­
nent, one of them being "seine Llebe und sein Treiben Swifts,
dessen Tollhelt Gtelehrten nlcht fremd 1st."80
He states,
"Bel Swift flels sehr spit, 1m Alter, wo er ohnehln schon an
und fir sloh ha lb nlrrlsch sein mochte und nachher alles nur
mehr seigte."®1
If he could be sure that this would happen
In his own case, he could consider marriage and an official
career like any other normal man.
Swift also had a presenti­
ment of his Impending Insanity, as related by Orrery:
"Swift, as I have hinted in a former letter, cer­
tainly foresaw his fate. His frequent attaoks of
giddiness, and his manifest defect of memory,
gave room for such apprehensions. I have often
heard him lament the state of childhood, and
ldlotlsm, to which some of the greatest men of
this nation were reduoed before their death. He
mentioned, as examples within his own time, the
duke of Marlborough, and Lord Somers: and when
he cited these melanoholy instances, It was al­
ways with a heavy sigh, and with gestures that
shewed great uneasiness, as If he felt an impulse
of what was to happen to him before he died."®®
r o ;-W T -;-Y f -S ;
j r S S i : ---------------------------------------------
81. Ibid., p. 331*
82. 6rrery, op. clt., p. 170; of. also Sheridan, op. clt.,
p. 226.
-1 5 0
Mevman, too, reoords Swift's premonition, of his future
mental derangement as early as 1717:
11Of the secret dread which was haunting him
Swift does not appear to have spoken much
at this time of his life. But one day, in
1717 or 1718 It seems to have been, he was
suddenly mowed to oonfess It, and to a man
whom he did not know intimately. This was
Edward Young, subsequently author of the
once popular Might Thoughts. 'I remember,1
Young writes, *as I~~and others were taking
with him an evening's walk about a mile out
of Dublin, he stopped short. We passed on,
without perceiving that he did not follow
us; 1 went baok, and found him fixed as a
statue, and earnestly gazing upwards at a
noble elm, which in Its uppermost branches
was much withered and decayed. Pointing It
out, he said, 'I shall be like that tree;
I shall die at the top.'"®3
Other Indications of an Influence of Swift upon the
novel Titan may be found.
When the hero Albano enters the
capital city PestIts for the first time, he is Informed by
the court physician, Sphex, that the old ruler has been
dead for five days, although the fact has not yet been made
Sphex explains that he had correctly prophesied
the death of the old sovereign, but that his successor Lulgl
had made plans to arrive In Pestlts on the following day, so
that the mourning for the father would have dampened the
festivities and illuminations planned for the reoeptlon of
the son.
Por that reason the news of the old ruler's death
was withheld lint 11 after Luigi's arrival.
p. 242.
Mewman, op. clt.. p. 248; cf. also Sheridan, op. clt.,
-1 5 1 -
"Sphex betheuerte, schon vor vielen Jahren
hab* er dem Hbohstseellgen aui den welssen
Zfthnen die Nativitlt der Sohwlndsuoht gestellt und nle die Todesstunde beeser getroffen ale dasmal; er lease aber jeden selber beurtheilen, ob eln Arzt, der seine Prophezelung Iberall kund gegeben, vlel Selde
splnne bel elner solehen polltischen Unteraohlagung.— - 'Aber (versetzte Schoppe) wenn
man verstorbene Herren, gleloh lhren todten
Soldaten, nooh als lebendlge In der Llste
fortf&hrt: so kann man fast nlcht anders;
denn da es bel Orossen Iberhaupt so verdammt schwer zu erwelsen 1st, dass sle leben,
so lets aueh nlcht leloht auszumltteln, wenn
sle todt slnd; Elite und Unbewegllehkeit und
Plulnls bewelsen zu wenig. Doeh mag man
vlelleloht kbnlgllohe Sterbebetten • . . aueh
darum verstecken, um den armen Landes kind era
den herben Zwlaehenraum zwlsohen dem Tode und
der neuen Huldlgung m&gllehst abzuk&rzen. Ja
da naeh der Plkzion eln Kbnlg gar nlcht stirbt,
so haben wlr Gott zu danken, dass wlrs ttberhaupt erfahren und dass es nlcht mlt dem Tode
desselben wle mlt dem Tode des eben so unsterbllohen Voltaire geht, den die Parlser
Jcumallsten gar nlcht melden durften.'"
This Incident Is reminiscent of Swift's Bickerstaff Papers
in which he foretold and proved the death of the astrologer
Partridge, which the latter vociferously denied:
"When, If the king should happen to have
died, the astrologer plainly foretold It;
otherwise it passes but for the pious
ejaculation of a loyal subjeot: though It
unluckily happened In seme of their al­
manacks that poor King William was prayed
for many months after he was dead, beeause
it fell cut, that he died about the begin­
ning of the year."86
84. W . , 1 7 8, p. ISO 7.
85. J.S., Vol. 1, p. 502.
and again:
"Whan the end of the year had verified all my
predictions, out comes Mr. Partridge's alma­
nack, disputing the point of his death; so
that I am employed, like the general who was
foroed to kill his enemies twice over whom a
neoromanoer had raised to life. If Mr. Par­
tridge have practised the same experiment
upon himself, and be again alive, long may
he oontlnue so; that does not the least con­
tradict my veracity; but I think I have
clearly proved, by Invincible demonstration,
that he died, at farthest, within half an
hour of the time I foretold, and not four
hours sooner, as the above-mentioned author,
In his letter to a lord, has maliciously
suggested, with a design to blast my credit,
by charging me with so gross a mistake."88
Swift wrote to Esther Johnson from Chelsea, on May 1 2 , 1711,
"I was told for oertaln, your jackanapes,
Lord Santry, was dead; Captain Cammoek
assured me so; and now he's alive again,
they say; but that shan't do; he shall be
dead to me aslong as he lives."87
There is a reference to Swift In the description of
Minister Froulay's gaming room and the members of the court
assembled there:
"Das Zimmer, worein du slehst, prlsentler'
loh dir als eln Fllegenglas voll Hofbedlente,
die, urn Ins Hlmmelrelch zu kommen, nloht bios
Kinder, sondern gar Bmbryonen von vler Wochen
wurden, die be kann tlloh aussehen wle Fliegen;
sle wollen, wenn Swift von selnen Bedlenten
nlchts begehrt als das Zumachen der Th&ren,
nlchts von lhrem Brodherrna±s das Offenlassen
deraelben.w S8
SS. T.'S.', 'V o I T T , pT 324."--------
8 7 . ?•?•, Vol. 2 , Journal to Stella, p. 1 7 6 .
88. W . , I, 8, p. 176.
-1 5 3 -
That this is a subject on which Swift felt very keenly Is
recorded by Sheridan, who states that when Swift engaged
maid-servants "he had but two commands to give them; one
was, to shut the door after them whenever they oame Into a
room; the other, to shut the door after them when they went
out of a room."®8
In his Directions to Servants, Swift ad­
monishes them, as an Infallible rule of good conduct, as
"Masters and ladles are usually quarrelling
with the servants for not shutting the doors
after them; but neither masters nor ladles
consider that those doors must be open be­
fore they can be shut; and that the labour
Is double to open and shut the doors; there­
fore the best, and shortest, and easiest way
is to do neither. But If you are so often
teased to shut the door, that you cannot
easily forget it, then give the door such a
clap as you go out, as will shake the whole
room, and make every thing rattle In It, to
put your master and lady 3n mind that you
observe their directions."80
Albano, In the Forum In Rome, expresses his enthusiasm
far the Eternal City to his teacher Dlan In glowing terms;
" . . . heute, als er den Obellskus erbllokt,
sel ihm der lelse, zarte Schein des Monies
ordentlloh unpassend fir die Rlesenstadt ersohlenen; elne Sonne hltt* er lieber auf
ihrer welten Fahne blltzen sehen; aber jetzt
sel der Mond die reohte Leichenfaokel neben
dem Alexander, der zusamnenflilt, nur angerlhrt."®!
89. Sheridan, o p . oTC., pp / 580 i a O n V
90. T.S., Vol."il, p. 309.
91. W » , I, 9, p. 214.
-1 5 4 -
Jean Paul probably became acquainted with this Incident
concerning Alexander through Lord Orrery's Letters to his
Son In whloh It is related;
"It 1s evident, my Ham, that Swift had con­
ceived an absolute disgust to Alexander,
whose character he alms to destroy, by
touching it In so slight a manner, that he
puts me In mind of the visit paid by Augus­
tus Caesar, to Alexander's sepulchre at
Alexandria. Upon the l&nperor's arrival,
the body of the Macedonian hero was found
In Its full dimensions, but so tender, not­
withstanding all the former embalming, that
Caesar, by touohing only the nose of It.
defaoed the whole figure Immediately."8®
Among the influences which contributed to mould the
mind and character of the hero, Albano, Jean Paul Inoludes,
together with Homer, Sophocles, Rousseau and Shakespeare,
also the "brlttlsche Wochenschrlften"83 whloh had so greatly
Impressed and Influenced Jean Paul on his first acquaintance
with them In Leipzig.
Swift had contributed occasionally to
these journals, especially to Steele's and Addison's Tatler
and Spectator; he himself secretly became the editor of the
Tory organ, Examiner.
The adjective "lllllputlsoh" with referenoe to anything
of small dimensions was an Integral part of Jean Paul's
On Llane's table Albano found "elne ganze
laeklerte SotAferel mlt Wagen, Stallung und Haus, mlt deren
lllllputlsohen Arkadien sle Dlans Kinder erfreuen wollen".8*
9a. Orrery, op. clt., p. 109; of. also W . , 1, 9,
Berend's note, p."~569.
93. V., I, 8, p. 124.
94. T b l d . , p. 159.
This expression Is used with great frequency, so in the
Clevis Flohtlana seu Lelbgeberlana»
"Fichte nennt die Welt den Wlederscheln unsers
gftttlichen lohs; Freldenker alaeinann nennt sle
einen Sohatten Qottes. Letsteres hbr* loh
lleber, denn tfleser Sohatten verflnstert und
verk&ltet das lllllputlsche lntelligente Ich
wahrlloh bis sum Erfrieren**®®
In the Chalohtbare Loge he speaks of the "lllllputlsohen
Grazien-F&aae" of the Mlnlaterln Bouse;®6 and says of Herr
von Oefel to whom Beats has been more amiable than usual:
*JSr glng folgllch mlt elnem Herzen fort, das der Amor so
mlt lllllputlsohen Ffeilen vollgesohossen hatte wle eln N&hklssen mlt Hadeln*"®^
At the dinner In the Wutz home, the
two children sit at a small side-table, eating from the
"lllllputlsohen Tafel-servioe" whloh they had received as a
Christmas gift;®® while the Sehulmelaterleln Wutz himself
had a library of "lllllputlsohen Trakt&tohen In Flngerkalender-Format" of his own manufacture .9®
When Albano, upon being shown some of the more indecent
paintings in the art gallery of the palaoe, is overcome with
shame, blushes and takes unceremonious leave of Luigi, Schoppe
Is pleased with his behavior:
"Nie faaste Schoppe seine pulsierende Hand
herslloher an als dlesesmal; der Anbllok elnes
versohlmten Jhngllngs 1st fast holder (seltener
zumal) als der elner versehi&mten Jungfrau: jener
. T T r * r ,p." w f .
96• W«, I, 2, p • 32*7•
97• Tbld. , p* 316 •
, p« 21*7*
, p* 462*
-1 5 6 -
ersohelnt weibllch-sanfter, wie diese mftnnlloh-stftrker durch daa zugemlschte Zhrnen
der Tugend. Sohoppe, der wle Pope, Swift,
Boileau Heiligkelt dea Gesohleohta mlt
Zynismus der Kleldung vaad Spraohe zuaammenzwang, leerte die grbssten Zomsehalen 5ber
jede Libert inage aus und fiel ala elne aatlrlaohe Bellona die beaten freien Leute an*.."100
Orrery apeaka of Swift'a "love of trifles, and his want of
delleaey and deoorum"101 and again:
"The vulgar dlaleet was not only a fund of
humor for him, but I verily believe was
acceptable to his nature; otherwise I know
not how to aocotint for the many filthy
Ideas, and lndeoent expressions (I mean
indecent in point of cleanliness and delloaoy) that will be found throughout hla
Jean Paul also blames Swift for his own lapses In the
direction of obsoenity in his early works.
In the preface
to the seoond edition of the Qrttnlftndlsche Prozesae dated
May 1821, he ascribes to his then dally association with the
British satirists, Pope and Swift, *eine Derbheit des Ausdruoks, besonders in Bezug auf das Gesohleeht • . • welche,
als sle vergrlffen war, kelne zwelte Auflag# erleben
It is quite true that a certain lusty humor character­
izes Jean Paul*a early satires during the period of Swift*s
greatest lnfluenoe over him, also that this oharaoterlstlo
100:; ^ 7"p."iw“fT----
101. 3rrery, op. clt., p. 40.
102. Ibid.. p. 21"
1, p. 6.
-1 5 7 -
abates in hla later works in proportion as the influanca
of Swift diminishes.
Such obscene passages may therefore
quite properly be attributed, as Jean Paul does, to the
influenee of the English writers, Swift and Pope, and very
possibly also Sterne, whom Jean Paul does not mention at
this point.
Indeed, no one could know better than Jean Paul
himself whence such a manifestation originated.
While his
statement to the effect that this "Derbhelt des Ausd rucks"
did not survive to a second edition Is true In general,
there are still to be found from time to time throughout
his later works occasional passages indicating a continuance
of Swiftfs Influence in this respect, oertain of which are
fully the peer of anything of the kind that Swift has to
On the other hand, although Swift minced no words and
was often brutally plain-spoken in his writings, his conver­
sation remained at all times within the limits permissible
to a clergyman of his time, and he was emphatically averse
to indecent language.
Sheridan states of Swift that
". . • his wit, as well as his virtue, was al­
ways superior to the wretehed expedients of
those despicable babblers, who are perpetually
attempting to put off double entendre and pro­
faneness, for humour and wit. His conversation
was In the highest degree chaste, and wholly
free from the least tlneture of lrrellglon. "105
.; i; u; P
and'Mg; y:rr; Tor~pr"g®8.
105. Sheridan, oj>. clt., p. 397.
Swlft writes to "Stella" on May 12, 1711 from Chelsea:
"Mr* Secretary had too much company with him
to-day; so I came away soon after dinner. I
give no men liberty to swear or talk bawdy,
and I found some of them were In constraint,
so I left them to themselves."106
Again, in his Hints towards an Essay on Conversation. Swift
"• • • If there were no other use In the con­
versation of ladles, It Is sufficient that It
would lay a restraint upon those odious topics
of Immodesty and Indeoenoies, Into which the
rudeness of our northern genius Is so apt to
fall. And, therefore, It Is observable In
those sprightly gentlemen about the town, who
are so very dexterous at entertaining a visard
mask In the park or the playhouse, that, In
the company of ladles of virtue and honour,
they are silent and disconcerted, and out of
their element." 107
Indeed, In spite of an Impression to the contrary which
one might gain from oertaln of Swift's writings, there can
be no doubt of Swift's sincerity in this regard as evidenced
by his Project for the Advancement of Religion and the Refor­
mation of Manners In which he attacks prevailing vices and
proposes reforms to oorreot them;10® likewise In his Sent1nents of a Church of England Man.10®
Jean Paul himself In his Vorsohule der Aeathetlk oomes
to Swift's defense, although he does not deny Swift's frequent
transgressions of propriety.
This oocurs In Jean Paul's refu-
T.S.. Vol. 2. Journal to~Stalla. tetter X X t i t . p. 150.
T.J., Vol. 11, p. 74.
^ f . T.S., Vol. 3, pp* 21—48.
IbldT,“~pp. 49-77.
tatlon of Home's statement that Addison and Arbuthnot are
superior as humorists to Swift and Lafontalne, because the
two latter writers possessed merely an Innate, uncultivated
humor, whereas that of Addison and Arbuthnot was fully
conscious and deliberate.
Jean Paul disagrees with this
view expressed by Home, and states as his reason:
11Es 1st 1m Dlehter das N&rrlsohe so freler
Kntsehluss als das Zynlsche.
Swift, bekannt
duroh seine Relnllohlcelt, welohe so gross war,
dass er elnmal In elne welbllohe Bettelhand
nlohts legte, well sle ungewasehen war, und
noeh bekannter duroh seine mehr als platonlsohe Enthaltsamkelt, welohe (zufolge den
Lebensbesohrelbern) bel ihm und bel Newton
In das Unvermbgen der Sender zuletzt ftbergegangen war, sehrleb dooh Swift's Works und
noeh dazu auf der elnen Selte Lady's dressing
room und auf der andern gar Strephon and
Chloe. Aristophanes und Rabelais und Flschart
und ttberhaupt die altdeutsohen Komiker fallen
uns hier von selber eln, sle, denen die
sehrelbende Unsittlichkeit aus kelner handelnden entsprang, so wle zu kelner hlnloekte. In
der iohtkomisehen Dars tel lung glbt es so wenig
wle in der Zergllederungkunat (und 1st nlcht
jene auoh elne, nur elne gelstlgere und seh&rfere?) elne verfbhrende Unanst&ndlgkelt; und
so wle der Blltzfunke ohne Zhnden durch
Sohlesspulver, aber am Elsenlelter, f&hrt, so
lAuft am komlsehen Lei ter jene Flsmme nur als
Witz ohne Sohaden duroh die brennbare Sinn11 ohke It hlnduroh. Desto sohllmmer lsts, dass
die Versunkenheit der Zelt zugleloh sloh eben
so sehr am gefahrlosen komlsehen Zynismus
stbsst, als an glftvollen erotlsohen ZiergemAlden labt."110
In Part III of the Vorschule, Jean Paul expresses him­
self similarly an the same subject, taking the position that
n g . n r.T t ; t i , v ; t s *;
-1 6 0 -
frankly expressed obscenity is more wholesome and infinitely
to be preferred to a thinly veiled salaolousnesss
"Etwas ganz anderes und Erlaubteres 1st der
Zynlsmus des Wltzes und Humors. Denn wenn
dort der Zynlsmus der ernsten Poesle duroh
die genelgte Ebene elner langen GestaltenFolge elnen Fall des Wassers hervorbringt,
der endlloh eln relssender Strom wlrd--welche ftppige Gestalten-Folge aber bel den
Grleehen nle vorkommt---: so zersetzt der
Witz und der Humor eben die Gestalt zum
biossen Mlttel und entzleht sle duroh die
Auf16sung In blosse Verh&ltnlsse gerade der
Phantasle; daher 1st bel den keusohern Alten
und Britten der komlsche Zynlsmus st&rker,
aber die bpplge Gestalten-Melodle sohwicher;
bel den verdorbenen Nazlonen hlngegen beldes
umgekehrt. Eln Aristophanes, Rabelais,
Swift slnd so keuseh als eln anatomisehes
Lehrbuoh. Etwas anderes, aber Sohllmmeres
1st jenes perslfllerende Gedioht, z.B. der
Frsnzosen, der Weltleute und manches von
Wieland, das zwlschen den Gr&nzen des
k m s t e s und Laohens sohwebend, nur Gelster
vemichtend belaoht und Kbrper ernst schaffend malt...." H I
It appears, therefore, that Jean Paul regards Swift's ob­
scenity as quite inoffensive and pardonable, even justifi­
able In certain forma of humorous writing; certainly It is
In no way Indicative of a corresponding Immorality in the
author's personal oharaoter, Lord Orrery to the oontrary
Indeed, In Jean Pauls blographlache Be-
lustlgungen Unter der Qohlrnaohalo elner Rlesln, he had
gone so far as to advooate that writers give free, unin­
hibited expression to their less virtuous Impulses for the
-1 6 1 -
ultlmate benefit of their souls:
"Daher sehadets elnem Autor an der Horalit&t,
wenn er su tugendhaft schrelbt; wenlgstens
suchten allezelt Skrlbenten, die eln relnes
Leben fbhren wollten, wle Marzlal, Katull,
Sanchez, die unreinsten Werke zu fertlgen,
v m mlt lhnen, wle mlt gut angebrachten Ven­
tilator en Oder Sohlff spumpen Oder Abzugsgriben, den Sbndenstoff aus lhren Seelen
abzuf bhr en •"H ®
The view expressed by Jean Paul In the Vorsohule Is
reiterated In the preface to Dr. Katzenbergera Baderelae,
In whloh he discusses various forms of the obscene, and
defends Dr. Katzenberger»s blunt, uncouth manner:
* • • • loh elle daher zum drltten Zynlsmus,
weloher bios hber nathrllche, aber geachlechtlose Dlnge natbrllch sprloht, wle jeder Arzt
ebenfalls•••• In der That eln Franzoae sagt
manohes, eln EnglAnder gar noeh mehr. Dennooh
wollen wir Deutsche das an uns Deutschen nlcht
lelden, was wlr an solchen Britten verzelhen
und genlessen, als hler hlnterelnander gehen:
Butler, Shakespeare, Swift, Pope, Sterne,
Saollet, der klelnern wle Donne, Peter Pindars
und anderer zu geschweigen. Aber nicht einmal
noeh hat eln Deutscher so vlel gewagt als die
sonst in Sltten, Sprechen, Geschlecht- und Geeellschaft-Punkten und In welaser Wftsehe so
zart-bedenkllchen Britten. Der relnliche, so
wle keusche Swift drbckte eben aus Llebe fbr
dlese gelatlge und lelbllehe Relnheit die
Pazlenten recht tlef in sein satlrlsches
Schlammbad. Seine Zweldeutlgkeiten gleichen
uns era Kaff eebohnen, die nle auf gehen kbnnen,
well wlr nur halbe haben. Aber wlr altjungferllchen Deutschen blelben die seltsamste Verscbmelzung von Klelnst&dterel und Weltbhrgersohaft, die wlr nur kennen. Man bessere unsi
Mur lata sehwer, wlr vergeben lelehter ausllndlsohe Sonnenflecken als lnl&ndlsohe Sonnenfaokeln•"113
112. W ., T7 5, p.'285.
113. V * , I, 13, p. 72.
-1 6 2 -
At any rata, as far as Jean Paul's own works are concerned,
we find here by his own admission a definite Influence of
Swift,---particularly strong in his early works, less marked
in his later ones.
It will be seen also that in the works of this second
period of Jean Paul's writing, the references to Gulliver's
Travels outnumber those to the Tale of a Tub which had
exerted a preponderant Influence upon Jean Paul's early
It is evident, too, that the allusions to Swift
personally, as an author and as a man, occur more frequently
than In the earlier works, which Is no doubt due to the fact
that Jean Paul was by this time more familiar with Swift's
life and personality than he had been during the earlier
— -0O0— With the novel Titan, Jean Paul felt that he had reached
the peak of his literary capabilities— -that he had here
written the great work of his life, In which he had scaled
to literary heights whloh he could never again attain and
certainly never surpass.
While there Is much difference of
opinion among critics regarding the relative merits and rank­
ing of Titan among the works of Jean Paul, It Is nevertheless
true that he exerted his greatest efforts In the writing of
this work and that his best energies were spent after its
It Is therefore proper to regard It as a turning-
-1 6 3 -
point in his career as a writer.
Thus It forms a natural
division between the works of his prime and those of his
later years which will be considered In the following
-1 6 4 -
Jean Paul was now In his fortieth year and was well on
hia way toward achieving hla later claim of having written
aa many books as he had lived years.1
His chef d*oeuvre,
Titan, was already behind him, and he himself had begun to
recognise that his powers of expression were on the wane:
"1806. Wenn loh sage, loh kann jetzt kelnen
Titan mehr sohrelben, so lst's nloht Mangel
an Kraft, sondern well lch elnen gesohrleben
und folgllob die Ideale des Herzens erschbpft
It la revealing to compare briefly Jean Paul's stage of
literary achievement with that of Swift at the same period
of his life.
Swift was thirty-seven years old when his first
works, The Tale of a Tub and the Battle of the Books, were
published anonymously (1704), and his authorship was suspected
by only a few of the wits and literati of London.
By the time
he was forty he was only just beginning to be recognized as a
man who could wield a dangerous pen and who was therefore to
be cultivated for political purposes.
He himself had no
thought at this or at any later period of a literary career
as suoh, but aspired rather to a high position In the church.
The great work of his life, Gulliver's Travels, was not yet
The disappointments, unfulfilled promises, and
1. WahrEelt aus Jean Paul1a~Leben (Breslau, 18Z6-1855) I
Vol. 2, p. 44 f*.> als<TW7, I, iS,HComet, p. 453.
2. Wahrhelt aus Jean Paul's Leben, Vol. 2, p. 21 f •
-1 6 5 -
re suiting misanthropy whloh wore there given expression,
were still in the future, and Swift was well past fifty
when he began the work which was to rank him among the
It will be seen, therefore, that whereas Jfean Paul
began to write before he had accumulated mnoh actual experi­
ence with living and hence before he could have formed any
valid views on life In general, Swift on the contrary had a
well-crystallized philosophy before he took his pen In hand
and gave expression to his thoughts.
That Is one Important
reason why Swift oan write with so much greater authority
and assurance than can Jean Paul; why the tenor of his writ­
ing remains the same from first to last, while that of Jean
Paul blows now hot and now oold.
Jean Paul acknowledged
the power that esianated from Swift's works, although he may
not have been clearly conscious of this baslo contributing
faetor, when he wrote:
"Warum hat mleh denn Swift so ergrlffen, mlt dem
ich lelder kelne Aehnllohkelt In Vorzbgen habe
und gottlob kelne In Fehlern.
Bios durch seine
Poesie der satire."3
?l«g« ljahr.
In his Levana, written Immediately after the completion
of the Flegeljahre, Jean Paul remarks: "Wle man (nach Bolingbroke) im 40sten Jahre In elnem Jugendbuche,so findst man
Wahrhelt aus Jean Paul's lieben, vol. 2, p. 23.
-1 6 6 -
eben so alt In eln am Jugendlande elne neue, y orher bber■ahene Welt."4
This observation, written in connection
with the proposed education of a prince, had proved to be
literally Jean Paul's own experience in writing his FlegelJahrs.
Here he took for his theme the years of his own
youth end traced in the hero Walt a charming picture of his
own simplicity and naivete, while Walt's twin brother Vult,
serving as a foil, was to represent the less admirable
aspects of his dual nature.
Although the work was conceived
originally as an Idyll In the manner of Wutz and F lxleln as
early as 1795,®
a number of other works Intervened, (Sleben-
kZa, Titan, Vorachule) before Jean Paul could start intensive
work on his Flegeljahra.
Within a week after he had finished
correetlng his Titan (December 12, 1802), he began to write
the new work.
It was to be a sort of relaxation after the
strenuous effort of writing the preceding novel, a work to
whloh he had long looked forward, in whloh all would be
"sanft, mild, komlseh und ohne Tltanlsmus."6
However, as was
so often the ease with Jean Paul's works, the plan gradually
assumed larger and larger proportions, until this work, too,
developed into a full-length novel.
By the time of its publl-
1Z, Levana, p. 298.
3* c f * Briefs, III, p. 113; also W., I, 8, Einleltung,
pp. LVI and JjtXXIV. Jean Paul refers To It first as a "Klelne
Wusisohe Idylls" (W., I, 10, Berend's Introduction, p. IX) and
then on the cover cf his notebook as "Quintus II" (Ibid.,
p. XI).
6. Briefs, IV, #401, letter to Jacobi of May 14, 1803,
p . 266.
-1 6 7 -
cation in May 1805, it was still unfinished, and up to the
last year of his life Jean Paul still cherished the vain hope
of being able bo complete his Flegeljahre.
As far as any Influence of Swift upon this work is con­
cerned, It is so slight as to be practically non-existent.
While the novel effervesces and overflows with humor, is not
entirely lacking in satire, and contains comic situations
that are priceless, the humor that pervades this work is warm
and kindly in spirit, and far removed from that of Swift.
fact, the entire work contains only one direct reference to
Swift, less than is to be found in any other major work of
Jean Paul's.
This occurs In the third chapter, when, Imme­
diately after the reading of Van der Kabel's strange testament,
the seven executors or "Erbfelnde" hear a short composition
entitled "Das Glttck elnea achwedischen Pfarrers" written by
the heir named In the will, Gottwalt Peter Harnlsch.
"Glanz, des sen Geslcht die giinstlgste Selbstresension seiner geschriebenen Werke war, sah,
mlt e ini gem Trlumphe ttber eln solches Werk,
unter den Erben umher; nur der Pollzel-Inspektor
Harpreoht veraetzte mlt elnem ganzen Swift auf
dem Geslchtt 'Dleser Nebenbuhler kann uns mlt
selnem Verstands nooh zu schaffen maohen.
There Is possibly one other instance of an indirect In­
fluence of Swift to be found in the FlegelJahre.
It occurs
on the occasion of a visit paid by the Alaatian Flitte, an
airy, Insouciant man of the world, to the serious-minded
7.- V . 7 T T 107 p T T S T
-1 6 8 -
young hero, Walt.
The latter Is at a loss as to how to
keep the conversational ball rolling, having little In
common (except a ehronlo lack of funds) with his volatile
This leads Jean Paul to a short digression on the
subject of conversation:
"Gelehrte Studlerstuben-Sasaen, welche die ganze
Woche, Tag aus Tag ein, lm Banquet und Plckenlck
der feinsten, reizendsten Ideen und Qerlohte aus
alien Weltaltern und Weltthellen sohwelgen, bilden sich gar zu leloht eln, dass der Welt- und
Gssch&ftsmann verdrfisslloh und trooken bel Ihnen
werde, wenn sle lhn nlcht Inzer helss und fett
mlt Ideen ftberglessen am Bratenwender des Gespr&chs, indess der Gesch&ftsmann schon zufrleden gestellt w&re, wenn er sftsse, und der
Weltmann, wenn er am Fenster st&nde, Oder vernlhme, dass die MarggrHLfln gestern bel Tafel
unmlssig genleset und dass der Baron von Kleinsohwager, dessen Namen er gar nle gehbrt, dlesen
Morgen bios durchpasaiert, ohne anzuhalten. Gelehrten kann das achwerlloh zu oft vorgestellt
warden; sle zlehen scnst limner einen ProviantWagen fiir die Gesellaehaft mlt mehreren oder
wenlgern Oedanken nach oder gar mlt Witz. Rechte
gewbhnllohe und doch befriedlgende Unterhaltung
1st allgemeln unter den Mensohen die, dass elner
das sagt, was der andere schon weiss, worauf
dleser aber etwas versetzt, was jener aueh welss,
so dass jeder sioh zwelmal hbrt, gleichsam eln
gelstlger Doppeltg&nger."0
This is entirely in the manner of Swift in his Hints towards
HI E«aay on Conversatlon, in whloh he observes that:
" . . . men
compass of
talkers on
Inured and
"8"; W .,
of much learning, and sho know the
a language, are generally the worst
a sudden, until much practice has
emboldened them; beoause they are
with plenty of matter, variety of
p . 231 f •
notions and of words, which they cannot
raadily choose, but are perplexed and en­
tangled by too great a oholoe; which is no
disadvantage in private conversation;
where, on the other side, the talent of
haranguing Is. of all others, most un­
support able •" ®
and again:
" . . . pedantry is the too frequent or un­
seasonable obtruding our own knowledge in
common discourse, and placing too great a
value upon it; by which definition, men of
the court, or the army, may be as guilty
of pedantry as a philosopher or a divine;
and it Is the same vice in women, when they
are over copious upon the stibjeot of their
petticoats, or their fans, or their china."10
Beoause "there are some people who think they sufficiently
acquit themselves, and entertain their company, with relating
faots of no consequence, nor at all out of the road of such
common incidents as happen every day",11 Swift has provided
A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation
according to the Most Polite M ode and Method, now used at
Court, and in the B eat Companies of England, in three Dia­
logues, by Simon Wagstaff, Bag.
To Swift's Polite Conversa­
tion, as this work Is generally oalled, Jean Paul also refers
In his Vorsohule der Aesthetlk, anent the prevalent belief
that the function of art is to reproduoe nature faithfully,
whloh had produoed such lamentable results on the German
stage, and especially In the German comedy:
srr t t s . T ^ r * * xxr*p; 73.
10. TbTd., p. 70.
11. TEIH*i p. 75.
-1 7 0
"Die Britten hlngegen alnd re loh*r • • • und
•In einzlges Buoh kfcnnte uns von dor Wahrhelt fiberffihren. Nftmlloh Wallstaffs (sicI]
pollt» Qeiprlohe von Swift malen bis sur
die nur in swifts parodlerendem
Geiste alch genial wleder aplegelt
Honors*1oren gerade so gemelngelstlos ab, wle
In den deutsohen Lustspielen unaere auftreten;
da nun aber dleae Langwelllgen nle In den
•ngllschen erscheinen* so slnd folgllch fiber
dem Meere wenlger die Narren als vlelmehr die
Luataplelaohrelber geiatreloher als bel uns."12
Vorschule der Aeathetlk
Swift's contribution to Jean Paul's theory of humor as
elucidated In his Vorschule der Aeathetlk has already been
discussed In Chapter III.
However, the Vorschule contains
numerous other references to Swift In addition to the purely
theoretical ones referring to Swift's treatment of satire
and Irony.
Jean Paul had at one time considered writing the
work In the form of letters addressed to or written by great
men of the past, such as Plato, Alexander, Cicero, Caesar,
Shakespeare, Swift, Sterne, H a m a n n , ^ a plan which did not
In discussing the materials of irony and the various
treatments of this form by certain writers, Jean Paul finds
In Cicero a resemblance to Swift * "Dem Cicero spreohen seine
Blnffille In Reden und 1m Valerius Maximus und sein soharfes
Prof 11 elnlgen An sat* *u elnexn Swift su."l*
Jean Paul points
iffnr.— f; H T p T 26.------------------13. Tbld., Berend'a Introduction, p. XVI.
14. fTT"!* 11, p. 141.
-1 7 1 -
out also that the transition from the epie to the dramatic
form appears to be a dlffioult one, inasmuch as most of the
eplo humorists, suoh as Cervantes, Swift, Ariost, Voltaire,
Steele, Lafontalne, and Plelding were either unable to write
comedies at all, or wrote very poor ones; whereas conversely,
great comedians were generally inferior writers of prose
The various figures of speech proper to the several
literary forms also receive their share of attention.
Jean Paul*s opinion, the figures appropriate to wit differ
greatly from those suitable for epic and lyric forms.
latter are descriptive, ornamental, vital in themselves, and
must therefore bear a close relationship to their subject;
those of wit are expository, analytical, and merely add a
slight coloring to their subject.
The Imagery of the ancients
animated that whloh was lifeless, whereas the comparisons of
wit dissect living material.
Metaphor and allegory are more
suitable, therefore, to the lyric forms; the witty simile to
the ironic eplo, "cumal an Swifts Kunst-Hand elngef&hrt.*16
This leads Jean Paul to a defense of what he oalls "gelehrten
Inasmuch as wit is a play of the intelleot, the author
may properly draw upon intellectual materials for his figures
of speech.
He shall have full right to make comparisons with
anything that may ocour to him, to invade any field or sphere
r r r w . , i , t i , -p.— M & v
16. Tbid., p. 173.
-1 7 2 -
whioh will supply him with such comparisons as will serve
to throw light upon the subject under discussion:
"Warum will der gelehrte Deutsche und Herr von
Stelgentesoh In Wien nloht das erlauben, was
der gelehrte Brltte erhebt, n&mlloh elnen gelehrten Witz, wle Butler, Swift, Sterne etc.
hatten, sums! da sogar der ungelehrte Oallier
selnem Montesquieu eln fremdes Olelchnls verstattet und dem gelehrten Rabelais jedesf-Und dem Homer, der alles gewusst, erlaubt man
dlese Allwlssenhelt ungescheut, und nooh dasu
in elnem Werke der Anschauung, wo alles auf
augenbliokllohe ankommt?
Indeed, Jean Paul justifies his own comparison of erltlos
to dogs,
"welohe elne kalte Nase und Kelgung gegen
Wohlgertlohe zelgen, dessglelohen gegen Oestank,
die aber elnen desto felnern Sinn • . • fhr
Bekannte und fftr Felnde und ftberhaupt fdr Personen (z.B. Hasen) bewelsen anstatt fttr Saehen."18
with the remark In a footnote: "In der ruhigen, langsamen,
ehrerbletigen Elnffchrung nledrlger Gleiohnlase 1st Swift der
In another footnote to the same sentenoe, this
time with referenoe to the word "Oestank", Jean Paul apolo­
gizes for and simultaneously justifies Its use with the re­
mark: "Vertrlgt der Ernst eln niedriges Oder eln slnnlloh
malendea Wort • • . desto besser und swlftlsoher."20
dentally, Swift himself had used the same simile In his
Tale of a Tub where he says:
"Lastly, a true critic, in the perusal of
a book, is like a dog at a feast, whose thoughts
and stomach are wholly set upon what the guests
17. w :,“ t ,
” i t , p. t o t :----18. Tbld., p.135.
19. Tbld., p.135,
note (d).
20. loid.,p. 135, note (f).
-1 7 3 -
fling away, and consequently is apt to snarl
most when there are the fewest bones."21
And just as the author is to have a free
range as to the nature of the figures he employs, so also
shall he be subjeot to no restrictions as to their number:
"Die Begelsterung glbt wie die Liebe oft
eine s&sse Ueberffille eln, tiber welohe der
unfruohtbare Frost nioht rlohten sollte; so
ger&t Homer im sweiten Buche der Illas auf
elnmal unter Glelohnisse, bel welohen ftberhaupt sohwerer das erste als das zehnte gesohaffen wlrd.
So umkrllnzt der grossslnnige
Wlnokelmann das Portal seines Kunstwerks
liber die Kunstwerke mlt Blumen und Blumenkr&nsen und danm wieder den Ausgang. So geben
Swift und Butler die Gleiohnisae nur in Harden.1,28
Jean Paul himself had previously used in oanneotion with
Swift a figure similar to the one here es*>loyed with refer­
ence to Wlnokelmann:
" . . . nur Swift besass die Eunst eine Ehrenpforte zlerlioh mlt Nesseln ru verh&ngen und
xxl verklelden, am beaten; such Voltftre eln
wenlg, der wenigstens den Balzac, den die
Franzosen zlemllch lange elnen grossen Mann
genannt, zu dbertreffen taugt."z3
Swift, too, In his Letter of Advice to a Y oung P oet,
suggests that the budding author beoome familiar with a then
current parlor game for the benefit of his literary style:
"For much the same reason, it may be proper
for you to have some insight into the play
called, *What Is It like?* as of great use
in common praotloe, to quicken slow capaci­
ties, and Improve the qulokest. But the chief
end of it is, to supply the fancy with variety
of similes for all subjects. It will teach
W . T . ' j . T T o i ; T,~p.“ 78.
22. W.7 I# 11, P* 275.
23. ^^i^* t P* 140.
-1 7 4
you to bring things to a likeness, which
have not the least conformity in nature,
which is properly creation, and the very
business erf a poet, as his name implies;
and let me tell you, a good poet can no
more be without a stook of similes by him,
than a shoemaker without his lasts. He
should have them sized, ready for all cus­
tomers, and shaped to the feet of all sorts
of verse."24
In defining the nature and scope of the idyll as a
literary form, Jean Paul alludes to Gulliver*a first voyage
to Lilliputs
"H&ohstena dies kann man veratehen, dass
die Idylle als eln Vollgl&ck der Besohrftnkung
die Menge der Mlt spieler und die Gewalt der
grossen Staatsrftder ausschliesse; und dass
nur eln umz&untes Gartenleben fftr die Idyllen-Seellgen passe, die sloh aus dem Buohe
der Seellgen eln Blatt gerlsaen; fttr frohe
Liliputer, denen eln Blumenbeet eln Wald
1st, und welohe eine Lelter an eln abzue mtendes Zwergb&umchen legen.N25
Oulllver, in describing the topography of Lllllput as it
first presented itself to his view, says:
"The country round appeared like a continued
garden, and the enclosed fields, whleh were
generally forty feet square, resembled so
many beds of flowers.
These fields were in­
termingled with woods of half a stang and
the tallest trees, as I could judge, appear­
ed to be seven feet hlgh."26
In the fifteenth "Programm" of the Vorschule der Ae sthe tik, which deals with the laqportanoe for a German author of
maintaining the integrity of the German language (for Jean Paul
■24. f7s.T~VoiT nr~Pnc57
25. W.7 L, 11, p. 244.
26. T.S., Vol. 8, p. 28.
-1 7 5 -
was a purist), he refers again to Swift:
"TThwlderlegbar besteht allerdings der Einwurf
der Leere gegen Umdeutsohungen von ausl&ndlsohen Kunstausdr&cken, mlt welchen irgendein
Erflnder seine vorgelegte Ausbeute bezelohnet
hatte, und die man duroh eln mehr deutsehes
Wort sehwerlloh ohne Absohrelben des neuen
Systems xu ersetzen versuohen wfcrde. Aber
desto st&rker ergeht an die Finder und Er­
flnder neuer Saohen und Sltze die F oderung,
dass sle selber ihre Heulgkelten mlt einem
bestlmmten, sogar erst neugemachten deutsohen
Worte anselchnen und untersohelden sollten;
nur so wird die Welt mlt Saohe und Wort zugleioh berelohert. Anfangs lehrt die Saohe
ein Wort so leioht, spRter ein Wort die Sache
so sohwer; und in Jedem Falls 1st eln neulnlRndlsohes Wort um vielea verstRndll&her
aXs eln neu-ausllndlaches, wenn Swifts Regel
rlehtlg 1st, dass ein Mensoh, der eine Saohe
nur halb versteht, sehr einem andern vorzuzlehen sel, welcher von ihr ganz und gar
nlehts versteht."27
Finally, in his rtZwelte oder Jubilate-Vorlesung ftir
Poetlker" in the third part of the Vorsehule, Jean Paul de
piores the general Ignorance of modern readers.
He states
that they select at random for their reading one or two
writers of Antiquity or the Middle Ages, and know nothing
whatever of those who preoeded or followed these authors.
So, for example, they may read "Spinoza, nlcht Leibniz;-—
Shakespeare, nlcht Swift, gesohweige seine Nebenmlnner;-Chamfort, nlcht Voltaire."88
2VTW77 T, TL7T." S97-f.
28. Tbld., p. 384 footnote.
-1 7 6
Jean Paul's next theoretical work, Levana oder Erzlehlehre, contains a surprisingly large nuniber of references
to Swift.
The necessity for respecting the personality of each
individual child is emphasised.
Jean Paul points out that
parents and teaohers would have a higher regard for this
individuality and take greater oare to reoognise and pre­
serve it, if it were in all instances so evident and pro­
nounced as it is in the case of the genius.
"Wi r wftrden die sen Lebengeist, dlese Individuali­
s t mehr su achten und su sohonen wlssen, trite
er dberall so stark vor als 1m GenieJ-— Denn hler
sehen wlr alls ein, welohe Gelsternlederlage in
einem passlven Rlesenkrleg entstftnde, wenn z.B.
Kant--Raphael— Mozart— Kato--Friedrich II—
Karl XII--Arlstophanes— Swift--Tasso u.s.w. in
glelohe Modellier- und Quetsohformen elngezwungen warden."88
Not only 1s the child's personality to be given full
scope, but conversely, no amount of insistence on the part
of parents can develop in their children an Interest in any
of the arts or sciences for which they evlnoe no natural
"Bonnet nennt die Auftaerksamkelt die Mutter
des Genies; sle 1st aber dessen Toohter; denn
woher eutstlnde sle sonst als aus der vorher
1m Hizmel geschlossnen She zwlschen dem Gegsnstande und dem daf&r ausger&steten Triebe?--Daher 1st elgentllohe Aufmerksamkelt so wenlg
237 IT/T;, I5,- p-.“IT3T
-1 7 7 -
elnzupredigen und einzuprftgeln als sin Trieto.
Swift in ainar muslkallsohen Akademie— Mozart
id einem philosophischan Hftrsaale— -Raphael in
•inam Radnar-Kluto
Friedrich der Elnclge in
einem Cour d 1amour
TermSget Ihr dlesen
sBumatliohen M&nnern, welohe doeh Genies und
bei Jahren slnd und lhre TJeberlegung haben,
auf so wlohtlge Dinge, als Kftnste, Wlasensehaft, Staat und Llebe slnd, ein aufmerkendes
Ohr ansuaetsen?"3^
Sheridan, in his biography of Swift, relates that Swift had
"no skill in muslo, nor ear for its beauties."31
In speaking of the education of girls and in contrast­
ing their nature with that of boys, Jean Paul states that
love plays a muoh more important r6le in the life of a woman
than in that of a man; that her love is unreasoning and
absolute, that she devotes herself completely to its object,
to the exclusion of every other interest.
"Vie Swift nioht die Menschhelt, aondern nur
Elnzelwesen daraus liebte, so slnd sle such
mlt dem wirmsten Herzen kelne Weltbftrgerlnnen,
kaum Stadt- und Dorfbhrgerlnnen, aondern die
Hausbftrgerlnnen; kelne Frau kann zu gleloher
Zelt ihr Kind und die vler Weltthelle lleben,
aber der Mann kann es."38
This is another expression of Jean Paul's "Gesammtllebe" which
was mentioned previously,®3 and which was the cause of marital
difficulties with his own wife in later years.
In his chapter on the subject of veracity, Jean Paul
declares that the young child up to its fifth year speaks
r,~iff, p':"S
6 :------------------------------------------31. Sheridan, op. olt•, p. 400. Cf. also Swift's poem,
"Dr. Swift to Himself, on St. Cecilia's Day" in The Poetical
Works of Jonathan Swift, with a Life by Rev. John Mitford
(Boston, 1&b6), Vol. 37 p* 129.
32. W. , I, 12, p. 227.
33. See p. 120 above.
nelther the truth nor a lie, but merely thinks or Imagines
"Hierher geh&rt nooh das spreehende Neoken aus Ueber-
fftlle der Kraft 1m aohten, zehnten Jahre der Khaben."
this sentence Jean Paul appends a footnote:
"Denn der lohte Iiigner soherzt wenlg; und der
Uchte Seherztrelber liigt nlcht, vom soharfoffnen Swift an bis sum Erasmus zurftek, der
sogar eine k&rperllohe Antlpathle gegen Lftgner
empfand, so wle gegen Flsche."34
In his chapter on the education of a prince, there occurs
a combination of names which may very possibly derive from
Jean Paul declares that the young prince should not
be exposed at too tender an age to the dangerous worldly
influences of courtiers.
He cautions the prince's tutor:
"Wenn Sle Ihren ZSgling zwisohen zwel ganz
versohledenen Wei ten hln- und herzuftthren
haben, aus der elnen In die andere, aus Jener iohtgrossen, auf welcher nur SeelenAdel, Charakter, grosse Zweoke und grosse
Blloke und Verlchter der Zelt und Lust und
Mensohen der Ewlgkelt standen und galten,
und wo ein Epsminondas, Sokrates, Kato in
ihren Katakomben, als aus ewigen delphi sohen
Hftlen, sprachen und rlethen, wo der Ernst
und der Mens oh und Gott alles wog,— -aus
dieser heraus in jene soheingrosse Welt,
worin alles Grosse und Vergangne leloht,
alles Leiohte und Gegenwlrtlge bedeutend
genosunen wird, wo alles Sitte, niohts Pflioht
1st, gesohwelge Fdrstenpfllcht • • . mftssen
nieht da so viele glftnzende Einfldsse den
hofmeisterlichen wegschwemmen?"35
Curiously enough, the nsmes of Brutus, Epaminondas, Socrates
and Cato are mentioned together several times by Swift.
54. w.. I, 12, p. 858; cf. also Sheridan, op. clt.,
pp. 377 and 461.
35. W., I, 12, p. 281.
-1 7 9 -
Onoe, In Gulliver'9 Travel*:
nI had the honour to have much conversation
with Brutus, and was told, that his ances­
tors Junius, Soorates, Epamlnondas, Cato
the younger, Sir Thomas More, and himself,
were perpetually together: a sextumvlrate
to which all the ages of the world cannot
add a seventh."36
and again in the "Bookseller's Dedication" to the Tale of
a Tub:
"But being very unacquainted in the style
and form of dedications I employed those
wits aforesaid to furnish me with hints
and materials, towards a panegyric upon
your lordship's virtues. In two days they
brought me ten sheets of paper, filled up
on every side. They swore to me, that
they had ransacked whatever could be found
in the characters of Soorates, Aristides,
Epamlnondas, Cato, Tully, Attlous, and
other hard names, which I cannot now re­
The names mentioned in these two instances by Swift occur in
various eontoinations on three other oooaslcns in Levana.
combination of Kato II, Epamlnondas and Brutus occurs again
in the same ohapter mentioned above, in bespeaking the in­
culcation of two kinds of courage in the potential r u l e r spiritual and moral courage in peace as well as physical
courage in war:
"Daher slnd die Grossen der alten Gesohichte
mehr dureh Charakter als Thaten, mehr duroh
Frledens- als Krlega-Z&ge bezelohnet, und
die Pflughelden der Sohlaohtfelder duroh
M . T.S;V 7oI. '8,"p. 2G6V
, Vol. 1, p. 27.
elne Llebe-Gr&sse, welohe, wle eln Phoclcn,
die atelle Felsenkllppe gegen das Volksmeer
oben voll Whrzblumen ftir ein zeine slet-—
welche wle Kat o II. den Bruder welblloh
llebt und welblloh bewelnt, wle Epamlnondas
auf dem Sohlaehtblocke eln Gastfreund 1st,
wle Brutus eln sartllebender Gatte, wle
Alexander eln vertrauender Freund, wle
Gustav eln Christ.1’3®
Again, in the first chapter cf Book III of Levana, dealing
with the moral education of a boy, and emphasizing the de­
velopment of moral stamina as an instrument for subjugating
the passions, Jean Paul says:
"Lasset also den Khaben so viel als m&glloh
in die stolsohe Schule hlneln hbren---wenlger
duroh Ermahnungen als durch die Belsplele
lohter Stolker aller Zeiten;-— damlt er aber
nlcht den Stolker fiir einen Holl&nder Oder
gar fhr elnen stumpfen Wilden halte, so
las set lhn sehen, dass das ftchte Kernfeuer
der Brust gersde in jenen M&nnern gldhe,
welohe eln duroh das ganze Leben relchende
Wollen, nlcht aber, wle der leldenschaftllche, einzelne Wollungen und Wallungen
haben; und nennt z.B. Sokrates und Kato II,
die eine ewlge, aber darum stllle Begelsterung hatten."38
Finally, in the chapter treating cf the development of the
sense of beauty, Jean Paul believes that this end may be
accomplished through a classical training:
"Die jetzlge Men sc the it versftnke unergrilndlloh tlef, worm nlcht die Jugend vorher
duroh den stlllen Tempel der grossen alten
Zeiten und Men sohen den Durohgang zum Jahrmarkte des sp&tera Lebens n&hme. Die Namen
Sokrates, Kato, Epamlnondas usw. slnd Pyra­
mid en der Wlllen-Kraft; Rom, A then, Sparta
Sffnr.TTT T3?TpT"2WT~
39. Tbld*, p. 320.
-1 8 1 -
sind drel Krhnungst&dte des Rlesen Geryan g,
und auf die Jugend der Mensohhelt hefte,
gleichsam auf das Urgebirge der Mensohhelt,
die apilitere das Auge."40
Inasmuch as both Swift and Jean Paul show su oh an
uncommon predilection for these particular personages of
Antiquity, the assumption that an Influence of Swift upon
Jean Paul is indicated, may quite properly be made.
Schmelzle, Katzenberger, Flbel
With these three humoresques, Jean Paul resumed after
a long interruption the form of humorous charaoter sketches
represented by Freudel, F&lbel, Flxleln and Wutz.
During the
interval he had devoted himself to works of larger format,
his novels and his theoretical writings, and he returned to
the earlier form with much pleasure.
The references to Swift in all three works are not
Katzenberger in particular shows a much more marked
lnfluenoe of Sterne and Smollet than of Swift.
sporadic allusions to Swift are to be found.
Por example, in Attlla Schmelzle»s oiroular letter to
his friends, we find the same reference to Caesar and Alexander
which was used previously in Titan:
"Doch genugJ Es 1st Zelt mlt Wenlgem die Verlfltumdung melnes Feldpredlgeramtes, die leider
auoh in Pl&tz uml&uft, bloa daduroh, wle ein
Cftsar den Alexander, zu zerst&uben, dass ich
sle berflhre#,,41
; T r T £ , " p 7 -s s t ;------------------- '
41. W. , I, 13, p. 8; of. also p. 154 above.
toy w t
-1 8 2 -
In Dr. Katzenbergers Baderelae, the physician's daughter,
Theoda, who has been living in retirement because of her
embarrassing mistake in identifying the wrong Theudobaoh,
has agreed nevertheless to attend the dinner given by her
father t
nEs 1st zwelfelhaft, ob ihr Entschluss der
ftffentllohen Erachelnung bios von ihrer Gevatter-Freude herkam Oder von ihrer Aehtung
gegen Mehlhorn, der ohne ihre Naohbarschaft
nur eine sehr kalte an der v&terliohen flnden
oder vom Gedanken der Abreise und
vom Aufwaohen ihre a alten Stolzes
oder (wer
kBnnt» es wlssen) vom Wunsche, an der Tafel
elnen Ftkrsten zum ersten male zu blloken,
oder gar den Hauptmann Theudobach zum letzten
male, oder von der Aussicht in die abends
aufleuohtende Eden-Grotte;---oder aus unbekannten Ursachen; sehr zwelfelhaft, sag' loh,
1st es aus weloher von so vlelen Ursachen
ihre Um&nderung entsprang, und mein Beweis
1st der, dass es wahrscheinlich 1st, alle
diese Grflnde zusamnen
aammt alien unbekann ten---haben mitgewirkt •" 42
This lengthy sentence, and particularly its ccnclusicn, is
an unconscious imitation on the part of Jean Paul of 3wlft's
Swift had a great fondness for such periodic sentences,
an example of which was quoted in the preceding chapter, to­
gether with Jean Paul's imitation of this stylistic construc­
tion in the Unslchtbare Loge.43
Especially characteristic of
Swift is the setting up of a number cf conjectures or hypo­
theses to explain a certain phenomenon, as for example in the
Tale of a Tub, where Swift proposes "that every prince in
4 2 7 "iT7 7 X ~ l 3 r ~ p 7 ~2 S&.'
43. 3ee p. 124 above.
-1 8 3
Christendom will take seven of the deepest scholars in his
dominions, and shut them up for seven years in seven chambers,
with a command to write seven ample commentaries on this com­
prehensive discourse."
"it is my earnest request that so useful an
undertaking may he entered upon, if their
majesties please, with all convenient speed;
because I have a strong inclination, before I
leave the world, to taste a blessing which we
mysterious writers can seldom reach till we
have gotten into our graves: whether it is,
that fame, being a fruit grafted on the body,
can hardly grow, and much less ripen, till
the stock is in the earth; or whether she be
a bird of prey, and is lured, among the rest,
to pursue after the scent of a carcase; or
whether she conceives her trumpet sounds best
and farthest when she stands on a tomb, by
the advantage of a rising ground and the echo
of a hollow vault."44
After thus enumerating a series of ocajeotures or listing a
number of comparisons, Swift often draws a line under them
and sums them up with a phrase, as if he were totalling an
example in addition.
To taka another Instance from the
Tale of a T u b :
"If it were not for a rainy day, a drunken
vigil, a fit of spleen, a course of physio,
a sleepy Sunday, an 111 run at dice, a long
tailor's bill, a beggar's purse, a factious
head, a hot sun, costive diet, want of books,
and a just contempt of learning: but for these
events, I say, and some others too long to
reoite . . . I doubt the number of authors
and of writings would dwindle away to a degree
most woful to behold."45
44Y 1 .3 ., VolT'17 P•“ l2T’f.
4 5 . TbTd.,
p. 126 .
-1 8 4 -
or the description of Jack after he had removed the trimmings
from his coat:
"So that he looked like a drunken beau, half
rifled by bullies; or like a fresh tenant of
Newgate, when he has refused the payment of
garnish; or like a disoovered shoplifter,
left to the meroy of Exchange women; or like
a bawd in her old velvet petticoat, resigned
into the secular hands of the mobile. Like
any, or like all of these, a medley of rags,
and lace, and rents, and fringes, unfortunate
Jack did now a p p e a r . ” 46
These stylistic devices in all their details are employed by
Jean Paul in the quotation cited above.
In the same banquet scene, there is a direct allusion
to Swift.
Dr. Katzenberger has regaled and edified the prince
with his erudite physiological discourse, to which the latter
gave gracious ear:
"Da nahm endlich der Phrst von dem ber&hmten
Ge lehr ten— -der aelnen B&ckling mehr nur mlt
dem lnnern Mensohen maohen konnte, obwol nur
vor einem van Swieten, Sydenham, Haller,
Swift---mlt grBsserer H&fllohkelt Abschled,
als Katzenberger verh&ltnlsm&ssig erwlederte,
ja mit zu grosser fast. "47
That Swift is here drawn in by the hair, In a company with
which he has nothing in common, is due to the faot that he
is responsible for the particular trait of Dr. Katzenberger*s
character which Is here brought to light-— namely, his un­
bending pride and independence in the presenoe of aristocracy,
his refusal to prostrate himself before any but those whom he
himself regards as his superiors in scientific achievement.
46. T •s., Tol. 1, p. 100 f .
47. W.7 I, 13, p. 257.
-1 8 5 -
This was a point upon which Swift was very Insistent, saying
of himself in his poem "On the Death of Dr. Swift" :
"He never thought an honour dene him
Beoause a duke was proud to own him.
Would rather slip aside and ohuse
To talk with wits in dirty shoes;
Despised the fools with stars and garters,
So often seen caressing Chartres.
He never courted men in station,
Nor persons held in admiration.
Of no man's greatness was afraid,
Beoause he sought for no man's aid."48
Thomas Sheridan, who knew Swift personally, states in his
biography of Swifts
"But to all men of rank and station, he
asserted that noble Independence of spirit
which becomes the free-born mind. He made
no allowance for the casual superiority
which birth, or fortune, or human institu­
tions had given them, but valued them In
proportion only to that higher nobility of
soul derived from God and nature....In one
of his Tatlers, he says, 'If those who
possess great endowments of the mind, would
set a just value on themselves, they would
think no man's acquaintance whatsoever a
condescension, nor accept it from the great­
est, upon unworthy or ignominious terms.'"49
In a letter to Lord Bolingbroke, Swift writes: "I would have
you know, Sir, that if the Queen gave you a Dukedom, and the
Garter to-morrow, with the Treasury just at the end of them,
I would regard you no more than if you were not worth a groat."30
There is one more reference to Swift in this work.
the conclusion of the banquet mentioned above, Dr. Katzen. ~ E g d Y ,~~opT ~oi t . T ~ p T ~ 4 8 5 T
49. Sheridan, op. cit., p.
5 0 .
Ibid., p . T 0 3 .
1 6 0
-1 8 6 -
berger finally succeeds In engaging his colleague and arch­
enemy, Strykius, In single conversation, preliminary to
administering upon him a beating for having written an un­
favorable criticism of his (Katzenberger's ) scientific
treatise on the subject of his specialization, "Mlssgeburten":
"Wenn wlrklich, wle schon Swift naoh Rochefouoault sagt, wir in jedes Freundes UngHick
etwas weniges flnden, was uns heimllch erlabt:
so musste allerdings der Brunnenarzt in der
Ausslcht auf die Ausprtigelung seines Freundes
Senanelmann etwas Behagliches finden, da er so
lange dlese sich selber zugedaoht geglaubt.••."51
The reference is to Swift's poem, "On the Death of Dr. Swift"
(1731), inspired by reading Rochefouoault's Maxim, "Dans
l'adverslte de nos mellleurs amis, nous trouvons toujours
quelque chose qui ne nous deplait p as", and opening with the
"As Rochefoucault his maxims drew
From nature, I believe them true;
They argue no corrupted mind
In him; the fault is in mankind.
This maxim more than all the rest
Is thought too base for human breast:
'In all distresses cf our friends,
We first consult our private ends;
While nature, kindly bent to ease us,
Points out some olrcumstanoe to please u s . '"32
In the last of these three grotesques, Leben FIbels, deB
Verfassers der Blenrodlschen Flbel, Swift receives mention
several times.
In speaking of Flbel'a biographers, who
sT7~nr;tt~i3;"p".' awr.*------------------------------------------
52. The Poetical Works cf Jonathan Swift, Vol. 2, p. 81 f.
followed him about and made note of his every movement,
Jean Paul expresses his belief that such efforts are highly
commendable as being Invaluable to posterity, and should
therefore be enoouraged:
nSo k&nnte z.B.
um nur vom allerdllnnesten,
khrzesten Llchtohen der Welt zu spreohen, von
mir liberal 1 eln lebensbesohrelbender
Mens oh auf Wegen u n d Stegen nachsetzen, bis
in mein Haus und Sohlafzimmer hineln, ja der
leere MenBoh kbnnte si oh als Reltkneoht und
Abschrelber anbleten und mir in Jedes helmllohe und 5ffentllche Gemach naohdringen, bios
damlt er etwas zu llefern h&tte, wenn lch abgefahren wire, und kftnnte wlrklloh auf dlesem
Wege . . . die melsten Spezerelen und Salze
sammeln, womlt man die Wallflsohe der gelehrten
Welt mlt einem solchen Glftck elnmarlnlert, dass
selber der sterbllche Schrelber slch am unsterblichen mit verewigt, z.B. Lord Oxford an
Jean Paul again in this instance, as was the case in Titan,
refers to Lord Orrery and not to Lord
it is not
difficult to follow Jean Paul's train of thought, always
associative rather than logical, which led him to Swift in
the sentence just quoted.
The word "Wallfische" doubtless
reoalled to his mind Swift's Tale of a T u b , which was written
ostensibly to divert wits from attacks upon the weaknesses of
churoh and state, just as "seamen have a custom, when they
meet a whale, to fling him out an empty tub by way of amuse­
ment, to divert him from laying violent hands upon the ship."®5
From this idea contained in the Author's Preface to the Tale of
5 3 . W ., T," 1 3 , P. 4w y .
54. C f . p. 44 above.
65. T 7 S ., Vol. 1, p . 39.
188 -
a Tub, Jean Paul prooeeds to the next eonoept which he then
Incorporates into the same sentence,
that biographers often
profit by and partake of the Immortality of their subjects*
This is probably inspired by Swift's very similar contention
in the "Author's Apology" to the same work:
"This Apology being chiefly intended for
the satisfaction of future readers, it may be
thought unnecessary to take any notice of suoh
treatises as have been written against the en­
suing discourse, which are already sunk into
waste paper and oblivion, after the usual fate
of common answerers to books which are allowed
to have any merit: they are Indeed like annuals,
that grow about a young tree, and seem to vie
with it for a summer, but fall and die with the
leaves In the autumn, and are never heard of
more. When Dr. Eachard wrote his book about
the contempt of the clergy, numbers of these
answerers immediately started up, whose memory,
if he had not kept alive by his replies, it
would now be utterly unknown that he was ever
answered at all.*5®
In delving Into the past of his illustrious subject,
Pels (one of the biographers) unearths the fact that up to
his fourteenth year Flbel had to stop to consider before he
could distinguish his right side from his left, and before
a mirror was totally unable to perform this mental feat;
also, that upon several occasions he was known to have stepped
upon the prongs of a rake and struck his forehead with the
rake-handle; these and other similar incidents proving him
Inevitably to be a potential genius:
"Die Sache 1st in der Gelehrtengesohlchte noch
stArker erwlesen und die Elnfalt in eln hhheres
Alter hinauf geftthrt. Es 1st noch wenlg, dass
SC. T.S.TVor. 1 ,' p . T6T
-1 8 9 -
man dan scharf spaltenden Thomas von Aquino
bios In seiner Klndhelt Ochs genannt, vie
den Brutus etwas sp&ter brutug; war nloht
In vlel s p i t e m Jahren Leibnitz so unvermbgend, In Leipzig, als Swift In Oxford,
Maglster zu warden?"57
But the most Important reference to Swift In this work
la found In the titles of the books which Flbel discovered
to have been written anonymously, to which he then affixed
his own name on
the title-page so that they appeared to have
written by him.
They Included "Fibels Ruhe des
lebenden Europe", "Hlstolre du Dlable par Flbel", as well ast
"Villa Borghese dl Flbel, 8. In Roma 1700, oder
das seltne Werk Tale of aTub from Flbel, Lond.
1700, oder Pansies llbrea sur la Religion de
Flbel, a la Haye 1723---und noch andere Fttndlinge von hbchst gottlosem und unzftchtlgem In­
halt, die er unwlssend am Klndes Statt annahm.
Die schwersten Werke war er 1m Stande heraus
zu geben, sobald er slch bel Felzen erkundlgt
hatte, In weloher Sprache sle geschrleben waren,
damlt er das Elnzudruokende 'von Flbel' der
Sprache angemessen ausdr&ckte, entweder durch
dl oder duroh autore oder durch de oder from
It will be observed that Jean Paul translated the word "von"
preceding the name of the author on the title-page as "from"
Instead of "by", indicating that his knowledge of English at
this time Is still far from perfect.
Indeed, In his Frledens-
Predlgt an Deutschland (1808) he deplores the Oermsn lack of
"spirit public",39 and as late as 1816, In one of the Polltlsche Fastenpredlgten entitled "Die Doppelheersohau In Gross57. W . , T , T S , P : 4 7 2 .
68. T b l d . , p. 464 .
59. W77”I,
p. 34.
-1 9 0 -
lausau und In Kauzen aanmt Feldz&gen", the commander of one
of the armies uses "englisches Pflaster (the genuine courtplalster)" to patch up the wounds of his soldiers.60
Der Komet
After the completion of Flbel, Jean Paul began his last
novel, Der Komet, which occupied him, with Interruptions for
other works, for eleven years, from 1811 to 1822.
"Der grosse
komlsohe Roman" was to give Jean Paul an opportunity to utilize
all the humorous, witty and satirical materials which he had
been accumulating for many years and with which he had filled
numerous note-books.
Among other plans, Jean Paul at one
time harbored the Idea of bringing all of his former comic
characters together in this work.61
A voyage was to furnish
the framework for the ludicrous situations, and among his
models Jean Paul Included the greatest humorous masterpieces
of literature, such as Don Quixote, Gullive r 1a Travels,
Qargantua and Pantagruel.
It would be expected, therefore,
that such a "Pantheon des Soherzes" would show strong evi­
dences of Swift's Influence.
This, however, Is not the oase,
although some references to Swift are to be found scattered
throughout the novel.
Jean Paul himself In his "Vorrede" to
the first volume of Komet explains that much of the humorous
66. W., 1, 14, p7 2'5T.------------------------------61. Iff. W . , I, 15, Berend'8 Introduction, p. XII.
-1 9 1
and satlrioal material that he had planned to Incorporate
into the novel had to be omitted because of the strict
censorship of five years' duration Imposed by the Carlsbad
Decrees of 1 8 1 9 , but promised that all the papers that
he had accumulated would be cut to shape and pasted together
as a "Paplerdrache" which would be launched when the five
year censorship was lifted.
"Der Sobers . • . sohl&gt sich an jedem Gltter
die Fl&gel wund. Er begehrt noch mehr Frelhelt
zu seinem Spielraum, als er bentttzt, und muss
fiber das Zlel hlnaus halten, um In dasselbe zu
treffen.... Der komlsche Genius gleloht der
Glooke, welohe frel hingen muss, um elnen vollen
Ton zu geben, aber dumpf und wldert&nlg erklingt, von der Erde berfihrt."63
This explains to some extent why the Komet does not show as
much of Swift's Influence as might be expected.
In describing the magnetic powers of Peter Worble, the
boyhood friend and later Sanoho Pansa of the hero of the
novel, Nikolaus liarggraf, Jean Paul again employs the device
of listing and summing up of hypothetical causes which he had
learned from Swift*
"Es sel nun seine durch Marksuppenanstalten
verdoppelte K&rperkraft
oder seine zwei
sechsten Finger an den Hftnden, die er, wle
Katzen und Lowen unter dem Gehen Ihre felnen
Sehneldekrallen, gew&hnllch elnschlug, und
die er folglloh ohne Abnutzung geladen erhlelt-— oder es sel seln versteoktes Magnet1■ieren mlt den Fusszehen-— oder well es fiberhaupt magnetische Gollathe geben kann, auf
die man erst kfinftlg mehr achten wird---oder
O T .nr., 1, IB , p. 6.
63. Tbld., p. 6 f .
-1 9 2 -
• b sel, was am wahraoheinllchsten, dias
alias zusammengenommen die Ur saohe davon,
kurz Worble braohte duroh Anachauen und
allmifcohtlges Wollen und unslohtbares Fernhauohen und Finger- und Zehenhandhaben die
magnetIsohen Wunder des Hellsehens, der
Slnnen-Versetzung, der Anschmledung an den
Magnetlsfir, zu welchen andere Monate brauohen.
In Mlnuten zu Stande.M64
The "magnetlo banquet" tendered by this same Peter Worble
In an Inn ealled "die Stadt Wien" to thirty-two distinguished
guests bears a olose analogy to the dinner served by Lord
Peter In the Tale of a Tub to his two brothers, Jack and
Believing that by the sheer force of his hypnotic
powers his subjects were enabled to partake vicariously of
every bite that he himself swallowed, Worble dined sumptuous­
ly for their benefit while they looked on.
He then washed
down a most Indigestible variety and quantity of food with
the finest imported and domestic wines, on their behalf.
When the repast was over, the guests deolared that they had
never dined better, although they left as hungry as they had
Lord Peter, on the other hand, did serve real food to
his brothers, but It consisted only of a loaf of brown bread.
He had dined In the city with an alderman who had been extra­
vagant in his praise of his sirloin of beef, which he said
"comprehends In It the quintessence of partridge, and quail,
and venison, and pheasant, and plum pudding, and oustard."
64'.' W., l,"I5,"p. 41:
-1 9 3 -
Thls statement gave Lord Peter the Idea of economizing at
the expense of his brothers*
"When Peter came hone he would needs take the
fancy of cooking up this doctrine into use,
and apply the precept, In default of a sir­
loin, to his brown loaf.
'Bread,' says he,
'dear brothers, is the staff of life; In
which bread Is contained, Inclusive, the
quintessence of beef, mutton, veal, venison,
partridge, plum-pudding, and custard; and,
to render all complete, there Is Intermingled
a due quantity of water, whose crudities are
also corrected by yeast or barm, through which
means It becomes a wholesome fermented liquor,
diffused through the mass of the bread. 'no5
Accordingly, the next day Peter served his brown loaf to
Jack and Martin with all the oeremony of a banquet, declaring
to his incredulous brothers that it was "excellent good
Likewise, while he drank a "beer-glass of claret",
with a toast to his brothers, "he presented to each of them
another large dry orust, bidding them drink it off, and not
be bashful, for it would do them no hurt."66
The allegorlo&l Implications of Peter's dinner, with Its
attacks upon the doctrines and practices of the Catholic church,
are paralleled by Jean Paul's symbolic treatment of Worble's
hypnotic "Esskongress In der Stadt Wien" as a travesty upon
the Congress of Vienna.
Incidentally, Jean Paul also takes
this opportunity to strike a few glancing blows at the Catholic
66. T.S., Vol. 1, p. 85.
6 6 . T b T d ., p . 87.
-1 9 4 -
Upon the day appointed for the commenoement of the
journey (It is March 21, the first day of spring), Nikolaus
observes to his party that from all indications they would
have a beautiful day, and indeed a beautiful spring for
their trip*
To this lnnooent remark, the Hof- und Zucht-
hauspredlger Frohauf S&ptltz replies at great length, dis­
paraging German weather conditions In general, the spring
season In particular, not to mention the wholly unsatisfac­
tory month of May, and concludes pathetically:
" »ol nur elnen einzlgen klasslschen Preistag
hlenleden, der, zu gew&hnllohen 24 Stunden
gereohnet, weder morgens noch abends zu kfihl,
noch Mlttags zu schwal, oder ohne stftrendes
Oewblke oder Oewehe wftrel Aber wo 1st er?
frag1 Ich schon so lang, als Ich lebe und
As Berend points out in his notes, this observation was
attributed to Swift by Thomas Sheridan, who relates the
incident as follows:
"For days after his earliest appearance at
the St. James's ooffee house, the story goes,
he did not speak. He would come in, lay his
hat on a table, walk conspicuously up and
down the room for an hour, take up his hat,
pay his money at the bar, and leave without
a word. At last, one evening, he looked
several times at a man In boots, who seemed
to have Just come from the country. The mad
parson, as he was already called, went up to
the booted stranger and said abruptly: 'Pray,
Sir, do you remember any good weather in the
world?' The man stared but said he thanked
God he could remember a great deal of good
W Y 7 T7T5,~p."
-1 9 5 -
'That is more,' said Swift, 'than
I can Bay. I never remember any weather
that was not too hot or too cold, too wet
or too dry. But, however God Almighty con­
trives It, at the and cf the year 'tls all
very well.' Then again he took hla hat
and left."38
This same Hof- und Zuohthauspredlger S&ptitz also shared
Swift's antipathy to the beds In hostelrles:
"Stiptitz war von jeher schwierig In eln
Wirthaus zu bringen, well es fttr ihn kelne
Person und kelne Sache gab, die ihm relnlioh genug war; er wfinschte
der PflfiokHlimde wegen-— Kir sohen und Beere wlren so
gut abzusoh&len als Blrnen Oder N&sae, und
jedes Tafelgeschlrr alh' er erst vor selnen
Augen abfegen. Wenlge S&chen aber floh
8eln Lelb so bange als Gasthofbetten: 'Ich
verlange welter nlehts,' sagt' er, 'als
dass eln Mensoh, und besonders ein Predlger,
bevor er In eln Lager von tausend Schlftfern
elnstelgt, aich hlnstellt und flfichtig fiberlegt, wle vlele hundert Bettl&gerlge darln
gelegen, woven eln elnzlger hinreicht, um
Ihn mlt jeder unhellbaren Krankhelt fiberhaupt, aber am meIsten mlt Jener unehrbaren
zu verpesten, mlt welcher als unsohuldiger
Ehemann lm Prlesterornat auf der Kanzel zu
stehen grausenhaft sel; denn die frlschen
Bettfiberzfige, worauf elnige Bauen, zlehen
dooh gegen altangesteokte Federn noch kelnen
When Marggraf was sitting for hla portrait before the
entire Belgian school of portralt-painters, he cautioned the
sixteen artists to be particularly oareful and accurate In
their sixteen-fold representations of his nose; for through
8HT. Carl Van Dor en, Swift (Ifew York, 1930), p. 78;
of. also Sheridan, op. clt., p. 40 f .
69. W . , I, 15, p. 306; of. also Samuel Johnson, Lives
of the English Poets, Vol. II, p. 247.
-1 9 6 -
the medium of this, his most important feature, with its
twelve poolc-marks, Nikolaus hoped to he able to discover
his noble progenitor.
"Nlemand werde si oh elnen sohbnern Vater
w&hlen, a Is sein wlrklioher sel, und eben
so geh* es mlt dessen Blldnls; und wenn eln
Swift und Descartes sogar an den Qeliebten
selber das Schlelen, Oder andere (St. Preux
an seiner Julie) sogar die Blattern selber
relzend flinden: wle vlel lelohter nathrlioh
an den blossen Portrliten.,|,5rO
The party is required to obtain passports for presenta­
tion at the various boundaries which they will cross during
the course of their journey.
Jean Paul himself, as the
Richter, is a member of Marggraf*s retinue, and
must also be provided with a pass for purposes of identifi­
"Jetzo aber unter achelde xs.B. ich mloh auswlrts von s&nmtllchen Spitzbuben in der Welt;
denn ich zelge melnen gestempelten PapierPass vor, worin • • . steht, dass ioh 5 Fuss
und 10 Zoll lang bln, 59 Jahre alt, in Wunsiedel geboren etc., dass melne Stira brelt
und hooh 1st und mein Mund kleln. Oder llsst
es slch nur tr&umen, dass es gerade elnen
Spltzbuben geben kbnnte, auf welchen allea
von mlr so passete, dass wlr elnander deokten,
wle geometrlsoh-glelohe Figuren, Oder in
elnander eingrlffen, wle Kerbhblzer? Unm&glichJ---Sogar melne nlkchsten Nachahmer
und Diebe w&rde mein Pass, so aehr ich auoh
Swift und Sterne naohgeahmt und bestohlen,
auf der Stelle untersoheiden von mir.M^l
In this last sentence Jean Paul sums up his relationship
to Swift.
Imitation presupposes admiration, yet in spite of
vo.~w7,~iv^5 ,~p r"S6Tr~
71. Tbidi, p. 324•
-1 9 7 -
his life-long admiration for Swift's writings and his fre­
quent imitations of the British author and expropriation
of his Ideas, there existed no Intrinsic affinity or kinship
between Jean Paul and Swift.
A passport was quite super­
fluous for purposes of identifioatlcn, for Jean Paul remained
always Jean Paul, and Swift Swift.
Literally as well as
figuratively they belonged to different worlds, but it is
particularly in the sphere of the emotions that they differed
Jean Paul is quite correct and perspicacious
in his statement that he resembled Swift neither In hla faults
nor In his virtues.
It was only by the most sedulous applica­
tion of artificial and external media that Jean Paul was able
to meet Swift on common ground, in the realm of the intellect.
Yet the very fact that Jean Paul did make such an effort
again and again indicates how strong was the power which
Swift exerted over him.
The numerous instances cited above
of references to Swift or influences of Swift occurring
throughout the works of Jean Paul from the earliest to the
last bear ineontestlble evidence to Swift's hold upon him.
To the very end of hla life Jean Paul studied Swift as a
model of prose writing in style and Ideology, and strove
to aohleve for himself Swift's consummate oaoanand of literary
TSY Cf. JoHanhes ~AftT "Jean Paul (Mhnohen 1925) , p. 402.
-1 9 8 -
Jean Paul is essentially a humorist and so it la in the
oapaolty of a humorist that his best results were achieved.
His humor, however, was of an entirely different character
from that of Swift.
Yet it was Swift who opened his eyes to
the pleasurable possibilities attending the humorous form of
literary expression.
With a theological career In mind,
Jean Paul's studies up to the time of his attendance at the
University of Leipzig had been directed chiefly along eccle­
siastical lines, which even at that early period seemed un­
comfortably narrow and cramping to the young student of
Young Richter therefore attempted to break through
their confines with rationalistic arguments which won him a
somewhat unfavorable distinction in the Cymnasium at Hof.
It was therefore with the greatest enthusiasm that he dis­
covered at Leipzig the unhampered freedom of expression of
the English writers and, as it seemed to confirm and lend
authority to his natural inclinations, he immediately embraced
this new-found freedom as his own.
It was not until he had
devoted many years to a study of humor in its various aspects
and had developed the theoretical distinctions set forth in
t*19 Vorschule der Aesthetic that Jean Paul realized that the
humor of Swift and Pope differed fundamentally from his own.
Jean Paul's humor is represented always by Individual charao-
-1 9 9 -
ters, sharply differentiated from their fellow-men by their
respective peculiarities and crotchets; "Menschen slnd hberall das K o m l s o h s t e " I n Swift's treatment of humor, the
folly Itself in the abstract is hla main theme; the individual
through whom It reoelvea expression is treated merely as a
necessary agent, with no distinctive personality in his own
Swift's irony proceeds from a sense of his own superiority;
he is impatient of the foibles and affectations exhibited by
the so-called "homo sapiens" and feels it his duty to expose
Jean Paul, on the other hand, was less sure of his
He felt warmly toward his fellow-men and was more
tolerant of their petty weaknesses because he himself was
one of them and was possibly guilty of the same shortcomings.
Jean Paul's humor Is to a certain extent the expression of a
sense of inadequacy on his own part.
His Ideals were as
lofty as those of 3wift, and he strove diligently to achieve
them; when he failed, he attributed the failure to his own
limited capabilities.
Not so Swift, who had no doubts con­
cerning his superior merits and railed vltuperatlvely at a
stupid humanity for its inability to recognize and reward
It has been established that Jean Paul became acquainted
with the works of Swift soon after hs entered the University
XT W., 1,
Per Komet, lntroductlon,~~P.~ XLtV.
200 -
of Leipzig, that he read them avidly at every opportunity
and grew ao familiar with them that he practically "knew
them by heart".
From hia frequent readings of Swift's
works, in original and translation, he developed the great­
est admiration for the British author and learned to regard
him as the virtuoso of irony and prose style.
Jean Paul
familiarized himself also with the details of 3wlft's life
and persemailty as reoorded by the various biographers of
Swift up to his time, most of whom he read in German translati on.
So greatly was Jean Paul impressed by Swift that he
began his own literary career with satires in imitation of
Swift's style and subject matter.
In these early works,
Das Lob der Dumhelt, Qrflnl&nd 1 sche Prozesse and Auswahl aus
des Teufela Papleren, Jean Paul drew most heavily upon Swift's
Tale of a Tub, with references also to his Battle of the Books,
Mechanical Operation of the Spirit and Gulliver *a Travels;
and Jean Paul's Indebtedness to the English writer Is clearly
demonstrable by parallel passages.
It Is in the period of
these early satires that Swift's influence over Jean Paul is
at its highest peak.
In expounding his theory of humor in the Vorsohule der
Aesthetik, Jean Paul turns to Swift as the master of the use
of irony and satire, and derives from Swift's works the rules
governing these literary forms.
The ohlef elements of irony,
201 -
absolute objectivity and a consistent semblance of serious­
ness, are fcund nowhere so perfectly manifested as in the
works of Swift.
Yet, in spite of Jean Paul's clear recogni­
tion of the ingredients that oomblne to produce irony, and
his great admiration for Swift, he himself was by nature too
subjective and emotionally susceptible to achieve the best
results in this medium.
It served the purpose for which he
employed it---namely, to Introduce himself to the German
reading public as an author
but it was not Jean Paul's
natural vehicle as it was that of Swift, for whom the words
of Juvenal, "difficile est aatiram non soribere" are literally
Jean Paul therefore, after these early attempts, soon
turned to other literary forms and with them the period of
Swift's most direct and Immediate dominance over Jean Paul
eame to a close.
Whereas in hla first satirical works the Influence of
Swift's Tale of a Tub was preponderant, Jean Paul in the works
of his prime refers more frequently to Gulliver *s TraveIs than
to Swift's earlier satire.
During this period also the refer­
ences to various aspects of Swift's personality and character­
istics as an author are more numerous than in the former period.
These faots Indicate a growing familiarity on the part of
Jean Paul with Swift as a man, and with the work upon which
his chief claim to fame as a satirist in world literature
202 -
In certain of Jean Paul's works In the second period
of his writing there are either no evidences at all of any
Influence of swift, or only very alight Indications of such
an Influence.
These are chiefly Das Leben des vergntigten
Schulmelsterleln Marla Wux In Auenthal, Die Unslchtbare Loge,
and Quintus Flxleln, all works In which the sentimental
element Is predominant and which represent a revulsion on
the part of Jean Paul from the acrid tartness of Swift's
Most of the other works of this period, however,
show Influences of Swift to a greater or lesser degree,
strongest In Slebenkfts, Pallngenealen, and Titan.
Of the major works of his last period, Flegeljahre has
relatively fewer references to Swift than have Katzenberger,
Fibel or Komet, for example; whereas In the two theoretical
works, Vorgohule der Aesthetlk and Levana, the references
to Swift are more numerous.
While the Influence of Swift upon Jean Paul's works of
flotion Is less marked than In his early satires, there Is
one devioe which Jean Paul learned from Swift and which he
continued to employ throughout nearly all of his later worksnamely, Swift's process of alternating "a layer of utile and
a layer of duloe"; that is to say, of interrupting the thread
of the story with digressive Interpolations.
Swift In his
Tale of a Tub defends this practice as follows:
-2 0 3 -
"And I have farther proved . ... that as man­
kind Is now disposed, he receives much greater
advantage by being diverted than Instructed;
his epidemical diseases being fastldioslty,
amorphy, and oscltatlon; whereas In the present
universal empire of wit and learning, there
seems but little matter left for Instruction.
However, In compliance with a lesson of great
age and authority, I have attempted carrying
the point In all Its heights; and according­
ly* throughout this divine treatise, have
skilfully kneaded up both together, with a
layer of utile and a layer of dulce*"2
Suiting the aotlon to the word, Swift interrupts the story
of the three brothers, Peter, Martin and Jack, at various
points with nA Digression concerning Critics", "A Digression
concerning the Original, the Use, and Improvement of Madness
In a Commonwealth", "A Digression In Praise of Digressions",
"A farther Digression", and "A Digression in the Modern Kind",
which colleotlvely occupy as much space In the book as the
story Itself.
With his notebooks full of all sorts of irrelevant and
unoorrelated Ideas gleaned from his readings, Jean Paul
seized every opportunity of utilizing these accumulated
materlals---satlrlcal, gnostic, aesthetlo, or whatever their
nature might be.
Accordingly, he delighted In Interspersing
In his novels at the slightest provocation digressions upon
all ocnoelvable subjects, sometimes humorous or satirical.,
sometimes sentimental, sometimes erudite.
He deliberately
cultivated the use of such digressive Interpolations as part
-2 0 4 -
of his "Manler" upon which he prided himself, and Invested
them with an almost inexhaustible variety of titles, such
as " Extrablitter", "Beilagen", "Exkurse", "Appendix" or
"Appendix des Appendix", "Ausschweife", etc.
He took
occasion in the preface to his Pallngenesien to justify
his own use of humorous digressions with a reference to
English authority for the practice:
"Nlrgends erquickten mich e m s t e St alien
mehr als uiiter komlschen, wle die grftnen
Flecken an den Schweizerfelsen das Auge
sanft unter dem blendenden Schnee und Else
strelcheln; daher 1st der auf die Saftrbhren und das Mark des hohen Ernates gelmpfte Humor des EnglUnders so hoch dber
den Humor aller Vfclker gewachsen.”3
It is significant that, although Swift's name is not men­
tioned at this point, Jean Paul had in March 1798 borrowed
a volume of Swift from his friend Thieriot in order to write
the foreword to Pallngenesien»4
It would be erroneous to assume from the foregoing that
Swift's Influence was preponderant in all of Jean Paul's
Other English writers, principally Sterne and Pope,
as well as French and German authors, had their share In
coloring Jean Paul's p r o d u c t i o n s . 8
Jean Paul read constantly
and Indiscriminately throughout his life and suide copious
notes from all of his reading.
With his tendency to absorb
and assimilate foreign Influences and make them an Integral
p#-xt'f'TZ---------------------------------------1 Z 1 >
# 7 6 *
P* 58«
5. Vide Johann Czerny, Sterne, Hlppel und Jean Paul;
Joseph Claude Hayes, Laurence Sterne and Jean Paul; Max
Kosmerell, Jean Pauls~Verh& 1 tnl's su Rousseau.
part of his own manner, It Is evident that Swift's Influence
was only one of many that played a part In shaping Jean Paul's
Nevertheless, It Is true that Swift's Influence was
exerted upon Jean Paul at a strategic period of uncommon
susceptibility, In his late adolescence, and was therefore
able to exercise a vital and enduring effect upon Jean Paul's
literary productions.
A - Jean Paul
1. Primary Sources
Jean Pauls S&mtliohe Werke. Hlstorisoh-krltlsche Ausgabe,
Weimar, Hermann Bbhlaus Naohfolger, 1927 ff. (Cited as
W., with the division and volume numbers Indicated by
Roman and Arabic numerals respectively)
Jean Pauls Werks, herausgegeben von Eduard Berend.
Propylien-Verlag, Berlin, 1923.
Jean Paul's sibnmtllehe Werke. Drltte vermehrte Auflage.
Berlin, Verlag von G. Relmer, 1860-1862.
Die Briefe Jean Pauls. Herausgegeben und erllLutert von
Eduard Berend. Mbnchen, Georg M&ller, 1922 f f •
(Cited as Briefe, by volume, number, and page)
Jean Pauls Blitter der Verehrung. Brlefweohsel mlt grossen
Herausgegeben von Ernst Fbrater. M&nohen,
Jean Pauls Brlefweohsel mlt seiner Frau und Christian Otto.
Herausgegeben von Paul Nerrllch. Berlin, Weldmannsche
Buchhandlung, 1902.
Wahrhelt aus Jean Paul's Leben. Breslau, Im Verlage von
Josef Max und Komp., 1826-1833.
Secondary Material
Alt, Johannes. Jean Paul.
buchhandlung , 1925•
Mftnchen, C. H. Beok'sohe Verlags-
Berend, Eduard. Jean Pauls Aesthetik. Forschungen zur
neueren Llteraturgeschiohte, XXV. Bd.
Alexander Dunoker Verlag, 1909.
Berend, Eduard (editor). Jean Pauls PersBnllchkelt. ZeltgenBssisohe Beriohte. MBnchen und Leipzig, Georg
Miller, 1913.
-2 0 7 -
Ccerny, Johann. Sterna, Hlppel und Jean Paul. Eln Beltrag
zur Gesehlehte dee humorist lichen Romans In Deutsohland.
Forsehungen zur neueren Literaturgesehlehte, XXVII.
Berlin, Verlag von Alexander Dunoker, 1904.
Delter, H. "Johann Frledrleh Abeggs Relse lm Jahre 1798,"
Euphorlon, XVI, 1909, pp. 738 ff.
DeQulnoey, Thomas. Essays on Philosophical Writers and
other Men of Letters. 2 Vols. Boston: Tlcknor, Reed,
and Fields, 1854.
Dunnlngton, Guy Waldo. The Relationship of Jean Paul to
Karl Philipp Moritz. University of Illinois Disserta­
tion, 1936.
Freys, Karl. Jean Pauls Flegeljahre. Materlallen und
Unterauohungen. Berlin, Mayer & Miller, 1907.
Harioh, Walther.
Jean Paul.
Leipzig, H. Haessel Verlag,
Hayes, Joseph Claude. Laurence Sterne and Jean Paul.
New York University Dissertation, 1938.
Herder, Johann Gottfried.
von Bernhard Suphan.
Sl&mtllohe Werke.
Berlin, 1686.
Hermann, Johann Bernhard. "Briefe an Albrecht Otto und
Jean Paul (aus Jean Pauls Naohlass)," mlt Elnleltung
und Erl&uterungen. Herausgegeben von Kurt SohreInert.
Acta at Commentationss Unlversltatls TartuensIs
XDorpatensisT. Tartu,"“1932-£933• Vol. SV, pp. 1-128;
Vol. 50, “ppT 129-221.
Klenze, Camillo von. Charles Timothy Brooks, Translator
from the German and the Genteel Tradition. Boston,
D. C. Heath, 1937.
Kommerell, Max. Jean Paul.
Klostermann, 1933.
Frankfurt a/M., Vittorio
Kommerell, Max. Jean Pauls Verhiltnls su Rousseau. Beltr&ge
zur deutsohen Llteraturwlssensohaft, Nr. 23. Marburg,
N. G. Elwertsohe Verlagsbuohhandlung, G. Braun, 1924.
Martini, Prltz. *Jean-Faul-Forsohung und Jean-Paul-Llteratur."
Deutsche VlertelJahrasohrlft fir Llteraturwlssensohaft
und~GeTste'sgeT^Hroh~t'e~T4 .~~Ja5rg., Reft
Schnelder, Ferdinand Josef. Jean Pauls Jugend und erstes
Auftreten In der Llteratur. Berlin, B. Bohr's Verlag,
Schork, Luise. Herders Bekanntsohaft mlt der engllsohen
Llteratur. Belheft der Beltrige zur Erforso hung der
Spraehe und Kultur Englanda und Nordamerlkas. Herauagegeben von Wilhelm Horn, lm Selbstverlag des Engllsohen
Seminars der Uhlversitit Breslau, 1928.
Spazler, Richard Otto. Jean Paul Friedrich Riohter. Eln
blographlsoher Commontar zu dessen Werken. Leipzig,
Verlag von Otto Wlgand, 1840.
Spazler, Richard Otto. Jean Paul Frledrloh Richter In
selnen letzten Tagen und lm Tode. Breslau, 1826.
Vlseher, Frledrloh Theodor. Aesthetik Oder Wlssensohaft
des SchBnen. Stuttgart, 1858.
B - Jonathan Swift
Primary Sources
The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift, D.D., edited by
Temple Scott, with a Biographical Introduction by
W. E. H. Leoky, M.P. London, Q. Bell & Sons, Ltd.,
Swift. Selections from his Works. Edited with Life, Intro­
ductions and Notes by Henry Cralk. 2 Vols. Oxford,
Clarendon Press, 1892.
The Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's,
Dublin. Printed for C. Bathurst, In Fleet Street;
and J. Hinton, In Newgate-Street.
London, MDCCLXV.
Satires and Personal Writings by Jonathan Swift, edited
with Introduction end Notes by William Alfred Eddy.
Oxford University Press, London and New York, 1932.
The Poetical Works of Jonathan Swift, with a Life by
Rev. John Mltford. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1880.
A Tale of a Tub, The Battle of the Books and other Satires,
by Jonathan Swift. London and Toronto, published by
J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., and in New York by E. P.
Dutton & Co., 1909.
-2 0 9 -
Gull lver* a Travels, by Jonathan Swift* London and Toronto,
J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd.; New York, E. P. Dutton & Co.,
Secondary Material
Gold, Maxwell Benjamin. Swift's Marriage to Stella, to­
gether with imprinted and misprinted letters. Cambridge,
Harvard University Press, 1937.
Haslltt, William. Lectures on English Poets sued the Spirit
of the Age. New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1910.
Hubbard, Elbert.
Little Journeys to the Homes of Famous
People. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London, 1895.
Johnson, Samuel. Lives of the English Poets. Vol. II.
London and Toronto, J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd.; New York,
E. P.Dutton 8c Co., no date, pp. 245-274.
Lauohert, Friedrich. "Die pseudo-swlftlsohe 'Raise naoh
Kaklogallinlen und In den Mond' in der deutsohen
Llteratur," Euphorlon, XVIII, 1911, pp. 94-98 and 478.
Maoaulay, Thomas Babington. Critioal, Historical and Mis­
cellaneous Essays and Poems. Complete In 3 Volumes.
A. L. Burt Company, New York, no date.
Newman, Bertram. Jonathan Swift.
Company, 1937.
Boston, Houghton, Mifflin
Remarks on the Life and Writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean
of St. Patriok's, Dublin; In a Series of Letters from
John Earl of Orrery to his Son, the Honourable Hamilton
Boyle. 3rd Edition, London, 1752.
Memoirs of Mrs. Laetltla PiIkingten, wife to the Rev. Mr.
Matthew Pllklngtcn. Written by Herself. Wherein are
ooeasionally Interspersed all her Poems; with Aneedotes
of several eminent Persons, Living and Dead. Among
others, Desn Swift, Alexander Pope, Esq., etc. eto. etc.
Dublin, 1748. 2 Vols.
price, Lawrence Marsden. The Reeeption of English Literature
In Germany. University of California Press, Berkeley,
1932. Second edition of English > German Literary Influ­
ences, Bibliography and Survey. University of California
Press, Berkeley, 1919.
210 -
Frlce, Mary Ball and Lawrence Marsden. The Publication of
English Literature in Germany In the Eighteenth Century.
University of California Press, 1934.
Sheridan, Thomas. The Life of the Rev. Dr. Jonathan Swift,
Dean of St. Patriok's, Dublin. 2nd Edition. London,
Swift, Deane. An Essay upon the Life, Writings, and
Charaoter, of Dr. Jonathan Swift. London, Char lea
Bathur st, 1755•
Thaokeray, William Makepeace. Works. Vol. VII, "The English
Humorists of the Eighteenth Century". Harper & Brothers,
New York and London, 1899.
Van Doren, Carl.
New York, Viking Press, 1930.
L ib r a r y
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